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Introduction: Diffusion is the net movement of molecules to a region of lower concentration from that of a higher concentration.

In this experiment, the molecules of CO2 are made to diffuse into the Agar jelly cubes until they turn colourless. Aim:Our aim is to compare the different rates of diffusion in agar cubes of different dimensions.

Hypothesis:There is a positive co-relation between the dimensions of the cube & the time taken for it to turn colourless.

Apparatus:1. Coloured Agar Jelly(solid) 2. HCL solution (concentration - 0.05mol/dm 3) 3. A White piece of paper/tile 4. Graph Paper 5. Knife 6. Measuring Ruler (15cm) 7. 5 beakers 8. Stop watch 9. A measuring cylinder (250ml) 10. Tissue Paper

Method:1

1. Fill the 5 beakers with 50ml of the HCL solution & 50ml of water each. (measure, using a measuring cylinder) 2. Put the solid piece of agar jelly on the graph paper, & then cut it into pieces (using a knife) with different dimensions (refer to the data table below). 3. Check the dimensions with the ruler again. 4. Then put all the cubes in different beakers at the same time & start the stop watch. 5. Observe the 5 beakers as the cube becomes colourless. 6. Mark the time when each of the cubes become completely colourless & record it.

Safe Test:1. Use the knife with utmost care, making sure one does not get cut. 2. HCL should be of the mentioned concentration, a higher concentration could be dangerous. 3. One should not try eating or tasting the agar jelly since it isnt edible. 4. The cube should be placed in the solution gently, it should not be dropped in it carelessly. Fair Test:1. A measuring cylinder was used to measure the amount of HCL & water taken. 2. All the Agar cubes were cut from the same big piece, to keep the agar jelly constant. 3. The agar jelly was cut quickly & placed in the solution as quickly as possible to avoid the diffusion of carbon-di-oxide (or any other gas) form the atmosphere. Variables:1. Independent variables: Surface Area of the cube Volume of the cube Therefore the ratio (surface area :volume) 2. Dependent variables: Time taken for complete diffusion to occur 3. Constant variables: The concentration of HCL The surrounding Temperature The rest of the apparatus used 2

Data:Calculation:- Dimension = D = side - Surface Area = SA = D2 x 6 - Volume = V = D3 - Ratio = R = SA/V Example D = 1.5 SA = 1.52 x 6 = 13.5cm2 V = 1.53 = 3.375 R = 13.5/3.375 = 4/1 = 4:1 = 4

Table showing the time taken for each of the cubes with different dimensions to become colourless. Side Surface Area Volume Ratio (Surface Area : Time taken Volume) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1.5 6.0 13.5 24.0 37.5 54.0 0.125 1.000 3.375 8.000 15.625 27.000 12.0 :1 6.0 : 1 4.0 : 1 3.0 : 1 2.4 : 1 2.0: 1 03.2min 05.9 min 09.5 min 17.2 min 24.4 min 32.3 min

Conclusion:3

As seen in the data table above, it is quite evident that the time taken for CO2, to completely diffuse into the agar cube, increases as the dimension of the cube increases. When the dimension is the smallest (0.5cm), least amount of time was taken (3.2min) for CO2 to diffuse into the cube & similarly, when the dimension was the largest (3cm), maximum time was taken for CO2 to diffuse in completely (32.3min). This could be for the reason being that as the dimension of the cube increases, the HCL solution has to travel longer inside the cube to make it completely colourless. Also, after some part of the cube has been made colourless, the HCL solution has to diffuse through more of the same colourless agar to reach the coloured part of the cube. Another fad observed was that the volume of the cube in cm3 was always smaller in value than the surface area of the same cube in cm2. The ratio of
Surface Area : Volume decreased in value as the dimensions of the cube increased. Therefore another way of concluding could be that as the ratio increases, the time taken for CO2 to diffuse in, decreases. As seen in the graph above, the relation between the ration & the time taken was negative which could represented with the following equation y = -2.357x + 26.96, where y is the time taken & x is the simplest ratio. There were no anomalous results obtained.

Evaluation:There could have been a number of errors that might have affected the results obtained:- Each of the apparatus may have had their own systematic errors, for example, the stop watch had an error of +0.05s. - The amount of HCL & Water may not have been very accurate while measuring in the measuring cylinder, due to a parallax error. - The dimensions of the cube may not have been measured very accurately. - The agar jelly may have already become colourless before it was placed in the solsion due to the CO present in the air. - There might have been an error while deciding whether the agar cube was completely colourless or no. Modifications:1. The graph paper was used for more accurate dimensions. 2. The agar cube was removed last from the freezer, to reduce the time for which it was exposed to the atmosphere. 3. A ruler was used to cut the cubes as the knife made it more tedious. 4

4. A white tile was placed under the beaker as it made it easier to realise when the cube was completely colourless. 5. All the cubes were put at the same time keeping the environment almost the same for all.