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[MUSIC] Hi, let's talk about functions now. So, in particular, let's talk about what it means to be a function.

Now, when I'm trying to explain a relatively abstract, concept to somebody, I find it's best to have an example underlying all the discussion. So we'll do that, my example is going to involve my cat Roxie. Let's see a picture of Roxie. Roxie's a really beautiful cat, and we're going to use Roxie to help us understand what a function is. So here is a question. How old is Roxy? Now, I'm sure you're saying to yourself, Bart. Don't you know how old your own cat is? And the answer is yes, I do. She's 1.3 human years old. But as we know, cats develop at a different rate than humans. When they, they grow up much faster. And so, being 1.3 human years old is really different for a cat, and so the real question is, how old is Roxy in cat years? To answer this question, we're going to use a function, and I hope that the process of answering this question is going to show us what a function is. So a function is a relationship between two different quantities. In our case it's human years and cat years. And what we want, we know how many human years Roxie is old, and we want a map that goes to cat years, and we're going to call this f. For function, and it's going to be a function, as we're going to see. And, you may ask yourself, OK, so that's great, Bart /g, we have human years over here and we have cat years over here, but, how, how does f actually do the conversion from human years to cat years? How does it work exactly? Well, You're not going to like this. But it's not real important right now. It's just, that's not the important issue. The important issue is that, for every human year, it gets mapped to a single cat year.

So this is one key point about functions. Functions have inputs and they have outputs. The inputs are called the domain. And the outputs are called the range. Let's see this mapping in action. So here we have, three human years. We want to convert these to cat years, so what we're going to do is we're going to write f. That means we're going to apply our function, we're going to write some parentheses, we're going to hug three with our parentheses, and then do some magic, wooo. Whoa. That turned into 28 cat years. So the function mapped three human years to 28 cat years. Let's see this done again, let's see another example. So now we have nine human years, and we're going to apply our function. We're going to write f for applying our function, and we're going to hug the nine with the parentheses. And here we go, we're going to go woooo and then And we see that it's 52 cat years. So 9 human years maps to 52 cat years. We could repeat this process again and again, and we would get this table. And again, on the left, we have the domain, or the inputs, and on the right, we have the range, or the outputs. And this is what our function does. Our function is a mapping between human years and cat years, so that for every input there's a single output. Now, I know you guys have all seen functions before, and you've made tables like this before. And when you see a table like this, I think think that you want to plot it. And you know what? I'm no different. I want to plot it, too. So let's go ahead and plot this table. So here we have our table, and it's all plotted. the first thing I should point out is that if a cat is zero human years old, then it's zero cat years old, so we should go ahead and mark that point. And now, I don't know about you, but I

just can't help myself. I want to connect the dots. So let's go ahead and do it. Let's connect the dots. Here I am, connecting the dots. Looking good. Looking good. Okay, now look at this. These are all basically in a straight line at this point. So here we have a, sort of a graph of the cat years to human years. Given that Roxie is 1.3 human years old, can we use this plot to help us find out how old Roxie is in cat years? Well, it's kind of hard. I mean, I drew the plot kind of rough. So it would just be an estimate. To do a better job, we would really need a formula, and I have a formula for our table's values. Let's see this. So, here we have a possible formula for f of x. And this is a little bit strange. F of x is a piece wise function. So f of x equals 15x if zero is less than or equal to x is less than 1. And if we look at the plot, we can see this. Here it is. This is the 15 x part right here. F of x equals 9x plus 6, if 1 is less than or equal to x, is less than 2. And we can see this as well. Here we go. That's this part right here. And, f of x equals 4x plus 16 if two is less than or equal to x. Alright, that's this part of the graph. Now remember, Roxy is 1.3 human years old, so that's this formula here. So let's go to the next page, and we see that f of x is equal to 9x plus six. If 1 is less than or equal to x, less than 2. And so, we're going to have f of, how old is she? She's 1.3 human years old. So that's going to equal, 9 times 1.3 plus 6, and doing the arithmetic, we see that this is equal to 17.7 cat years. So this is great, now we know that Roxy, a

cat who's 1.3 human years old, is in fact 17.7 cat years old. And we used a function to do this. So, what's the deal with functions? First of all, they're a map. In this case, it was a map from human years to cat years. Second, the map takes every input to exactly one output. Along the way we've looked at both a plot and a formula for f or x. A formula and a plot are merely descriptions for relations that may or may not be functions. A function is a map Such that for every input there's exactly one output. [MUSIC]