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THE POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

a) Supply Projection: The total installed capacity under utilities in India increased to 1,01,630 MW in 2000-01 from 97,845 MW in 1999-00 (72,359 MW thermal, 25,142 MW hydel, 2,860 MW nuclear and 1,269 MW wind power). There was a corresponding increase in electricity generation to 4,99,450 million units (MU) from 4,80,000 MU recorded in 1999-00 (4,08,208 MU thermal, 74,346 MU hydel, and 16,896 nuclear energy). The overall annual plant load factor (PLF) of thermal stations was 69 per cent as compared to 67.3 per cent in 199900. The per capita consumption for 2000-01 was estimated to be 374 kWh. As on 2000-01, over 5,08,077 villages had been electrified out of 5,87,258 villages. (source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA). b) Demand Projection: The peak demand met was 67,880 MW and the energy availability was 4,67,000 MU against the requirement of 78,037 MW and 5,07,000 MU, respectively. Thus, there was a shortage of 13 per cent in meeting the peak demand and 7.8 per cent in energy for 2000-01. A realistic assessment of energy and peak power requirements is vital for planning and operation of the electricity system in India. According to the 16th Electric Power Survey (EPS), the all-India peak demand would be about 85,132, 1,15,705, 1,57,107, and 2,12,725 MW by the end of the Ninth (20001-02), Tenth (2006-07), Eleventh (2011-12) and Twelfth (2016-17) Five-Year Plan, respectively. The corresponding energy requirements would be 5,29,013, 7,19,097, 975222, and 1318 644 MU, respectively. Compared to the 15th EPS projections, these are less by about one per cent in peak demand and seven per cent to eight per cent in energy requirement. c) Energy Consumption Pattern in India The sector-wise energy consumption at national level has been presented in Fig-1 below:
Fig-1: SECTOR-WISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION

12% 5% 21% 31% 31%

Industry Agriculture Domestic Commercial Others

The industrial sector consumes nearly 31 per cent of the total commercial energy available in India. This is basically due to the fact that Indian industries are often energy inefficient and have least concern for energy conservation. Hence, experts believe substantial saving potential (nearly 30 per cent) through retrofitting is possible in this sector. Nearly 20,000 to 25,000 MW equivalent of capacity creation (Note: Please check this sentence-is it 25,000 NW) (Negawatt or NW energy made available by way of saving of energy) through energy efficiency measures in the electricity sector alone has been estimated in India. AT A GLANCE: Installed capacity as on March 31, 2001 was 1,01,630 MW, of which 71 per cent was thermal, 25 per cent hydel, three per cent nuclear and one per cent wind. Till January 31, 2001, 25 private sector projects had been commissioned with total installed capacity of 5,370 MW. In 2000-01, 499.45 billion units of power were generated. Energy deficits were estimated at 7.8 per cent and peak deficit at 13 per cent. Per capita consumption of electricity is estimated at 374 kWh. Capacity additions envisaged during the Ninth Five Year Plan is 40,245 MW, of which 73 per cent is thermal, 25 per cent hydro, and two per cent nuclear, but the rate of additions has been below target so far. Transmission and distribution losses are reported at 23 per cent on an average. These losses are being reassessed, and it is evident that actual losses are much higher than reported losses. Power tariffs vary widely between states and between consumer categories. In 2000-01, the overall average tariff for the state electricity boards was Rs. 2.12/kWh, which covered just 69.8 per cent of the average of cost of supply.

ENERGY SCENARIO OF MAHARASHTRA a) Power Supply and Consumption Position in Maharashtra Maharashtra is the largest power generating state in India with the largest electricity system capacity. As on March 31, 2003, the installed capacity in Maharashtra is 15,208 MW, which is about 14 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. The state is generating around 3,500 MU to 4,000 MU per month. The main source of power generation in Maharashtra is fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. A little is being contributed by the hydro and nuclear energy sources. Fuel-wise installed capacity in Maharashtra is given below. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fuel Coal Natural Gas Hydro Wind Nuclear Total Capacity, MW In per cent 9,414 2,224 2,874 399 297 15,208 61.9 14.6 18.9 2.6 2.0 100

Source: Ministry of Power, Annual Report 2002-03.

As per the above table, fossil fuels viz. coal and natural gas constitute 76.5 per cent of the total installed capacity and hydro comprise only 18.9 per cent. In the above table, share from other sources such as cogeneration is not included due to their small contribution. As of March 31, 2002, the total installed capacity of power in Maharashtra was 14,420 MW. Power generation in the state increased in 2001-02 by 6.72 per cent as compared to 2000-01 These figures take into account the contribution of agencies like Tata Power Company Ltd., BSES Ltd. and Dabhol Power Company (DPC).

S.N. 1 2 2 3 4

ITEM

INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)

MSEB 9,771* DPC(IPP) (*) 728 TATA Power 1,774 BSES 500 Central Share for Maharashtra (NTPC & NPC) 2,375 TOTAL 15,148 *INCLUSIVE OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PROJECTS (*) DPC -728 MW IS NOT AVAILABLE FROM MAY 29, 2001 AND HENCE INSTALLED CAPACITY IS 14420 MW

The annual energy consumption of electricity per person in the state is considerably higher at 667 KWh than the national average of 374 KWh and is growing constantly. Electricity Generation Pattern in Maharashtra during 2001-02 Category MUs Thermal 53,887 (Steam) Gas 2,740 W.H.R. 1,255 Nuclear 1,138 Hydro Total 4,979 63,999 In per cent 84.20 4.28 1.96 1.78 7.78 100.00

Electrical Energy Utilisation Pattern for Maharashtra during 2001-02 CATEGORY Industrial Agricultural Street Light Domestic Commercial Railways Miscellaneous Interstate Total MUs 17,435.1 87,30.2 648.0 11,901.1 4,393.1 1,639.5 1,590.8 62.4 46,400.2 In per cent 37.58 18.82 1.40 25.65 9.47 3.53 3.43 0.13 100.00

Presently, we are facing shortfall of 2,500 MW in Maharashtra state. In order to match the demand, new capacity additions to the tune of about 12,500 MW are slated to come up over the next two Five Year Plans. The state is facing severe power deficit and energy shortage. As per the data published by CEA, the power deficit is as high as 19.8 per cent or 2,718 MW against a peak demand of 13,697 MW and 13.4 per cent energy shortage or 11,680 million units during the period 2002-03. This shortfall is so significant that the state cannot ignore the power supply position from the perspective of development.

b)

Growth in the energy demand in Maharashtra: In the 16th Electric Power Survey, the CEA has projected an average growth rate of 5.9 per cent for the period ending 2017 for Maharashtra.. Details of energy growth and capacity requirement up to the end of 12th Five Year Plan is given below. Plan Period Energy requirement (MkWh) Peak Load (MW) Growth Rate(per cent) Average growth rate (per cent) 2001-02 79,593 12,472 7.43 2006-07 2011-12 2016-17 1,06,892 1,42,911 1,90,167 16,716 22,348 29,738 6.03 5.98 5.88 5.95

Source: 16th Electric Power Survey

As indicated above, the present peak demand is 13,697 MW and only 10,979 MW is met during the period 2002-03. Including the present deficit and projected growth rate, about 18,759 MW shall be added till the end of 12th Plan Period. Considering the immediate requirements of energy and till the end of the present 10th Plan Period of 2006-07, about 5,737 MW shall be installed during the next four years. Another 5,632 MW shall be added during 11th Plan period ending 2012.