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Material for Winning Ideas

Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels

Value for Volumes Catering and Appliances Architecture, Building and Construction Transportation Renewable Energy Heating, Cooling and Ventilation General Industrial Fabrication-friendly Ferritics Properties of Outokumpu Ferritics Quality in Products and Process
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Case highlights Outokumpu is fast becoming the undisputed number one in stainless steel. What makes us special is our total customer focus all the way from R&D to delivery. You have the idea. We offer you world-class stainless steel, technical know-how and support. Attractive finishes Outokumpu Ferritics are produced and offered in a wide range of different and attractive surface finishes, from bright to non-reflective and polished to textured. Perfect match for specification Outokumpu Ferritics are available in a number of different grades with diverse mechanical and corrosion properties. Therefore, correct material selection is important. Our experts can suggest the optimal grade for your application, ensuring the most cost effective solution.

Outokumpu Ferritics are increasingly being used in architecture, building and construction, domestic appliances, kitchenware and automotive exhaust systems.
Architecture, Building and Construction Outokumpu Ferritics give a strong competitive edge to DGS Hardwares quality window and door fitments. Read more on page 10. Transportation Johnson Matthey Group enjoys improved productivity and less down-time in catalyst fabrication. Read more on page 12. Renewable Energy Midsummer developed a unique process for manufacturing thin-film solar cells. Read more on page 13.

Cost stability The volatility in nickel prices greatly affects the final pricing of nickel bearing stainless steel. Outokumpu Ferritics contain no nickel and therefore, the final price is much more stable, allowing easier and more accurate forecasting and budgeting.

Price volatility of different metals

700 600 500 400 300 200

Typical Austenitic Stainless Steel Typical Ferritic Stainless Steel Copper Zinc Aluminium Carbon/CR sheet Carbon/galv. sheet

Value for volumes

A perfect choice for mass-produced articles, Outokumpu Ferritics can substitute other materials, such as carbon steel, copper, zinc, aluminium and plastic in many areas. Outokumpu Ferritics offer an unbeatable product life-span and significant long-term savings in maintenance. Whatever your current material is, it may be worth exploring an Outokumpu Ferritics option. Could it help you to save more? Substituting carbon steel lower maintenance Due to their superior corrosion resistance over carbon steels, Outokumpu Ferritics offer long-term advantages. Ferritic stainless steels usually do not require coating or painting with hazardous and expensive chemicals. With these initial savings and reduced need for maintenance, Outokumpu Ferritics contribute to environmental sustainability and cost savings during their long service life. Cost advantages and easier budgeting In recent years, prices of raw materials such as aluminium, copper, zinc and nickel have exploded. Stainless steel users can be greatly affected by volatile nickel price, which fluctuates constantly. Ferritic stainless steels contain no nickel and still share most of the mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties of their other stainless cousins. So, why pay for nickel, if you dont have to?

100 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

The graph shows how the price of typical ferritic stainless steel (1.4016) and typical austenitic stainless steel (1.4301) have been stable compared to many other metals over the years.

Modified from the source: ISSF - The Ferritic Solution, 2007 .

Corrosion resistance for many applications


- corrosion resistance +

1.4404 1.4301 1.4509 /1.4510 1.4016 1.4003 / 1.4512

Highly formable, especially for drawing

Diverse grade family: always a perfect match

Attractive and functional surface finishes

Cost stable choice Easy to maintain Ferritic grades offer a wide range of corrosion resistant properties for non-severe conditions inside the home, as well as for tougher outdoor applications. At the higher end, ferritics can even surpass some austenitic grades in corrosion resistance.

Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels

Outokumpu steel name 4003 EN Grade (ASTM) 1.4003 Surface finishes
2B, 2E, 1D

Material characterization

Typical applications

Surface finishes outshine your competition

Providing not only an attractive exterior, but additional functionality, Outokumpu surface finishes include main mill finishes, decorative surfaces and various polished and brushed finishes.

A structural ferritic stainless steel, having superior impact toughness at low temperatures compared to carbon steels. Ti -stabilized 11Cr ferritic stainless steel for elevated temperature applications up to 600 C. A ferritic grade for general use, mainly for catering & appliances and indoor applications.

Railroad carriages, buses, trucks and containers.


1.4512 (409)

2B, 2E

Automotive exhaust system parts: mufflers, pipes, catalytic converters, support parts. Washing machines, dishwashers, sinks, counter tops, cooker hoods.


1.4016 (430)

2B, 2BB, 2E, 2R, polished and brushed finishes (2G, 2J, 2K) 2B, 2E


1.4510 (439)

Ti-stabilized 17 Cr ferritic stainless steel.

Automotive exhaust system parts: mufflers, pipes, catalytic converters and sugar industry applications. Elevator and indoor cladding, door frames, catering and appliances, tubes, heat exhangers.

Outokumpus standard finishes offer a full range from non-reflective to mirror-like surfaces. For example, Outokumpu 2E (left) is less reflective and coarse, while Outokumpu 2BB (right) is a highly reflective bright pickled surface finish.


1.4509 (441)

2B, 2E, 1D, polished and brushed finishes (2G, 2J, 2K),Deco finishes (2M) 2B

Ti & Nb -stabilized ferritic grade with improved weldability. Corrosion resistance often comparable to general austenitic grade 4301. Ti -stabilized molybdenum alloyed ferritic grade with improved corrosion resistance.


1.4521 (444)

Boilers, water heaters, heat exchangers, tubes, storage tanks, water pipes.

Outokumpu Ferritics are available in different thicknesses ranging from 0.15 mm up to 6.00 mm depending on the grade and surface finish. Your local Outokumpu representative will be happy to tell you more about our offerings.
Outokumpu Deco surfaces have both attractive looks and a high resistance to wear and scratching. Deco material is easily fabricated and its applications range from cladding to domestic appliances.

Read more about our comprehensive selection in the Outokumpu Surface Finishes brochure.

We can also offer surfaces which are brushed, ground and polished. Brushed finishes with a silky gloss are widely used in many interior applications, including catering and household appliances. Ground and polished surfaces are somewhat coarser, but like brushed finishes, are very easy to clean and maintain.

Catering and Appliances

Materials for use in the catering, foodservice and appliance industries must be hygienic, low maintenance and suitable to be used in contact with foodstuffs. Outokumpu Ferritics offer a perfect match, combining durability, ease of fabrication and cost effectiveness. In the area of catering and appliances, Outokumpu Ferritics 4509 and 4016 are established as ideal, on grounds of their aesthetic quality, their resistance to cleaning and disinfection agents and their magnetism, which is essential in induction cooking, for example. The low thermal expansion characteristic is a big technical plus in high temperatures. They also offer considerable economic advantages over other materials. Certified products, quality control and documentation Safety and hygiene are of paramount importance in the catering and appliances sector. Thats why we take pride in our state-of-the-art production plants, which not only comply with the strictest national and international standards, but also deliver product with industry-leading tolerance accuracies. Every batch we produce is documented down to the smallest detail. New mirror-bright 2BB surface finish The bright pickled 2BB surface from Outokumpu is a highly reflective stainless steel finish available for the ferritic grade 4016. 2BB finish is a perfect alternative for washing machine drums, dishwashers and cooker hoods. 2BB also provides a perfect base for brushing and further polishing. Typical surface finish options: 2BB, 2M (Deco), polished and brushed finishes. Applications
Washing machines Dishwashers Cookers Kitchen extractor hoods Ovens and toasters Refrigerators Pans and kitchenware Induction cookware

Outokumpu Ferritics are used extensively in architecture, building and construction. The attractive finishes and physical properties make them ideally suitable for many applications. Whether for lifts and elevators, window hardware or internal wall panels, ferritic stainless steels are aesthetically pleasing, whilst also offering durability and cost effective solutions. Today, architects, designers, and building specialists throughout the world testify to the advantages of stainless steel. While austenitic grades are commonly used for the outdoor elements of buildings, ferritic stainless steels are popular for interior applications. Outokumpus polished, brushed and Deco finishes offer a wide variety of choice to architects. These finishes in grades such as 4509 and 4016 are predominant in applications such as internal cladding.


Strong competitive edge for a window fitment manufacturer DGS Hardware Ltd is a leading manufacturer of door and window furniture. Since 1977, the name DGS has become synonymous with service and value. The advent of extruded plastic and aluminum profiles, specifically designed for domestic double glazed window applications, created the necessity for a window hardware rethink. Traditional butt hinges neither created an adequate seal nor had the required geometric hinge movement, so a specific type of hinge friction stay was developed. This product not only provides a water and sound proof seal but, by virtue of its slider, avoids the necessity of a hinged stay, used to hold open a traditional timber window. DGS Hardware is a high volume, high variant manufacturer of friction stays.

In a very competitive marketplace, the correct choice of material and supplier is essential. Ferritics quickly became the obvious material choice for the bulk of manufactured products, due to its corrosion and abrasion resistance and cost effectiveness, over mild steel. Strength, good surface finish and ability to be processed using semi and full automation techniques, are listed by DGS experts as the further reasons for choosing Outokumpu Ferritics. Typical surface finish options: 2B, 2E, 2M (Deco), polished and brushed finishes.

Lifts & elevators Street furniture Internal wall linings Handrails and balustrades Swimming pool linings Floor tiles Door frames Window hardware Rainwater systems

Architecture, Building and Construction



The transportation industry faces many challenges. Arguably the most important is to ensure that tomorrows vehicles can combine solid sustainability with high efficiency. We know from experience that it is possible. The corrosion resistance of Outokumpu Ferritics and their resistance to scaling at elevated temperatures come in handy in automotive emission systems where the temperatures can vary between hundreds of degrees in different parts of the system. Outokumpu Ferritics also provide an advantage in many applications where thinner materials and reduced weight are necessary, such as body frames. Combined with cost efficiency, ease of mass-production and forming, Outokumpu Ferritics give a solid answer for many transport industry needs. Grades 4512 and 4003 have been especially beneficial to our transportation segment customers, particularly grade 4003, which has superior impact toughness at low temperatures compared to the other ferritics. Typical surface finish options: 2B, 2E, 1D, polished, brushed and ground finishes. Applications
Exhaust system components Decorative trims Front elements Bus, coach and tramway body
frames and skins



Improved productivity and less down-time The Johnson Matthey group manufactures catalysts for a number of applications. Their product range varies from catalysts for heavy-duty diesel trucks, power plants and chemical processes to catalysts and components for fuel cells. Johnson Matthey uses Outokumpu Ferritics steel for supporting stainless steel mesh for catalytically active oxides. In the close cooperation between the companies, Outokumpu experts carefully studied the integrated process route. Thus optimized material properties improve productivity in the cutting and stretching lines. Benefits of Outokumpu Ferritics include for example longer tool life and less down-time for tool changes. The devotion and know-how of Outokumpu people was impressive, say experts from Johnson Matthey.

Renewable Energy
Outokumpu promotes stainless solutions for various forms of renewable energy production, be it solar, geothermal, hydro or wind energy, ensuring higher efficiency and longer service life of plant equipment. Outokumpu is actively promoting the use of ferritic grades for domestic solar water heaters. The excellent characteristics of ferritics combined with their lower and stable cost, makes them ideal for these applications. The continued and intensifying efforts to utilize the earths renewable energy sources for power production keep presenting new challenges for technologies and for the materials that enable those technologies. Stainless steel provides some of the most solid answers to those challenges. Typical surface finish options: 2R (only for Thin Strip), 2B, 2BB.

Photo-voltaic cells Solar water heaters Boilers Tanks


Powered by sun and cooperation Midsummer has developed a unique process for manufacturing thin-film solar cells. The solar cell consists mostly of a stainless steel substrate of Outokumpu Thin Strip. Midsummer identified early on the need for high quality stainless steel to use for solar cells and chose to use Outokumpu Ferritics. Since 2007 Midsummer has worked with Outokumpu to produce a material that meets their high requirements for surface finish at a cost that is acceptable to their customers. The close cooperation with Outokumpu personnel has been an invaluable resource in their efforts to achieve this goal.



Photo courtesy of Kaukora.

Heating, Cooling and Ventilation

Ranging from industrial to office buildings, domestic houses and various modes of transport, heating, cooling and ventilation applications are as diverse as one can imagine. The specific properties of Outokumpu Ferritics can answer to many challenges within the industry. Comprehensive corrosion resistance Normally ductile metals which are subjected to a tensile stress in a corrosive environment can be susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). SCC can be hard to detect, since metal parts with severe SCC can appear bright on the outside. Unlike austenitic stainless steels, Outokumpu Ferritics can resist Stress Corrosion Cracking. The field tests have also proven that the corrosion resistance of Outokumpu Ferritics in different environments (changing pH, chlorides) is good. For air duct manufacturers, resistance for atmospheric corrosion is a clear advantage. Fabrication-friendliness Applications in heating, cooling and ventilation set demands for seamless welds to ensure safety and functionality. Whether a standard or a more complex application, the excellent welding properties of Outokumpu

General Industrial
Outokumpus wide range of products and services are utilised in many industrial sectors from primary production to manufacturing operations. We answer the need for complete material solutions with reliable technical support and dedicated customer service. Outokumpu Ferritics, such as the structural ferritic grades 4003 and 4509, are extensively popular in industrial sectors where the maintenance of carbon steel is not only time consuming and costly, but sometimes also impossible. Outokumpu Ferritics prove their worth in applications such as handrails, gates, ladders and conveyer belts. Applications
Conveyer belts Burners Crystalizers and diffusers Silos & hoppers Tools Machinery Turbines Engines Blades Generators Supportive elements

Ferritics come in handy, bringing savings in fabrication as well as maintenance. Especially in heating and cooling applications, the combination of high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion gives a head start for manufacturers.

Heat exchangers Boilers Thermostats Hot water tanks Clamps Air ducts

Typical surface finish options: 2B, 2E, 1D.

Typical surface finish options: 2B, 2E.


Fabrication-friendly ferritics
Outokumpu Ferritics can meet the challenges of complex three-dimensional designs. Due to their low work hardening rates and springback, machining and fabrication are relatively simple. Welding is straightforward, when certain basic rules are kept in mind. Outokumpu Ferritics can be worked by using all of the most common methods, and thanks to their good formability, they prolong the life of the tools. In certain specific cases, such as deep drawing, their behavior is excellent. The springback effect is generally lower compared to austenitics. Generally, the work hardening and elongation characteristics of Outokumpu Ferritics resemble those of high-strength carbon steels. Successful drawing means
Excellent surface appearance Minimum material consumption High productivity Low tool wear

Properties of Outokumpu Ferritics

Chemical composition
Outokumpu steel name 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 International steel designation EN 1.4003 1.4512 1.4016 1.4510 1.4509 1.4521 ASTM 409 430 439 441 444 UNS S40977 S40910 S43000 S43035 S43932 S44400 JIS SUS409 SUS 430 SUS430LX SUS 444 C 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 Typical chemical composition, % N Cr 11.5 11.5 16.2 17 .0 18.0 18.0 Ni 0.5 0.2 Mo 2.0 Others Mn Ti Ti Nb, Ti Ti

Physical properties
Outokumpu Density, kg/dm3 RT Modulus of elasticity, E GPa RT Coefficient of thermal expansion between 20C and T, 106/C 100C Thermal conductivity, W/mC RT Thermal capacity, c J/kgC RT Electrical resistivity, m RT Magnetizable RT

4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521

7 .7 7 .7 7 .7 7 .7 7 .7 7 .7

220 220 220 220 220 220

10.4 11.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.4

25 25 25 25 25 25

430 460 460 460 460 430

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8


Welding Modern ferritic stainless steels (low C, N+Ti/Nb) can be considered to be predominantly single phase and non-hardenable and can be readily fusion welded. Due to lower thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity, distortion and buckling can be lower during welding compared to austenitic stainless steels.

However, ferritic stainless steels may be susceptible to grain growth in the HAZ. As this will decrease the ductility, the heat input should be kept low. Stabilized ferritic steels are less prone to grain growth during welding. Since ferritic stainless steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, moist electrodes and shielding gases that contain hydrogen should be avoided. Adequate corrosion resistance in the welded joint is achieved using either mechanical descaling or pickling.

Mechanical properties, room temperature

Outokumpu typical values Outokumpu Rp0.2 MPa Rp1.0 MPa Rm MPa A% No. EN, min. values, RT Rp0.2 MPa Rm MPa A5 % No. ASTM, min. values, RT Rp0.2 MPa Rm MPa A2 %

4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521

340 290 330 300 330 370

375 310 360 330 360 400

500 470 500 460 480 530

25 31 26 31 30 28

1.4003 1.4512 1.4016 1.4510 1.4509 1.4521

320 220 280 240 250 320

450 380 450 420 430 420

20 25 20 23 18 20

S40977 S40910 S43000 S43035 S43932 S44400

280 170 205 205 205 275

450 380 450 415 415 415

18 20 22 22 22 20

Typical physical and forming properties of different stainless steels

Properties Magnetic Thermal expansion [10-6/oC] Thermal conductivity [W/moC] Stress corrosion cracking risk Work hardening Springback Deep drawing Stretch forming Cutting & Shearing Carbon steels Yes 12 55 No Low Low Excellent Good Good Ferritic SS Yes 10-11 23-25 No Low Low Good Good Good Austenitic SS No 16 15 Yes High High Good Excellent Moderate
Outokumpu steel name 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 Heat treatment temperature1) C A 730 30 A 800 30 A 800 30 A 800 30 A 900 30 A 850 30

Fabrication and usage characteristics

Fabrication Welding consumables2) 13(L) or 19 9 L 18L Nb or 19 9L 18L Nb, 19 9L or 23 12L 18L Ti or 19 9L 18 8 Mn, 19 9L or 23 12L 19 12 3L or 23 12 2L Pressure purpose3) EN ASME ASME EN EN EN / ASME

1) Heat treatment temperature: A = Annealing, EN 10088-2. 2) Covered electrodes, ISO 3581/ISO 14172. 3) Pressure purpose grades: From EN10028-7 , ASME IID and ASME code cases.



Quality in products and process

Outokumpu is one of the largest producers of stainless steel and is widely recognised as a world leader in technical support and innovation. Our global presence makes it possible to deliver service on a local level to our customers around the world. The in-depth and long-term cooperation with companies in several industrial segments ensures we have experts focused exclusively on the challenges of your industry.

A sustainable choice for years to come Thanks to improvements in production processes, higher recycling rates and a low-carbon electricity mix, Outokumpus product carbon footprint is the lowest in EU* and we are committed to reducing it a further 20% by the year 2020.

Expertise on handling, storing and using the materials Handling, storing and fabricating your stainless material in a better way can significantly increase cost efficiency and streamline your process. We help you in every step of the way to achieve a lean flow of material and reduce cost. Products tailored to your needs, with timely delivery Innovative companies in every industrial sector trust Outokumpus vision of the future and service attitude. We aim to leave our customers less to worry about. We can provide value-adding services according to your specific needs, from special surfaces to precision slitting. You benefit from minimised warehousing and a smoother production flow. In terms of supply chain and logistics we can deliver direct from our world class manufacturing sites. In addition, our state-of-the-art service centres and stock locations can also play a key role, effectively ensuring that you get the product you need, when you need it.

The widest range of valueadding services in the market

Technical market development Technical advice and information Material selection Trouble-shooting Corrosion research Design and fabrication Training Process development Alloy development

Constant renewal for your benefit Outokumpus Research & Development facilities have extensive experience of both product and process development. In addition to new products, Outokumpu R&D focuses on our customers challenges, creating innovative manufacturing processes that reduce costs, result in lower emissions, shorten lead times and improve quality. Together, lets activate your winning ideas to create a successful outcome.

* Source: The Life Cycle Inventory Study on Stainless Steel Production in the EU. PE International 2009.



This document is for information only and seeks to provide professionals with the best possible information to enable them to make appropriate choices. Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information provided in this document, Outokumpu can not accept any responsibility for any loss, damage or other consequence resulting from the use of this publication. The information provided herein may be subject to alterations without notice. This document does not constitute a recommendation or a contractual commitment on the part of Outokumpu. Product selection is the responsibility of the specifiers, designers and builders, who are solely responsible for rendering the finished unit suitable for the use for which it is intended. It is the customers sole responsibility to ensure that the product is suitable for the use for which it is intended. Outokumpu shall not provide any guarantee in this respect. Copyright Outokumpu Group. All rights reserved.

1487EN-GB:1. Lnnberg, Finland, September 2011.

Activating Your Ideas

Outokumpu is a global leader in stainless steel with the vision to be the undisputed number one. Customers in a wide range of industries use our stainless steel and services worldwide. Being fully recyclable, maintenance-free, as well as very strong and durable material, stainless steel is one of the key building blocks for sustainable future. What makes Outokumpu special is total customer focus all the way, from R&D to delivery. You have the idea. We offer world-class stainless steel, technical know-how and support. We activate your ideas.