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Fatigue Failure II with Mean Stress

Professor Yee ME 154

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Learning Objectives

Explain the information communicated in a constant-life diagram (modified Goodman diagram), and be able to interpret as well as construct such a diagram from known information. Relate a constant-life diagram g to an S-N diagram. g Explain how local yielding affects the fatigue stress concentration factor. Explain how safety factors are derived from a constant-life diagram and assumptions regarding the nature of mean and alternating stresses involved. Explain how von Mises stresses are used in multi-axial fatigue analysis, and compute the mean and alternating von Mises stresses based on known applied stresses. Example: Design a mechanical component that is subject to fluctuating uniaxial loading, and satisfies imposed functional criteria while providing an acceptable safety factor against fatigue failure.

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Fluctuating Stress (review)

Fluctuating stress is a more general case of fullyreversed (zero mean stress) and repeated stress (zero minimum stress. Mean Component and Alternating Component: min + min a = max m = max 2 2

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Four Fatigue Design Categories

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Influence of Mean Stress

Fatigue strength or endurance limit is observed to be increased by the presence of compressive mean stress, and reduced by the presence of tensile mean stress. Same observation occurs whether the mean stress is applied or residual, so creating residual compressive stress is an opportunity for improving resistance to fatigue.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Combined Mean and Alternating Stress

(This example for steels at 107-108 cycles).

Presence of a mean-stress component causes failure at a lower alternating stress than in fully-reversed loading. Data tends to be enveloped between a fitted Gerber line (parabolic) and a Goodman line (linear), where the latter is more conservative.

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Failure Lines for Fluctuating Stresses

Thresholds are sourced from actual data, and several characteristic lines may be used to approximate. The (modified) Goodman line is a good intermediate level of conservativeness, and has the equation, where S* in the equation is Se or Sf, depending on the type of material behavior.

m
Sut

a
S*

=1

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Relating Constant-Life Diagram to S-N Diagram

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Local Yielding Under Fluctuating Stress

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Mean Stress Fatigue Concentration Factor Kfm


Where (d), (e), and (f) correspond to the conditions in the previous slide

The fatigue stress concentration factor (formerly Kf) may actually have a lower value if there is local yielding. If the stress range is such that local yielding is completely reversed, the effect of mean stress is not considered to play a role in modifying applied stress.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

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Nominal, Maximum, Mean, and Alternating Stress

Basis stress-strain analysis uses nominal stress values, and treats nominal mean stress (m)nom separately from nominal alternating stress (a)nom. However, maximum applied stress max affects what model is best suited for determining Kfm, the fatigue stress concentration factor adjusted for mean stress.
It may help to minimize confusion never to use the notation (max)nom , which simply refers f to the h maximum i stress that h is i not yet adjusted for stress concentration factor.

Only after adjusting for stress concentration factor is the nominal concept dropped.

a = K f ( a ) nom

m = K fm ( m ) nom
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

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Von Mises Stress (review)

Von Mises stress is the effective uniaxial tensile stress that would create the same distortion energy as the actual combination of applied stresses.
2 2 ' = 12 + 2 +3 1 2 2 3 3 1
2 2 2 + yz + zx ( x y ) 2 + ( y z ) 2 + ( z x ) 2 + 6( xy )

'=

This conveniently provides a single number for evaluating a sort of net result for any particular stress element, based on the distortion-energy theory for ductile materials.

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis

The most significant difference in analyzing multi-axial versus uni-axial fatigue is the use of von Mises stresses instead of simple uni-axial stresses. However, since i mean stress and d alternating l i stress must be b treated differently in fatigue analysis, so must they be when computing von Mises stresses.
'a = 'm =
2 2 ( xa ya ) 2 + ( ya za ) 2 + ( za xa ) 2 + 6( x + y + z2a xa ) a ya a za

2
2 2 ( xm ym ) 2 + ( ym zm ) 2 + ( zm xm ) 2 + 6( x + y + z2m xm ) m ym m zm

Except in the simple case of uniaxial fatigue, it is the von Mises stresses that should be used in safety factor calculations.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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Design Against Fluctuating Fatigue Example

In Class Problem: Design a solid steel bar with round cross-section to support a 8,000 lb static preload and superimposed with a tensile fluctuating axial load from 0 lb to 16,000 lb, for one billion cycles (infinite life) with a safety factor of 2. Material properties: Syield = 84,000 psi Sult = 100,000 100 000 psi Se = 16,600 psi

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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Designing for HCF: fluctuating uniaxial stresses

Fatigue failure

Gerber parabola:

2 m Sa = S e 1 2 ut

( (Fits experimental p data: useful to study failed parts)

Modified-Goodman line: Soderberg line:

Sa = S e 1 m ut

(Conservative theory)

m Sa = S e 1 y

(Overly conservative theory)


San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Safety Factor with Fluctuating Stresses

Safety factor for fluctuating stress considers the predicted in-service scenario. It is most intuitively evident on a Modified Goodman Diagram as the ratio of the distance to the most-likely failure point to the magnitude of the given stress state
1. 2. 3. 4. Only m varies: Only l a varies: i Both m and a vary in proportion Both m and a vary independently

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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Safety Factor with Fluctuating Stresses

Nf =

Sy a 1 m Sy

Nf =

Sf m 1 Sut

Note: actually use von Mises stresses. Apostrophe omitted for simplicity.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

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Safety Factor with Fluctuating Stresses

Nf =

S f Sut

a Sut + m S f

Nf =

2 2 a +m +

( m ( m ) nearest )2 + ( a ( a ) nearest )2
2 2 a +m

Note: actually use von Mises stresses. Apostrophe omitted for simplicity.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

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Design Against Fluctuating Fatigue Example from the book

Design a cantilever bracket to support a fluctuating bending load from 100-lb to 1100 lb, for one billion cycles with a safety factor of at least 2.

Reference: Machine Design, 4th ed. by R. L. Norton, 2011, Prentice-Hall

San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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Designing Against High-Cycle Fatigue


1.

Predict expected number of cycles N. Predict all mean and alternating loads that would be encountered. Select tentative geometric dimensions, while trying to minimize stress concentrations. Determine any geometric stress concentration factors Kt (or Kts for shear). Select tentative material and reference available data such as Sut, Sy, Se, Sf. Reference notch sensitivity q and calculate fatigue concentration factor Kf.

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2.

Evaluate most severe stress locations and calculate nominal applied stresses, and modify with stress concentration factors. Calculate principle stresses and von Mises effective stresses. Determine all appropriate fatigue strength modifiers C. Calculate corrected fatigue strength Sf or endurance limit Se. Plot graphically on Modified Goodman Diagram Diagram. Calculate safety factor Nf based on corrected fatigue strength and von Mises stresses. Evaluate and iterate as needed.
San Jos State University | Dr. Yee | Spring 2012

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