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Computer Memory/Storage

Measuring Units
BIT: BInary digiT (0 or 1) Word:
Natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of any specific processor design or computer architecture. Majority of the registers in a processor are usually word sized. (32 bit, 64 bit)

Kilobit: 1000 bits

Byte: 8 bits
KiloByte (KB): 210 Bytes Kibibyte (KiB): 210 Bytes

Binary_prefix:
1 KiB = 210 B, 1MiB = 220 B, 1GiB = 230 B (1 gibibyte) = (210 mebibytes) = (220 kibibytes) = (230 bytes)
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Memory/Storage Categories

Category 1 Main Memory Primary Memory/Storage Internal Memory/Storage

Category 2 Secondary Memory/Storage

Auxiliary Memory/Storage
External Memory/Storage

Characteristics
Volatility

Volatile
Non-volatile

Mutability
Read/Write Read Only

Accessibility
Random Access Direct Access Sequential Access

Volatile Memory
Requires power to maintain the stored information Retains the information as long as power supply is on, but when power supply is off or interrupted the stored memory is lost

RAM
2 main categories
DRAM (Dynamic RAM): RAM, Registers SRAM (Static RAM): Cache Memory, Registers
Memory Refresh is needed in DRAM and not needed in SRAM

Non-volatile Memory
Can retain stored information even when not powered
ROM: Read Only Memory Flash Memory F-RAM Most Secondary Storage Devices

ROM
Read Only Memory Types
Optical Storage ROM (CD/DVD/BD ROM) Semiconductor based
PROM:
Programmable Read-Only Memory
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EPROM:
o o

EEPROM:

EAROM Flash Memory

Read/Write

HDD: Hard Disk Drives Flash Drives Re-Writable Optical Disks SSD: Solid State Drives Also RAM, Cache, Registers

Read Only

Optical ROM (CD/DVD/BD ROM) Semiconductor ROM


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Write_Once_Read_Many

Random, Direct, Sequential Access


Random Access
Main Memory: RAM, Cache

Direct Access
Disks: HDD, Optical Disks

Sequential Access
Tapes: Magnetic Tapes (Cassette, VHS)

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Random vs. Sequential Access

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SDRAM - DIMM
Generally in practical world, the term RAM mostly used regarding SDRAM/DIMM

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SDRAM

Synchronous DRAM
SDRAM is DRAM synchronized with the system bus while classic DRAM has an asynchronous interface

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DIMM

Dual In-line Memory Module


Series of DRAM integrated circuits Successor of SIMM
(Single IMM)

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Generations of SDRAM
SDR SDRAM: Single Data Rate SDRAM DDR SDRAM: Double Data Rate SDRAM

DDR
DDR2 DDR3 DDR4

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DDR SDRAM Comparison

DDR SDRAM Standard

Bus clock (MHz)

Transfer Rate (MT/s)

Voltage (V)

DIMM pins

DDR(1)

100200

200400

2.5/2.6

184

DDR2

200533

4001066

1.8

240

DDR3

4001066

8002133

1.5

240

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DDR SDRAM Comparison

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Key Values of a DIMM

Generation (DDR2, DDR3) Frequency/Data Rate Capacity (1333, 1600)

(2048 MB, 4 GB)

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Determine Generation/Data Rate


Some vendors do not print DRAM generation/frequency in labels directly But most of them label module names which contains generation and bandwidth info PCX-#

The Generation is X and the memory bandwidth is #


Memory Frequency and Data Rate can be determined using memory bandwidth

Examples PC-3200 : PC2-6400: PC3-12800: DDR, 400 DDR2, 800 DDR3, 1600
(3200/8=400) (6400/8=800) (12800/8=1600)

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DIMM Vendors

Kingston
G.Skill Toshiba

Samsung
Hynix Corsair
+ many more
(Not in Particular Order :)

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HDD
Hard Disk Drives

HDD: Hard Disk Drives


Direct Access Storage Used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material Records data by magnetizing a thin film of ferromagnetic material on a disk Consists of a spindle that holds flat circular disks, also called platters, which hold the recorded data Platters in most consumer HDDs spin in the range of 5,400 rpm to 7,200 rpm Information is written to and read from a platter as it rotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close over the magnetic surface Modern drives there is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle

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HDD Capacity
Capacity measured by GB, TB Vendors and Operating System uses 2 different methods to measure HDD capacity Vendors use 1000 metric (SI) method (1KB=1000B) as a marketing trick and OS uses 1024 method (1KB=1024B) which is similar to binary prefix method Therefore labeled size is different from the size we see from the size shown by the OS Examples:
1TB : 500GB : 931.32 GB 465.66 GB

(Actual Usable Size may also differ)


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HDD Performance
RPM: Rotations Per Second
5400, 7200, 10000 etc.

Latency: The delay for the rotation of the disk to bring the
required disk sector

Seek Time: The time for the actuator arm to reach the desired disk track
Access Time = Seek Time + Latency Data Transfer Rate
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HDD Interface
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_drive_i nterface

(P)ATA: Parallel ATA SATA: Serial ATA

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SATA vs. PATA

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External HDD
External/Portable HDDs typically connect through USB or eSATA ports Most External HDDs now use USB 3.0 interface External HDDs are Slower, compared to Internal HDDs

Certain Portable HDDs have extra features such as special Encryption methods, Security Options, Shock Protection, etc

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HDD Related Terms


ECC: Error Correcting Code
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forward_error_correction

S.M.A.R.T:
Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S.M.A.R.T

Disk Buffer/Cache:
Embedded memory acting as a buffer between the computer and the physical hard disk platter. Usually 8 to 128 MiB

RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID

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HDD Vendors

Samsung
Seagate Western Digital

Hitachi
Quantum Toshiba
+ many more
[Not in Particular Order :]

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Optical Storage
CD, DVD, BD

Optical Storage Devices


Optical storage is a storage method in which data is written and read with a optical beam (laser) ODD: Optical Disk Drive

Typically used for archival or backup purposes


Slower than HDDs Less vulnerable to environmental conditions
Data stream is placed in a spiral path. The data begins at the innermost track and works its way out toward the edge of the disc Data is read by a laser beam always Data is also written/burned by laser beams, but in industrial mass produced discs, the data is placed on the disc by a stamping machine

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Optical Disc Generations


First-generation

CD
Second-generation DVD Third-generation BD Fourth-generation HVD
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CD: Compact Disc


Developed by: Philips, Sony
Read mechanism: 780 nm wavelength (infrared and red edge) semiconductor laser (Speed 1200 Kib/s = 1, Generally 52) CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) Capacity: ~ 700 MiB

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CD: Compact Disc

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DVD
Developed by: Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995 Read mechanism: 650 nm laser, (Speed 10.5 Mbit/s = 1, Generally 16) Recordable DVDs: DVD-R and DVD+R Re-Writable DVDs: DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM Capacity: ~ 4.7 GiB DVD was an acronym (initialism) for the unofficial Digital Video Disk. Later the Backronym Digital Versatile Disc was introduced to express that DVD goes beyond video (Data, Software, Audio). However it was not universally accepted and a 1999 report decreed that DVD was "simply three letters" and stood for "nothing". Today, usage varies and there is no universal agreement. Digital Versatile Disc has gained wide acceptance
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DVD

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BD: Blu-ray Disc


Designed to supersede DVD BD is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVD and CD Developed by: Blu-ray Disc Association

Read mechanism: 405 nm diode laser. (Speed 36 Mbit/s = 1, Generally 2)


Capacity: ~ 25 GB
BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage Blu-ray 3D, BD-XL, Printable Blu-ray

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BD: Blu-ray Disc

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Optical Staroge Read-Write

http://www.howstuffworks.com/blu-ray2.htm http://www.cd-info.com/blu-ray/

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HVD: Holographic Versatile Disc

The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology developed between April 2004 and mid-2008
Can store up to several terabytes of data on an optical disc 10 cm or 12 cm in diameter Media type: Ultra-high density optical disc

Capacity: ~ 6 TB

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HVD: Holographic Versatile Disc

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Flash Drives

Flash Drive Types


Generic
Solid-State Drives USB Flash Drives and Memory Cards Specific
CompactFlash (CF) Multimedia Card (MMC)

Memory Stick (MS)


Secure Digital (SD, SDHC, SDXC)

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SSD
Solid-State Drives

SSD: Solid State Drives


A data storage device using integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently Unlike HDDs, SSDs have no moving mechanical components SSHD Hybrid drives or solid state hybrid drives (SSHD) combine the features of SSDs and HDDs in the same unit, containing a large hard disk drive and an SSD cache to improve performance of frequently accessed data

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SSD vs HDD
SSD (Compared to HDD)
High Cost High Speed Low Access Time Low (No) Noise

Less susceptible to physical shock and magnetic fields


Less Power Consumption and Less Heat Generation Smaller in Physical Size Smaller in Capacity
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=SSD+vs+HDD
https://www.google.com/search?q=SSD+vs+HDD

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USB Flash Drive


Pen Drive Jump Drive
Thumb Drive

USB Flash Drives

AKA: Pen Drive, Jump Drive, Thumb Drive Uses a Flash Memory Chip

Has a USB Connector, Mostly USB 2.0 or 3.0


Usually very small in physical size and come in different shapes

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USB Flash Drives

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Memory Cards

Used by Mobile Phones, Digital Cameras, Music players , etc.


Memory Cards use a Flash Memory Chip

Memory Card Types


CompactFlash (CF) Multimedia Card (MMC) Memory Stick (MS) Secure Digital (SD, SDHC, SDXC)
(More)

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SD Card: Secure Digital Card


Most mobile devices uses SD cards now SD specification (Capacity)
SD SDSC (SD Standard Capacity) SDHC (SD High Capacity): Up to 32 GB

SDXC (SD eXtended Capacity): Up to 2 TB

Physical Size
Standard: SD

Mini:
Micro:

miniSD
microSD

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SD, miniSD, microSD Comparison

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Card Readers
Memory Card readers are used to read/write singe or multiple types of Cards (CF, MMC, MS, SD) USB and PCI Card Readers are available

Most Notebook Computers and some desktop PCs Contain Internal Card Readers USB microSD card readers much similar to a Pen Drive

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Card Readers

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Online Storage

Online Storage
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_file_storage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_storage

Google Drive:
https://drive.google.com

SkyDrive
https://skydrive.live.com

DropBox
https://www.dropbox.com

SugarSync
https://www.sugarsync.com

Amazon Cloud Drive


http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=1000828861

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Thank You! :)
Ayubowan!