Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

How to reduce Call Drops In a GSM Network

posted Oct 13, 2009, 12:53 AM by Gulzar Singh [ updated May 9, 2011, 1:13 PM ]

Meaning
The TCH call drop rate refers to the ratio of call drops to successful TCH seizures after the BSC successfully assigns TCHs to MSs. The TCH call drop rate can be measured from the following aspects:

TCH call drop rate (including handover) TCH call drop rate (excluding handover)

The TCH call drop rate, one of the most significant KPIs for telecom operators, is related to retainability. It indicates the probability of call drops due to various reasons after MSs access TCHs. A too high TCH call drop rate adversely affects the user's experience.

Recommended Formulas
TCH call drop rate (including handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/(Number of successful TCH seizures (signaling channel) + Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) + Number of successful TCH Seizures in TCH handovers (TCH)) x 100% TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) x 100%

Factors That Affect the TCH Call Drop Rate


According to user complaints and network optimization experience, the major factors that affect the TCH call drop rate are as follows:

Hardware failure

Transmission problem Version upgrade Parameter setting Intra-network and inter-network interference Coverage problem Antenna system problem Imbalance between uplink and downlink Repeater problem

1.1 Hardware Failure


When a TRX or a combiner is faulty, seizing the TCH becomes difficult, and thus the TCH call drop rate increases.

1.2 Transmission Problem


The TCH call drop rate increases in the following conditions:

The transmission quality on the A or Abis interface is poor for various reasons. Transmission links are unstable.

1.3 Version Upgrade


After the BTS version or BSC version is upgraded, the BTS version may be incompatible with the BSC version, and the parameters and algorithms in the new version may be changed. In this case, the TCH call drop rate increases.

1.4 Parameter Setting


The settings of some parameters on the BSC and MSC sides may affect the TCH call drop rate. If the following situations occur, the TCH call drop rate may increase: 1. The parameters SACCH Multi-Frames and Radio Link Timeout are set to too small values.

2. 3.

The parameter RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is set to a too small value. The parameter RACH Min.Access Level is set to a too small value.

4. The parameters Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset are inappropriately set. 5. The length of timer T3103 (this timer is set to wait for a Handover Complete message) is set to a too small value. 6. The length of timer T3109 (this timer is set to wait for a Release Indication message) is set to a too small value. 7. The length of timer T3111 (this timer specifies the connection release delay) is set to a too small value. 8. 9. The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value. The parameter TCH Traffic Busy Threshold is set to a too small value.

10. The parameter Call Reestablishment Forbidden is set to Yes. 11. The parameters related to edge handover are inappropriately set. 12. The parameters related to BQ handover are inappropriately set. 13. The parameters related to interference handover are inappropriately set. 14. The parameters related to concentric cell handover are inappropriately set. 15. The parameters related to power control are inappropriately set. 16. T200 and N200 are set to too small values. 17. Some neighboring cell relations are not configured. 18. The parameter MAIO is inappropriately set. 19. The parameter Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value. 20. The parameter TR1N is set to a too small value. 21. The parameters Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small values.

22. If a repeater is used, the parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set to No.

1.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference


If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist, or if severe intra-network interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse, call drops may occur on TCHs because of poor QoS. This adversely affects the TCH call drop rate. The following types of interference may occur: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inter-network interference from scramblers or privately installed antennas Interference from the CDMA network of China Unicom Repeater interference Inter-modulation interference from BTSs Intra-network co-channel and adjacent-channel interference

1.6 Coverage Problem


The following coverage problems may affect the TCH call drop rate. 1. Discontinuous coverage (blind areas) The voice quality at the edge of an isolated BTS is poor and calls cannot be handed over to other cells. In this case, call drops may occur. In complex terrains such as mountainous regions, the signals are blocked and thus the transmission is discontinuous, leading to call drops. 2. Poor indoor coverage Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor signal level, which causes call drops. 3. Cross coverage (isolated BTS) The serving cell causes cross coverage due to various reasons (such as excess power). An MS cannot be handed over to another cell due to no suitable neighboring cells. In this case, the signal level becomes low and the voice quality of the MS deteriorates. Thus, call drops occur.

4.

Insufficient coverage If the signal from an antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty, call drops may occur because of discontinuous coverage.

1.7 Antenna System Problem


The following antenna system problems may affect the TCH call drop rate 1. If the transmit antennas of two cells are improperly connected, the uplink signal level in each cell is much lower than the downlink signal level in the cell. Therefore, call drops are likely to occur at places far away from the BTS. 2. If a directional cell has main and diversity antennas, the BCCH and SDCCH of the cell may be transmitted from different antennas. If the two antennas have different pitch angles or azimuths, the coverage areas of the two antennas are different. In this case, the following result may occur: An MS can receive the BCCH signals from one antenna; when a call is made, the MS cannot seize the SDCCH transmitted by the other antenna and thus a call drop occurs. 3. If the feeder is damaged, water leaks in the feeder, or the feeder and the connector are not securely connected, both the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the antenna are reduced. Thus, call drops may occur.

1.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink


The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be great in the following conditions: The transmit power of the BTS is high. The tower mounted amplifier (TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly. The antenna and the connector are not securely connected. As a result, call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area.

1.9 Repeater Problem


If a cell is installed with a repeater, BTS coverage problems may occur in the case that the repeater is faulty or that the uplink and downlink gain is inappropriately set. Therefore, the TCH call drop rate increases. If a wide-frequency repeater is used and the gain is set to a great value, strong

interference may be caused. As a result, the network quality is adversely affected and the TCH call drop rate increases.