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KEGIATAN EKONOMI DI NEGERI-NEGERI MELAYU

Disusun Oleh : PN. HJH. ROSIAH BT. HASAN

Sumber Rujukan dan Penghargaan: Sejarah Tingkatan 1 DBP Gred A Sejarah KBSM Tingkatan 1 2 3 Cerdik Publications Encarta Encyclopedia Rujukan Internet

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9.3 KEGIATAN EKONOMI DI NEGERI-NEGERI MELAYU

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1. PERTANIAN

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i. Jenis Tanaman - padi sawah - padi huma - sayur-sayuran -buah-buahan - ubi

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ii. Kawasan pertanian - berhampiran sungai kerana sumber air - tanah yang subur contoh: delta sungai di Kedah dan Kelantan

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iii. Peralatan: - tajak - cangkul - bajak - tenggala - kuku kambing

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TAJAK

CANGKUL

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iv. Sistem Pengairan Empangan untuk menakung air dan disalurkan ke kawasan pertanian Contoh: Terusan Wan Mat Saman di Kedah

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EMPANGAN KENYIR

EMPANGAN CHENDEROH

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2. PERIKANAN

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i. Peralatan - lukah - tangguk - bubu - tangkul ii. Hasil tangkapan : berlebihan, dijual iii. Lebihan juga: ikan kering, belacan, budu, cencaluk dan keropok

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BUDU

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KRAFTANGAN

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1. Anyaman bahan: mengkuang,nipah dan daun pandan Hasil: tikar, bakul dan tudung saji 2. Menenun songket 3. Senjata keris 4. Perhiasan emas dan perak

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PERLOMBONGAN

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i. Kaya dengan logam seperti emas dan bijih timah ii. Kawasan bijih timah: - Lembah Kinta - Larut - Dinding dan Beruas - Sungai Linggi dan Sungai Ujong - Sungai Bernam - Sungai Selangor - Sungai Klang iii. Bijih timah dilombong mendulang, melampan dan lombong Siam. iv. Kegunaan timah dagangan, mata wang dan perkakasan rumah.
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iii. Emas Kelantan, Pahang dan Terengganu iv. Emas dan perak barang perhiasan

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SISTEM PERCUKAIAN

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i. Cukai dikenakan pertanian, perlombongan, perdagangan dan hasil hutan. ii. Kepentingan cukai sumber pendapatan negara. lambang kekuasaan atas sesuatu kawasan. iii. Tempat kutipan cukai sungai iv. Cukai Labuh Batu cukai yang dikutip di tempattempat tertentu di sepanjang sungai. v. Cukai Bebas Kuala cukai yang dikutip di kuala sungai.
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vi. Cukai kepala dikenakan kepada rakyat - digunakan untuk membuat bunga emas/ufti - negeri yang mengenakan cukai kepala: Kedah Kelantan Terengganu vii. Cukai tanaman jika tanaman mengeluarkan hasil yang banyak.

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Sistem Serah i. Sebahagian hasil tanaman atau ternakan diserahkan kepada pembesar/raja. ii. Balasan untuk tanah yang disediakan Tanda kesetiaan. iii. Kadar serahan bergantung pada hasil tanaman dan ternakan yang diperoleh.

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Sistem Kerah i. Membuat sesuatu pekerjaan tanpa dibayar upah. ii. Tanda taat setia Sedia berkorban Kerjasama

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PERDAGANGAN

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i. Bermula abad ke 15 abad. ii. Pemodal pembesar dan sultan iii. Rakyat berjaja di pasar atau di luar kawasan. iv. Pusat perdagangan pelabuhan Tempat: muara sungai. Cth: Melaka, Kedah, Klang dan Johor Lama

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v. Barangan dagangan: rempah, garam, gambir, hasil tenunan, bijih timah, beras dan lada hitam. vi. Hasil hutan: kayu-kayan, rotan, damar,madu. vii. Bentuk perdagangan: Sistem barter

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MATA WANG

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i. Mata wang awal kulit siput geweng dan gerus ii. Perkembangan ekonomi mata wang logam: emas dan perak. iii. Melaka kaleng ( mata wang timah) iv. Terengganu wang emas dan kupang berbentuk segi lapan. wang syiling keping pitis jokoh ( abad ke 19)

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PITIS ZAMAN SULTAN MUZAFFAR 1446 PITIS TERENGGANU

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PITIS KELANTAN

v. Johor Mas dan kupang vi. Kelantan wang emas kijang dinar kupang pohon pitis vii. Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Selangor dan Perak: jongkong tampang timah viii. Selangor: tampang sebuaya ( jongkong timah ) ix. Kedah: Ayam jantan

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TIMBANGAN, SUKATAN DAN UKURAN

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i. Sukatan ukur isipadu sesuatu. ii. Alat tempurung kelapa, kaul, cupak dan gantang sukat: beras, bijih timah, rempah, garam dan kacang. iii. Timbangan ukur sesuatu yang berat. iv. Alat dacing dan pikul sukat: emas, perak, bijih timah dan rempah. v. Kedah: ukur luas kawasan relung vi. Untuk ukur jarak yang pendek anggota badan 1 jengkal 1 hasta 1 depa
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Unit untuk menyukat timbangan


1 kepul 1 leng 1 kal 1 cupak 1 gantang 16 tahil 1 kati 100 kati 60 kg 3 genggam 2 kepul 2 leng 4 kepul 4 cupak 1 kati 600 gram 1 pikul 1 pikul

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i. Pengangkutan sungai dan laut ii. Jenis pengangkutan : rakit, sampan, perahu, lancar, jong, kolek, bedor dan koci iii. Jalan darat yang terkenal denai penarikan - perahu ditarik untuk sampai ke sungai - menghubungkan Melaka dan pahang - jalan pintas antara pantai timur dan pantai barat. iv. Kenderaan darat menggunakan: gajah, kerbau dan lembu.

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