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SERIES 1900 - PROTECTION OF STEELWORK AGAINST CORROSION PAGE REVISION STATUS DATE UPDATED:21 June 1996 Page S19/ i ii iii Rev Page S19/ Rev Page S19/ Rev Page S19/ Rev Page S19/ Rev

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1900 - PROTECTION OF STEELWORK AGAINST CORROSION 1901 GENERAL 1. All permanent steelwork including steel parapets and bolts, washers and nuts, which are not galvanised and which are exposed to the atmosphere, shall be efficiently protected against corrosion by painting, unless otherwise specified elsewhere. Steelwork to be galvanised shall be protected in accordance with Clause 1909. Before commencing painting the Contractor shall submit to the Employers Representative the Manufacturer's Certificates for each consignment of paint or paint material delivered to the Site. Such Manufacturer's Certificates shall certify that the paint or paint material complied with the relevant requirements and in addition shall give: i. ii. iii. iv. v. 1902 Description of Material Vendor's Reference Number Batch Number Date of Manufacture Shelf life of Material


CLEANING OF SURFACES 1. Before paint is applied to any surface other than galvanised surfaces cleaning shall be carried out as outlined below.

Blast Cleaning 2. Bare metal surfaces to be painted shall be blast cleaned in accordance with BS 4232 to second quality surface finish equivalent to Swedish Standard SA 2. Maximum grade of abrasive permitted shall be as specified in Table 2 of the above British Standard. Non-metallic abrasives shall not be permitted. The abrasive used for blasting shall be free from contamination and any recovered material shall be cleaned to the satisfaction of the Employers Representative before reuse. The maximum amplitude (peak to trough) of the blast cleaned surface shall not exceed 0.1mm. Surfaces shall be protected within 4 hours of having been blast cleaned. A sample of blast cleaned steel panel measuring not less than 150mm x 150mm x 6mm adequately protected by sealed clean polythene wrapping shall be submitted to the Employers Representative for approval before any work is put in hand. The approved sample shall then be retained by the Employers Representative inspectors for comparison with the prepared steelwork.



Mechanical Cleaning 4. Where mechanical cleaning is needed it shall be carried out by power driven tools such as carborundum grinding discs, chipping hammers and needle guns, followed by steel-wire brushing and dusting to remove all loosened material. Excessive burnishing of the metal through prolonged application of rotary wire brushes shall be avoided. Surfaces shall be protected within 4 hours of having been mechanically cleaned.

Welds and Areas Affected by Welding 5. Welds and surfaces which have been affected by welding shall be prepared for painting by the process applied to the adjoining metal.

Painted Surfaces 6. Painted surfaces shall be cleaned of all dust immediately prior to the application of further paint. Any loose paint and rust shall be removed. Areas contaminated by oil and grease shall be cleaned with white spirit. Where required by the Employers Representative, the whole surface shall then be cleaned by washing down with a solution of an approved liquid detergent followed by rinsing with clean fresh water and allowed to dry thoroughly before paint is applied.


COATINGS 1. In general paint protective coatings shall be a three coat protective system, unless the Employers Representative shall approve otherwise. All paints used in a paint system shall be compatible and be supplied by the one manufacturer. They shall be suitable for use in a tropical climate and no component of the paint system shall support fungus growth. Each coat of paint shall be of a different shade or colour from the preceding coat. When required by the Employers Representative, the Contractor shall supply prepared specimens of steel plate coated with each of the full coating systems covered by this Specification. Plates should be approximately 150mm by 150mm by 6mm thick. Surface preparation and paint application shall be carried out in accordance with this Specification. These plates shall be available as reference pieces for colour comparisons during the application of the finish coating.


Bridge Parapets 3. Etch primer shall be applied over galvanised surfaces before any other paint system is applied. The material shall be an approved two pack zinc tetroxychromate butyral etch primer, and shall be applied to give a minimum dry film thickness of 75 microns.



Vinyl primer shall consist essentially of a vehicle of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers modified by small quantities of other copolymers designed to improve workability and plasticity, and to accept overcoating with the vinyl top coat described below. The pigment shall be non-reactive and the primer shall contain inhibitive materials to prevent peeling if the top coat is abraded. Vinyl primer shall be applied to give a minimum dry film thickness of 65 microns. Vinyl top coat shall consist essentially of a vehicle which shall be a solution of vinyl resins, plasticizers and solvents. A primary ingredient shall be polyvinylchloride copolymerized with about ten percent (10%) of polyvinyl acetate. Additional small quantities of other copolymers may be added to assist adhesion and general coating performance. Pigments shall be stable, non reactive and colour permanent and shall be blended to obtain the specified colour match. Vinyl top coat shall be applied to give a minimum dry film thickness of 65 microns. The paint shall be freely working with good levelling properties and shall be of such consistency that it can be satisfactorily applied by airless spray. The paint, when applied, shall be in a uniform wet film, free of pin holes, drops, runs, bubbles, holidays, ridges, waves, laps and variations in colour. The water vapour permeability of a 100 micron thick coating supported on unglazed bond paper when prepared and tested in accordance with ASTM D 1653 shall be not greater than 0.06 grams per 25 square centimetres per 24 hours. The Contractor shall guarantee the effectiveness of the vinyl membrane. Such guarantee shall be effective from the date of issue by the Employers Representative of the Maintenance Certificate and shall provide that the protective coating system as applied shall have a minimum life of nine years or such longer life as may be nominated by the Contractor, during which time it shall be effective as a vapour barrier and shall remain uniform in colour, and consistency, free of chalking, cracking, crazing, laking, peeling and blistering except as may occur from reasonable weathering over such a period. In addition, the vinyl top coat shall be readily capable of being recoated with a similar top coat after a period of 10 years exposure following normal reasonable leaning procedures.





Steel Pipe and H Piles and Debris Rack Pipework 9. One coat of air cured ethyl silicate inorganic zinc primer having a minimum of 90% by weight metallic zinc in the dry film to a minimum dry film thickness of 75 microns shall be shop applied to all fabricated steel surfaces. Two coats of polyamine cured coal tar epoxy having tar to resin ratio of 60 to 40 to a total of 400 microns minimum dry film thickness shall be applied to all primed steel surfaces in the shop except bolts, nuts and washers which may be painted on Site after erection.



Uncoated Surfaces 11. Unless otherwise described in the Contract, surfaces which will have concrete cast against them shall be left uncoated and shall be clean and free from loose rust and scale at the time of concreting except that the shop applied system on adjoining surfaces shall be extended 25mm as marginal stripes within the contact surface. Surfaces to be riveted in contact or joined by high strength friction grip bolts shall not be painted.


STORAGE OF PAINT 1. Paint mixed on the Site shall not be mixed until the Contractor is ready to use the paint. Paint supplied in a ready mixed condition shall be bought as soon before application of the paint as is practicable. All paint shall be mixed and stored strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and as described below: Paint shall be stored in sealed containers in a lock-up store where it is not exposed to extreme temperatures. The temperature of the store shall not exceed 27C. Any special storage conditions recommended by the manufacturer shall be observed. Paint which has not been used within the shelf life period specified on the containers or within 12 months of the date of manufacture, whichever is the lesser, shall be replaced. At the end of each working period two pack primers, epoxide, vinyl PVC coatings, and paints with a limited pot life shall be discarded. Other types of paint from painters' kettles shall be returned to store and kept in sealed containers with not more than 10 percent hullage.





APPLICATION OF PAINT 1. All paint shall be supplied from store to the painters ready for application, and the addition of thinners or of any other material shall thereafter be prohibited. Any instructions given by the paint manufacturer shall be strictly followed. All painting shall be carried out by skilled painters under competent supervision. All paint shall be applied to dry surfaces which have been prepared and cleaned in accordance with Clause 1902. The interval between preparation of the metal surfaces and the application of the first priming coat of paint shall be in accordance with the requirements of Clause 1902. Before painting, all grit and dust adhering to the surfaces shall be removed.

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Paint shall not be applied when: i. ii. the relative humidity rises above 90 percent, or during rain or mist; condensation has occurred or is likely to occur on the steel.

Material painted under cover in damp weather shall remain under cover until dry or until weather conditions permit its exposure. 5. Unless otherwise agreed by the Employers Representative, each coat of paint shall be applied to produce a continuous film of paint of uniform and even thickness. As soon as the first priming coat has dried an extra stripe coat of paint shall be applied by brush to edges, corners, crevices, bolt heads, rivet heads and welds, using paint of a similar composition to the priming coat but in a contrasting shade. Successive coats shall have different shades for identification and each coat shall be thoroughly dry before the application of a further coat. The total dry paint film thickness of the paint system on bare steel surfaces and on metal coated surfaces shall not be less than the thickness specified. The dry paint film thickness shall be measured by a magnetic thickness gauge or other instrument approved by the Employers Representative. In order to obtain the dry film thickness specified, the Contractor shall ensure that the coverage rate given by the paint manufacturer will enable this thickness to be attained. Wet film thickness gauges may be used for checking but shall not be permitted as a means of predicting the dry film thickness. Unless otherwise agreed by the Employers Representative the paint system, with the exception of the finishing coat, shall be applied under cover in controlled conditions at the fabricators shop. One finishing coat shall be applied after erection on the Site as specified. No paint shall be used after the expiration of the pot life stipulated by the manufacturer, and paints of limited pot life shall not be mixed with fresh paint or have thinners added to them.



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STORAGE OF PAINTED STEELWORK 1. Painted fabricated steelwork which is to be stored prior to erection shall be kept clear of the ground and shall be laid out or stacked in an orderly manner that will ensure that no pools of water or dirt can accumulate on the surfaces. Suitable packings shall be laid between the layers of stacked materials. Where cover is provided it shall be ventilated. Primed painted steelwork which is to be stored outdoors or transported prior to fabrication or erection shall not be exposed for periods longer than those specified by the manufacturer before being overcoated.




REPAIRS TO DAMAGED SURFACES 1. Areas of paint which have been damaged during handling, storing, loading and off-loading, transportation, erection and construction shall be cleaned to bare metal, metal coating where this has been applied, and the edges of the undamaged paint bevelled with sandpaper. Where a metal coating has been damaged, the affected area shall be rubbed down to remove excessive roughness, cleaned and an additional coat of similar primer applied. The full specified painting system shall then be reapplied and the new paint shall overlap the existing paint by at least 50mm all round the affected part.



ADHESION OF PAINT COATING 1. The adhesion of the complete coating when applied as specified shall be continuous over the whole surface and shall be such that the coating cannot be peeled from the surface of the specimen or separated between coats when tested in the following manner: two parallel knife cuts about 1.5mm apart and 50mm long shall be scribed through the coating to the base metal. The strip so formed shall then be undercut to the base metal at one end with a sharp knife. The loosened end shall be held between the knife blade and a finger and a slow steady upward pull exerted on the paint strip normal to the coated surface. Any lifting of the strip either at the metal-paint interface or within the paint film shall be interpreted as failure to comply with adhesion or cohesion requirements.


GALVANISED PROTECTION SYSTEM EXTERIOR CATEGORY 1. Bare metal surfaces to be galvanised shall be blast cleaned in accordance with BS 4232 and Clause 1902 above to second quality surface finish equivalent to Swedish Standard SA 2. Steelwork shall be hot dipped galvanised, 140 microns thick to BS 729. A T Wash or proprietary equivalent shall be applied to the surface of the galvanised steel. The T Wash shall not be allowed to pool on horizontal surfaces. Sufficient time, as recommended by supplier, shall be allowed for the T Wash to reach and dry thoroughly before applying first coat of paint. Any white salt formed by the exposure to the T Washed surface shall be removed before painting using a stiff brush. If the T Washed surface becomes contaminated then it shall be cleaned in accordance with supplier recommendations. A single coasting of High Build paint of 150 micron dry film thickness shall be applied in the paint shop. A final finish single coat of a polyurethane recoatable finish of 50 microns dry film thickness shall be applied after erection. The colour of the finish shall be

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agreed with the Employers Representative. 6. 7. Details of the proposed High Build coating and polyurethane recoatable finish shall be submitted to the Employers Representative for approval prior to use. All bolts, nuts and washers for galvanised steelwork structures shall be galvanised to BS 729. Nuts shall be galvanised as blanks and tapped to 0.4mm oversize with threads lightly oiled. Manual metal arc welding of hot dipped galvanised steel shall be permitted. In confined areas, fume extraction equipment shall be used. Protection of welded joints shall be undertaken as soon as welding is complete in accordance with Sub-clause 1908.10 below. Reference shall be made to Clause 1903 to 1908 above for application and workmanship requirements for paint systems. Damaged areas of steelwork where the galvanised coating is affected shall be wire brushed, coated with zinc rich paint to an equivalent thickness of the original coating and then painted as noted above in this Clause.


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GALVANISED PROTECTION SYSTEM INTERIOR CATEGORY 1. Steelwork shall be hot dipped galvanised, without surface preparation, in accordance with BS 729 to obtain the following minimum coating thickness: Steel Thickness (mm) 5 2<5 1<2 2. 3. 4. Min Coating Thickness (micron) 85 65 47

For treatment of bolts, nuts and washers, refer to Clause 1909. For details of welding, refer to Clause 1909. Damaged areas of steelwork where the galvanised coating has been affected shall be wire brushed and then coated with zinc rich paint to an equivalent thickness of the original coating.