(2nd edition

)

Hydrogen energy in action

UNIDO-ICHET Sabri Ülker Sk. 38/4, Cevizlibag, Zeytinburnu, 34015 Istanbul, Turkey. Tel. +90 212 416 48 48. Fax. +90 212 416 89 47 www.unido-ichet.org

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Air (O2) H2 H
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H2O

Bipolar plate Gas diffusion layer

Electrode Membrane

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
A project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

ICHET

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Hydrogen energy in action

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

7 years of hydrogen energy

UNIDO-ICHET, June 2011. Second edition.

>> Contents >>
Foreword: “Shaping a vision”................................................................................................................................. 10-11 Towards renewable hydrogen................................................................................................................................ 12-13 The birth and role of ICHET................................................................................................................................... 14-15 Spotlight on: ICHET donors...............................................................................................................................16-17 Projects...............................................................................................................................................................18-41 Fuel cell powered forklifts............................................................................................................................. 20-21 Fuel cell UPS installations............................................................................................................................. 22-23 Hydrogen three wheeled vehicles................................................................................................................. 24-25 Hydrogen island projects.............................................................................................................................. 26-29 The Ecocaravan........................................................................................................................................... 30-31 Spotlight on: the Ecocaravan Tour..........................................................................................................32-33 The Golden Horn hydrogen ecosystem........................................................................................................ 34-41 The fuelling station................................................................................................................................... 36 The hybrid bus........................................................................................................................................ 37 Hydrogen boats.................................................................................................................................. 38-39 Applied R&D........................................................................................................................................................42-49 Fuel cell production in Turkey....................................................................................................................... 44-45 SOFC based cogeneration........................................................................................................................... 46-47 Hythane and hydrogen engine production.................................................................................................... 48-49 Support................................................................................................................................................................50-57 Funding........................................................................................................................................................ 52-53 Training and dissemination........................................................................................................................... 54-55 Laboratories................................................................................................................................................. 56-57 Spotlight on: ICHET laboratories......................................................................................................................58-59 Corporate information.......................................................................................................................................60-67 Human resources......................................................................................................................................... 62-63 Budget evolution.......................................................................................................................................... 64-65 Partnerships................................................................................................................................................. 66-67 Closing words: “The hydrogen challenge”.............................................................................................................. 70-73 Acknowledgement...................................................................................................................................................... 79

Our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture the human species if the exploitation and consumption of fossil fuel sources continues at its current rate.
Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu ICHET Managing Director

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>> Foreword >>

Shaping a vision
Because our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture the human species if the exploitation and consumption of fossil fuel sources continues at its current rate, the gradual switch to clean energy resources has become a necessity. With an energy yield per weight unit triple that of fossil fuels, hydrogen is the ideal energy carrier and storage medium and can rightfully boast its zero carbon footprint when produced from renewable resources. Burnt in internal combustion engines, hydrogen can be converted into thermal and kinetic energy. More importantly, it can also be turned directly into electricity within fuel cells, those amazing electro-chemical devices that combine hydrogen with ambient oxygen to produce electricity through a completely noise free process which releases no more than pure water as a combustion product. Be it with internal combustion engines or fuel cells, hydrogen applications can cover a wide range of needs, from transportation to stationary systems through residential usage. The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) is a project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) founded in Istanbul in 2004 and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Today, at ICHET, our engineers and scientists help implement a variety of hydrogen and hydrogen-inclusive projects with universities, R&D institutes and other partners in the public and private sector, with special emphasis on the latter for private sector involvement is a must in order to market hydrogen technology products and achieve their industrialization. An endeavour reflecting 7 years of operation on the hydrogen energy front, this book is an opportunity to sit and look back at our achievements in order to better gauge what is still ahead. More than a compilation of corporate statistics, demonstration projects and R&D programmes, it documents a coherent vision supplemented by real-life implementations that are laying the foundations of the first stages of a hydrogen inclusive economy. UNIDO-ICHET Managing Director Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu

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>> Introduction >>

Towards renewable hydrogen
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to be the key technologies that will facilitate the transition to a low carbon energy future in a similar way that oil and the internal combustion engine displaced coal and the steam engine. Although hydrogen can be produced from numerous primary energy sources, it is its production from renewables that renders it a sustainable energy carrier. Along with biofuels, synthetic fuels and electricity, hydrogen is foreseen to be one of the future energy carriers in transport and stationary applications. The United States, the European Union, Canada and Japan have been investing heavily in the development of hydrogen production, storage and use technologies including fuel cells, with hydrogen playing a prominent role in their long term energy scenarios. Until recently however, such efforts have been rare in the developing world, risking the opening of yet another technology divide.

Primary sources
Wind, sun and biomass are some of the renewable primary energy sources that could be used in the frame of a hydrogen inclusive economy..

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>> Introduction >>

The birth and role of ICHET
On 18th March 1974, a group of scientists and engineers, later to be known as the Hydrogen Romantics, met at the “The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy” (THEME) conference and proposed the Hydrogen Economy or Hydrogen Energy System as part of the solution addressing the interrelated global problems of the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. UNIDO, recognizing the potential of hydrogen energy to better economic and environmental conditions, proposed the establishment of an International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies and commissioned a report on this issue to one of these Hydrogen Romantics: Prof. Nejat Veziroglu. This Centre was to promote the conversion to a hydrogen inclusive economy by encouraging, coordinating and speeding-up hydrogen energy related activities in the developing world. Candidate sites for the location of the Centre were evaluated on the basis that they should be situated between the developed and developing countries, be easily reachable and benefit from the support of an industrial nation. The city of Istanbul in Turkey, located between the two continents of Europe and Asia and close to a third, Africa, fulfilled all these requirements. As a result of discussions and negotiations, Turkish Government agreed to sponsor and host this Centre and to commit $40M of initial funding. The Trust Fund Agreement establishing the Centre was signed on 21st October 2003 by Director General of UNIDO, H. E. Carlos Magarinos, and the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, Dr. M. Hilmi Guler. Ratification of the treaty, soon followed paving the way for the centre’s commencement with Dr. Veziroglu as its founding

director. When ICHET started operation on 19th May 2004, some sixteen years of behind-the-scenes lobbying, negotiation and diplomacy had finally come to fruition. Dr. Veziroglu retired on April 31st 2007, leaving Dr. Engin Türe in charge for an interim period. Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu was then appointed Managing Director of the Centre on 1st February 2008. The vast majority of ICHET projects have been completed under his direction. Economic development Since the establishment of its full hu- Dr. Hilmi Güler (left) and Mr. Carlos Magarinos (right) signing the ICHET Trust Fund Agreement st man resource and laboratory structure on 21 October 2003. in 2009, ICHET has been overtly active on all fronts of the hydrogen energy arena through its support to R&D and by implementing demonstration projects. More than ever its role is not only to support, demonstrate and promote viable hydrogen energy technologies with the aims of enhancing future economic development, particularly in emerging countries, but also to prevent the widening of the energy and technology gap while skipping over the fossil fuel phase.

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>> Spotlight on: ICHET donors >>
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in Vienna, Austria. Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustainable industrial development in developing countries and economies in transition, and work towards improving living conditions in the world’s poorest countries by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise. In recent years, UNIDO has assumed an enhanced role in the global development agenda by focusing its activities on poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction. Still, fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development. UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consumption and production. As a leading provider of services for improved industrial energy efficiency and sustainability, UNIDO assists developing countries and transition economies in implementing multilateral environmental agreements and in simultaneously reaching their economic and environmental goals.

The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources or MENR (Turkish: Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlıgı) is the government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey responsible for energy and natural resources related affairs in Turkey.cIts mission is to reduce Turkey’s external energy dependencies and contribute to national welfare through efficient, effective, safe, timely and environmentally friendly use of energy and natural resource. Between 1990 and 2008 in Turkey, annual average rate of increase in primary energy demand was realized as 4,3 %. Turkey has had the highest rate of energy demand increase of any other OECD countries over the past 10 years. Similarly, since 2000, Turkey has been the second largest economy after China for having the highest rate of increase in electricity and gas demand. Projections show that this trend will continue in the medium run. According to the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız, in order to address this demand increase while making a rational use of natural resources, “it is of great importance to […] diversify energy production using new technologies and increase the efficiency of the existing technologies, and implement policies and strategies which intend to use alternative energy sources”.

Courtesy of UNIDO

Courtesy of MENR

UNIDO Director General Kandeh Yumkella.

Turkish Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız.

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Projects
Hydrogen technologies already exist. ICHET is playing a crucial role in promoting them and ensuring that hydrogen finds its place in the UN energy vision, strategy and implementation plans. This promotion is best achieved through demonstrations of viable technologies with the aim not only of drawing attention but also to gain experience, identify areas for improvement and solve the remaining engineering and logistical problems.
Caption headline
Torporrunt. Ducil invero de porenis ma voluptam aut que nonessuntis doluptate nonsequidis soluptatus, opta dipsust, cusae natecte sanditisit eos vollia sam venihit aturiscient.

Fuel cell based forklifts p.20-21

Implementing hydrogen islands p.26-29

Uninterruptible power systems p.22-23

The Ecocaravan hits the road p.30-33

Autorickshaws in New-Delhi p.24-25

Around the Golden Horn p.34-41

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>> Projects >>

Fuel cell powered forklifts
A hydrogen fuel cell forklift prototype was realized in 2007 with a local manufacturer. The concept will be replicated at three sites in Europe for a total of 10 vehicles and their refuelling stations.
Forklift vehicles are one of the mainstays of modern industries and businesses and are found anywhere heavy items need to be moved from one place to another. Commonly, electric motors powered by lead acid batteries provide locomotion and lift, but although lead acid batteries are well established technologies, many problems are still inherent in their use. tions as charge decreases and suffer long change over times. In contrast, systems in which batteries are replaced by modern fuel cell packs exhibit none of these drawbacks and are being touted as serious competitors to traditional forklifts. In 2007, ICHET identified forklifts as a key area and developed, in collaboration with its partner Çumitas, a fully operational system that has been used at a number of test sites in Turkey. Taking this concept a stage further in 2010, ICHET started a collaboration with the SHEL project of the European commission Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking to build a fleet of forklifts and operate them in locations throughout Europe. ❐

Turkey, Spain and UK
“Sustainable Hydrogen Evaluation in Logistics” (SHEL) project will be implementing 10 forklifts and their refuelling stations in 3 sites located in Turkey, Spain and UK. Its main aim is to evaluate market readiness.

A fully operational system
In particular, batteries require considerable times for charging before use, are prone to voltage reduc-

H2 Ecolift
Fitted with a 2 x 4 kW engine, the H2 Ecolift has a lifting capacity of up to 1500 kg.

G. D.

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>> Projects >>

Fuel cell UPS installations
Following the succesful installation of a hydrogen uninterruptible power system in Istanbul, ICHET is now participating in a EU project aiming at installing 19 such systems throughout Europe.
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) have typically relied on diesel generators or batteries for backup energy storage. Recent advances in hydrogen fuel cell technologies, however, have provided an environmentally friendly solution. ICHET has inaugurated on 2nd August 2009 the installation of such a PEM hydrogen fuel cell based UPS system in the Yenikapı pier headquarter offices of Istanbul Sea Bus company (IDO), thus allowing the demonstration of this technology to millions of commuters every year. ICHET is also project partner of the FITUP project. Conceived within the framework of the European commission Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, this project aims at installing a total of 19 fuel cell systems as UPS/backup power sources in selected sites across Europe by the end of 2013. ability, durability, number of cycles) that qualifies them for market entry, thereby accelerating the commercialization of this technology in Turkey, Europe and elsewhere. ❐

UPS projects facts
5 kW. The power consumption of the Yenikapı UPS system. Turkey Vodafone Headquarters. One of the 19 sites, along with Swisscom and Lucerne cantonal police, to be equipped by a UPS in the frame of FITUP.

Market entry
Exemple real-world customers have been selected from the telecommunications and hotel industries. They will utilize the fuel cell-based systems at their sites and employ power consumption levels ranging between 1 and 10 kW. These units will demonstrate a level of technical performance (start-up time, reli-

IDO
The control room, turnstyles and voice announcement system of Istanbul Sea Bus company (IDO) headquarters are protected by a hydrogen fuel cell uninterruptible power unit.

Courtesy of IDO

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>> Projects >>

Hydrogen for the masses
Hydrogen autorickshaws can efficiently address the pollution issues of many Asian metropolises. As part of its new energy policies, India is currently implementing a demonstration fleet.
Three wheeled vehicles are a very popular mode of transport in many Asian metropolises. By converting them to run on hydrogen, a drastic reduction in the levels of air pollutants they cause in urban areas can be achieved. Local production of hydrogen from indigenous renewable energy sources also has the potential to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions as well as lessen dependence on imported fossil fuels. To this end, the implementation of a demonstration fleet of 15 hydrogen internal combustion engine propelled autorickshaws was initiated in March 2009 in India. The fleet is to be used to carry passengers and goods in New Delhi at the Pragati Maidan exhibition grounds, the largest of the country, and is being serviced by a refuelling station built on the site as part of the project. This project has been realized by a consortium of local and international partners including ICHET, IIT Delhi, Mahindra & Mahindra, Air Products and UNIDO India. It also benefited from the support of ITPO and of the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energies. energy technologies and contribute to the creation of a real market through mass production and reduced costs. ❐

India goes for hydrogen
30,000 The number of PEM fuel cell units ordered by India Telecoms in May 2008. The single largest fuel cell supply contract to date. 2020 GIFT and GIP Indian government hydrogen inclusive initiatives for transport and stationary applications.

Cost reduction
A series of new energy policy measures have recently been taken by India which may lead to the country playing a significant role in the development of hydrogen

Hy-Alpha prototype
Mathew Abraham, from Mahindra & Mahindra, posing next to the HyAlpha hydrogen autorickshaw prototype.

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>> Projects >>

Hydrogen island projects
The hydrogen island concept allows thorough implementation of renewable hydrogen systems within a niche market - the powering of remote communities - where it can be highly profitable.
Within a market oriented framework, production, storage and utilization of hydrogen are interdependent technologies. Indeed, the commercialization of hydrogen production only makes sense if there is a sizeable demand. Conversely, wide scale implementation of hydrogen applications can only be achieved if the appropriate hydrogen supply infrastructures are already in place. Hence, hydrogen technologies need to be commercialized as a complete, comprehensive package. With their pristine environments, island communities offer the possibility of applying renewable energy and hydrogen concept as a single package. Their abundance in renewable energy sources, their enhanced visibility due to tourism and the high traditional energy costs related to their remoteness from mainland grids make a perfect framework for test-case demonstration. fuel for transportation using hydrogen internal combustion or PEM fuel cells or as a LPG substitute at home for heating and cooking.

Utsira: a prior experiment
The company NorskHydro installed a combined wind and hydrogen plant on the Utsira island, Norway, in 2004. With enough power for 10 households, it is one of the first island community hydrogen powering projects.

Bozcaada project
On an island, hydrogen can be produced on site using excess renewable energy and can be stored for re-electrification through hydrogen fuel cells, for dispensing as

Aitutaki Island
With their pristine environment, islands such as the one of Aitutaki in the Cook Islands are ideal locations for early applications of hydrogen energy technologies.

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>> Hydrogen islands  >>

>> Projects >>

ICHET is realizing such a project on Bozcaada island in the Aegean sea. It consists of 20  kW of photovoltaic panels, a 30  kW wind

turbine, a 50  kW – 10  Nm3/hour capacity electrolyser, hydrogen storage for 60  kg of hydrogen, a 35  kW hydrogen gen-set and a

25  kW PEM fuel cell. The complete system will be installed in the spring of 2011 in a plot at the Governor’s building. Both the local Governor and Mayor of Bozcaada have welcomed the opportunity to erect the system on the island. Hydrogen will be produced from electricity generated by the PV panels and wind turbine. A special electrolyser has been chosen that can accommodate the rapid and stochastic power changes in electrical output typical of such

sources when converting generated electricity into hydrogen. The system will be providing electricity back to the building at times of low sunlight and wind conditions through the genset and fuel cells.

In the Cook Islands
A number of technological development tests will be performed both to demonstrate the practical nature of the system and provide training activities to engineers from the developing world. Profiting from this experience and with financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), ICHET is realizing a similar project on Aitutaki, an island of the Cook Islands in the South Pacific. In this case, a 200  kW photovoltaic system is to be connected to the 900  kW peak autonomous island grid. To avoid possible grid in-

H2 system on Bozcaada island
The renewable hydrogen facility installed by ICHET on Bozcaada Island Governorship site consists of a 30 kW wind turbine, a 20 kW array of photovoltaic cells and a 25 kW PEM fuel cell.

Island communities can greatly benefit from the usage of clean, renewable energy sources.

stability, any excess solar power will be converted to hydrogen by a 50  kW electrolyser and, after compression, stored for further usage by fuel cells. To explore and promote concepts of hydrogen energy for remote island communities, ICHET is leading a new

Annex of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement. The “Distributed and Community Hydrogen” annex will investigate the technical, economic and social strengths and weaknesses of such systems in existing installations around the globe.  ❐

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>> Projects >>

The Ecocaravan hits the road
The Ecocaravan is an experimental RV type vehicle harnessing the power of wind and sun within a comprehensive hydrogen production, storage and usage system for increased autonomy.
Using renewable energies in mobile houses is a reality today, but associating renewable energies with hydrogen, and efficiently using renewable energies is still much undeveloped. In many cases, renewable energies can replace those from traditional sources, but the main constraint is how these energies can be stored. Hydrogen is a viable solution for storing surplus energy for later use. Based on the idea of bringing together these different concepts to develop a self-sustainable mobile dwelling, the Ecocaravan is a RV type vehicle, a self-sustained living space complete with all the modern facilities. It is an evolution of the Mobile Renewable House ICHET project. of normal usage and is therefore suitable for operation in remote areas or in emergency relief conditions.  ❐

One week autonomy
Fitted with a small wind turbine and an array of photovoltaic cells, the Ecocaravan is able to produce its own electricity from wind and solar energy or, in absence thereof, from the stored hydrogen obtained through electrolysis during excess electricity production. Its mobility, reactivity and flexibility are its distinctive hallmark: an autonomous self propelled living unit which can rely on its hydrogen stock for approximately one week

Ecocaravan figures
1710 W Sun tracking PV panels 1000 W Retractible wind turbine 1200 W PEM fuel cell 5000 L - 15000 Wh Metal hydride hydrogen storage

In stationary mode
When stationary, the Ecocaravan deploys its wind turbine and sun tracking PV cells in order to recharge its energy reserves.

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>> Spotlight on: the Ecocaravan Tour >>

The Ecocaravan on Tour
A comprehensive platform of hydrogen energy and renewable energy technologies, the Ecocaravan successfully toured throughout Turkey and is now being demonstrated in fairs and exhibitions abroad.
In October and November 2010, the Ecocaravan completed universities and local engineering circles where associated a promotional tour throughout 10 cities in Turkey in order to with the presentation of this comprehensive hydrogen energy demonstrate its pollutionfree, renewable energy demonstration platform. The tour has also been exposed based lifestyle. During to much fruitful media coverage and has resulted Istanbul public meetings or in in many press articles and Izmir official presentations television programmes covAnkara Eskişehir Bursa to local decision ering the Ecocaravan and makers, industrialists ICHET. Kayseri Manisa and investors, the posThe Ecocaravan has since Izmir sible customization and been presented in major Antalya Adana Muğla usage types (see the facfairs in Istanbul and ing page) were explained made a special appearand explored by a team of ance in Abu Dhabi’s World Future Energy ICHET engineers and scientists. Summit in January 2011 after a 10 days road trip through In accordance with the Centre’s educative mission, schools, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. ❐

Mobile medical centre
Customized as a mobile medical centre, the Ecocaravan can bring health services in remote areas and/or in emergency situations.

Relief coordination hub
The Ecocaravan can be used as a relief coordination hub in emergency situations when power from the grid is unavailable.

Itinerant educational house
Populations living in isolated zones can greatly benefit from the access to global knowledge and networking provided by the Ecocaravan.

VIPs on board...
The Turkish Ministers of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız (top picture) and of Environment and Forestry Veysel Eroglu (bottom picture) have both visited the Ecocaravan.

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>> Projects >>

Beşiktaş

Refuelling station (Eyüp)

Ship routes

Hydrogen in the Golden Horn !
ICHET and Istanbul Municipality are working for the implementation of a series of high visibility hydrogen energy public transportation projects centred on a refuelling facility in the Golden Horn.
A flooded prehistoric estuary used as a natural harbour under the Bizantine Empire, the Golden Horn later became a major shipyard location during the Ottoman empire. Today the Golden Horn is once again becoming the focus of attentions, not only because of the countless historical sites and leisure sites that surround it, but also because it is to be the heart of a threefold hydrogen public transportation project conducted jointly by Istanbul Municipality and the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies. The project consists of the development of a hybrid bus, of a passenger ship and of a hydrogen filling station. The bus and the passenger ship will be integrated into the Istanbul public transportation network once the hydrogen filling station required for their operation is up and running. hydrogen related transportation systems in Turkey. The Golden Horn filling station will be the first hydrogen filling station in Turkey, and a world first as a hydrogen facility supplying both sea and land transportation vehicles.

Edirnekapı

A World Premiere
Hydrogen energy transportation technologies by themselves are indeed useless if not appropriately supplemented with hydrogen fuelling infrastructures. By bringing together all these complementary aspects of hydrogen transportation (land transportation, sea transportation, refuelling), the Golden Horn project will be a milestone in the development of

Bus route

Commuting in Istanbul
Istanbul Municipality operates 2768 buses and 44 ships. 2.5 million privately owned cars are commuting every day in Istanbul. More than 2 millions Istanbulites commute in buses and ships every day.

Transport routes
A number of transport routes ensuring high visibility for the project are currently being studied by Istanbul municipality.

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>> Golden Horn projects  >>

>> Projects >>

A fuelling station for land and sea transportation
A hydrogen filling station located on the Golden Horn banks is being developed in partnership with Istanbul Greater City Municipality. Upon completetion in May 2012, it will be used as a production, storage and refuelling facility with the capability of dispensing up to 65  kg of hydrogen gas per day to the buses and ships which are currently being worked on as part of the Golden Horn project.

Istanbul tour on board a hybrid hydrogen bus
While hydrogen systems are often experimented in small size vehicles such as cars and SUVs, there are considerably fewer hydrogen powered buses in operation. The second part of the Golden Horn project consists in the development of a hybrid bus propelled by a hydrogen internal combustion engine and a battery pack of 140  kW combined power. Its design has benefitted considerably from local manufacturers’ expertise in bus construction and development and local conditions. fuel consumption. This project will gain from the high visibility of a bus route passing through historical sites in Western Istanbul. The city will be an important test ground for the running of the bus in congested traffic and ICHET will be collecting precious technical data whilst conducting the first operational phase.

Environmentally friendly
The hybrid bus will not only reduce emissions under city traffic conditions, but also to allow savings on

Hydrogen Highway
The location of the filling station is specifically chosen in order to supply both buses and ships at a single location. It will be instrumental in supporting Turkey’s automotive sector’s

endeavours towards the development of clean energy vehicles by providing them real life test opportunities for hydrogen powered

vehicles. The Golden Horn fuelling station is planned to be the first step of an upcoming “hydrogen corridor”.

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>> Golden Horn projects  >>

On the Golden Horn in hydrogen powered boats
The Istanbul Golden Horn project includes the development of a hydrogen powered ship with, as the main stakeholders, Istanbul Municipality and its technology development company Belbim. Externally funded, this passenger boat project is being realized with the support of ICHET, which provides its technical expertise and fuel cell testing facilities. Propelled by an electric motor and powered by a 48  kW fuel cell stack, this vessel will be carrying up to 50 passengers around the Golden Horn. As is the case with the hybrid bus project, the operation of the ship will be the opportunity to collect technical data in order to precisely assess the benefits of the system. The hydrogen powered ship project is also part of a larger ICHET scheme aiming at transferring hydrogen related expertise to third parties. Golden Horn and in selected in shore waters. The boats are expected to be completed and start operation by the end of 2011. ❐

Start of operation by end 2011
Smaller-sized similar hydrogen fuel cell boats are being developed in projects ran in five Turkish universities with support from ICHET, which is donating the fuel cell and necessary hydrogen related parts. The university teams are already benefiting from ICHET training and expertise in hydrogen energy systems as well as from ICHET’s fuel cell test facilities in order to develop their vessels, whose operation is planned to take place in the

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Hybrid bus
The 90 kW HICE based hybrid bus prototype will be based on the existing “Cobra” bus model developed by the Turkish company Güleryüz.

Passenger ship
A hydrogen fuel cell powered 50-passenger vessel designed together with Istanbul Municipal Data Processing Corporation is to be launched in 2012.

Applied R&D
While the principles and blueprints of the hydrogen energy technology basics have by now become widely available, the full scale implementation of a hydrogen inclusive economy still requires further applied R&D effort, especially in countries aiming at developing their own capabilities. ICHET is supporting such efforts through the financing of selected consortia based research programmes.
Caption headline
Torporrunt. Ducil invero de porenis ma voluptam aut que nonessuntis doluptate nonsequidis soluptatus, opta dipsust, cusae natecte sanditisit eos vollia sam venihit aturiscient.

Local fuel cell production p. 44-45

House type cogeneration p. 46-47

Hydrogen and hythane engines p. 48-49

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>> R&D >>

Fuel cell production in Turkey
Domestic fuel cell production capabilities are a definite asset for countries willing to perform the switch towards a hydrogen inclusive system. A related R&D project is currently underway in Turkey.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electric energy. Its principle was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. Fuel cells are already used as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecrafts (Apollo, Space Shuttle), remote weather stations, large parks, rural locations, and in certain military applications. A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact and lightweight, and has no major moving parts, hence achieving a theoretical reliability close to 100%. Wherever the transition to a hydrogen economy takes place, local fuel cell manufacturing will be a major asset. As part of its R&D support activities, ICHET is funding such project in Turkey. ed by the Middle-East Technical University in Ankara will benefit from $ 500,000 funding from ICHET. ❐

eBy Nécropotame at fr.wikipedia [FAL], from Wikimedia Commons

Paradigm change
Hydrogen can replace the fossil fuel burned in internal combustion engines and turbines as the primary way to convert chemical energy into kinetic or electrical energy, hereby eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and pollution.

$500,000 funding
The goal of the project is to design and industrialize a 3  kW PEM fuel cell, the membrane electrode assembly and plates of which have to be manufactured in Turkey. The fuel cell has to withstand over 1000 hours of system operation. Following a successful project proposal, a consortium coordinat-

Air (O2) H2 H
+

H2O

PEM fuel cell
In the hydrogen– oxygen proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a proton-conducting polymer membrane, (the electrolyte), separates the anode and cathode sides.

Bipolar plate Gas diffusion layer

Electrode Membrane

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>> R&D >>

Electric Current Fuel In e– e e
– –

SOFC based cogeneration
Air In
Cogeneration systems are used to convert industrial or residential heat losses into electricity. An ICHET sponsored consortium is developing such a design based on a solid oxide fuel cell.
Thermodynamics tels us that no machine can convert energy into another form without large losses. While energy is not destroyed, most is turned into heat that performs no useful work. If the heat could perform a useful function the efficiency of a system would be raised and reduce both energy costs and the amounts of pollutants emitted for the same power. This is the idea behind industrial scale co-generation plants - where overall energy costs must be minimised. Smaller scale systems that provide electricity and heat for domestic uses are being built around solid oxide fuel cells. These devices consist of thin plates of ceramic materials that at high temperatures, create electric currents by combining hydrogen with air. industry, ICHET called for proposals to build a prototype combined heat and power (CHP) system producing 3  kW of electricity. A consortium from Nigde University, Vestel AS and Gazi University provided the winning proposal and was issued contracts in 2010. The solid oxide fuel cell around which the system is based is being developed by the consortium in the first phase of the project, with heat exchangers and controllers following. It is anticipated that the prototype will be further developed to a stage where initial marketing production can be achieved. ❐

O= H2 Excess Fuel and Water H2O O
=

e– O2 Unused Gases Out

Combined heat and power (CHP)
By using hot exhaust gases to heat the incoming gases and carefully eliminating heat loses, heating and electricity is provided at efficiencies of around 90%. Hydrogen can be supplied by various means but currently, natural gas seems most appropriate. As part of its support of Turkish

Anode

Electrolyte

Cathode

Solid oxide fuel cell
At the heart of ICHET’s proposed domestic cogeneration system lies a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which uses a solid oxide electrolyte to conduct negative oxygen ions from the cathode to the anode.

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>> R&D >>

Hydrogen in ignition engines
Fuel cells are not the only way to use the energy contained in hydrogen. Properly retrofitted ignition engines can run advantageously using hydrogen gas instead of gasoline in multiple applications.
Since Pietro Benini realized the first working internal combustion engine prototype in 1856 in Florence, advancements in internal combustion engines have never ended. Internal combustion engines commonly used in vehicles traditionally use fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, but with new developments in the energy field, pure hydrogen or hydrogen mixes have become a potential replacements. Hythane, a mixture of natural gas and about 20  % hydrogen is of particular importance during the transition from carbon to hydrogen based economies. Considerable research is being done undertaken by car manufacturers and research centres alike in order successfully to use hydrogen in these engines. cial vehicles. Results from the early stages of development of these engines are extremely encouraging and are attracting attention from industrial and academic circles. ❐

Special purpose vehicles
Within this context, ICHET is providing design, engineering services and equipment support to Erciyes University in Kayseri for converting four 12  kW LPG spark ignition engines to run on hydrogen and hythane fuels. The engines being developed are planned to be used in special purpose vehicles and energy systems, such as forklifts, electro-gensets and light commer-

Hydrogen enrichment
Hydrogen fuel enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional fuel in an internal combustion engine in order to improve fuel economy, power output, or both.

Retrofitting
Difference between a hydrogen ICE from a traditional gasoline engine includes hardened valves, valve seats and connecting rods, non-platinum tipped spark plugs, higher voltage ignition coil, redesigned fuel injectors, larger crankshaft damper, stronger head gasket material, modified intake manifold, positive pressure supercharger, and a high temperature engine oil.

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Support
As part of its dissemination mission, ICHET is organizing workshops and seminars for the training of students, engineers and scientists willing to join the hydrogen energy drive. The Centre is also supporting R&D efforts through the financing of selected research programmes and through the provision of its cutting edge test laboratories.
Caption headline
Torporrunt. Ducil invero de porenis ma voluptam aut que nonessuntis doluptate nonsequidis soluptatus, opta dipsust, cusae natecte sanditisit eos vollia sam venihit aturiscient.

Project funding capabilities p. 52-53

Expertise dissemination p. 54-55

Hydrogen test laboratories p. 56-57

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>> Support >>

ICHET as a funding agency
ICHET is supporting the implementation of hydrogen energy technologies through the financing of selected feasibility studies, demonstration projects and applied R&D programmes.
The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies supports hydrogen energy related initiatives. Pilot projects aiming at demonstrating a practical implementation of the hydrogen energy system may apply for funding if they fulfill the Centre’s criteria. ICHET can provide the following types of support for studies, technology development and pilot projects: $  10,000. Each study consists of a technical analysis and an economic analysis part. The study should be formatted as a proposal for the funding of a pilot project by a suitable funding framework. This framework is continuously open and has up until now supported more than 20 studies; alized following a call for tenders and mainly address Turkish consortia;

• Pilot projects
ICHET can support one international pilot project per year with 50% funding up to $  500,000. Consortia should include local industry and academia. Projects normally last up to 3 years and should lead to a demonstration with high public visibility. The linking of hydrogen to renewable energy sources is preferable so as to show the sustainability of the hydrogen energy system. ❐

• Technology development
ICHET can provide 50% funding up to $ 500,000 for the funding of projects related to the development of hydrogen energy related equipments like electrolysers or fuel cells. These projects are re-

• Pre-feasibility studies
ICHET can support 10 studies per year with 100% funding up to

A mission
ICHET’s role is to support, demonstrate and promote viable hydrogen energy technologies with the aims of enhancing future economic development.

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>> Support >>

Training and dissemination
The organization of training courses, laboratory exercises, conference exhibitions and prototype demonstrations is a prerequisite for the long-term success of hydrogen energy technologies.
Adoption of a new technology can proceed effectively only when all sections of a community not only accept but also embrace it. Training decision makers and educating the rising generation is a prerequisite for the long-term success of hydrogen energy technologies. Since the inception of the Centre, over 80 university students have been working in ICHET as Erasmus interns or part-time employees, undergoing training in ICHET laboratories and contributing to the dissemination of hydrogen energy knowledge in the events organized or attended by the Centre. ICHET is indeed offering regular short training courses based around aspects of various hydrogen energy technologies. These 2-3 day courses target graduate students, academics and government agencies. ICHET is also a regular sponsor or organizer of hydrogen ernergy related event and attends most significant events in the field. Training courses, laboratory exercises, conference exhibitions and prototype demonstrations coherently completes cycle of actions towards a hydrogen inclusive economy. ❐

Dissemination figures
Training and education • 80 local interns; • 292 engineers; • 840 high school pupils; • 250 high school teachers. Organized events • 7 international conferences; • 12 workshops or seminars. Attended events • 30 international conferences or fairs.

Hannover Messe
ICHET is a regular participant of the Hannover Messe Fuel Cell and Hydrogen exhibit. In 2009, ICHET presented the Ecocart as part of its dissemination activities.

G. D.

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>> Support >>

State of the art laboratories
G. D.

ICHET is providing state-of-the-art fuel cell testing and analytical measurement facilities to research centres and universities worldwide in the frame of research projects and exchange programmes.
UNIDO-ICHET laboratories offer a series of state-of-the-art equipments enabling engineers and scientists to work on cutting edge hydrogen and fuel cell research. This research environment comprises of fuel cell testing, analytical measurements, system integration and modelling activities. It is open to use for universities, companies and research institutes worldwide. Fuel cell testing capabilities are centred on a comprehensive set of test stations ranging from 100 W to 12 kW. Electrochemical aspects of the fuel cells are investigated through a comprehensive range of measurement devices connected to the test stations. ICHET laboratories also host state-of-the-art analytical measurement capabilities that can bring significant leverage to hydrogen and fuel cell research teams committed to new material development. Further down the workflow, modelling is an efficient way to address the feasibility and productivity analysis of renewable energy systems, and ICHET laboratories offer outstanding facilities to accompany modelling studies with the required experiments for a rigorous fuel cell research. ❐

Testing capabilities
PEM FC test stations for: • 100 W single cells; • 1 kW single and stacks; • 2 kW and 12 kW stacks; Analytical testing devices: • gas chromatograph (GC); • HPLC; • UV-Vis spectrometer; • TGA-DSC; • FT-IR; • optical contact angle and surface tension meter; • gas adsorption analyzer; • surface area and porosity analyzer.

Membrane testing
Optical contact angle and surface tension meter is a valuable tool for the characterization of fuel cell membrane properties.

G. D.

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>> Spotlight on: Lab equipments?

>> Spotlight on: ICHET donors >> >> >> Spotlight on: ICHET laboratories

Photographs by Gregory Dziedzic

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Corporate information
Caption headline
Torporrunt. Ducil invero de porenis ma voluptam aut que nonessuntis doluptate nonsequidis soluptatus, opta dipsust, cusae natecte sanditisit eos vollia sam venihit aturiscient.

Human resources p. 64-65

Financial information p. 66-67

Stakeholders and partners p. 68-69

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>> Corporate information >>

Human capital first
Behind the demonstrations projects and R&S programmes, a skilled and dedicated team of technical, administrative and executive staff mans the Centre and ensures its smooth and efficient operation.
Following signing of the treaty between the Turkish Government and UNIDO establishing ICHET in October 2003, operations commenced in May 2004 with the Director Dr Nejat Veziroglu and a skeleton staff. The first priority was to establish the working principles of the centre and initiate feasibility project studies. Throughout 2005 staff numbers rapidly increased as Directors for Projects and Research and Development along with associated project engineers and support staff were hired from both Turkey and abroad. By the end of 2005 some 17 full time staff were employed at this time with 22 being either consultants employed in feasibility studies or students hired for various reasons. This trend was to continue to the present with the full time contingent rising to 25 by the end of 2010. ❐
5 000 000 4 500 000

Expenditures in USD

4 000 000 3 500 000 3 000 000 2 500 000 2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000 500 000 0 2004 2005 8 35

37

41 36 35

43

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Project investments

Salaries (net)

Employees

45

Number of employees

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 Technical 2008 2009 2010 Management Administration

In front of the Ecocaravan
The Ecocaravan project would never have enjoyed its success without the dedicated work of ICHET engineers, executives and support staff.

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>> Corporate information >>

Budget breakdown per year
Salaries Project Investments Buildings Trainings /Meetings Travels Administration

3.4 % 1.2 %

4.5 % 5.9 % 37.9 %

ICHET budget evolution
Laboratory investment began in 2006 with commitments totaling some $ 700,000 for equipment and infrastructure. Total project investments in the period from 2008 to the end of 2010 totaled more than $ 7.5 M.
Following the initial $ 40 M funding commitment by the Turkish Government, the number of projects undertaken by the centre has changed considerably. In the early years, very little project investment was made and activity was centred around managing national and international feasibility studies, training and conference activities. Laboratory investment began in 2006 with commitments totaling some $  700,000 for equipment and infrastructure. By 2007, plans for project investment were taking shape and following the arrival of the new Managing Director, Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu, took off in 2008. Total project investments in the period from 2008 to the end of 2010 totaled more than $ 7.5 M. By the end of 2010, ICHET had managed to attract its first external project funding with some €  800,000 being awarded for project activities involving the European Union, the Global Environment Facility and other organizations. At the same time, not only was ICHET’s contribution to hydrogen projects worldwide being extended, ICHET’s role in the developing world was being recognized. Through ICHET, UNIDO became the first United Nations organization to become an active member of any international energy group. ❐
7 000 000 Expenditures in USD 6 000 000 5 000 000 4 000 000 3 000 000 2 000 000 1 000 000 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year Project investments Other expenditures 2008 2009 2010

47.1 % Year 2008 48.4 % 5.8 % 2.7 % 0.4 % 0.1 % 31.4 %

6 % 2.6 % 0.2 % 1.1 %

41.7 % Year 2009

59.5 % Year 2010

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>> Corporate information >>

An expanding network
Through its demonstration projects and training activities, the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies has linked with a series of institutional, corporate and academic partners.
ICHET is a project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization founded in Istanbul in 2004 and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. In 2007, ICHET and the Organization of the Black Sea Economical Cooperation (BSEC) agreed to collaborate by providing funds for preliminary studies for hydrogen energy demonstration projects. This initiative has since been followed by targeted workshops in 2010. Starting their relationship with an International Summer School organized in 2008 in Istanbul, ICHET and the European Commission Joint Research Centre’s Institute for Energy have signed an agreement to implement various research activities such as testing fuel cell stacks, implementing the established JRC fuel cell test protocols and modelling various fuel cell system issues. N.ERGHY and has been participating in various activities since 2008. In 2009, the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies has become, through UNIDO, a full member of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEAHIA). It is the first UN body to join the IEA. ICHET is leading since 11 November 2010 the new IEAHIA Task 29 on “Distributed and Community Hydrogen”. In order to increase the number of the international projects, ICHET is now actively seeking international matching-funds or donations. ❐

International Energy Agency
Since then, other joint research projects have been initiated, including EU-funded back-up power, forklifts and educational projects. ICHET is also a voting member of

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>> Closing words >>

The hydrogen challenge
The World is facing an imminent shift from the present unsustainable energy system, primarily based on the utilization of fossil fuels. While there is still no firm consensus on the matter, our present state of knowledge and technological development tell us that only renewable energy sources have the potential to satisfy all the energy needs in a sustainable way. As an energy storage medium and as a major transportation fuel, hydrogen can play a significant role in such an energy system. Indeed only hydrogen has the potential to satisfy the energy storage and transportation needs on the scale that would be required in any future global energy system based on renewable energy sources. Hydrogen and fuel cells comprise a complex array of technologies and processes for hydrogen production, storage, transportation, distribution, fuel cell concepts and other end-use technologies. Some of these technologies are still under development and surrounded with considerable uncertainty. Realistic assessments and policy strategies for hydrogen and fuel cells must consider the complexity of the overall system, the uncertainties, the peculiarities of each single technology, the role of the competing options, and not least the impact that energy policies may have on new technologies to gain market share.

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>> Closing words >>

Using hydrogen as an energy carrier requires key technology breakthroughs and decisive cost reduction in all domains of the energy chain (production, distribution, storage and use). Concerted government policies, international co-operation and public R&D investment are indispensable for catalyzing larger private investment, achieving commercial maturity, building infrastructure and public awareness, and fostering the penetration of hydrogen and fuel cells into a highly competitive marketplace. Transition to a sustainable, hydrogen inclusive energy system requires a clear vision and a decisive strategy. Such a transition, which has already begun, will take decades to complete and therefore requires strong, long-haul commitment. It should not be distracted or confused with short term measures and its progress should not be judged by short term market successes. This transition will undoubtedly cause global economic and social changes, and therefore needs to be understood and supported at all levels, from local communities to international business and governments. Ideally, it should be based on a global consensus and coordinated at a global level.

The sheer scale of the transition ahead brings to mind the United Nations as the ideal entity for the completion of this task. Combined with a strengthened, proactive secretariat, the legitimacy of the UN is an indispensable asset to address the challenges of the coming decade. The recently constituted inter-agency mechanism UN-Energy is uniquely placed to influence global energy developments. Focusing on energy and its links to security, environment, resources, and poverty, UN-Energy should create a vision of the sustainable energy future and a strategy and implementation plan for transition to such future. Created 7 years ago by UNIDO, ICHET was given the special mandate of facilitating the widespread use of hydrogen energy technologies. Through its demonstrations and other activities presented in this book, ICHET is now playing a crucial role in promoting the technologies through UN channels. Provided the appropriate support from national and international stakeholders and institutions, it is to play a determining role in ensuring that hydrogen finds its place in the UN energy vision, strategy and implementation plans. UNIDO-ICHET Consultant Dr. Frano Barbir

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We owe the coming generations the transition to a clean and sustainable hydrogen inclusive economy.

Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu ICHET Managing Director

>> Acknowledgments >>

Concept design and artistic direction: Gregory Dziedzic. Contributions from Gregory Dziedzic, Can Uluatam and James Wetherilt. Editing: Gregory Dziedzic and James Wetherilt. Printing: ADA Ofset The authors would like to thank: Wikipedia: the free online encyclopedia (quoted on pages 45 and 49), Adrien Pilleboue for his fuel cell diagramme (page 44), Gökhan Demiray from the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Nancy Falcon from UNIDO.

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