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KERAJAAN MELAYU BARU

Disusun Oleh : PN. HJH. ROSIAH BT. HASAN

Sumber Rujukan dan Penghargaan: Sejarah Tingkatan 1 DBP Gred A Sejarah KBSM Tingkatan 1 2 3 Cerdik Publications Encarta Encyclopedia Rujukan Internet

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8.2 KERAJAAN MELAYU BARU

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1. KELANTAN

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i. Asal Usul Nama Kelantan a. Sejarawan China, Shen Yau Ho-lo-tan/Kuo-lo-tan b. Gerini (pengarang Researches on Ptolemys Geography of Eastern Asia) gabungan dua perkataan: kolam tanah autam sempadan Kolam Tanah Kolantam - Kelantan

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ii. Pemerintahan Awal a. Diperintah oleh beberapa orang raja di daerah yang berasingan. b. Kelantan berjaya disatukan oleh Long Yunus. c. Long Yunus memindahkan ibu kota Kelantan dari Kota Kubang Labu ke Kota Bharu.

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iii Ancaman Luar zaman Long Yunus a. Long Yunus menghadapi pertikaian dengan Sultan Terengganu. b. 1794, Terengganu serang Kelantan. c. Selepas kemangkatan Long Yunus, Terengganu terus menyerang Kelantan 1795 dan 1800. d. Terengganu menerima bantuan dari Patani Kelantan tewas.

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iv. Ancaman Luar Zaman Long Muhammad a. 1801, Long Muhammad putera Long Yunus menyerang balas dari Ulu Kelantan. b. Berjaya kalahkan Terengganu c. Isytihar diri sebagai Sultan Muhammad I.

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v. Hubungan dengan Siam a. Sultan Muhammad I menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan Siam demi kemakmuran Kelantan. b. Kelantan hantar bunga emas 3 kali setahun ke Siam. Siam membalas dengan pelbagai hadiah berharga. c. Impak dari hubungan ini Terengganu tida mengganggu Kelantan lagi. d. Kelantan terus menjadi negeri naugan Siam hingga tahun 1909 apabila Kelantan menjadi negeri naungan Inggeris pula.
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vi. Keistimewaan Kelantan a. Kelantan terletak di tengah perjalanan perdagangan timur dan barat. b. Kuala Sungai Kelantan disinggahi oleh pedagang yang dalam perjalanan ke Teluk Siam, Kemboja dan China. c. Kelantan menggunakan mata wang emas yang dipanggil dinar dan wang pitis. d. Negeri ini juga dikenali sebagai negeri Cik Siti Wan Kembang
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2. TERENGGANU

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i. Asal Usul Nama Terengganu a. Sultan Umar , Sultan Terengganu 9 Taring Anu. Anu merujuk kapada Harimau. b. Catatan China (Wang Ta Yuan) Tong Ya Nong dan Teng Ya Nung

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ii. Pemerintahan Awal a. Tun Zainal Abidin Paduka Maharaja, keluarga Bendahara Pahang dan Patani dilantik menjadi sultan dengan gelaran Sultan Zainal Abidin 1. b. Baginda dilantik oleh sultan Johor Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah atas dasar tali persaudaraan.

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iii. Zaman Kegemilangan a. Ketika pemerintahan sultan yang kedua iaitu Sultan Mansor Shah 1. b. Terengganu menjadi pelabuhan pedalaman yang terpenting di Kepulauan Melayu. c. Barangan dagang lada hitam, emas dan bijih timah. d. Sultan melibatkan diri dalam perdagangan dengan melantik wakil-wakil baginda untuk menjaga urusan perdagangan dalam kerajaan.
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EMAS sumber : internet


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iv. Hubungan dengan Siam a. Hubungan terjalin apabila Siam meminta bantuan Terengganu menyerang Raja Ligor 1765. b. Sultan Mansor Shah I menghantar bunga emas ke Siam dan Siam menganggap ini sebagai tanda Terengganu mengakui pertuanan Siam.

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v. Pengaruh Islam di Terengganu a. Negeri yang terawal menerima pengaruh Islam. b. Bukti: penemuan sebuah artifak tembaga purba yang bertulis ayat al-Quran bertarikh 1254M. c. Prasasti Terengganu bertarikh 702H/1303M menyebut tentang 10 dharma atau undang-undang khususnya hukum jenayah Islam yang menjelaskan pengaruh Islam di Terengganu.
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3. SELANGOR

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SUNGAI SELANGOR - Sumber : internet

i. Asal Usul Nama Selangor - Berasal dari nama Sungai Selangor

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ii. Sejarah Awal a. Pemerintahan di Selangor berasaskan kampong-kampong kecil yang bertuankan Kerajaan Melayu Melaka. b. Kerajaan Selangor sekarang berasal daripada orang Bugis yang mendirikan kawasan petempatan di Kuala Selangor dan Kuala Linggi.

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c. Daerah-daerah seperti Jeram, Klang, Langat dan Selangor (Kuala Selangor) terletak di bawah jajahan Melaka. d. Tun Perak, anak bendahara Melaka ketika itu telah dilantik menjadi penghulu Klang.

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e. Pada kurun ke 17, Melayu Bugis menetap di Kuala Selangor dan Kalang. f. Klang dikuasai oleh To Engku Klang yang berasal dari keturunan Sultan Johor yang berasal dari keluarga Bendahara. g. 1700 Orang Besar Klang menghadiahkan cop mohor kepada Yamtuan Selangor sebagai kebenaran untuk mentadbir kawasan Sungai Selangor. h. Kedudukan orang Bugis semakin mantap pada abad ke 18.
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Raja Lumu/Sultan Salehuddin Shah Mereka melantik Raja Lumu menjadi Raja Selangor. j. Raja Lumu kemudiannya ditabalkan oleh Sultan Mahmud (Perak) di Lumut dengan gelaran Sultan Salehuddin Shah.

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Sultan Ibrahim Shah k. Baginda menggantikan Sultan Salehuddin Shah. l. Baginda berjaya memajukan Selangor. m.Kemajuan Selangor terutamanya dalam pengeluaran bijih timah menyebabkan Belanda ingin menakluknya. n. Belanda menyerang Kuala Selangor. Sultan Ibrahim berundur ke Hulu Selangor, Bernam dan Pahang.

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o. Kuala Selangor ditawan semula dari Belanda dengan bantuan Pahang. p. Belanda mengepung Kuala Selangor pada 1786. Sultan Ibrahim meminta bantuan Perak. q. Selangor dan Perak menandatangani perjanjian kerjasama. r. Selepas kemangkatan Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Muhammad Shah menjadi Sultan Selangor yang baru.

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4. NEGERI SEMBILAN

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i. Negeri Sembilan bererti sembilan daerah atau luak: Sungai Ujong Rembau Jelebu Johol Ulu Muar Inas Gunung Pasir Terachi Jempul

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ii. Kemakmuran Melaka menarik minat orang Minangkabau untuk datang ke Melaka. Mereka ditempatkan di: Naning Sungai Ujong Rembau. iii. Mereka mengaku taat setia kepada Sultan Melaka yang berasal dari keturunan Melayu-Jambi.

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iv. 4 daerah yang merupakan petempatan penduduk asal Sungai Ujong Klang Jelebu Johol Daerah ini merupakan jajahan Melaka. v. Daerah-daerah ini mula menghadapi kekacauan kerana: a. Melaka jatuh ke tangan Portugis b. Pengaruh Bugis di Johor c. Kemunculan kesultanan Bugis di Selangor.

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vi. Penghulu-penghulu di daerah ini telah memohon seorang anak raja dari Johor untuk ditabalkan sebagai raja. vii. Johor tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan tersebut tetapi sebaliknya memberi kuasa kepada mereka untuk mendapatkan raja dari Pagar Ruyung.

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viii. Raja Melewar berkunjung ke Siak dan Johor untuk memohon restu sebagai raja . ix. Baginda ditabalkan pada tahun 1773 dengan gelaran Yamtuan. x. Yamtuan dari Pagar Ruyung yang terakhir ialah Raja Lenggang.

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xi. Keistimewaan Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan kaya dengan: bijih timah hasil tanah

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