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med while further vigorous efforts were pushed to integrate the navy presence in East-Pakistan into fully development

plan for the navy and create opportunities for people belonging to the East-Pakistan to participate in the build-up of the Navy. During this time, command and field appointments in certain key assignmen ts in Naval Combatant Headquarters (NHQ) were given to native officers to replac e the admirals of Royal Navy.[citation needed]First, Commander Khalid Jamil was appointed as navy's first Pakistani Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS) while Rea r-Admiral James Wilfred Jefford served as first chief of naval staff until 1953. [citation needed]The chief of naval staff was assisted in the matters of navy by Deputy Chief of Staff Commander M. A. Alavi whilst other administrative positio ns were also re-designed and created by the Pakistan Government.[citation needed ]Meanwhile, the Ministry of Finance awarded contracts to Corps of Engineers of P akistan Army to led the construction of NHQ in Karachi and the Karachi Naval Doc kyard in mid-1950s. During this time, a number of goodwill missions were carried out by Pakistan Navy's combatant ships and non-combat missions were conducted u nder close auspicious of Royal Navy. The Pakistan Navy ships toured and visited the places worldwide with the Royal Navy. In 1950, Commodore Chaudhry took the c ommand of PNS Shamsheer, later became Commander of Pakistan Fleet. In 1953, Chau dhry was appointed first Pakistani chief of naval staff and handed over the comm and of 25th destroyer squadron to Captain Romould Nalecz Tyminski, first Polish naval officer of Pakistan Navy.[citation needed] PNS Badr, a destroyer visiting Britain, 1957. In 1956, the Parliament of Pakistan unanimously passed the 1956 Constitution of Pakistan and proclaimed the State of Pakistan as Islamic Republic under the new constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or "PN" for its reporting name. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen's colour and the White Ensign respectively. The order of pre cedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force.[citation needed] In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major su rface combatants to Pakistan. These warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. T he acquisition of a few additional warships from 1956 to 1963 two destroyers, ei ght coastal minesweepers and an oiler, was the direct result of Pakistan's parti cipation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO. During this tim e, the Navy made an effort to acquire the first submarine but attempts were rebu ff as the political situation in Pakistan had worsened in 1950s.[8] Indo-Pakistan war of 1965[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Operation Somnath Soon after the Kashmir incursion was launched, the Navy was well-prepared when t he battle between Pakistan and the Indian Army began.[8] Chief of naval staff Ad miral Afzal Rahman Khan ordered all units of Pakistan Navy to sail to take up th e defensive position off the coast, but did not take any active measures in Bay of Bengal.[8] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indian Air Force's repe ated sorties and raids disrupted and effectively distracted the PAF's air missio ns in the conflict, leading the Navy to jump in the conflict.[citation needed] O n 2 September, the Navy first deployed its first long-range submarine, the PNS G hazi charging the gathering intelligence management and analysis of Indian naval movements.[citation needed] Ghazi was a lead class submarine and flagship subma rine of Pakistan and was commanded by Commander Karamat Rahman Niazi (later four -star admiral). Ghazi was not restricted to making engagements or contacts with Indian naval frigates, missiles boats or corvettes, it was also charged with div erting threats posed by INS Vikrant.[citation needed] The submarine PNS Ghazi during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965. Pakistan suffered the loss of expensive and long-range submarine (as well as 100 personnel) in 19 71 after it was sunk under mysterious circumstances.

In 6 September, the Naval Intelligence began the operational planning of thwarti ng the Indian Air Force's raids after giving approvals of deploying 25th Destroy er Squadron led by Commodore S. M. Anwar.[citation needed] On 6 September, a com batant squadron comprising four destroyers, one frigate, one cruiser, and one su bmarine under Commodore S.M. Anwar was deployed to the city of Dwarka to destroy the radar facility used by the Indian Air Force.[citation needed] The radar fac ility and naval facilities of Dwarka were shelled and bombarded, The radar insta llation was shelled during the bombardment but neither the radar was damaged nor were any casualties reported. The Indian Navy did not take any counter-actions against naval raid; the destroyer squadron remained 100 miles away from Dwarka, changing the course on anti-aircraft mission.[citation needed] Apart from carrying out successful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka co denamed Operation Dwarka the navy's submarine Ghazi was deployed, Pakistan's fir st submarine and remaining the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy until deploy ed against Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port.[9] Ghazi remaine d on the course on 22 September detecting the sonar contacts with the Indian Nav y. After two weeks of chasing down the sonar contacts, the Ghazi caught up the r oaming frigate INS Kuthar.[citation needed] Ghazi, while underwater, fired four homing torpedoes while observing that first two homing torpedoes hit its designa ted target, although Ghazi failed to sink the frigate. On 23 September, Ghazi en ded her operations when it cleared the coast of naval borders of Pakistan on its way to Karachi Naval Dockyard.[citation needed] The Operation Dwarka was an ultimate success for Pakistan Navy, a daring naval o ffence against India that had achieved a greater symbolic and strategic values f or the Navy.[10] The attack surprised the Indian Navy and realised the significa nt threat posed by the Pakistan Navy.[10] After the war, the Indian Navy went in to an extreme level of modernisation and procurement of naval system whilst the Pakistan Navy failed to meet with Indian Navy's extreme expansion and modernisat ion programme after the 1965 war.[citation needed] The operational capacity of P akistan Navy was limited and decreased as comparing to Indian Navy during the 19 65 70 period.[citation needed] After the war, Navy as well as the government noted the Indian Navy's expansion that allowed Navy to acquire three Daphn class subma rine from France while the Navy was operating Tench class submarine from the Uni ted States, and established the Naval special forces in 1966.[8] The Navy also a ttempted to established a naval air service, composing of fighter jets, but this was impossible to achieve. The lack of funds and the air force itself objected the plans fearing to risk and lose its aircraft in open-sea operations.[8] The lack of apathy in the Navy's affairs by the then-President General Ayub Khan further deteriorated and jeopardise the operational scope of the Navy. In 1970, General Yahya Khan made series of reforms and increased the diameter of operati onal scope of Navy, adding and giving more responsibility to Navy.[citation need ed] Indo-Pakistan war of 1971[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Operation Barisal, Operation Jackpot, and Indo-Pakistani Naval Wa r of 1971 The Pakistan Navy had a poor presence of conducting operations East Pakistan, it had lack of capacity of conducting offensive operations in deep Bay of Bengal.[ citation needed] The entire Navy was deployed in (West) Pakistan and instead in East-Pakistan, the Navy relied on deploying Naval Special Service Group and the entire formation of Pakistan Marines (PM), initially charged with conducting exp editionary operations.[citation needed] The city of Karachi, the hub of Pakistan 's maritime trade, housed the combatant headquarters of the Pakistan Navy and al most the entire naval fleet. Although proposals were made to increased the naval presence in East Pakistan but no serious reforms were made. On 15 March 1971, t he Navy special forces launched the counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency ope ration, codename Operation Jackpot and followed by full scale offence, codename Operation Barisal on April 1971. This was followed by the deployment of PNS Ghaz i on East Pakistan, initially charged with gathering intelligence management on Indian naval efforts on East Pakistan. At then end of East-Pakistan crisis.... We (Pakistan Navy, Eastern Command) had

no intelligence and hence, were both deaf and blind with the Indian Navy and Ind ian Air Force pounding us day and night.... Admiral Mohammad Sharif, telling U.S. Admiral Zumwalt in 1971, .[11] PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean Wars with the USN Under the direction of former Commander of Navy, Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, th e navy's presence in East Pakistan was tripled.[12] A command size naval assets were expanded with an administrative naval units operating in East Pakistan. In 1969, Admiral Ahsan was sent to East Pakistan and became the unified commander o f Pakistan Armed Forces in East Pakistan.[12] The Eastern Naval Command posed a significant threat to existing Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command.[12] Therefor e, Indian Navy launched the Operation Jackpot to disturb the Eastern High Comman d and its existence in Eastern wing. With East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the PN was attempting to prevent Indian access to the coast.[12] On 4 December, the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consi sting of 3 OSA class missile boats escorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels . Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistan's naval presence and launched their SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles. The obsolescent Pakistan naval ships had no viable defence against such missiles[13] and, as a result, the PNS Muhafiz an d PNS Khyber were both sunk while the PNS Shahjahan was damaged beyond repair, t he Indian Naval attack was an ultimate victory in the naval history of India, wi th no damage to Indian Navy's attacking squadron. On 8 December 1971, the Hangor, a Daphn class submarine of Navy, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinking o f a warship by a submarine since World War II that resulted in the loss of 18 of ficers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy. The same submarine also severely dama ged another warship, INS Kirpan.[14] Attempts were then made by Pakistan to coun ter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbo ur, the forward base of the missile boats. The Indian Navy retaliates when comme ncing another Indian Navy attack on the Pakistan's coast, named Operation Python , occurred on the night of 8 December 1971. A small group of Indian vessels, con sisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi. The Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy's PNS Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged. Python was a complete success for the I ndian Navy, a psychological trauma for Pakistan Navy, the human and material cos t for Pakistan Navy was extremely high.[15] The civilian pilots from PIA volunte ered to serve in the surveillance missions with the PAF after the PAF launched t he seaborne operation after the Indian naval attack but due to miscommunication and panic attack, the civilians abroad on Fokker Friendship raised a false alarm ed which reported a Pakistan Navy frigate, PNS Zulfikar as a missile boat by Ind ian Navy.[15] The PAF accidentally attacked the PNS Zulfikar, the only naval des troyer, before the PAF recognised that it had laid attack on its own ship.[15] T he friendly attack resulted the further loss of navy personnel as well as the lo ss of the destroyer that was damage severely, after this attack, the Pakistan Na vy's operational capabilities were extinct and demoralised.[15] The Indian Navy observes furthered noted that the "PAF pilots failed to recognize the difference between a large PNS Zulfikar frigate and small Osa missile boat.".[15] After th e friendly attack, all naval operations, except the submarines efforts, came to halt under the effect orders of chief of naval staff.[15] The Navy only long range submarine, Ghazi, was deployed to the area but, accordi ng to neutral sources, it sank en route under mysterious circumstances.[16] Paki stani authorities state that it sank either due to internal explosion or detonat ion of mines which it was laying at the time.[17] The Indian Navy claims to have sank the submarine.[18][19][20][21] The submarine's destruction enabled the Ind ian Navy to enforce a blockade on then East Pakistan.[22] According to the defen ce magazine, Pakistan Defence Journal, the attack on Karachi, Dhaka, Chittagong and the loss of Ghazi, the Navy no longer was able to match the threat of Indian Navy as it was already outclassed by the Indian Navy after the 1965 war.[citati

on needed] The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging t o the Pakistan Coast Guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and larg e-scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Kara chi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi;[23] and ten s maller vessels were captured.[24] Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 se rvicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka.[25] The Indian Navy lost 18 of ficers and 176 sailors[14][26] and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Aliz naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force. Accord ing to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost a third of its fo rce in the war.[27] Despite the limited resources and manpower, the Navy perform ed its task diligently by providing support to inter-services (air force and arm y) until the end.[28] The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to th e central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan.[citation needed] Since then the Navy has sought to im prove the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakis tani sea lanes to an adversary.[citation needed] Cold war operations[edit source | editbeta] See also: Operation Umeed-e-Nuh, Operation United Shield, Operation Parakram, an d Soviet war in Afghanistan Pakistan fully endorse the requirements of a strong navy, capable of safeguardin g Pakistan's sea frontiers and her Lines of Communication, monitoring and protec ting her exclusive economic zone. Continuous efforts are at hand to provide the best available equipment to the Navy despite all economic constraints. Pervez Musharraf, 1999, [29] After the 1971 war, the Navy had to be re-organized, re-visioned, and re-establi shed after being destroyed its facilities, manpower, and operational basis durin g the war by the Indian Navy.[28] The coming Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhamm ad Sharif reconstituted the Navy and gave commissioned to Naval Air Arm of the N avy.[28] During the course of war, the co-ordination between Inter-services was limited, lack of communication, poor execution of joint-operations, this led to the establishment of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.[28] In a small span of tim e, the navy facilities, manpower and profile of Navy was quickly arranged and ra ised by Admiral Muhammad Sharif, and his services to Navy led him to be appointe d as first navy admiral Chairman of Joint Chiefs Committee of Pakistan Armed For ces.[28] The Pakistan Navy came into public notice in 1974 after it had reportedly applie d a naval blockage and played an integral role to stop the arm smuggled in Baloc histan conflict.[28] After the discovery of Arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Pakista n, the Navy made an effort to apply a naval blockade to prevent arms smuggling i n the Province. Later, the navy provided logistic support to the Army and the Ai r Force in the conflict.[28] The Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134) deployed during the Operation Restore H ope. From her inception, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depend ing solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan.[30] After 1971, the Navy sought more combatant vessels from friend ly countries notably, France and China.[30] Thus, its extreme modernization prog ramme led the Pakistan Navy to become the first navy in South Asia to acquire la nd-based ballistics missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.[30] Duri ng the 1980s, the Pakistan Navy enjoyed unprecedented growth, doubling its surfa ce fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administra tion approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acq uired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from United States Navy on a five-y ear lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, USS Hector followed the lease of these s hips in April 1989. However after the Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan i

n 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan w as not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expi red in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Paki stan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US origmed while further vigorous efforts were pushed to integrate the navy presence in East-Pakistan in to fully development plan for the navy and create opportunities for people belon ging to the East-Pakistan to participate in the build-up of the Navy. During thi s time, command and field appointments in certain key assignments in Naval Comba tant Headquarters (NHQ) were given to native officers to replace the admirals of Royal Navy.[citation needed]First, Commander Khalid Jamil was appointed as navy 's first Pakistani Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS) while Rear-Admiral James W ilfred Jefford served as first chief of naval staff until 1953.[citation needed] The chief of naval staff was assisted in the matters of navy by Deputy Chief of Staff Commander M. A. Alavi whilst other administrative positions were also re-d esigned and created by the Pakistan Government.[citation needed]Meanwhile, the M inistry of Finance awarded contracts to Corps of Engineers of Pakistan Army to l ed the construction of NHQ in Karachi and the Karachi Naval Dockyard in mid-1950 s. During this time, a number of goodwill missions were carried out by Pakistan Navy's combatant ships and non-combat missions were conducted under close auspic ious of Royal Navy. The Pakistan Navy ships toured and visited the places worldw ide with the Royal Navy. In 1950, Commodore Chaudhry took the command of PNS Sha msheer, later became Commander of Pakistan Fleet. In 1953, Chaudhry was appointe d first Pakistani chief of naval staff and handed over the command of 25th destr oyer squadron to Captain Romould Nalecz Tyminski, first Polish naval officer of Pakistan Navy.[citation needed] PNS Badr, a destroyer visiting Britain, 1957. In 1956, the Parliament of Pakistan unanimously passed the 1956 Constitution of Pakistan and proclaimed the State of Pakistan as Islamic Republic under the new constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or "PN" for its reporting name. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen's colour and the White Ensign respectively. The order of pre cedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force.[citation needed] In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major su rface combatants to Pakistan. These warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. T he acquisition of a few additional warships from 1956 to 1963 two destroyers, ei ght coastal minesweepers and an oiler, was the direct result of Pakistan's parti cipation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO. During this tim e, the Navy made an effort to acquire the first submarine but attempts were rebu ff as the political situation in Pakistan had worsened in 1950s.[8] Indo-Pakistan war of 1965[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Operation Somnath Soon after the Kashmir incursion was launched, the Navy was well-prepared when t he battle between Pakistan and the Indian Army began.[8] Chief of naval staff Ad miral Afzal Rahman Khan ordered all units of Pakistan Navy to sail to take up th e defensive position off the coast, but did not take any active measures in Bay of Bengal.[8] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indian Air Force's repe ated sorties and raids disrupted and effectively distracted the PAF's air missio ns in the conflict, leading the Navy to jump in the conflict.[citation needed] O n 2 September, the Navy first deployed its first long-range submarine, the PNS G hazi charging the gathering intelligence management and analysis of Indian naval movements.[citation needed] Ghazi was a lead class submarine and flagship subma rine of Pakistan and was commanded by Commander Karamat Rahman Niazi (later four -star admiral). Ghazi was not restricted to making engagements or contacts with Indian naval frigates, missiles boats or corvettes, it was also charged with div erting threats posed by INS Vikrant.[citation needed]

The submarine PNS Ghazi during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965. Pakistan suffered the loss of expensive and long-range submarine (as well as 100 personnel) in 19 71 after it was sunk under mysterious circumstances. In 6 September, the Naval Intelligence began the operational planning of thwarti ng the Indian Air Force's raids after giving approvals of deploying 25th Destroy er Squadron led by Commodore S. M. Anwar.[citation needed] On 6 September, a com batant squadron comprising four destroyers, one frigate, one cruiser, and one su bmarine under Commodore S.M. Anwar was deployed to the city of Dwarka to destroy the radar facility used by the Indian Air Force.[citation needed] The radar fac ility and naval facilities of Dwarka were shelled and bombarded, The radar insta llation was shelled during the bombardment but neither the radar was damaged nor were any casualties reported. The Indian Navy did not take any counter-actions against naval raid; the destroyer squadron remained 100 miles away from Dwarka, changing the course on anti-aircraft mission.[citation needed] Apart from carrying out successful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka co denamed Operation Dwarka the navy's submarine Ghazi was deployed, Pakistan's fir st submarine and remaining the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy until deploy ed against Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port.[9] Ghazi remaine d on the course on 22 September detecting the sonar contacts with the Indian Nav y. After two weeks of chasing down the sonar contacts, the Ghazi caught up the r oaming frigate INS Kuthar.[citation needed] Ghazi, while underwater, fired four homing torpedoes while observing that first two homing torpedoes hit its designa ted target, although Ghazi failed to sink the frigate. On 23 September, Ghazi en ded her operations when it cleared the coast of naval borders of Pakistan on its way to Karachi Naval Dockyard.[citation needed] The Operation Dwarka was an ultimate success for Pakistan Navy, a daring naval o ffence against India that had achieved a greater symbolic and strategic values f or the Navy.[10] The attack surprised the Indian Navy and realised the significa nt threat posed by the Pakistan Navy.[10] After the war, the Indian Navy went in to an extreme level of modernisation and procurement of naval system whilst the Pakistan Navy failed to meet with Indian Navy's extreme expansion and modernisat ion programme after the 1965 war.[citation needed] The operational capacity of P akistan Navy was limited and decreased as comparing to Indian Navy during the 19 65 70 period.[citation needed] After the war, Navy as well as the government noted the Indian Navy's expansion that allowed Navy to acquire three Daphn class subma rine from France while the Navy was operating Tench class submarine from the Uni ted States, and established the Naval special forces in 1966.[8] The Navy also a ttempted to established a naval air service, composing of fighter jets, but this was impossible to achieve. The lack of funds and the air force itself objected the plans fearing to risk and lose its aircraft in open-sea operations.[8] The lack of apathy in the Navy's affairs by the then-President General Ayub Khan further deteriorated and jeopardise the operational scope of the Navy. In 1970, General Yahya Khan made series of reforms and increased the diameter of operati onal scope of Navy, adding and giving more responsibility to Navy.[citation need ed] Indo-Pakistan war of 1971[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Operation Barisal, Operation Jackpot, and Indo-Pakistani Naval Wa r of 1971 The Pakistan Navy had a poor presence of conducting operations East Pakistan, it had lack of capacity of conducting offensive operations in deep Bay of Bengal.[ citation needed] The entire Navy was deployed in (West) Pakistan and instead in East-Pakistan, the Navy relied on deploying Naval Special Service Group and the entire formation of Pakistan Marines (PM), initially charged with conducting exp editionary operations.[citation needed] The city of Karachi, the hub of Pakistan 's maritime trade, housed the combatant headquarters of the Pakistan Navy and al most the entire naval fleet. Although proposals were made to increased the naval presence in East Pakistan but no serious reforms were made. On 15 March 1971, t he Navy special forces launched the counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency ope

ration, codename Operation Jackpot and followed by full scale offence, codename Operation Barisal on April 1971. This was followed by the deployment of PNS Ghaz i on East Pakistan, initially charged with gathering intelligence management on Indian naval efforts on East Pakistan. At then end of East-Pakistan crisis.... We (Pakistan Navy, Eastern Command) had no intelligence and hence, were both deaf and blind with the Indian Navy and Ind ian Air Force pounding us day and night.... Admiral Mohammad Sharif, telling U.S. Admiral Zumwalt in 1971, .[11] PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean Wars with the USN Under the direction of former Commander of Navy, Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, th e navy's presence in East Pakistan was tripled.[12] A command size naval assets were expanded with an administrative naval units operating in East Pakistan. In 1969, Admiral Ahsan was sent to East Pakistan and became the unified commander o f Pakistan Armed Forces in East Pakistan.[12] The Eastern Naval Command posed a significant threat to existing Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command.[12] Therefor e, Indian Navy launched the Operation Jackpot to disturb the Eastern High Comman d and its existence in Eastern wing. With East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the PN was attempting to prevent Indian access to the coast.[12] On 4 December, the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consi sting of 3 OSA class missile boats escorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels . Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistan's naval presence and launched their SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles. The obsolescent Pakistan naval ships had no viable defence against such missiles[13] and, as a result, the PNS Muhafiz an d PNS Khyber were both sunk while the PNS Shahjahan was damaged beyond repair, t he Indian Naval attack was an ultimate victory in the naval history of India, wi th no damage to Indian Navy's attacking squadron. On 8 December 1971, the Hangor, a Daphn class submarine of Navy, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinking o f a warship by a submarine since World War II that resulted in the loss of 18 of ficers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy. The same submarine also severely dama ged another warship, INS Kirpan.[14] Attempts were then made by Pakistan to coun ter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbo ur, the forward base of the missile boats. The Indian Navy retaliates when comme ncing another Indian Navy attack on the Pakistan's coast, named Operation Python , occurred on the night of 8 December 1971. A small group of Indian vessels, con sisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi. The Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy's PNS Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged. Python was a complete success for the I ndian Navy, a psychological trauma for Pakistan Navy, the human and material cos t for Pakistan Navy was extremely high.[15] The civilian pilots from PIA volunte ered to serve in the surveillance missions with the PAF after the PAF launched t he seaborne operation after the Indian naval attack but due to miscommunication and panic attack, the civilians abroad on Fokker Friendship raised a false alarm ed which reported a Pakistan Navy frigate, PNS Zulfikar as a missile boat by Ind ian Navy.[15] The PAF accidentally attacked the PNS Zulfikar, the only naval des troyer, before the PAF recognised that it had laid attack on its own ship.[15] T he friendly attack resulted the further loss of navy personnel as well as the lo ss of the destroyer that was damage severely, after this attack, the Pakistan Na vy's operational capabilities were extinct and demoralised.[15] The Indian Navy observes furthered noted that the "PAF pilots failed to recognize the difference between a large PNS Zulfikar frigate and small Osa missile boat.".[15] After th e friendly attack, all naval operations, except the submarines efforts, came to halt under the effect orders of chief of naval staff.[15] The Navy only long range submarine, Ghazi, was deployed to the area but, accordi ng to neutral sources, it sank en route under mysterious circumstances.[16] Paki stani authorities state that it sank either due to internal explosion or detonat ion of mines which it was laying at the time.[17] The Indian Navy claims to have

sank the submarine.[18][19][20][21] The submarine's destruction enabled the Ind ian Navy to enforce a blockade on then East Pakistan.[22] According to the defen ce magazine, Pakistan Defence Journal, the attack on Karachi, Dhaka, Chittagong and the loss of Ghazi, the Navy no longer was able to match the threat of Indian Navy as it was already outclassed by the Indian Navy after the 1965 war.[citati on needed] The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging t o the Pakistan Coast Guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and larg e-scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Kara chi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi;[23] and ten s maller vessels were captured.[24] Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 se rvicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka.[25] The Indian Navy lost 18 of ficers and 176 sailors[14][26] and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Aliz naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force. Accord ing to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost a third of its fo rce in the war.[27] Despite the limited resources and manpower, the Navy perform ed its task diligently by providing support to inter-services (air force and arm y) until the end.[28] The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to th e central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan.[citation needed] Since then the Navy has sought to im prove the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakis tani sea lanes to an adversary.[citation needed] Cold war operations[edit source | editbeta] See also: Operation Umeed-e-Nuh, Operation United Shield, Operation Parakram, an d Soviet war in Afghanistan Pakistan fully endorse the requirements of a strong navy, capable of safeguardin g Pakistan's sea frontiers and her Lines of Communication, monitoring and protec ting her exclusive economic zone. Continuous efforts are at hand to provide the best available equipment to the Navy despite all economic constraints. Pervez Musharraf, 1999, [29] After the 1971 war, the Navy had to be re-organized, re-visioned, and re-establi shed after being destroyed its facilities, manpower, and operational basis durin g the war by the Indian Navy.[28] The coming Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhamm ad Sharif reconstituted the Navy and gave commissioned to Naval Air Arm of the N avy.[28] During the course of war, the co-ordination between Inter-services was limited, lack of communication, poor execution of joint-operations, this led to the establishment of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.[28] In a small span of tim e, the navy facilities, manpower and profile of Navy was quickly arranged and ra ised by Admiral Muhammad Sharif, and his services to Navy led him to be appointe d as first navy admiral Chairman of Joint Chiefs Committee of Pakistan Armed For ces.[28] The Pakistan Navy came into public notice in 1974 after it had reportedly applie d a naval blockage and played an integral role to stop the arm smuggled in Baloc histan conflict.[28] After the discovery of Arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Pakista n, the Navy made an effort to apply a naval blockade to prevent arms smuggling i n the Province. Later, the navy provided logistic support to the Army and the Ai r Force in the conflict.[28] The Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134) deployed during the Operation Restore H ope. From her inception, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depend ing solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan.[30] After 1971, the Navy sought more combatant vessels from friend ly countries notably, France and China.[30] Thus, its extreme modernization prog ramme led the Pakistan Navy to become the first navy in South Asia to acquire la nd-based ballistics missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.[30] Duri ng the 1980s, the Pakistan Navy enjoyed unprecedented growth, doubling its surfa

ce fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administra tion approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acq uired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from United States Navy on a five-y ear lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, USS Hector followed the lease of these s hips in April 1989. However after the Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan i n 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan w as not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expi red in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Paki stan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US origmed while further vigorous efforts were pushed to integrate the navy presence in East-Pakistan in to fully development plan for the navy and create opportunities for people belon ging to the East-Pakistan to participate in the build-up of the Navy. During thi s time, command and field appointments in certain key assignments in Naval Comba tant Headquarters (NHQ) were given to native officers to replace the admirals of Royal Navy.[citation needed]First, Commander Khalid Jamil was appointed as navy 's first Pakistani Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS) while Rear-Admiral James W ilfred Jefford served as first chief of naval staff until 1953.[citation needed] The chief of naval staff was assisted in the matters of navy by Deputy Chief of Staff Commander M. A. Alavi whilst other administrative positions were also re-d esigned and created by the Pakistan Government.[citation needed]Meanwhile, the M inistry of Finance awarded contracts to Corps of Engineers of Pakistan Army to l ed the construction of NHQ in Karachi and the Karachi Naval Dockyard in mid-1950 s. During this time, a number of goodwill missions were carried out by Pakistan Navy's combatant ships and non-combat missions were conducted under close auspic ious of Royal Navy. The Pakistan Navy ships toured and visited the places worldw ide with the Royal Navy. In 1950, Commodore Chaudhry took the command of PNS Sha msheer, later became Commander of Pakistan Fleet. In 1953, Chaudhry was appointe d first Pakistani chief of naval staff and handed over the command of 25th destr oyer squadron to Captain Romould Nalecz Tyminski, first Polish naval officer of Pakistan Navy.[citation needed] PNS Badr, a destroyer visiting Britain, 1957. In 1956, the Parliament of Pakistan unanimously passed the 1956 Constitution of Pakistan and proclaimed the State of Pakistan as Islamic Republic under the new constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or "PN" for its reporting name. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen's colour and the White Ensign respectively. The order of pre cedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force.[citation needed] In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major su rface combatants to Pakistan. These warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. T he acquisition of a few additional warships from 1956 to 1963 two destroyers, ei ght coastal minesweepers and an oiler, was the direct result of Pakistan's parti cipation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO. During this tim e, the Navy made an effort to acquire the first submarine but attempts were rebu ff as the political situation in Pakistan had worsened in 1950s.[8] Indo-Pakistan war of 1965[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Operation Somnath Soon after the Kashmir incursion was launched, the Navy was well-prepared when t he battle between Pakistan and the Indian Army began.[8] Chief of naval staff Ad miral Afzal Rahman Khan ordered all units of Pakistan Navy to sail to take up th e defensive position off the coast, but did not take any active measures in Bay of Bengal.[8] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indian Air Force's repe ated sorties and raids disrupted and effectively distracted the PAF's air missio ns in the conflict, leading the Navy to jump in the conflict.[citation needed] O n 2 September, the Navy first deployed its first long-range submarine, the PNS G hazi charging the gathering intelligence management and analysis of Indian naval

movements.[citation needed] Ghazi was a lead class submarine and flagship subma rine of Pakistan and was commanded by Commander Karamat Rahman Niazi (later four -star admiral). Ghazi was not restricted to making engagements or contacts with Indian naval frigates, missiles boats or corvettes, it was also charged with div erting threats posed by INS Vikrant.[citation needed] The submarine PNS Ghazi during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965. Pakistan suffered the loss of expensive and long-range submarine (as well as 100 personnel) in 19 71 after it was sunk under mysterious circumstances. In 6 September, the Naval Intelligence began the operational planning of thwarti ng the Indian Air Force's raids after giving approvals of deploying 25th Destroy er Squadron led by Commodore S. M. Anwar.[citation needed] On 6 September, a com batant squadron comprising four destroyers, one frigate, one cruiser, and one su bmarine under Commodore S.M. Anwar was deployed to the city of Dwarka to destroy the radar facility used by the Indian Air Force.[citation needed] The radar fac ility and naval facilities of Dwarka were shelled and bombarded, The radar insta llation was shelled during the bombardment but neither the radar was damaged nor were any casualties reported. The Indian Navy did not take any counter-actions against naval raid; the destroyer squadron remained 100 miles away from Dwarka, changing the course on anti-aircraft mission.[citation needed] Apart from carrying out successful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka co denamed Operation Dwarka the navy's submarine Ghazi was deployed, Pakistan's fir st submarine and remaining the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy until deploy ed against Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port.[9] Ghazi remaine d on the course on 22 September detecting the sonar contacts with the Indian Nav y. After two weeks of chasing down the sonar contacts, the Ghazi caught up the r oaming frigate INS Kuthar.[citation needed] Ghazi, while underwater, fired four homing torpedoes while observing that first two homing torpedoes hit its designa ted target, although Ghazi failed to sink the frigate. On 23 September, Ghazi en ded her operations when it cleared the coast of naval borders of Pakistan on its way to Karachi Naval Dockyard.[citation needed] The Operation Dwarka was an ultimate success for Pakistan Navy, a daring naval o ffence against India that had achieved a greater symbolic and strategic values f or the Navy.[10] The attack surprised the Indian Navy and realised the significa nt threat posed by the Pakistan Navy.[10] After the war, the Indian Navy went in to an extreme level of modernisation and procurement of naval system whilst the Pakistan Navy failed to meet with Indian Navy's extreme expansion and modernisat ion programme after the 1965 war.[citation needed] The operational capacity of P akistan Navy was limited and decreased as comparing to Indian Navy during the 19 65 70 period.[citation needed] After the war, Navy as well as the government noted the Indian Navy's expansion that allowed Navy to acquire three Daphn class subma rine from France while the Navy was operating Tench class submarine from the Uni ted States, and established the Naval special forces in 1966.[8] The Navy also a ttempted to established a naval air service, composing of fighter jets, but this was impossible to achieve. The lack of funds and the air force itself objected the plans fearing to risk and lose its aircraft in open-sea operations.[8] The lack of apathy in the Navy's affairs by the then-President General Ayub Khan further deteriorated and jeopardise the operational scope of the Navy. In 1970, General Yahya Khan made series of reforms and increased the diameter of operati onal scope of Navy, adding and giving more responsibility to Navy.[citation need ed] Indo-Pakistan war of 1971[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Operation Barisal, Operation Jackpot, and Indo-Pakistani Naval Wa r of 1971 The Pakistan Navy had a poor presence of conducting operations East Pakistan, it had lack of capacity of conducting offensive operations in deep Bay of Bengal.[ citation needed] The entire Navy was deployed in (West) Pakistan and instead in East-Pakistan, the Navy relied on deploying Naval Special Service Group and the entire formation of Pakistan Marines (PM), initially charged with conducting exp

editionary operations.[citation needed] The city of Karachi, the hub of Pakistan 's maritime trade, housed the combatant headquarters of the Pakistan Navy and al most the entire naval fleet. Although proposals were made to increased the naval presence in East Pakistan but no serious reforms were made. On 15 March 1971, t he Navy special forces launched the counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency ope ration, codename Operation Jackpot and followed by full scale offence, codename Operation Barisal on April 1971. This was followed by the deployment of PNS Ghaz i on East Pakistan, initially charged with gathering intelligence management on Indian naval efforts on East Pakistan. At then end of East-Pakistan crisis.... We (Pakistan Navy, Eastern Command) had no intelligence and hence, were both deaf and blind with the Indian Navy and Ind ian Air Force pounding us day and night.... Admiral Mohammad Sharif, telling U.S. Admiral Zumwalt in 1971, .[11] PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean Wars with the USN Under the direction of former Commander of Navy, Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, th e navy's presence in East Pakistan was tripled.[12] A command size naval assets were expanded with an administrative naval units operating in East Pakistan. In 1969, Admiral Ahsan was sent to East Pakistan and became the unified commander o f Pakistan Armed Forces in East Pakistan.[12] The Eastern Naval Command posed a significant threat to existing Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command.[12] Therefor e, Indian Navy launched the Operation Jackpot to disturb the Eastern High Comman d and its existence in Eastern wing. With East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the PN was attempting to prevent Indian access to the coast.[12] On 4 December, the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consi sting of 3 OSA class missile boats escorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels . Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistan's naval presence and launched their SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles. The obsolescent Pakistan naval ships had no viable defence against such missiles[13] and, as a result, the PNS Muhafiz an d PNS Khyber were both sunk while the PNS Shahjahan was damaged beyond repair, t he Indian Naval attack was an ultimate victory in the naval history of India, wi th no damage to Indian Navy's attacking squadron. On 8 December 1971, the Hangor, a Daphn class submarine of Navy, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinking o f a warship by a submarine since World War II that resulted in the loss of 18 of ficers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy. The same submarine also severely dama ged another warship, INS Kirpan.[14] Attempts were then made by Pakistan to coun ter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbo ur, the forward base of the missile boats. The Indian Navy retaliates when comme ncing another Indian Navy attack on the Pakistan's coast, named Operation Python , occurred on the night of 8 December 1971. A small group of Indian vessels, con sisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi. The Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy's PNS Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged. Python was a complete success for the I ndian Navy, a psychological trauma for Pakistan Navy, the human and material cos t for Pakistan Navy was extremely high.[15] The civilian pilots from PIA volunte ered to serve in the surveillance missions with the PAF after the PAF launched t he seaborne operation after the Indian naval attack but due to miscommunication and panic attack, the civilians abroad on Fokker Friendship raised a false alarm ed which reported a Pakistan Navy frigate, PNS Zulfikar as a missile boat by Ind ian Navy.[15] The PAF accidentally attacked the PNS Zulfikar, the only naval des troyer, before the PAF recognised that it had laid attack on its own ship.[15] T he friendly attack resulted the further loss of navy personnel as well as the lo ss of the destroyer that was damage severely, after this attack, the Pakistan Na vy's operational capabilities were extinct and demoralised.[15] The Indian Navy observes furthered noted that the "PAF pilots failed to recognize the difference between a large PNS Zulfikar frigate and small Osa missile boat.".[15] After th e friendly attack, all naval operations, except the submarines efforts, came to

halt under the effect orders of chief of naval staff.[15] The Navy only long range submarine, Ghazi, was deployed to the area but, accordi ng to neutral sources, it sank en route under mysterious circumstances.[16] Paki stani authorities state that it sank either due to internal explosion or detonat ion of mines which it was laying at the time.[17] The Indian Navy claims to have sank the submarine.[18][19][20][21] The submarine's destruction enabled the Ind ian Navy to enforce a blockade on then East Pakistan.[22] According to the defen ce magazine, Pakistan Defence Journal, the attack on Karachi, Dhaka, Chittagong and the loss of Ghazi, the Navy no longer was able to match the threat of Indian Navy as it was already outclassed by the Indian Navy after the 1965 war.[citati on needed] The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging t o the Pakistan Coast Guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and larg e-scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Kara chi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi;[23] and ten s maller vessels were captured.[24] Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 se rvicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka.[25] The Indian Navy lost 18 of ficers and 176 sailors[14][26] and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Aliz naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force. Accord ing to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost a third of its fo rce in the war.[27] Despite the limited resources and manpower, the Navy perform ed its task diligently by providing support to inter-services (air force and arm y) until the end.[28] The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to th e central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan.[citation needed] Since then the Navy has sought to im prove the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakis tani sea lanes to an adversary.[citation needed] Cold war operations[edit source | editbeta] See also: Operation Umeed-e-Nuh, Operation United Shield, Operation Parakram, an d Soviet war in Afghanistan Pakistan fully endorse the requirements of a strong navy, capable of safeguardin g Pakistan's sea frontiers and her Lines of Communication, monitoring and protec ting her exclusive economic zone. Continuous efforts are at hand to provide the best available equipment to the Navy despite all economic constraints. Pervez Musharraf, 1999, [29] After the 1971 war, the Navy had to be re-organized, re-visioned, and re-establi shed after being destroyed its facilities, manpower, and operational basis durin g the war by the Indian Navy.[28] The coming Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhamm ad Sharif reconstituted the Navy and gave commissioned to Naval Air Arm of the N avy.[28] During the course of war, the co-ordination between Inter-services was limited, lack of communication, poor execution of joint-operations, this led to the establishment of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.[28] In a small span of tim e, the navy facilities, manpower and profile of Navy was quickly arranged and ra ised by Admiral Muhammad Sharif, and his services to Navy led him to be appointe d as first navy admiral Chairman of Joint Chiefs Committee of Pakistan Armed For ces.[28] The Pakistan Navy came into public notice in 1974 after it had reportedly applie d a naval blockage and played an integral role to stop the arm smuggled in Baloc histan conflict.[28] After the discovery of Arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Pakista n, the Navy made an effort to apply a naval blockade to prevent arms smuggling i n the Province. Later, the navy provided logistic support to the Army and the Ai r Force in the conflict.[28] The Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134) deployed during the Operation Restore H ope. From her inception, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depend ing solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India

and Pakistan.[30] After 1971, the Navy sought more combatant vessels from friend ly countries notably, France and China.[30] Thus, its extreme modernization prog ramme led the Pakistan Navy to become the first navy in South Asia to acquire la nd-based ballistics missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.[30] Duri ng the 1980s, the Pakistan Navy enjoyed unprecedented growth, doubling its surfa ce fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administra tion approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acq uired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from United States Navy on a five-y ear lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, USS Hector followed the lease of these s hips in April 1989. However after the Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan i n 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan w as not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expi red in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Paki stan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US orig