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GAS TURBINE NOTES

JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Turbofan Engine

PV DIAGRAM BRAYTON CYCLE

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Thermodynamic cycles
In thermodynamics, we have cycles that consists of reversible isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and isentropic processes. What is the purpose of each process in Carnot, Diesel, Otto cycles ? How does it makes a cycle an idealized one. Also, cycles following these processes alone is meant to have highest efficiency; how can it be justified??
There are properties of a thermodynamic system that define its STATE. These are pressure, temperature (internal energy), volume, entropy, enthalpy etc. Now if a thermodynamic system goes from one state to another (i.e. undergoes a PROCESS) there will be some changes in the above mentioned properties. For a thermodynamic process to be CONTROLLED at least one property remains constant and hence, the name iso------- (fill in the blank with the property being controlled) example: temperature being controlled = iso thermal We all know how a heat engine works. Add heat, get work plus some waste heat. In order to get work from the engine repetitively it is necessary that this happens in a cyclic manner i.e. the thermodynamic system returns to the state it started from. The question is how to make a cycle. A thermodynamic CYCLE is made up of a combination of controlled thermodynamic processes. These processes serve the purpose of taking the system from one state to another, adding heat, extracting work and bringing the system back to its initial state. This answers your question @ What is the purpose of each process in cycle ? The question now is how to choose the combination of processes to make a cycle. For that the most important thing is heat addition and work extraction. One can chose any controlled process they think will be efficient for heat addition and work extraction. The process chosen for heat addition will become the defining feature for the cycle. The remaining processes in the cycle will then be used to close the loop. Carnot thought heat addition at constant temperature would be efficient so he developed a cycle using that process and he named it Carnot cycle. From that day onwards for any cycle to be called a Carnot cycle, it must have isothermal heat addition. Similarly, Otto made an engine based on isochoric heat addition and Diesel made one based on isobaric heat addition. These processes are the distinguishing feature of these cycles. This answers @ why there cannot be an isobaric heat addition in Carnot..?? The answer to the question why Carnot thought isothermal heat addition will be most efficient can be found from the first law of thermodynamics. We have all seen the following representation of this law for a thermodynamic process: Heat added = Change in internal energy + Work done If temperature is constant, then the change in internal energy is zero, which implies heat added = Work done (theoretically)

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Therefore, Carnot cycle that is based on this has the maximum theoretical efficiency. This answers @ highest efficiency; how can it be justified?? Your answer was very much convincing. You were right that Carnot made isothermal heat addition because the change in internal energy is zero. But can you help me understand the same in Otto, diesel ?? How at those high temperatures constant pressure could be maintained???. We calculate adiabatic and perfect scenarios so we can use it as a reference for efficiency.

Referring to thermodynamics, only 2 processes are ideal, reversible. Isothermal & Reversible adiabatic/Isentropic. Carnot proposed this cycle with reciprocating steam engine in mind, For steam/water we can have isothermal process in change of phase, evaporation & condensation and Isentropic. Otto, Diesel are Gas Power Cycles. Heat addition process in the cycle is linked to fuel characteristic, ignition temp, which is high for petrol used in Otto cycle,& low for Diesel fuel in Diesel cycle. Hence spark ignition system employed in Petrol Engines, in which spark is obtained at spark plug electrodes few degrees before dead centre in compression stroke burning fuel instantaneously, theoretically at constant volume heat is added. Whereas in Diesel Engine doesn't have separate ignition system, as it uses compression ignition system, in which sucked air is compressed with high compression ratio,15 to24,the air temp near end of compression exceeds ignition temp of diesel fuel which injected before dead center by nozzle for certain duration. Theoretically we say heat is added at constant pressure as piston moves from dead center for expansion stroke. The actual P-V diagrams are much different than theoretical ones, which are conceptualized ideal conditions hence give more efficiency .Theoretically Carnot cycle gives highest efficiency than Otto or Diesel or any other power cycle operating between same heat source & heat sink temperature limits. In actual cycles ideal conditions are absent and factors like internal & external friction, free expansion & heat transfer make cycles irreversible and less efficient than ideal ones. Otto cycle tries to maximize the change in internal energy by adding heat at constant volume (at constant volume, work = zero) heat = change in internal energy After heat addition there is expansion for adiabatic-isentropic expansion heat = 0 |change in internal energy| = |work|

In diesel engine before heat addition there is addition of mass (in the form of fuel) which also possesses some internal energy internal energy added + heat = change in internal energy + work change in internal energy = heat + internal energy added - work (due to vol. change)

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Although some energy is lost due to a small change in volume but internal energy is also added together with the heat. Therefore, there is still a lot of internal energy left that can be converted to work when the adiabatic expansion starts. for adiabatic-isentropic expansion heat = 0 |change in internal energy| = |work|

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Trent 500 System Description from the MM. A. The EEC (1) The primary component in each FADEC system is an Engine Electronic Controller (EEC) (4000KS). The EEC is a two Channel digital unit which uses a high integrity computer in each Channel to perform software instructions. The EEC reads inputs from the aircraft and the engine systems and provides engine control and cockpit indications. (2) For primary control the EEC reads these inputs (Ref. Fig. 003 SHEET 1) - N1, LP compressor shaft speed - N2, IP compressor shaft speed - N3, HP compressor shaft speed - P0, engine Zone 1 air pressure - P20, LP compressor inlet pressure - T20, LP compressor inlet temperature - P30, HP compressor outlet pressure - T30, HP compressor outlet temperature - P50, LP turbine outlet pressure - EGT, Exhaust Gas Temperature. (3) The EEC is supplied with digital aircraft data from an Engine Interface and Vibration Monitoring Unit (EIVMU) and from two Air Data Inertial Reference Units (ADIRUs). Output data from the EEC is sent to the EIVMU, Display Management Computers, Flight Warning Computers and the Flight Management Guidance and Envelope Computers. A description of these components is given below the 'Interface' heading. B. The Power Supplies (1) The primary source of electrical power for the FADEC system is an EEC dedicated alternator (4044KS). Three-phase power from the alternator is regulated (internally in the EEC) and supplied for each EEC Channel. (2) The alternator can supply sufficient power to the FADEC system to control the engine (and windmill starting with the hydraulic pump de-energized) at speeds higher than 5 percent N3. During pneumatic starter assisted starts, the alternator power supplied to the starter control valve (4005KS) can be augmented with aircraft power for a short time period. (3) For ground maintenance, engine start (up to 5 percent N3 speed) and for failure of the alternator three-phase supplies an alternative stand-by power is used. 115V AC stand-by power from the aircraft electrical busses is regulated to DC (internally in the EEC) and supplied for each EEC Channel. (4) The aircraft power supplies are isolated from the alternator power supplies and EEC power rails. (5) The EEC controls and monitors the supply of aircraft power to the: - ignition units (4000EH1, 4000EH2) (115V AC supplied through the EIVMU) - P20/T20 probe (4014KS) heaters (115V AC supplied directly from the aircraft busses) - thrust reverser direction control valve in the Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU) (4101KS) (28V DC supplied through the EIVMU) - hydraulic pump offload solenoid (28V DC supplied directly from the aircraft emergency bus). C. The Data Entry Plug (DEP) (1) The DEP (4091KS) is connected to the EEC. It is programmed with data which is necessary for satisfactory operation of the engine. The data held in memory is related to the engine type, engine manufacturers type test and the aircraft operation.

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D. The P20/T20 Probe (1) The P20/T20 probe (4014KS) gives the engine air-intake air-flow conditions to the EEC. The engine P20 and T20 parameters are used with the aircraft air data parameters to calculate the engine ratings. E. The HMU (1) The EEC controls the flow of fuel to the combustion system and a pair of Variable Stator Vane (VSV) actuators by operation of the HMU (4000KC). The HMU contains control valves of which four are electrically operated by the EEC. These are: - a Metering Valve (MV) which controls the rate of fuel flow - a Pressure Raising and Shut-Off Valve (PRSOV) which starts and stops the flow - an Overspeed (OS) servo valve which can operate the PRSOV to stop the flow and cause an engine shutdown - a VSV servo valve which supplies fuel to the VSV actuators. F. The IP/HP Bleed Valves (1) The EEC controls the operation of three IP bleed valves (5020ED1, 5020ED3, 5020ED4) and three HP bleed valves (5021ED1, 5021ED2, 5021ED3) (Ref. 75-33-00). At lower engine powers the EEC opens the applicable valves to release air from the IP compressor stage 8 (IP8) and the HP compressor stage 3 (HP3). This is necessary to prevent an engine surge condition. The bleed valves are operated by HP3 air, the supply of which is controlled by six solenoids. The six solenoids are contained in two bleed valve controllers 4092KS (4079KS) (Ref. 75-33-00) and are independently supplied with electrical power from the EEC. There is no feedback of bleed valve position. G. The VSVs (1) The EEC controls the angular position of the VSVs (Ref. 75-33-00). The VSVs increase the performance of the IP compressor and can be used to correct the air flow if a surge has occurred. The VSV positions are set through a VSV servo valve in the HMU (4000KC) which is electrically operated by the EEC. The HMU hydraulically controls the position of the VSV actuators 4040KS2 (4040KS1). Their position and thus the position of the VSVs is transmitted to the EEC. H. The Turbine Case Cooling (TCC) System (1) The EEC controls the operation of the TCC valve (4078KS) (Ref. 75-24-00). During cruise conditions the EEC fully opens the TCC valve to supply LP compressor air to the external surface of the turbine cases. This causes a smaller clearance between the cases and the tips of the HP and IP/LP turbine blades to increase turbine performance. The TCC valve is operated by HP3 air, the supply of which is controlled electrically by the EEC. I. The Thrust Reverser System (1) The EEC interfaces with the HCU (4101KS) which controls the hydraulic operation of the thrust reverser translating cowls (Ref. 78-32-00). The usual condition of the thrust reverser in the stow position is: the the the the the thrust reverser hydraulic system is depressurized translating cowls are mechanically locked (tertiary lock solenoids not energized) Isolation Valve (IV) solenoid (in the HCU) is not energized Direction Control Valve (DCV) solenoid (in the HCU) is not energized actuators (upper, middle and lower) are fully stowed and locked.

(2) To deploy the thrust reverser the flight crew move the throttles to the idle position and then the reverse levers into the reverse quadrant. The Flight Control Primary Computer (FCPC) will then command the thrust reverser tertiary lock to unlock. The EEC then energizes the IV solenoid to supply

GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

hydraulic power to the reverser system and the translating cowls move to the overstow position. The EEC then energizes the DCV solenoid and the locking actuators unlock and the thrust reverser then deploys. At 85 percent LVDT movement (and following a time delay of 1 second) the EEC de-energizes the IV solenoid. The DCV solenoid stays energized until the stow sequence is initiated. (3) To stow the thrust reverser the flight crew move the reverse levers out of the reverse quadrant. The EEC then energizes the IV solenoid and de-energizes the DCV solenoid. The thrust reverser then moves to the stowed position and is locked. When the EEC reads that the translating cowls are locked (from the LVDT and lock sensors), and after a time delay of 2 seconds, the EEC de-energizes the IV solenoid. The IV then isolates the thrust reverser hydraulic system from the aircraft supply of hydraulic power. (4) During reverse thrust operation, the EEC checks for correct thrust reverser deployment and supplies indications of position. The EEC also monitors the thrust reverser for uncommanded deploy or stow conditions. If an uncommanded deploy condition occurs, the EEC sets the engine thrust for that engine to idle power. J. The Monitoring System (1) The EEC monitors the temperature of the air supplied to the combustion chamber (through the engine compressors) with two HP compressor exit thermocouples (4086KS1, 4086KS2). The temperature (T30) is used as a control parameter to make sure an engine flame-out is prevented during bad weather conditions (such as heavy rain and/or hail). (2) The EEC monitors the temperature of the air around the IP turbine disc with IP turbine overheat thermocouples (4084KS, 4083KS) (Ref. 77-22-00). If the air used to keep the disc cool becomes too hot (forward or rearward of the disc) the EEC transmits a warning for display at the cockpit. (3) The EEC monitors the fuel flow to the combustion system with a fuel flow transmitter (4010KS) (Ref. 73-31-00) and calculates the fuel used. Fuel flow and fuel used data is then transmitted for display at the cockpit. (4) The EEC monitors the condition of the fuel system and the engine oil system with pressure switches, thermocouples and transmitters (Ref. 73-30-00 and 79-30-00). If the condition becomes unsatisfactory, the EEC transmits the related warning(s) for display at the cockpit. (5) The EEC monitors the speed of the LP compressor (N1) and the IP compressor (N2) with N1 and N2 speed probes (Ref. 72-30-00). If these speeds become more than the limit, the EEC can operate the OS servo valve (in the HMU) and cause an engine shutdown. The EEC also transmits a warning for display at the cockpit. (6) The EEC monitors the Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) with 17 EGT thermocouples (4045KS1 thru 4045KS17) (Ref. 77-21-00). If the EGT becomes more than the limit, the EEC transmits a warning for display at the cockpit. (7) The EEC monitors the temperature of the air in engine Zone 3 with a nacelle temperature thermocouple (T Zone 3) (4008KS) (Ref. 75-41-00). If the temperature becomes more than the limit (which can be caused by the leakage of air from a duct), the EEC transmits a status bit for indication display at the cockpit. K. The Starter Control Valve (1) The EEC controls the operation of the starter control valve (4005KS). During the engine start sequence, the EEC opens the valve to supply APU air, cross-bleed air or air from an external source to operate the pneumatic starter (5000ES). If the valve does not open automatically, the ground engineer can operate the valve manually during the start sequence (when told to do so by the flight crew). L. The Hydraulic Pump Off-Load (1) The EEC controls the hydraulic pump off-load solenoid to depressurize the hydraulic system during an in-flight (windmill) start. M. The IDG Oil Temperature (1) The EEC monitors the temperature of the oil flow downstream of the IDG Air Cooled Oil Cooler (ACOC) (5001XT) to control the IDG (4000XU) oil temperature. The IDG oil system is a closed system

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which circulates oil continuously through the IDG and the cooler. Usually a two-position butterfly valve in the cooler is open to supply full cooling air. If cooling air is not necessary, the EEC energizes a solenoid valve (on the cooler) to close the butterfly valve. This stops the flow of air through one of two air passages into the cooler. The air flow through the other passage is not controlled. The butterfly valve is spring-loaded so that it will stay in the open position if there is a power supply failure to the solenoid valve. N. The LP Turbine Overspeed System (1) The EEC compares the speed of the LP compressor shaft (N1) and the LP turbine shaft (N1) with N1 compressor speed probes and N1 turbine speed probes (Ref. 76-21-00). If the EEC finds the difference in shaft speed is more than the limit (an indication of shaft breakage), the engine is automatically shut down.

ACCESSORY GEARBOX On turbojet/turbofan engines, the gearbox is used to drive the engine/aircraft accessories such as the starter, constant speed drive, generator, hydraulic pump(s), and the hydro-mechanical engine fuel control. It is usually mounted on the bottom of the engine and is driven by a shaft that is geared to the engine drive shaft. On single spool engines, it is geared to the only engine shaft; on twin spool engines, it is geared to the N2 shaft; on three spooled engines, it is geared to the N3 shaft. On P&WA engines this gearbox drive shaft is called the tower shaft, since it is mounted vertically between the engine dive shaft and the gearbox. On turboprop/turbo-shaft engines there is a reduction gearbox to reduce the output RPM to propeller or rotor; often this reduction gearbox also has drives to operate the accessories in a similar way the to turbojet/turbofan engine accessory gear box. On the RB211, the accessory gearbox was originally intended to be mounted on the core engine casing inside the fan bypass area. The gearbox was relocated to outside the fan case and this required an additional angled gearbox on the back of the accessory gear box to connect the accessory gearbox to the tower shaft. This angled drive gearbox is called the step aside gearbox and had been a problem area on the RB211-22B. I experienced one in-flight shutdown on a L1011 when the step aside gearbox failed resulting in the loss of the connection between the engine and the accessory gearbox. On bigger reciprocating engines, where the engine RPM is greater than that necessary for the operation of the propeller, there is a reduction gearbox mounted on the nose of the engine to keep propeller RPM's in the correct range. On these engines, that is the only purpose of the gear box as, usually, the accessories are mounted on the back of the engine and are driven by geared drives from the engine.

ACCESSORY SYSTEMS
Accessories for gas turbine engines can be divided into two categories: those driven by bleed air taken from the compressor section of the engine; those driven mechanically by an accessory drive shaft and gearbox connected directly to the turbine shaft. The mechanical connection from the turbine shaft may be through an engine-mounted gearbox or through a power takeoff shaft to a remotely mounted gearbox. BLEED-AIR-DRIVEN ACCESSORIES Gas turbines are unique among engines. High-pressure air is available for driving aircraft accessories by air motors or air turbines. Compressor discharge air at high pressure and temperature is bled from the engine
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through ports provided. This air is ducted as a source of power. It operates the air-conditioning units, hydraulic pumps, thrust reverser actuators, and various mechanical actuators in the airplane. Air for cockpit or cabin pressurization is also provided by bleed air from the engine compressor. On multi-engined aircraft equipped with pneumatic engine starters, one engine is usually started from an auxiliary power unit or a ground air source. Air from this operating engine is bled through a system of ducts in the aircraft, to power the starters of the other engines. The Pratt and Whitney dual-axial compressor turbine engine is an example that uses bleed air to operate accessories. The JT3D turbofan engine is used on aircraft such as the Boeing 707 and B-52 bomber. This engine also uses a mechanical accessory gearbox. It usually has three separate bleed air systems: high pressure, low pressure, and overboard. The high- and low-pressure systems are used to drive aircraft, engine components, and accessories. The overboard is required to preclude compressor instability. Compressor bleed air is also used to anti-ice the engine air inlet guide vanes and, frequently, parts of the air inlet duct. Low-pressure air has a pressure of approximately 50 psi and a temperature of more than 300 F. This low-pressure air is taken from bleed air parts compressor mid-section between the low-and high-pressure compressors. High-pressure bleed air has a pressure of about 160 psi and a temperature of more than 650 F when operating near sea level. This air is taken from the rear of the high-pressure compressor. The air available for driving accessories and for other purposes in the aircraft is usually about 3 or 4 percent of the primary engine airflow. Keep in mind the air under pressure that is extracted from the engine is not a bonus. Engine output and fuel consumption are sacrificed. MECHANICALLY DRIVEN ACCESSORIES The other method of driving accessories is a direct, mechanical drive operated by gearing from the compressor-turbine drive shaft. Accessory drives and accessory mounting pads are provided in an enginemounted, accessory drive gearbox or in a remotely mounted gearbox. On some turbojet engines, accessory pads and mechanically powered drives are also provided in the engine nose section. For dual compressor, axial-flow engines, the main accessory drive gearbox usually receives its power from the high-pressure compressor drive shaft. Mechanically driven accessories include: tachometers, generators (alternators), hydraulic pumps, fuel pumps, oil pumps, fuel controls, starters, and (ii some instances) water pumps. LYCOMING T-55 ENGINE The power extraction system transmits power from the N1 and N2 systems to the accessory gearbox located at the 6 o'clock position on the inlet housing (Figures 8-1, 8-2). Most of these components receive their driving force from the N1 system. A minimum amount of power is extracted from the N2 system.

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The starter gearbox, mounted at the 12 o'clock position, functions as a centrifuge for air-oil separation during engine operation. The N1 system provides the driving force. A single bevel gear is located at the front end of the compressor shaft; meshes with a planetary gear train housed in the inlet housing This gear train transmits N1 power through two drive shafts: one to the starter gearbox, the other to the accessory gearbox to drive the idler system. A gear located on the output power shaft interconnects with the 90 angle gear in the output shaft support housing. The gears drive the N2 section of the accessory gear train.
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The N2 driven overspeed governor in the fuel control is driven from a spur gear. This gear is attached to the N2 system drive shaft which rotates on a ball bearing with a pad, located at the 6 o'clock position on the inlet housing Customer power extraction is provided through the vertical bevel pinion gear located within the accessory gear carrier. It is available for use by inserting a customer-supplied drive shaft in its internal splines. The accessory drive gearbox supplies mounting pads for the engine-supporting accessories and provides the transmission capability to drive these components. Dimensional standardization permits interchanging components among engines and eliminates the need for adapters for test equipment. GENERAL ELECTRIC T-701 The accessory module mounts on the cold section module at the 12 o'clock position of the main frame (Figures 8-3, 8-4). It includes the accessory drive gearbox (AGB) that is driven by a bevel-gear system from the compressor rotor via a radial drive shaft. Several accessories are contained in or mounted on the front and rear casings of the AGB. The rear face provides drive pads for the engine starter, hydromechanical unit, inlet separator blower, and a face-ported pad for the overspeed and drain valve. Pads for the alternator and fuel boost pump are on the front face. A cavity is provided for the lube and scavenge pump and chip detector. Pads are supplied for the oil cooler, fuel meter, and lube filter. Cored passages in the AGB housing convey fuel and oil between components.

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Drive pad seals for the starter, hydromechanical unit, and fuel boost pump drain into a common cored passage in the AGB housing. It then drains to an external port on the right-hand side of the mainframe. ACCESSORY DRIVES Accessory Drive System The accessory drive system provides drives for both the N1 driven accessory gearbox and the N2 driven overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly. Provision is also made within the system for the drive of customer-furnished accessories through the power takeoff pad located at the 2 o'clock position on the engine inlet housing (Figure 8-5).

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N1 drive is provided from a pinion gear (9) mounted on the forward end of the compressor rotor shaft, driving two bevel gears (10 and 19) located within the accessory gear carrier. The bevel gear located at the 6 o'clock position within the carrier, being the accessory gearbox drive gear (10), is splined internally to accept the accessory gearbox shaft (18). This drive shaft connects the gear carrier to the accessory gearbox through the 90 pinion gear (16) which in turn is splined directly to the starter-generator drive gear (15). The starter-generator drive gear provides drive to all subordinate gears located with the accessory gearbox housing. The power take-off drive is provided through the second bevel gear (19) located within the accessory gear carrier and is used to drive airframe accessories. The N2-driven overspeed governor and tachometer drive gearbox (1) receives its drive from a spur gear (20) pressed to the power shaft aft of the sun gear. This gear engages the N2 drive and driven gear package (8) located within the accessory gear carrier. This package, a series of three gears, provides an internal spline drive for the drive shaft (2) which passes up through the 10 o'clock inlet housing strut and into the gearbox (l). The drive shaft then engages the internal splines of the upper drive gear (3) which provides drive to the tachometer gear (5). This gear meshes directly with an idler gear (6) which in turn transmits the drive to the combination torquemeter boost pump and overspeed governor drive gear (7). Main Accessory Drive Gearbox The accessory drive gearbox (Figure 8-6) is mounted at the 6 o'clock position of the engine inlet housing and is driven through bevel gears from the front end of the compressor rotor. Drive pads are provided on the rear of the gearbox for the fuel control, the starter-generator, and the gas producer (nI) tachometer generator. The gearbox front side has mounting for the rotary oil pump and also has an unused drive pad with connection line. Oil scavenge lines are connected at the right rear on the gearbox which serves as an oil collector sump, kept practically empty by the pump. A chip detector plug is located in the lower right side, and the oil filter is on the left side. A drain line from the inlet guide vane actuator is connected to the right side.

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Power and Accessory Gearbox The main power and accessory drive gear trains are enclosed in a single gear case. The gear case serves as the structural support of the engine. All engine components, including the engine-mounted accessories, are attached to the case. At 100 percent engine speed, reduction gearing reduces power turbine speed from 33,290 to 6016 RPM at the output drive pads. The power turbine gear train has a torquemeter to measure engine output torque. Accessories driven by the power turbine gear train are the power turbine tachometer-generator (N2) and the power turbine governor. The gas producer gear train drives the oil pump, fuel pump, gas producer fuel control, and tachometer-generator (N1). The gearbox has a spare accessory mounting pad which is driven by the gas producer gear train. During starting the startergenerator cranks the engine through the gas producer gear train. After completion of the starting cycle, the starter-generator functions as a generator. STARTERS Gas turbine engines are started by rotating the compressor. In the case of dual axial-flow compressor engines, the high-pressure compressor is usually the only one rotated by the starter. First, compressor accelerates to provide sufficient air under pressure to support combustion in the burners. Second, after fuel is introduced and the engine is fired, starter continues to assist the engine above the self-sustaining speed. The torque must be in excess of that required to overcome rotor inertia and engine friction and air loads. Basic types of starters developed for gas turbine engines are air turbine (pneumatic), electric motor, hydraulic, combustion, and cartridge pneumatic. Air turbine starters are the most commonly used. Smaller
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engines generally use electric starters. Hydraulic starters are frequently found in helicopters and some marine gas turbine installations. Combustion and cartridge-pneumatic starters are generally special application devices that may require a self-contained starting system. An impingement starting system is sometimes used An impingement starter consists of simple jets of compressed air piped to the inside of the compressor or turbine case. The jet air blast is directed onto the compressor or turbine rotor blades and causes them to rotate. As the starter accelerates the compressor sufficiently to establish airflow through the engine, the ignition and then the fuel are turned on. The exact sequence of the starting procedure is important. There must be sufficient airflow through the engine to support combustion when the fuel-air mixture is ignited The fuel flow rate will not be sufficient to enable the engine to accelerate until after the self-sustaining or selfaccelerating speed has been reached If assistance from the starter were cut-off below the self-sustaining speed, the engine would either fail to accelerate to idle speed or decelerate. Deceleration occurs because sufficient energy was not produced to sustain rotation or acceleration during the initial phase of the starting cycle. The starter must continue to assist the engine above the self-staining speed to avoid a delay in the starting cycle. This would result in a hot or hung (false) start, or a combination of both. In a hot start, the engine lights up, but the exhaust gas temperature exceeds that allowed for an engine start. In hung or false start the engine lights up normally but, instead of increasing to idle speed, the RPM remains at some lower value. At the proper points in the sequence, the starter and the ignition cut off. The higher the RPM before the starter cuts out, the shorter the total time required for the engine to attain idle RPM. The engine and starter work together to furnish the torque necessary for engine acceleration. The most important requirement of a starter is to produce sufficient torque to start the engine properly. Engines must be rotated and accelerated above a certain minimum rate if consistently good starts are to be achieved. The torque characteristics of an acceptable starter must be well above the required minimum. Air Turbine Air-turbine starters (which are also called pneumatic starters) are used more than any other for starting jet aircraft engines, particularly larger engines (Figure 8-7). A small geared air turbine is attached to the engine starter pad located at the accessory drive gearbox. Air-turbine starters must receive compressed air from an external power source. A compressor mounted on a ground unit or on-board the aircraft is one such source. A small turbine engine usually drives these units. On multiengine aircraft, air is often bled from the first engine started and used to operate the starters for the remaining engines. With an air-turbine starter, the air supply must be of sufficient volume and pressure to meet starter requirements. Otherwise, the starter torque may not produce consistently successful starts within an acceptable time limit. When bled air from another operating engine is used, the engine being used for a compressed air supply must be turning over fast enough to ensure adequate air pressure to the starter of the engine being started .

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Still another form of pneumatic starter is when the starter itself is part of the ground power unit. The end of a flexible shaft from the starter is placed in a connection box on the engine to turn the compressor. When the engine starts, the flexible shaft is removed This type starter might be used on small gas turbine engines. It might also be used on a gas turbine engine for a missile or where airborne weight must be held to the minimum. Combustion A combustion starter is essentially a small turbo shaft gas turbine engine (Figure 8-8). Its chief advantages are quick starts because of the high torque produced and portability. The complete starting system may be carried aboard the aircraft. This starter obtains its power from hot expanding gases. These gases are generated in the starter combustion chamber. They occur by burning a combustible mixture either fuel, air, or monopropellant. A monopropellant is a specially compounded solid or liquid slow-burning substance.

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GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

The quantity of fuel or monopropellant required by the starter is proportional to the length of time the starter is operating. Aircraft weight and size limitations require that the quantity of fuel or monopropellant be held to a minimum in an airborne, combustion-starter system. The starter burning time must be held to a minimum. This is determined by the starter torque and the starter cutout speed. The starter cutout speed depends on the self-sustaining speed of the engine. The self-sustaining speed determines, to a large extent, the amount of fuel or monopropellant required. Ordinarily, sufficient fuel or monopropellant to provide a minimum of two starts will be carried aboard the aircraft. Some combustion starters operate as simple air turbines. When an outside air source from a ground unit or another engine which is already started is connected to the starter, the combustion starter functions as a pneumatic starter. Cartridge Pneumatic A cartridge-pneumatic starter is a combustion starter that operates from monopropellant contained in a cartridge. Prior to starting, the monopropellant cartridge is inserted in the starter. Like a regular combustion starter, a cartridge starter fires electrically from a switch in the aircraft. Cartridge-pneumatic starters can be operated as pneumatic starters when provided with outside air. Electric Starting Direct cranking and starter generator are the two electric starting systems for gas turbine aircraft (Figure 89).

Direct-cranking electric starting systems are similar to those used on reciprocating engines. Startergenerator starting systems are also similar to direct-cranking electrical systems. Electrically, the two systems may be identical. But the starter generator is permanently engaged with the engine shaft through the necessary drive gears. The direct-cranking starter must use some means of disengaging the starter from the shaft after the engine has started.
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GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

Direct-Cranking Gas Turbine Starters. On some gas turbine engines, no overload release clutch or gear reduction mechanism is used. This is because of the low-torque and high-speed requirement for starting. A reduced voltage mechanism is used, however, in the starting assembly during starting. Starter-Generator Starting System. Many gas turbine aircraft are equipped with starter-generator systems. These starting systems use a combination starter-generator which operates as a starter motor to drive the engine during starting. After the engine reaches a self-sustaining speed, the starting system operates as a generator to supply the electrical system power. The starter-generator unit is basically a shunt generator with an additional heavy series winding. This series winding is electrically connected to produce a strong field and a resulting high torque for starting. Startgenerator units are desirable from an economical standpoint. One unit can perform the function of both starter and generator. Additionally, the total weight of starting system components is reduced, and fewer spare parts required. Engine starting: It all depends on the engine. Some engines are more automated than others. Here is a typical start sequence for a "classic" jet engine: 1) a start valve is opened to provide bleed air (from an APU, ground power source, or another engine that is running) to an air turbine starter. The air turbine starter is connected to the compressor spool, which turns and compresses the air. The speed of this spool is known as N1. When the N1 reaches a certain speed, ignitors are turned on (usually automatically) and fuel is introduced by the pilot (sometimes automatically). Combustion takes place shortly after this sequence. After combustion, the engine becomes "self-sustaining," meaning that the power turbine section can turn the compressor section without the air turbine starter. The engine start sequence is complete when the engine indications are stabilized and the generators are brought on-line. In aircraft such as the ERJ-145, the entire start sequence is automated - it only requires you to turn the start knob N1, N2, Ng - different names, same thing. It's the gas generator RPM. Large turbines almost exclusively use an air starter, as described. Smaller turbines can use electrical starters. Sometimes, this is achieved by running the generator 'in reverse'. A less common method are hydraulic starters, where a hydraulically driven engine does the initial cranking. Again, often this is a hydraulic pump going 'in reverse'. On military engines which have to be startable without depending on external air sources etc. you might see cartridge starters or iso-propyl-nitrate starters, where the combustion gases from IPN in a chamber or a cartridge are sent through a turbine to crank the engine.

THRUST REVERSER OVERSTOW In order to arm the thrust reversers, the aircraft squat switches must be in the ground mode (aircraft weight on the main gear), the main thrust levers must be in the IDLE position, andARMmust be selected on the control panel. Once armed, the thrust reversers maybe deployed and stowed by operating the reverse thrust levers . When the deploy cycle is initiated, hydraulic pressure is applied to the stow side of the door actuators which move the doors into an overstowed condition. Over stowing the thrust reversers allows the latch actuators to release the latches. After the latches release, hydraulic pressure is applied to the deploy side of the door actuators which push the doors open. When stow is selected, hydraulic pressure is
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GAS TURBINE NOTES


JOHN BLACKBURN ATKINS 2012

applied to the stow side of the door actuators and the doors move towards the overstow position. As the doors reach overstow, the spring-loaded latches close. When the latches close, the latch position switches signal the selector valve to release the stow pressure on the door actuator. Exhaust gas pressure and springs return the doors to the normal stowed position. Each thrust reverser system incorporates an automatic emergency stow feature which will automatically stow the thrust reverser in the event the associated doors become partially unlatched or deployed. When deploy has not been selected and two latch position switches on the same side (inboard or outboard) detect an unlatched condition, the thrust reverser system will arm itself, retard engine thrust to idle, and initiate thrust reverser stow. The associated ARM annunciator will illuminate to indicate the system has self-armed. The associated DEPLOY annunciator will flash to indicate automatic emergency stow has been activated. The affected engine's thrust lever will go to the IDLE position. The hydraulic stow pressure will continue until at least one of the two latches returns to the latched position or power is removed from the reverser circuits. An automatic throttle retard mechanism is installed on each thrust reverser to ensure that thrust reverser stow and deploy does not occur with an engine thrust setting above idle. The throttle retard mechanism consists of an actuator, crank, and lever. Whenever hydraulic stow pressure is applied to the thrust reverser actuators, the throttle retard mechanism will position the engine fuel control input shaft to idle. When hydraulic stow pressure is removed, the mechanism will return to a neutral position . Hydraulic stow pressure is applied during the initial stage of the deploy sequence (overstow), throughout the stow sequence, and during automatic emergency stow.

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