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1. Prepare a brief self-portrait of yourself for a professional career.

Ans. A brief self-portrait for a professional career can be made by considering the following elements: [1] [2] [3] [4] Educational qualification Job experience Human handling skills: The following are the various human handling skills: Supervising skills Counseling skills Selling skills Evaluating skills Stimulating skills Organizing skills Mental skills: The following are the various mental skills: Diagnosing skills Inventing skills Operating skills Monitoring skills Written communication skills Verbal communication skills

[5]

Here is a sample portrait created after considering the above elements: Don Allen is a B.Tech. and is currently working as a software developer at Technology Systems. He has also worked at Smart Developers as a technical writer for one year. While working at Smart Developers, he won the first prize in technical writing. Don is an avid sports person and has represented his college cricket team at the university level. He is very innovative and takes initiative in all the functions related to his field. He regularly organizes technical fests and seminars. Don is also good at supervising tasks because he has excellent monitoring skills. He constantly evaluates his surroundings and analyzes situations. He offers his support and advice when required. However, he is not confident about his communication skills and is not comfortable doing sales.

2. Write about your short-term and long-term professional goals. Short-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved within two to three years. These goals can be derived after considering the satisfaction level (by saying 'Yes' or 'No') related to the following elements:

Desired position Justified Salary Learning opportunities Job Security Preferred working conditions

If you have responded with a 'Yes' to most of these elements, you are satisfied with your current position and you should look forward to achieving your long-term professional goals. If you have responded with a 'No' to most of these elements, your professional satisfaction level is low and you should look forward to improving your job conditions. You

can also explore the opportunities wherein you are able to increase the level of satisfaction in a span of two to three years. Long-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved after at least five years. Long-term goals are derived from the vision of the person. These goals can be determined by answering the following questions:

Which position would you like to attain after five years? Which field of work do you wish to explore in the future? Do you prefer to relocate to a specific geographical location? Besides monetary gain, what do you want most from your job? If you were granted a wish, which job or position would you like to attain? In your past, which achievement has given you immense satisfaction? What, according to you, is success or failure? Which accomplishment determines a person's progress? How competent are you to overcome your current weaknesses? What is your aim in life?

3. List your strengths.


Select your strengths from the following list (This is not an exhaustive list.):

Strong work ethics Self-discipline Ability to work under pressure Good communication skills Team player Leadership abilities Technical knowledge Work experience High-energy level

4. List your weaknesses. Select your weaknesses (or areas of improvement) from the following list (This is not an exhaustive list.): Poor work ethics Lack of discipline Lack of motivation Indecisiveness Weak interpersonal skills Weak leadership skills Weak technical knowledge Poor rating in educational qualification Lack of job-specific knowledge Lack of goals

5. Prepare a self-improvement plan for the next five years.


To prepare a self-improvement plan, create a table with three columns, as shown:

S.No . 1.

Weaknesses Poor work ethics

Action Plan Will learn the basic concepts of personal and professional grooming and will learn about dressing manners Will keep a record of all achievements and successes Will take feedback positively and work upon it Will join weekend classes to update self with the latest technologies Will follow a proper health care routine and will actively participate in sport activities

2. 3. 4.

Lack of motivation Weak interpersonal skills Weak technical knowledge Low-energy level

5.

6. If you are single, describe yourself as well as your prospective life partner. Ans. You can create your personal word portrait by answering the following questions: 1. What are your hobbies? 2. What are your strengths and weaknesses? 3. List your special skills and abilities. 4. What type of people irritates you? 5. List the moral values that you abide by. 6. How do your seniors and colleagues describe you? 7. How do you respond to critical feedback? 8. Describe your most prized possession. 9. What impression do you want people to have about you? 10.What kind of work do you like to do? After answering these questions, prepare a portrait. A sample portrait is given below: Donna Bard is a kind hearted and honest girl. She works as a manager in an organization. She works hard and is known as a motivating team player. She is disciplined and loyal towards her work. She always strives to improve. If any feedback for improvement is given to her, she accepts it gracefully and works towards removing her weaknesses. However, she tends to ignore her health care routine and these results in fatigue and depression. She also wishes to improve upon her people-handling skills because she gets irritated with people with poor work ethics and lack of discipline. She gets inspired by reading 'The Alchemist', which talks about pursuing ones dreams. Similarly, you can create a word portrait of your prospective life partner by answering the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What hobbies and interests should your prospective life partner have? What kind of approach he/she should have towards society? List the desired strengths he/she should possess. List negative personality traits that you don't want your spouse to have. List the minimum standard of performance that your prospective spouse should achieve. 6. What minimum educational qualification should he/she possess? 7. What special skills or abilities should he/she possess?

8. What personal growth efforts should he/she be making? 9. What professional growth efforts should he/she be making? 10.What should be his/her aim in life?

Based on the answers given, Donna has prepared the following word portrait to describe her ideal spouse: He should lead a disciplined life with strong work and moral ethics. He should always exude high energy levels. He should preferably be an M.Tech. and should have strong management skills. Besides working hard, he should enjoy participating in sports activities. He should have good leadership qualities. He should be an avid reader and should constantly update himself with new technologies. He should always work towards building healthy professional and personal relationships. He should aim for a peaceful and prosperous life. 7. Prepare a good bio-data of yourself. Ans. The following guidelines needs to be followed while designing a bio-data: Avoid spelling and typing errors. Give a consistent and symmetrical look. Use terms and phrases relevant to the industry. Use simple and concise sentences. Limit the bio-data to two pages. Add a cover letter or note mentioning the code number and other details specified in the advertisement.

Here is a sample bio-data: Bio-Data 1. Name of the post 2. Name 3. Date of birth, Age 4. Address - present 5. Address - permanent 6. Telephone numbers 7. E-mail ID 8. Father's name 9. Occupation 10. Marital status 11. Academic qualifications : Software Engineer : Vinay Yadav : 10.10.1981, 24 : 410, Surya Apartments, 21-D, Faridabad (HR) : 410, Surya Apartments, 21-D, Faridabad (HR) : 0129 - 3092391 : raovinay10@yahoo.co.in : Mr. D.V.S. Yadav : Software Developer : Single :

Sl. No.

Period From to 199596

Institution/ Place Vidya Mandir 15-A, Faridabad

Degree/ Exam. Passed AISSCE

% Marks

Class

1.

81.66

First

2.

199798 19982002

D.A.V. 14, Faridabad M.M.Engg. College Ambala.

AISSE

78.2

First

3.

B.Tech

65.24

First

12. Work experience: Sl. No . 1. Perio d From To Oct 2003 till date Oct 2002 to Oct 2003 Organizatio n Designatio n Last Salary Drawn Rs. 20,000/pm Rs. 10,000/pm

Technologies Systems

S/W Developer

2.

Smart Developers

Technical Writer

13. Extra-curricular activities level.

Played cricket at the university

14. Personal attainments/distinctions 15. Professional skills 16. References

: Organized technical fests and seminars.

Won the first prize in technical writing. : C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD). : Available on request.

Date

Signature

7. Briefly write out a preparation plan for an interview for a software engineer's post. Here is a plan to prepare for an interview for a software engineer's post: 1. Getting familiar with the interview process: The interview process followed in most of the organizations consists of three rounds: Preliminary written tests: This includes IQ tests, language tests, logical reasoning tests, aptitude tests, and technical knowledge tests. You can prepare for the preliminary written tests by using books that contain sample tests.

Group discussions: In the group discussion round, organizations ask candidates to discuss a specific topic among them. The topics can range from current events to technical topics, such as Role of JAVA in the Internet, and Comparing Poseidon and Rational Rose as Modeling Tools for S/W Systems. You can practice group discussions with your friends and improve upon your communication skills. Personal interview: To prepare for a personal interview round, you need to consider the following factors: Academic preparation: List down all the academic qualifications mentioned in your bio-data and ensures that you are comfortable discussing about those qualifications. Prepare a brief description of your favorite subject or topic, such as RDBMS and Operating Systems, and an answer as to why you chose this topic. Project work preparation: Most organizations focus on project work because it reflects your own work. Rehearse the presentation of your project work and practice the answers to the common questions pertaining to the project work, such as: Why did you choose this particular project? What are its practical applications? Practical training: Prepare a brief write-up on the training you have undergone, and always mention if you have contributed to the advancement of any application during your training session. In addition, list down your learnings. Special attainments: List down all your special achievements, such as writing a technical paper or participating in seminars and technical competitions, and discuss them during your interview.

8. List your qualifications and skills that will help you get selected for a job. The qualifications and skills that will help you get selected for a job are: Qualifications: Educational Knowledge: Example: School: AISSE in Physics, Chemistry, Maths College: B.Tech

Job Knowledge: Example: Principal responsibilities : Designing a software system and writing code for modules of the software system. Principal accomplishments:Modeling, developing, and maintaining the software system. Leadership quality : Handling different projects related to software systems.

Skills: Interpersonal skills: Example:

Communication skills Coordinating skills Negotiation skills

Skills related to the job: Example: C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD)

9. Prepare a list of your strengths and weaknesses.


Ans. A software professional may possess any of the following traits:

Ability to analyze situations Self confidence Articulateness

Creativity in developing new concepts Proactiveness Ethicalness Desire to excel Reliability Ambition Communication skills Past achievements

Some of the weaknesses that should be overcome by software professionals are as follows:

Weak analyzing skills Lack of career plans and goals No emphasis on growth prospects Lack of specific technical knowledge Over ambitious Immature and dishonest Lack of leadership qualities Poor communication skills Lack of past achievements No desire to achieve or excel comprehensive information about

11. Introduce yourself, giving yourself within two minutes.

My name is Vinay Yadav and I am a software developer with Technologies System. I have done B.Tech. from M.M. Engineering College, Ambala, and I am aspiring to do an M.Tech. I have been brought up in an atmosphere where discipline and respect for elders is a way of life. I believe strongly in values like honesty and hard work. I am a person with a high degree of integrity and team spirit. 12. Identify an appropriate career goal for yourself by matching your qualities to the job. Ans. Assume that Vinay possesses the following qualities:

School College

Educational Qualities:

: AISSE in Physics, Chemistry, Maths : B.Tech

Professional experience

Professional Qualities:

: 1 year of experience as a technical writer. 3 years of experience as an S/W developer. : Designing a software system and writing code for different modules of the software system. : Modeling, developing, and maintaining the software : Managing different projects related to software Handling a team of seven software professionals. Responsible for making high-quality software systems.

Principal responsibilities Principal accomplishments system. Leadership qualities systems.

Interpersonal skills

: Ability to analyze situations. Creative in developing new concepts Pro-active

Desire to excel Reliable and ambitious Good communication skills Good coordinating skills Good negotiation skills Skills related to job : C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD).

Based on the above-mentioned qualities, Vinay has identified a goal for his professional life. Because he has a strong technical experience and good interpersonal skills, Vinay plans to become a project manager in the next two to three years.

13. Prepare an action plan to achieve your goals. Ans. After you have identified youre short-term and long-term goals, make an action plan to achieve these goals. You can create your action plan by filling up the following table: What I Plan to do Actio n1 Actio n2 Actio n3 How I Plan to do When I Plan to do Possible Obstacles Plan to remove obstacles

For example, if you have joined an organization as a software developer want to become a project manager, write that it in the column 'What I plan to do.' Then, make a list of things to be done to reach that level. Write this list in the column 'How I plan to do.' The list can be as follows: Acquire a Master's degree in Technology. Acquire a position of a senior software engineer or a team leader. Learn about the new technologies. Start handling two teams simultaneously. Remain in the current office for the next three to four years. Now, allocate a deadline for each activity. Write the respective deadlines in the column 'When I plan to do'. The time span can be mentioned as follows: In the next two years. In the next three years. Continuous process. In the next three years. Time span already given. Now, list the possible obstacles against each point. The list of obstacles can be as follows: Lack of time to enroll for the course and to study. Heavy competition.

Working on similar types of project again and again. Good leadership qualities to be identified. Family planning to relocate. After you have identified the obstacles, make a plan to remove them and start working as per the plan. You can plan to remove your respective obstacles as follows:

Take the long pending leaves and get yourself enrolled for the M.Tech. course. Devote two to three hours in a week for studying. If possible, study with a friend who is doing the same course. Start making your list of accomplishments and start working on the list of shortcomings. Make efforts to get noticed by always appearing confident and enthusiastic. Be ready to take on new challenges. Ask your project manager to give you a chance to work in projects that involve new technologies. Make efforts to get noticed in your team. Always support your team members and cooperate with them. Build a bond of trust and understanding with your team members. This will lead you and your team towards success. Discuss your goals with your family and seek their support. 3. Plan out a strategy to make a good impression on your first job. Ans. You can use the following strategy to make a good first impression:

Utilize your first day in office in getting familiar with your colleagues and the office environment. Represent yourself as an enthusiastic and confident person. Take your first assignment very seriously and deliver your best. Take extra measures to perform better in your first assignment because it will help form a favorable first impression. Try to collect all the information related to your organization and understand the atmosphere of the organization. Ask your team members and seniors about the performance evaluation procedure. This will help you continuously assess your performance status. Always be ready for any opportunity and make sure to give your best performance. Always appear enthusiastic and full of confidence. This will reflect on your work and people will want you to work with them. If you are not comfortable about a specific aspect about the organization, raise the issue in an appropriate manner. List out your qualities among the potentials given in this module. Following is a sample list of qualities possessed by John:

Positive attitude: John always looks at things with a positive attitude and keeps track of all the appreciation and encouragement given to him. The appreciation and encouragement act as motivators and increase his potential. Setting priorities with practical approach: John sets his priorities before starting any work. This enables him to accomplish the tasks in a proper manner and within the specified time. He sets realistic goals. Making commitments: After setting the priorities, John makes commitments and works sincerely towards meeting the deadlines. 2. How do you propose to overcome the deficient potentials? Ans. John needs to work on the following aspects:

Lack of physical fitness routine: He tends to ignore the aspect of physical fitness because he spends long hours in office. Time gap between planning and execution of project: John tends to delay the execution of planned projects. This results in loss of energy and enthusiasm. John can take the following steps to overcome his weaknesses: He will consult the physical trainer, set up a fitness routine, and follow it regularly. This will help increase his physical fitness. He will ensure that all projects are executed on time. To ensure success, he will share the schedule with his team members and his seniors. 1. Prepare a time log for utilizing your time and note down your own reactions to your time management. Ans. Prepare a time log by listing the tasks to be done in a day. You can also prepare a time log to manage your weekly or long-term tasks. To create a time log, create a table comprising four columns. The first column will contain the serial number, the second column will specify the task, and the third column will contain the time allotted for the corresponding task. In the fourth column, specify the result as 'Completed', 'Incomplete', or 'Not attended to.' A sample time log is shown as follows:

S.No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Engagement/Task Completing a module Organizing a meeting Organizing a fun activity at work Going out for lunch with friends Going to the gym Making reports on team's performance

Allotte d time One hour Two hours One hour Two hours Two hours the Three hours

Result s

At the end of the day, suppose the following results are filled in the column against the tasks given: Completed Completed Incomplete Not attended to Not attended to Completed The reasons for not being able to complete some of the tasks were:

Writing a module took two hours instead of an hour. This delayed the subsequent tasks. The meeting had to be postponed for another hour. This resulted in delay in planning and executing the meeting. Skipped lunch for this reason. Started to initiate a fun activity at work. However, not all the colleagues were interested in continuing with it on the same day; therefore, had to work upon another task and this activity got postponed for the next day. Collected data for making the reports on the team's performance but realized that it will take more than three hours to complete the reports. Worked on the reports and cancelled going to the gym. Based on the result derived, you can analyze that one should set realistic deadlines and should not try to be a perfectionist all the time. The module could have completed in an hour; however, it took two hours. This delayed the rest of the activities. In addition, the activities for which one is not answerable to anyone like going to the gym or going out for lunch should not be ignored. These activities should be given equal importance. 2. Identify your weaknesses related to time management and create a plan to overcome it. Ans. Here is a sample list of weaknesses related to time management: I try to do each and every task to perfection, irrespective of the requirement. This unnecessarily delays the things and affects the complete schedule. I tend to take on each and every task that comes my way and am unable to say 'No' to my friends and colleagues. This results in an increased amount of work, both planned and unplanned. I believe in doing everything on my own and do not feel comfortable in delegating tasks to my team members or colleagues. This results in too much of work and effort. To overcome my weaknesses, I plan to do the following: I will have a practical approach towards work and will try to strive for excellence rather than perfection. This will help me save time. Learning to say 'No' will help me save a lot of time. I will say 'No' to the tasks that do not contribute to my goals. I will involve my team members in my work. Instead of making personal targets, I will make team targets. This will help me achieve the targets on time and will enable others to learn and improve upon their performance.

3. Prepare a time commitment plan for an MCA semester allocating time for studies in two modules of 16 (12+4) weeks of time. Ans. A time commitment plan for Module 1 of the first semester of MCA, to be followed daily for 12 weeks, is as follows:

Time 9.00 to 10.00

Monday System Analysis and Design

Tuesday System Analysis and Design

Wednesday Discrete Mathematics

Thursday Computer rganization

Friday Computer Organization

10.00 to 11.00

Discrete Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics

C Programming Language

System Analysis and Design

PC Software

11.00 11.30

to

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

11.30 12.30

to

C Programming Language

Lab session Programming Language)

(C

System Analysis and Design

Lab Session Software)

(PC

Discrete Mathematics

12.30 to 1.30

Computer Organization

Lab Session Software)

(PC

Computer Organization

Lab Session Programming Language)

(C

System Analysis and Design

1.30 to 2.30

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

2.30 to 3.30

Lab session Programming Language)

(C

C Programming Language

PC Software

PC Software

C Programming Language

3.30 to 4.30

Lab Session Software)

(PC

Computer Organization

Lab session Programming Language)

(C

C Programming Language

Lab session Programming Language)

(C

4.30 to 5.30

PC Software

PC Software

Lab Session Software)

(PC

Discrete Mathematics

Lab Session Software)

(PC

A time commitment plan for Module 2 of the first semester of MCA, to be followed daily for 4 weeks, is as follows:

Tim e 9.00 10.00 to

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesda y Digital Electronics

Thursday

Friday

Digital Electronic s Informatio n Technolog y

Data structures using C Informatio n Technolog y

Digital Electronic s Lab session (Data structures using C) Break

Data structures using C Lab session (Data structures using C) Break

10.00 11.00

to

Informatio n Technolog y

11.00 11.30

to

Break

Break

Break

11.30 12.30

to

Data structures using C

Lab session (Data structures using C) Digital Electronic s

Lab session (Data structures using C) Data structures using C

Data structures using C

Digital Electronic s

12.30 1.30

to

Lab session (Data structures using C)

Informatio n technolog y

Informatio n technolog y

Apart from the above nine qualities mentioned on personality development, add a few more qualities that are helpful for total personality development. Ans. The additional qualities that can help you enhance your personality are: Enthusiasm: Being enthusiastic accentuates your personality. Ambition: Being ambitious means willing to take initiative and to reach towards new goals. Ambitious people always stand out to achieve their goals and this quality develops their personality. Vision: Having a vision helps people have a clear idea of where they want to go and what they want to do. Clarity of thought and vision reflects on your personality and therefore improves it. Competitive spirit: Competitive people are ready to take on challenges and emerge winners. This quality is an aggressive form of being confident and is crucial for having a good personality. Open to criticism: Besides making a list of achievements, people should also remember their failures and should learn from their mistakes. This helps them develop their personality. 2. Identify the shortcomings in your personality and prepare an action plan for improvement within a reasonable time frame. Ans. Here is a sample list of shortcomings related to personality: Lack of updated knowledge related to my field Lack of entertainment skills Improper time management

Improper health care routine Here is the action plan to improve upon the shortcomings, along with the time frame: I will start reading journals and books related to my field to update myself with the latest information. I can utilize the time spent traveling to and from office for reading. Within a month, I should be updated with the knowledge related to my field. I will join weekend hobby classes and will choose the hobby that will help me relax and refresh my self. This change should reflect in my personality in one or two months. I will create a time management log and will keep a record of all the tasks to be done along with their time frame. This will help me assess my time management skills and identify my time wasters. Then, I will think of new ideas to improve my time management skills. I will acquire a health care routine based on my working style and food habits. I will also learn some exercises to help improve my blood circulation and oxygen circulation. This routine will help me stay active and lively. I should be able to see a difference in two or three months. 1. List out your good qualities pertaining to Human Engineering. John, a consultant working at Red Sky, possesses the following qualities related to human engineering: He tries to avoid reacting impulsively and criticize because these attempts are futile. He appreciates the efforts made by others. Before asking another person to do something, he looks from that person's point of view. He tries to remember the names of all persons he interacts with and ensures that he calls them by their names. In any conversation, he listens carefully to people. It makes the other person feel important. He tries to avoid an argument. If he enters in an argument with anyone, he tries to reconcile as soon as possible. He admits mistakes easily and tries not to have an argument to prove his point, which has already been proved wrong. He tries not to punish or humiliate a person in order to correct the mistakes made by that person. He tries to be considerate and thoughtful in his behavior. He tries to be friendly with all the people around him and always tries to make other person feel comfortable while talking to him. He tries to convince the person working with him that he considers that person honest, upright, and fair. 2. List out the qualities in you that need improvement from the point of view of Man Management skills in Human Engineering. Ans. Sam, a consultant at Red Sky Inc., needs to work on the following points to improve his skills related to human engineering: He is unable to put his ideas across in an interesting manner, and these results in dull presentations. He needs to improve his presentation skills. He tends to make work-related decisions on his own without discussing it with his team. He should involve his team members in planning activities because this will give them a sense of belonging. Sometimes, he is unable to control his anger. He should learn to stay calm if things are not happening as per plan. He avoids making personal contacts with colleagues; therefore, he has limited knowledge about his colleagues. He should try to get to know his colleagues. This will make them feel special.

Identify a successful role model and list two or three additional qualities other than those listed in this module. My role model is Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft Corporation. He started developing computer programs at the age of 13. In 1975, he started a company along with his friend Paul Allen. Today, Microsoft Corporation is a leader in software services and solutions, employs 55,000 people, and is present in 85 countries. Microsoft generated revenues worth US$36.84 billion for the fiscal year ending June 2004. Bill Gates has all the characteristics of a successful person. He has complete knowledge of his own field and has common sense to make practical judgments. He never waited for any external help and realized his dreams on his own. He has the natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts and analyze them clearly. He possesses strong work ethics and organizational skills. Besides having these qualities, he has the following three abilities, which have made him one of the most successful businesspersons in the world: Vision: Gates had a clear vision at a very early stage in his life that computers will be available in every house and office desk. Continuous advancement: Gates always aims to introduce innovative products. This keeps his organization always at the top and in demand. Making cost-effective and user-friendly products: Making cost-effective and userfriendly products has been one of the main reasons behind Gates's success. As a result, Microsoft has a strong base of happy and satisfied customers. 2. List out some of the important principles of human engineering in which you are good at. John, a consultant working at Red Sky, possesses the following qualities related to human engineering: He tries to avoid reacting impulsively. He ensures that no chance to appreciate the other person is missed. Before asking another person to do something, he looks from that person's point of view. He tries to remember the names of all the persons he interacts with and ensures that he calls them by their names. In any conversation, he listens carefully to people. It makes the other person feel important. He tries to avoid an argument. If he enters in an argument with anyone, he tries to reconcile as soon as possible. He admits mistakes easily and tries not to have an argument to prove his point, which has already been proved wrong. He tries not to punish or humiliate a person in order to correct the mistakes made by that person. He tries to be considerate and thoughtful in his behavior. He tries to be friendly with all the people around him and always tries to make other person feel comfortable while talking to him. He tries to convince the person working with him that he considers that person to be honest, upright, and fair. 3. List out some of the important principles of human engineering in which you need improvement. Prepare an action plan for improvement of those qualities. Following is the list of important principles of human engineering that John should work upon: He is unable to put his ideas across in an interesting manner, and these results in dull presentations. He needs to improve upon his way of presentation.

He tends to make work-related decisions on his own without discussing it with his team. Sometimes, he is unable to control his anger. He is unable to make hard decisions related to people him works with. This results in people taking him for granted. He avoids making personal contacts with his colleagues. As a result, he knows little about them. Following is the action plan for John: He should improve upon his way of presenting his ideas and concepts. He should involve his team members in planning the activities. This will give them a sense of belonging. He should learn to calm down if things are not happening his way. He should convey to the people that disciplinary measures can be taken against them if they do not comply with the working standards. He should try to get to know about the people working with him more closely to make them feel special. end

P2 Give any three reasons why it is important to improve communication skills? The three reasons are: Communication skills are required to express our views to others. Organizations conduct tests and interviews to test the candidate's communication skills in addition to testing the subject knowledge. If you want to pursue higher studies, you need to participate in group discussions and personal interviews after you clear the entrance exam. What is the difference between language skills and communication skills? The difference between language skills and communication skills lies in the presentation of your ideas. Language skills denote the person's subjective knowledge, whereas communication skills involve the presentation of the subjective knowledge to the outside world. Both set of skills are required. For example, a person can have good language skills but may not be able to express his views to a group of people. 2. How can communication skills be improved? Communication skills are necessary for a person to express his or her views in any situation. One can acquire communication skills only by practice. Communication can be improved by practicing certain activities on a daily basis. The following activities can help a person improve his or her communication skills. Reading newspapers and magazines: Reading newspapers and magazines helps in increasing the reading ability, general awareness, and the vocabulary. Listening to news channels on TV: This activity can help in enhancing the communication skills by improving one's grasp on pronunciation. Listening to news on the radio: Listening is the best way to improve the communication skills. For example, while listening to the radio, you can concentrate on the words being pronounced by the newsreader. Improving the vocabulary: Vocabulary building is another exercise that can enhance communication. The best way to improve vocabulary is to learn new words in different contexts.

Speaking English language on regular basis : Cramming your vocabulary with new words and reading books will not work until and unless you practice it. It is necessary to speak in a variety of situations. This will make you more confident and comfortable with spoken language. Logical thought process: Good communication also includes a logical thought process activity. Presence of mind helps a person think in a logical manner. A person should be quick in reasoning and thinking. This adds value to the communication skills. Developing a sense of humor: Sense of humor is another aspect that helps the communication process. For example, students prefer teachers who are jovial and lively. 3. What are communication skills? Communication skills are the skills that enable a person to convey information so that it is received and understood well. It is the ability to express our views and understand others' views. Can communication skills be developed by reading books on 'communication skills'? Why? Communication skills can be improved by reading books because they describe the various ways to improve one's communication skills. Implementing these in your daily life can definitely bring a major change in your interpersonal skills. Communication is a skill and can be improved upon only by practice.

Write two sentences by using each of the following words in two different meanings: balance, issue, issues, pursue, conflict, and breakdown. Balance Meaning: 1. A state where things are of equal weight or force. Sentence: The old lady had to hold the railings to keep her balance. Meaning: 2. To give several things equal amounts of information, time, or money, so that a situation is successful. Sentence: Issue Meaning: 1. A subject or problem that people are thinking and talking about. Sentence: Sentence: Pursue Meaning: 1. To follow someone or something. Sentence: Sentence: Conflict Meaning: 1. An active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles. Sentence: There was a lot of conflict between him and his father. The car was pursued by helicopters. He is pursuing MCA from a recognized university. Meaning: 2. To be engaged in (a vocation or hobby, for example) Don't worry about who will do it- that's just a side issue. The English book is issued in your name. Meaning: 2. To give something to someone. There are still balance payments due on him.

Meaning: 2. An incompatibility of dates or events. Sentence: Breakdown Meaning: 1. A failure to work or be successful. Sentence: Sentence: My car had a breakdown in the middle of the road. The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed. Meaning: 2. Division of something into smaller parts. He noticed a conflict in the dates of the two meetings.

1. Why do many of us find it difficult to speak in English? Many of us are not able to speak English because of lack of practice. Practice enhances the confidence level and improves effectiveness. 2. Name any four reasons why English is important to us. Knowledge of the English language is of great importance because of the following reasons: It It It It is is is is useful to get a good job. necessary for social prestige and respect. important to learn it to pursue further studies abroad. important to know English in order to try for a job in other countries.

3. Is spoken English difficult. Why? No, spoken English is not difficult. It is easier as compared to writing. Care should be taken to speak slowly and use the correct grammar and pronunciation. Writing English is difficult because you also need to worry about elements such as spellings, punctuation, and formatting. 4. What are the different features of spoken English? The different features of spoken English are: The speaker should be able to speak clear English so that the listener is able to understand it. The speaker should not speak too fast, so that others cannot understand, or too slow, so that others get bored. The speaker should use appropriate words or vocabulary. The speaker should pronounce the word correctly. . 1. Mention the different sub skills in writing. Discuss the importance of each one of them. The different sub skills in writing are: Syntax at the sentence level: Helps to identify the correct sequence of words in a sentence. Syntax at the paragraph level: Helps to identify the correct sequence of the sentences in a paragraph to maintain flow. Coherence: Helps to identify the appropriate usage of connectors, such as but, that and which, to combine sentences. Choice of vocabulary: Helps to identify the appropriate and relevant word usage in a sentence that can easily convey the intended meaning to the reader.

Cohesion: Helps to identify the completeness of a sentence or a paragraph. It also helps to ensure that the sentences are able to convey the complete meaning. Punctuation marks: Helps to identify the correct usage of different punctuation marks while writing. Style, format, and use of non verbal devices: Helps in identifying the appropriate style and format for a writing a particular document. Grammar: Helps to ensure that the document is grammatically correct. 2. What are the differences between the language of speech and the language of writing? The differences between the language of speech and the language of writing are:

The language of speech consists mostly of broken utterances, words, and phrases, whereas the language of writing consists mainly of complete sentences. In the language of speech, you can use body language to express your views. In the language of writing, this is not possible. In the language of speech, repetition of idea is allowed to emphasize upon that idea. In the language of writing, repetition of idea is not allowed. In the language of speech, pauses and filters are used to add clarity to sentences. In the language of writing, punctuations are used to add clarity to the sentences. In the language of speech, the use of contractions such as I'll and cant are allowed. In the language of writing, contractions are not allowed in formal documents. 3. Why is the process of writing a useful approach to improve writing? The process of writing is a useful approach to improve writing. Writing skills cannot be achieved at once. They are achieved with help of practice by writing documents and redrafting them. The process of writing a particular document and then revising the document helps you in recognizing your errors and the areas in which you feel some difficulty. It helps improve the quality of the document as well as helps improve the writing skills. Why are punctuations necessary in writing? Mention any five punctuation marks that you use frequently. Give 2 instances of usage for each of them. Punctuation marks are necessary in writing because they help organize or clarify the written language. The five frequently used punctuation marks are:

Colon (:): Helps introduce lists or to connect to a broad idea with a specific example. It can also be used to combine two separate sentences with related ideas. For example: o The two qualities of XYZ are: Reserve Emotional

o Speech is silver: silence is golden. Comma (,): Is used to separate different things. For example: o We had tea, biscuits, and cake. o My neighbor has a cat, a dog, and a parrot. Question mark (?): Is used to end an interrogative sentence. For example: o What is the structural formula of water? o What is the scope of the IT field nowadays? Period or full stop (.): Is a punctuation mark placed at the end of a sentence. For example: o The book is on the table. o The mouse device is not working properly. Hyphen (-): Is used to join words or separate syllables. For example:

A man-eating shark is a carnivorous fish.

5. Writing is a reverse process of reading. Discuss. Writing is just the reverse of reading. While reading, the reader tries to grasp the ideas explained by the author, whereas while writing, the author tries to express his views in a presentable format so that it can convey the intended meaning to the reader.

Write a paragraph on the influence of television on children. Write the second and third drafts of the same pointing out the changes made on each occasion. First Draft: Television is one of the latest wonders of science. Television provides the facility to hear as well as view the person presenting the program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda and national integration. At the same time it leaves influence on the children also. It influences both children's prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Although it is a suitable medium for mass communication and education, but in addition to this their attitudes about race and gender rises. Children's ideas about how the world works come from their experiences and from the attitudes and behaviors they see around them. If it is used for motivating students, which can help them out in their career growth then it can be considered as the important and useful media of communication. It can be used by the government to give wide publicity to its views and to the development work done by it. Television is not only a mere medium of entertainment; it also has educational and cultural significance, if applied in the right way in the right order. While some children's programming has come under attack for being violent, irrelevant, or sexist, other programs for children, such as "Sesame Street," are regularly lauded for attempting to meet children's developmental needs. Second draft: Television is one of the latest wonders of science. television provides the facility to hear as well as view the person presenting the program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda and national integration. At the same time, it leaves influence on the children also. It influences both children's prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Although it is a suitable medium for mass communication and education, but in addition to this their attitudes about race and gender rises. Children's ideas about how the world works come from their experiences and from the attitudes and behaviors they see around them. They watch people who are successful in their fields, which motivate them. Quizzes and general awareness channel such as discovery channel help them to increase their knowledge and to build up their career. It can be used by the government to give wide publicity to its views and to the development work done by it. Television is not only a mere medium of entertainment; it also has educational and cultural significance, if applied in the right way in the right order. While some children's programming has come under attack for being violent, irrelevant, other programs for children, such as "Sesame Street," are regularly lauded for attempting to meet children's developmental needs. Third draft: Television is one of the latest wonders of science. It provides the facility to hear as well as view the person presenting a program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda, and national integration. At the same time, it influences the children. It can influence the behavior of children both in positive and negative aspects. Children tend to form an idea about the world from what they see and hear. If they watch and get to know about people who are successful in their fields, it motivates them to choose a suitable career and do well. Quizzes and general awareness channels

such as Discovery help them increase their general awareness. Television is not merely a medium of entertainment; it also has educational and cultural significance. While some television shows have come under attack for being violent and irrelevant, shows such as "Sesame Street" are hailed for meeting their developmental needs. Why is writing an important skill to acquire? Suggest certain steps to improve writing. Ans. Writing is an important skill to acquire because: Writing is rather rigid and follows certain rules and conventions in contrast to spoken English, which offers some flexibility with regard to grammar, vocabulary, and organization. Most forms of evaluation involve writing. These include written examinations, project work, and laboratory reports. A non-native English writer tends to write sentences in the same manner in which he or she speaks, and so may not be able to convey the intended meaning to the audience. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on improving writing skills. Certain steps that can help an individual in improving his writing skills are: Reading books Writing paragraphs on familiar ideas Writing sentences by using new words Improving vocabulary Learning grammar

a. What is a paragraph? Ans. A Paragraph is a group of sentences. It is used to arrange content into small, easily readable bits. A paragraph revolves around one main idea. b. What is a topic sentence? Why it is important? Ans. A topic sentence is the sentence in a paragraph that explains the main idea. It is important because all the sentences in the paragraph are directly related to it. c. What are linking devices? Why are they important? Ans. Linking devices are words or phrases that are used to connect two or more sentences. They help establish a relationship between two sentences. Examples of linking devices are first of all, Later, on the other hand, and whereas.

Write a letter to the district collector inviting him/her to be the chief guest for your school day celebrations. Ans. City Public School R.K. Puram New Delhi The District Collector Delhi Subject: School Annual Function invitation Sir, I am James, school leader of the City Public School. Our school is going to hold an annual function on 25th Sep. 2005. Our principal will preside over the function. The Principal will read out the annual report highlighting the achievements of the school in academics and sports. It will be a privilege for us to have you as our chief guest for the annual function. Your presence shall be a source of inspiration to the students. I hope you be able to spare some precious time from your busy schedule and grace the occasion.

Yours faithfully, James School Leader

2. Write a letter to the commissioner of your corporation complaining against the lack of proper hygiene conditions in your residential area. Ans. 340 Nandnagri Gali Berri Wali Delhi 14 September 2005 The Commissioner Municipal Corporation New Delhi Subject: Unhygienic conditions in Nandnagri Sir, It is unfortunate that the Municipal Corporation, Delhi, is not paying equal attention in providing civic amenities to the residents of different parts of the city. There are certain parts of New Delhi, particularly, south Delhi, which are more cleaner, spacious, and greener due to regular maintenance. These are areas where VIPs and the rich reside. In contrast, colonies like Nandnagri, inhabited mostly by low-income groups, are left to rot and stink. The Nandnagri Welfare Association has been highlighting the local issues before the Municipal Corporation but to no avail. Heaps of dirt keeps lying on the streets. The drains are open and keep overflowing with garbage and dirt. The residents fear outbreak of diseases anytime. Supply of water is very irregular and inadequate. Due to nonavailability of pure drinking water, the residents have become easy victims of water-borne diseases. We sincerely hope that the Municipal Corporation will pay attention to our basic needs and provide the basic sanitary conditions in this colony as soon as possible. Thanking you, Yours sincerely ABC President Nandnagri Welfare Association

3. Write a letter to the Controller of Examination of your university informing that you have received the wrong set of certificates and also ask for the correct ones. Ans. XYZ College Delhi 14 September 2005 The Controller of Examination Delhi University Delhi. Subject: Received wrong set of certificates Sir, I, Adhiraj Singh, a student of XYZ College, had appeared in the B.Sc. IT (II) year examination. My roll number is 0234567. Unfortunately, I have received the certificates for Roll Number 134567, which belongs to Parul of B.Sc. IT (I) year. I am facing a great amount of inconvenience due to the nonavailability of my certificates. I have submitted Parul Sharma's certificate in the university office. I request you to ask the concerned staff to send my certificate as soon as possible. Yours faithfully, Adhiraj Singh B.Sc. IT (II) year Roll No. 0234567

Write a letter to your studying in another city and staying in a hostel enquiring about his hostel life and also expressing how much you miss him/her. Ans. 16 Church Gate Pune 411003 6 September 2005 My Dear Hari, Hope you are doing fine. Firstly, I would like to congratulate you for achieving the 2nd rank in the Common Engineering Entrance test and securing a seat in a reputed institution of Pune for the B.E. course. I came to know from your brother that you are staying in a hostel. This is the first time you have been staying away from home, so you must be feeling homesick. The first few days are tough, but I am sure you will able to adapt yourself to the new environment You will be happy to know that I have also got admission and will be pursuing my B.E. course in Faridabad. Our session has started and I too am trying to adjust to the new life. Fortunately, I have made a few friends. But I really wish we were in the same college. This would have made lot of difference, as we would have enjoyed our college life as we enjoyed our school days. How are you enjoying your college and hostel life? How is life in Pune? Hope you have made some good friends there also. Do take good care of yourself. Rest is fine here and please do reply as soon as possible. I cant wait to meet you during the upcoming vacations. Yours lovingly, XYZ Write a letter to your father asking for an additional pocket money for the month of April giving valid reasons. Imagine you are staying in a hostel. Ans. Mata Gujri Hostel Balawala Dehradun 14 sep. 2005 My dear Dad, How are you? I hope all of you are doing well at home. You will be glad to know that the results of the annual examination are out and I have passed with distinction. My new session will be starting in the month of April. For this, I need to buy certain books and submit the fees for the new session. . In addition, I need to purchase stationery. I will be able to meet all my requirements if you can send me Rs. 2,000/-. In case you get time, please do come and meet me.

Yours affectionately, John 1. What is reading? Reading means understanding text. It is an important part of communication. 2. What are the different kinds of reading? Reading is of two types, surface level reading and deeper level reading. Deeper level reading involves concept forming, interpretation, and critical evaluation of the relevant content. Surface level reading is done mainly for pleasure. 3. Why is loud reading not 'reading'? Loud reading seldom leads to understanding the content. So, it is not considered as reading. 4. Why is reading important? Reading is an important communication skill. Reading is done for a variety of purposes, such as preparing for examinations, learning a subject, gaining information, and seeking pleasure. Reading is important to understand any piece of text.

Long Questions

1.

Write down any five commonly asked questions in an interview and briefly indicate your responses to the same. 5 Marks

Ans:- 1.Tell us about yourself This is a general question in which you can say almost anything about yourself. Unfortunately, most of the interviewees use the opportunity to recount their bio-data which is already there in front of the interviewer. Prepare yourself for such a question so that you can tell about those things which are not given in your bio-data such as your traits, special qualities, achievements, aspirations, motivations and ambitions. A one or two-sentence answers which are normally given by interviewees convey an impression that there is little to know about them. You should be able to say a lot without being verbose or selfopinionated. Keep watch and regulate your statements depending upon the verbal

and non-verbal reactions of the interviewer

2.What are your strengths and weaknesses? This question is asked to ascertain how much you know about yourself. A person who has good selfknowledge is likely to be more effective in life. However, many interviewees get bowled over this question because they might not have given thought to it or, they shy away from the fear of blowing their own trumpet. Do a detailed self-analysis on your strengths and weaknesses. A sincere and honest statement of both your strengths and weaknesses is likely to enhance your personality. 3. Tell us about your family background This question is asked by interviewers in order to determine the social, cultural, religious and economic strata you come from. It could reflect on your basic attitudes. The best approach for such a question is to bring out not only the facts of parentage and background but also some of the good principles they have taught you. For example, while talking about this aspect you may be able to say that you have been brought up in a disciplined atmosphere where punctuality, respect for elders etc., is a way of life. You may also be able to state about the human values like honesty, truthfulness etc. which you have imbibed from your family background. You may also be asked to tell about your brothers and sisters. Emphasize their accomplishments and achievements. In all cases, it would be safe to talk about the human values taught to you irrespective of what background you come from. 4.How do you spend your spare time? This is a loaded question which can give considerable clue to your personality. If your spare time activities are reading, painting, cooking, listening to music and the like, you are likely to be creative, introvert, or a loner. If your sports activities are mainly individual sports such as swimming, athletics, tennis, badminton etc., you are again likely to be interpreted as a loner. Other games like football, hockey, basketball etc. are likely to indicate you as a team man who can get along well with people. Neither of these are right or wrong, nor, are they absolutely true indicators. There are jobs such as research, design, quality control etc. which do not require extroverts. But, jobs such as sales, public relations, execution, production etc. require a person with a high degree of interaction and team spirit. Those who appear to be group-oriented are likely to be preferred, in general. Another aspect of how you spend your spare time is whether you take on active of passive pursuits. If you are active, you would play games, go on sight-seeing or tours or undertake any activity that involves physical energy. While passive pursuits such as reading, listening, to music, watching TV and so on involve least physical effort. Interviewers will prefer the passive type for sedentary jobs such as doing desk work, research, teaching etc, whereas an active person is preferred for jobs which involve travelling or any predominant physical activity 5.What are your salary expectations? Though this is a very sensitive question, you must not feel bashful in stating your expectations as it is your right to do so. It is important that you prepare yourself rationally and logically to mention and claim what you expect as compensation for your job. It would be better if you have enquired from friends oremployees of the organisation regarding the salary structure and what one can reasonably expect. A 15 to 20 percent increase over your previous job is usually considered as rational. Most organisations mention the salary range in the job advertisement itself, but many mention that they are willing to negotiate depending on the candidate. While discussing about salary, you must not confine yourself only to the emoluments but also be clear about the other perks that you can expert from the company. You should evaluate both the present as well as long-term benefits of your job. Also you should be able to rationally justify your desired compensation.

2.

List out and explain the tips for stress management of job interviews. 8 Marks Ans:- Stress is part and parcel of everyones life. Appearing in a job interview is one such common

situation for graduating students. Here are a few tips which may help the students to handle stress due to job interviews in a better way: 1) Get as much information as possible about what to expect in each interview. Good preparation helps you to face an interview with confidence and reduces the pressure to a great extent. 2) Try to relax and stay cool. Concentrate on the task and think on all aspects of the interview and prepare an Action Plan. 3) Write down the probable qualities that are important and needed for the job in focus and list your qualifications, credentials & attainments to match them. This exercise can boost your confidence to a great extent. 4) Realise that no one can be perfect and cent per cent sure on all aspects of an interview. 5) Keep yourself physically and mentally fit for the occasion. Proper nutrition and sufficient rest are important. 6) Generally, people excel when under pressure if they use the pressure situation as a motivating factor to bring out their full capability. 7) Support, help and encouragement from family & friends is always a great comfort. 8) Have a positive attitude and develop self-confidence. Think of your strong points. Be optimistic. It helps. 9) If you do not succeed, analyse why you failed. Retrospect and try to learn from your mistakes and improve yourself for the next opportunity. 10) Finally, have a philosophical approach. Dont get totally dejected if you do not succeed. Heavens is not going to fall on you if you do not get a particular job.

3.

List and explain the six basic strategies which have helped successful people in their careers.7 Marks Ans:- Astrong early showing can give a rocket boost-up to your career. A fast and impressive start on your first job can be a trendsetter to your whole career towards success. Because, the faster you rise the higher you aim. Conversely, a plodding start induces lower expectations and curtails ambition levels. Given below are six basic strategies which have helped successful people in their careers. 1) MAKE YOURSELF VISIBLE EARLY: Ensure that your performance on your job is felt and recognised by others at the earliest. 2) OVERDO YOUR FIRST ASSIGNMENT: Go out of the way and put in all the efforts you can to ensure complete success of your initial assignments. If necessary, double the workload that you put in compared to others to achieve your objectives.

3) ACQUIRE FULL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ALL ASPECTS OF YOUR ORGANISATION: Take initiative to gather information and understand all aspects of your Organisation. If you become a knowledgeable and authoritative information person in the organisation, it can be a great advantage to your career growth. 4) TAKE INITIATIVE AND ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY: Management values a new employee who takes the initiative to grab a challenge and puts in his best efforts to make a success of it. Self-confidence and boldness brings out latent capabilities of individuals in a far greater measure than most of us realise. 5) ACCELERATE YOUR ENTHUSIASM: An enthusiastic newcomer can spark and light up a whole department. Even cynical old hands are likely to give a helping hand to an enthusiastic new person. If you want to be enthusiastic, act enthusiastic; Inner enthusiasm follows, and it is likely to have an echo effect on colleagues and bosses. 6) BE BOLD TO CHANGE ENTRENCHED METHODS: Realise that there is always scope to think new on any assignment. You could be creative on any type of job. Any innovation or improvement introduced by you would be a great credential for your career

4.

List and explain the tips for time management. 8 Marks

Ans:- Generally few people use their time effectively. But one can develop certain habits and techniques in Time Management which could be of great help. The following twelve tips could be useful in this regard. Plan:- You need to plan your day. Otherwise, youll allocate your time according to whatever happens from time to time during the day and you will find yourself making the fatal mistake of dealing primarily with problems rather than on opportunities. Start each day by making a general schedule, with particular emphasis on the two or three major things you would like to accomplish - including things that will achieve long term goals. Write down all the things that have to be done and estimate how long they are going to take. Set deadlines with sufficient safety margins so that you complete jobs ahead of deadlines. Remember studies prove what commonsense tells us: the more time we spend planning a project, the less total time is required for it. Dont let todays routine work crowd out your planned schedule. Concentrate:- Of all the principles of time management, none is more basic than concentration. People who have serious time management problems invariably are trying to do too many things at once. The amount of time spent on a project is not what counts: its the amount of uninterrupted time. Few problems can resist an all out attack; few can be solved piecemeal. Take Breaks:- Flow with your attention span rather than go against it. To work for long periods without taking a break is not effective use of time. Energy decreases, boredom sets in, and physical stress and tension accumulate. Switching off for a few minutes from a mental task to something physical - light exercise, walking around or even changing from a sitting position to a standing position for a while can provide relief. Merely resting, however, is often the best course, and you should not think of a rest-break as poor use of time. Refreshing not only increases your efficiency but also relieves tension which is beneficial for your health. Avoid Clutter:- Some people have a constant swirl of papers on their desks and assume that somehow the most important matters will float to the top. In most cases, however, clutter hinders concentration and can create tension and frustration - a feeling of being buried under. Whenever you find your table becoming chaotic, take time out to reorganize. Go through all your papers (making generous use of the wastepaper basket) and divide them into categories:

1) Immediate action 2) Low priority 3) Pending 4) Reading material. Put the highest priority item from your first pile your desk, then put everything else out of sight. Remember, you can think of only one thing at a time, and you can work on only one task at a time. So, focus all your attention on the most important one. A final point; clearing the desk completely, or at least organizing it, each evening should be standard practice. It gets the next day off to a good start. Don.t be a Perfectionist:- There is a difference between striving for excellence and striving for perfection. The first is attainable, gratifying and healthy. The second is often unattainable and frustrating. Its also unnecessary waste of time. Be practical in this regard Don.t be Afraid to say no:- Of all the time-saving techniques ever developed, perhaps the most effective is frequent use of the word NO. Learn to decline, tactfully but firmly, every request that does not contribute to your goals. If you point out that your motivation is not to get out of work but to save your time to do a better job on the really important things, youll have a good chance of avoiding unproductive tasks. Remember, many people who worry about offending others wind up living according to other peoples priorities. Don.t Procrastinate:- Procrastination is usually a deeprooted habit. But we can change our habits provided we use the right system. William James, the father of Americal Psychology, discussed such a system in his famous work Principles of Psychology. It works as follows: a) Decide to start changing as soon as you finish reading this article, while you are motivated. Taking that first step promptly is important. b) Dont try to do too much too quickly. Just force yourself right now to do one thing you have been putting off. Beginning from tomorrow morning start each day by doing one task on your schedule which you have been putting off. Analyse the reasons for putting off a particular task. Thinking on the task and analysing the risks and rewards associated with it helps you in motivation. Apply Radical Surgery:- Time-wasting activities are like cancers. They drain off vitality and have a tendency to grow. The only cure is radical surgery. If you are wasting your time in activities that bore you, divert you from your real goals and sap your energy, cut them out, once and for all. The principle applies to personal habits, routines and activities as much as to ones associated with your work. Check your engagement diary, your extracurricular activities, your reading list, your television viewing habits and axe everything that doesnt give you a feeling of accomplishment or satisfaction. Delegate:- Use a two-phased approach: first educate the people concerning the rules; second, select capable leaders and give them full authority over routine matters, so that you can concentrate on major decisions. One caution: giving subordinates jobs that neither you nor anyone else wants to do isnt delegating, its

assigning. Learn to delegate the challenging and rewarding tasks, along with sufficient authority to make necessary decisions. It can help to free your time. Don.t be a .Workaholic:- Most successful executives work long hours, but they dont let work interfere with the really important things in life, such as friends and family. This differentiates from the workaholic who becomes addicted to work just as people become addicted to alcohol. Don.t get into Finish Mania:- A compulsive completers life can be too neat, tight and narrow. They are likely to end as workaholics. Compulsive completers risk being stuck in a dead-end job in order not to be a quitter. Evaluate the payoff of such patience. Be Pragmatic:- Above all, cultivate a sense of humour. When something prevents you from completing a task that seems urgently important, take a minute to look around, and enjoy the respite. You may even laugh at the situation. Getting on in ones life may be more important than finishing a task which gives you limited returns. Above all else, good time management involves an awareness that today is all we ever have to work with. The past is irretrievably gone, the future is only a concept. Keep the slogan Do it now on your desk in front of you. Here is a quotation by an unknown philosopherYesterday is a cancelled cheque Tomorrow is a promissory note Today is ready cash, Use it.

5.

Explain the qualities for a good personality development. 8 Marks Ans:- Personality is the overall impression that a person creates on others. It is the integrated image of all the psychological, intellectual, emotional and physical characteristics of an individual as they are presented to other people. A good personality is vital for success in the professional as well as personal life. It depends on a number of qualities but few of the important ones are given below. Awareness of these qualities along with self-appraisal and efforts for improvement of shortcomings can greatly help in the development of a good personality. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:- Visual impact is the first impression that you make on others. Factors which help are cleanliness, proper clothing, smartness and cheerfulness. Try to be at your visual best always. COMMUNICATION SKILLS:- Communication skills play a very important role in your personality rating. Communication Skills comprises of speaking ability, comprehension, voice culture as well as writing skills. Also, if you are a good conversationalist as well as a good listener and genuinely interested in other people, you can win many friends and make a good impression on others. KNOWLEDGE:- A wide and perspective knowledge in addition to depth in your own field of study greatly helps in the building up of your personality. This needs wide reading and assimilation, observation and inquisitiveness to learn and also interaction with learned and experienced people. SKILLS - (PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL):- Development of pertinent skills needed for your professional work and personal life greatly enhances your personality. Some of the important ones are leadership skills, organisational skills, practical skills in your field, human management skills, entertainment skills including some basic skills like first-aid, cooking, driving etc. SELF-CONFIDENCE:- It is the confidence in ones own powers which helps in taking up responsibilities and initiative to do things. Self-confidence can greatly perk up your image

and help you in giving a dynamic personality. Courage, logical analysis and successful experiences greatly help in boosting up your self-confidence. PERSONAL QUALITIES:- To a great extent, it is the personal qualities which constitute and give shape to your personality. Some of the important qualities which help towards a good personality build-up are the following: character and morality; etiquette and manners; discipline; work ethics; time management; friendliness and love; humour; optimism and cheerful attitude; helpful nature; humility; maturity and emotional stability. HEALTH:- Good and robust health is an essential and necessary quality for a good personality. Without good health you become ineffective even if you possess all other qualities and achievements. ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS:- An active interest in a wide variety of things like sports, cultural activities, social activities, as well as interest in some hobbies go a long way in giving an alrounded personality to an individual. ACHIEVEMENTS AND SUCCESS:- Finally, achievements and success are factors which enhances your personality and image. They, in turn, bring popularity and more opportunities. They are great motivating factors which will give a boost to your personality.

6.

Explain the characteristics of successful people. 7 Marks Ans:-A n analysis of the characteristics of successful people have revealed the following common traits among them: COMMON SENSE:- This is the most prevalent quality among the top achievers. Common Sense means the ability to render sound, practical judgements on everyday affairs. To do this, one has to sweep aside extraneous ideas and get right to the core of what matters. The key ability for success is simplification. This ability enables a person to reduce a complex problem to a simple one. Common Sense is to some extent an in-born trait, but one can develop and increase it by analysis, observation and learning from experience. KNOWING ONE.S OWN FIELD:- Specialised knowledge in ones field is the second most common trait among successful men. Successful achievers need to have a practical understanding of the crafts in their field. This knowledge can come not only through formal education but also through self-education. On any assignment, it is important to do the necessary homework. Nothing helps success more than knowing what one is doing. It reduces the risks and works like an insurance policy for ones own ability. SELF-RELIANCE:- Top achievers rely primarily on their own resources and abilities. Selfreliance is not how you feel or how good you are; rather, its whether you have the shrewdness to take definitve action to get things moving in your life. It includes will power and the ability to set goals. Will power encompasses the ability to be a self-starter and to perservere after a project has begun. GENERAL INTELLIGENCE:- This is essential for outstanding achievement because it involves the natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts quickly and to analyse them clearly and incisively. The general intelligence includes an extensive vocabulary and good reading and writing skills besides IQ. It has been found that an enquiring mind and broadranging interests are fundamental to success. ABILITY TO GET THINGS DONE:- Successful people are generally very efficient in accomplishing their tasks. Three important qualities required for this are: Organisational ability, good work habits and diligence. Besides the five abilities listed above, there are other factors that influence success; leadership, creativity, relationship with others and of

course, luck. But the above five qualities stand out. If you cultivate these traits, chances are you will succeed.

7.

List out and explain the TEN successful traits for an IT - TyRO. 8 Marks

Ans:- The Ten successful traits for an IT-Tyro are:-

(1) Self-learning ability (2) Be an eternal student (3) Effective communication (4) Human engineering (5) Time management (6) Leadership and team work (7) Stress management (8) Extrovertness and travel (9) Good health (10) Self-motivation, goal setting and calculated risk-taking

8.

Explain the features of good paragraphs. 7 Marks Ans:- Read through the following paragraphs and state which one is good and state reasons for your decision. Paragraph A Teenagers spend a lot of time playing computer games. Long hours spent gazing at the monitor can hurt the eye. Time spent on computer games is time away from studies. Often parents and teachers object because this seems a great way for teenagers to waste time. May be this is true or may be not. Computer games are addictive. You can go on playing in order to increase your score but very often, after playing for a long time, fatigue and boredom set in. Another good thing about playing computer games is that it teaches eye-hand co-ordination. Also teenagers learn to look out for all the various options in more complex games. This is a problem-solving approach, so there are benefits from playing computer games. Paragraph B Teenagers spend a lot of time playing computer games. Often parents and teachers object because this seems to be a great way of teenagers to waste time. And to some extent they are right. Computer games are quite addictive once started on a game, it is difficult not to go on and on aiming for increasing scores. But one can hope that fatigue and some degree of boredom will set in at last, so that the teenager gets unhooked. Granted it is not always so. It is important to remember that computer games have their benefits as well. To begin with , they promote a certain level of eye-handcoordination. Also as games get more complex, teenagers learn to look for all possible options and for ways to beat the game. As a result, it can be a fun way for them to acquire a problem-solving approach. I am sure you would have rightly concluded that Paragraph B is better than Paragraph A Paragraph A lacks coherence and as a result meaning does not emerge smoothly. Paragraph B displays a coherent development of the idea. Some of the problems in paragraph A are: l It does not have proper linking devices. On the other hand it has misleading linking devices. For example, another good thing about playing computer games (without mentioning any good things before this sentence, the linking device another is meaningless and also misleading.) Sentences are not logically arranged It includes certain unnecessary sentences Eg Long hours spent gazing at the monitor can hurt the eye. All the sentences do not contribute to the central idea. Meaning comes out only after some struggle and difficulty. whereas Paragraph B exhibits coherence, and cohesion. It merits are:

It has made good use of linking device. The first three sentences of the paragraph use pronouns they, and this to refer to computer games and parents and teachers. They link the sentences very well. Key words are repeated to get across the meaning more effectively. The repetitive use of the words computer games lends the paragraph a sense of unity. It is also responsible for the smooth flow of words. But repetition of words unnecessarily can make the paragraph tedious and unreadable. Use of like meaning words instead of repeating the same word is also a kind of linking device. The words benefit, learn and acquire are used while discussing the advantages of a computer games. Apart from linking words, which are usually found in the beginning of a sentence certain short sentences or utterances signal the position or sequence of ideas. They help the readers to get the meaning easily just as signposts make it easier for a traveler to find his way. In this paragraph sentences like Granted it is not always so is one such example which expresses the possibility of a contradiction of views from the positive effects of computer games to the negative effects. To begin with is another example of such a linking device. Sentences are logically arranged. (For example the sentence, it is important to remember that computer games have their benefits as well marks a transition from the arguments against computer games to arguments in favour of the same. This is absent in the paragraph A. Another example of logicality and sequencing is that the paragraph B mentions the simple benefit of eyehand co-ordination before mentioning the more complex problem solving benefit.) It does not include irrelevant sentences All the sentences are directly related to the topic sentence. Meaning emerges smoothly and effortlessly.

9.

Write a letter to sub inspector of pollee regarding complaint against theft of motor cycle. Ans:A Bangalore July 14, 2005 B To The Sub Inspector of Police Police Station Seshadripuram Bangalore Sir, C Sub: Complaint against theft of Motor Cycle D

E1 I would like to lodge a complaint against the theft of my motor cycle. E2 My motor cycle ( Bajaj - Pulsar) with registration number KA 36 3412 has been stolen from the premises of National College, Seshadripuram, Bangalore around 7 PM, February 10, 2005. The vehicle was kept in the parking area around the canteen and locked around 6 PM. E3 It is a 2004 model, crimson blue in colour and is in brand new condition. Its engine number is C43534343980. On the handle bar, my name Shiv is engraved. On the rear number plate there is a glow sign caption STOP. The RC book, Insurance papers and my driving license are kept in the glove kit. E4 I kindly request you to look into the matter and do the needful to recover the motor cycle at the earliest. Thanking you, F Yours Sincerely, (K. Shivanna) 12-09-87, 2nd Street, Seshadripuram Bangalore 560 007 Tel : 2304 2987 Email : shiv@rediffmail.com Encl: A recent photograph of the motorcycle. Copy of the registration certificate G

10.

List out important dos and donts in using of body language. 8 Marks

Ans:- In face to face communication, body language plays an important role. The main rule about body language is that it should not be distractive to the audience. It should be a used as an additional support to effective communication. Some of the dos and donts about body language in a presentation are: Dos Establish a good eye contact Look confident Be dressed neat ( care for appropriate colour and design of your dress) Sound interested in the audience (polite tone, pleasing mannerisms) Use facial gestures effectively to provide instant feedback to the audience Acknowledge audience response appropriately by using gestures. Donts Do not distract the audience by unnecessary movements of your hands legs. Do not cover your face with your hands, hand kerchief, pencil, pen or any other material. Do not stare at a section of the audience Do not ignore any part of the audience Do not show fatigue, or disinterested ness. List the important strength in you. 4 Marks

11.

How do you motivate and change people to your view point and activity without any resentment. 5 Marks

Ans:- The only way to influence a person is to talk about what he wants and showing him how to get it. Remember that action springs out from what we fundamentally desire. The best piece of advice which can be given to would be persuaders whether in business, in the home, in the school, or in any field is: First arouse in the other person an eager want. He who can do this has the whole world with him. He who cannot walks a lonely way. Tomorrow you may want to persuade somebody to do something. Before you speak, pause and ask: How can I make him want to do this?. You must first put yourself in the other mans shoes and see the problem as he sees it. Always try to see the result of your decision from the other mans point of view. Consider all the angles. Dont be impulsive. Here is one of the best bits of advice ever given about the fine art of human relationship. If there is one secret of success said Henry Ford, It lies in the ability to get the other persons point of view and see things from his angles as well as your own. That is so simple, so obvious. Yet 90% of the people on this earth ignore it 90% of the time. If a salesman can show us how his services or his merchandise will help us solve our problems, he wont need to sell us. We will buy. And, remember, a customer likes to feel that he is buying and not being sold. Success in dealing with people depends on a sympathetic grasp of the other mans point of view. Remember that even if the other person is totally wrong, he doesnt think so. Dont condemn him. Try to understand him. There is a reason why the other person thinks and acts as he does. Ferret out the hidden reason and you have the key to his action and perhaps also to his personality.

12.

Briefly write about the importance of team building in any organization. 5 Marks Ans:-

13. 14. 15. 16.

What qualities in you need improvement to be a team person? How do you propose to modify them? 10 Marks Identify five things, which you are using at home or office. Mention why you need it. 5 Marks List out some of the important does and donts in dinnig etiquette to be followed with guests. 5 Marks Write a dialogue between you and your friend regarding a class picnic. 5 Marks Ans:- Practice reading the conversation given below and answer the questions given below. You can call your friend to be your partner to practice this dialogue. Basavappa Srinidhi Basavappa Srinidhi Basavappa : Good Morning, Sri. How are you? : Fine Basu. Getting on well? How about you? : I am fine. It has been a long time to have seen you : Well,,, I was traveling quite often these days : I see. I am sure you enjoyed your travels.

Srinidhi : I always like traveling. It is great fun to see new places and meet new people. I am sure you like traveling too. Basavappa : Well. I do like to travel. I havent had many chances. I am planning to visit Delhi this December Srinidhi : Delhi will be very cold in December. You need to carry warm clothes Basavappa : I like winter. It is my favourite season. I dont even wear too many warm clothes. I wear only if it is absolutely necessary. Srinidhi : That is very interesting. But I cant stand cold. I need warm clothes even for mild winters. Basavappa : You wont be able to live in cold places, then. Srinidhi : I can live but with lot difficulty. Basavappa : Well Sri. Which is your most favourite city. Srinidhi : I like Bangalore. Basavappa : Why. I dont like Bangalore. It is very noisy and polluted. Traffic jams are a nightmare. I like a smaller place. Srinidhi : Well Bangalore is a city of opportunities, the software hub of India. It has lot of life. I love this place. Basavappa : Alright Sri, I should be moving to my office now. It is time I left. Okay. See you and all the best. Srinidhi : Bye. All the best.

17.

What is reading? What are the different kinds of reading? 5 Marks Ans:- Reading is an important communication skill. With respect to communication in English you spend more time in reading and understanding texts or some reading materials than writing, speaking or listening. You read for a variety of purposes. Some of them are examinations, learning a subject, pleasure, information and so on. Reading is a meaningless activity if it is done without understanding. Some people tend to wrongly understand reading as an activity of reading aloud a text. Reading aloud is possible without understanding. That cannot be considered as reading. Reading means understanding a text. Reading is of different types. You do not read for every purpose the same way. For instance, the way you would read text books for your examinations would be different from the way you would read newspapers for information. If you are reading a novel for pleasure, it would again be a different kind of reading. I am sure you would agree with me. What is the difference in each of these different kinds of reading. The difference main lies in the way you understand the meaning of the text. Sometimes it is enough if you understand just for the time being. You need not remember it always. Then you would read for surface level meaning. When you read text books you read for a deeper understanding, concept forming and also remembering for writing the examinations. This is a deeper level of reading. Therefore depending on the level of understanding or comprehension the kind of reading varies from a surface level reading to deeper levels of reading such as concept forming, interpretation, critical evaluation, etc.,

18.

List out the reasons for rejection in interviews. 6 Marks Ans:- It may also be educative to know the common reasons why interviewees get rejected. a) Poor physical projection b) Lack of courtesy and manners c) Over-emphasis on money rather than growth prospects d) Lack of career plan and goal e) Dishonest

f) Over-ambitious g) Immaturity h) Condemnation of past organisation and bosses i) Poor communication skills j) Disturbed family or marital life k) No real interest in the job or organisation 1) Lack of knowledge m) Lack of past achievements n) Uses influence o) Lack of mobility in transfers p) Lazy q) Low moral standards r) Non-punctual s) Extreme ideas and values t) Bluffer u) Purely theoretical and no practical outlook v) Lack of self-confidence w) Casual approach

19.

Explain the basic strategies for a fast start on your new job. 5 Marks (repeted-3) Ans:- Astrong early showing can give a rocket boost-up to your career. A fast and impressive start on your first job can be a trendsetter to your whole career towards success. Because, the faster you rise the higher you aim. Conversely, a plodding start induces lower expectations and curtails ambition levels. Given below are six basic strategies which have helped successful people in their careers. 1) MAKE YOURSELF VISIBLE EARLY: Ensure that your performance on your job is felt and recognised by others at the earliest. 2) OVERDO YOUR FIRST ASSIGNMENT: Go out of the way and put in all the efforts you can to ensure complete success of your initial assignments. If necessary, double the workload that you put in compared to others to achieve your objectives. 3) ACQUIRE FULL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ALL ASPECTS OF YOUR ORGANISATION: Take initiative to gather information and understand all aspects of your Organisation. If you become a knowledgeable and authoritative information person in the organisation, it can be a great advantage to your career growth. 4) TAKE INITIATIVE AND ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY: Management values a new employee who takes the initiative to grab a challenge and puts in his best efforts to make a success of it. Self-confidence and boldness brings out latent capabilities of individuals in a far greater measure than most of us realise. 5) ACCELERATE YOUR ENTHUSIASM: An enthusiastic newcomer can spark and light up a whole department. Even cynical old hands are likely to give a helping hand to an enthusiastic new person. If you want to be enthusiastic, act enthusiastic; Inner enthusiasm follows, and it is likely to have an echo effect on colleagues and bosses. 6) BE BOLD TO CHANGE ENTRENCHED METHODS: Realise that there is always scope to think new on any assignment. You could be creative on any type of job. Any innovation or

improvement introduced by you would be a great credential for your career

20.

Explain the hints to tap your hidden potentials. 5 Marks Ans:- Here are a few hints to tap your hidden potential so that you bring out your full capabilities on any task that you undertake. POSITIVE ATTITUDE:- Positive outlook is an important key to tap your inner resources. Appreciation and encouragement are wonderful catalysts which trigger people to unexpected levels of work and efficiency. Use it on others as well as on yourself to accomplish your tasks. SET PRIORITIES:- To accomplish tasks efficiently, . it is necessary to set your priorities clear. Mental lassitude is often cured by a clearly set goal. You must realise that you cannot do too many things at the same time. But you are likely to achieve many things if you start working on tasks one after another, choosing them according to the order of importance to you. MAKE COMMITMENTS:- Working against firm deadlines generally brings out your best capabilities for any task. Deadlines bring out a flood of energy and talent from persons. If an extenally imposed deadline is not available, set one for yourself and take it seriously. Make it public to keep up your prestige and it helps. BE PRAGMATIC:- Dont try for perfection at each stage. It delays and results in setback. Try for reasonable excellence commensurate with the time frame. Enjoy the accomplishments as you progress.It acts like a motivator. BEGIN AND KEEP GOING:- Take time for wise planning but start soon. Whatever you can do or think you can do - begin it. Once you begin any task, it gives you the necessary momentum to convert your potential energy to kinetic energy.

21.

Explain Maslows hierarchy of needs theory and Herzborgs categories of goal pertaining to Human Engineering. 7 Marks Ans:- Given below is a synthesized chart of human needs and work goals as per Maslows hierarchy of needs and also according to Herzbergs categories of goals. A study of this chart gives an insight to the basis of human needs and motivation. SELF-FULFILMENT Challenging Work Growth Potential Job Responsibility ESTEEM Status Ego Respect Advancement Recognition & MOTIVATIONAL FORCES Achievement

Reach-potential

MAINTENANCE

OR HYGIENIC SOCIAL S LOWER Love Belonging LEVELS UPPER LEVEL

SAFETY Security Relations Protection mpany policy Wor kng conditions Job Security Sal ary & Belefits PHYSIOLOGICAL Hunger Thirst Sex MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORYHERZBERGS CATEGORIES OF GOAL
Maslow.s hierarchy of needs theory Abraham Maslow who is known as the father of humanist psychology has set out a theory of humanist needs. According to Maslow, human needs form a hierarchy. They are like a pyramid with the physical needs at the base while self-realization is at the apex. Let us briefly review the hierarchy of needs.

Interpersonal Supervision Co

The physical needs


Consider any person without any job and without any other source of income. He is without food. He is starving. In such circumstances he wants nothing but some food. Food is a physical need which is a most pressing one. Other basic needs are air, water, clothing, sleep, shelter and sex.

The safety needs


Let us say the man is fortunate and finds a job. He gets food but assume that his work is dangerous and the job is temporary. He now seeks safety. He wants to protect himself while at work and he strives to ensure that his employment is permanent.

The social needs


Consider that his management is sympathetic and he has a safe and permanent job. But still, he is not happy and contented because he feels lonely. Now he begins to look around for friends. Man is a social being. His quest for friends, their company and love is eternal and irrepressible. This now becomes his most pressing need. He cannot work properly without his workmates.

The esteem needs


Even when surrounded by loving friends, inwardly he is unhappy. He feels insecure. He is tortured by a sense of inferiority complex. He now badly requires some measure of self-confidence and self-respect. He must be able to assure himself that he can work independently, can do difficult jobs and stand on his own legs.

A stage is reached when he feels that he has developed a good measure of confidence. But he is assailed by fresh doubts.. He now wants this inward feeling to be confirmed by others. He seeks appreciation and recognition without which he feels uneasy. These are now his dominant desires.

Self-realisation
When appreciation and recognition are forthcoming in abundant measure, his mind turns its focus inwards and he wonders whether he has in fact fully realised his potential, whether he has reached his summit of his performance. Self-realisation is the supreme goal in human life. Man is never fully satisfied. He is always in search of something which he does not possess. He therefore remains active. It is the unsatisfied need that motivates a person. A contented person becomes inactive and apathetic. A healthy and ambitious person strives to achieve self-perfection. Herzberg.s motivation-hygiene theory This celebrated theory was developed by Prof. Frederick Herzberg in his book Work and the nature of man. The performance of a person is influenced by a variety of factors such as his salary, companys general policy, prospects for promotion, nature of work and opportunities, for creative work. According to Herzberg, these factors may be classified into two categories - hygienic factors and motivational factors. More specifically, the hygienic factors are salary, company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations and working conditions. The motivator factors are achievement, recognition, interesting and challenging work, responsibility and advancement for growth. The hygienic factors satisfy the animal needs of man. It is only the motivator factors which satisfy the truly human or psychological needs. Salary, for instance, is an animal need and it cannot, according to Herzberg, motivate a man to achieve peak performance. It is the urge for psychological growth, inherent interest in challenging work, that makes a man work to the best of his capacity. We have seen that man wants to grow psychologically. Animals have no such urge. Psychological growth has several aspects - knowledge, understanding, creativity, capacity to deal with ambiguous situations and maturity. This theory has several far-reaching implications. The first is that hygienic factors such as wages and salaries do not lead to improved performance. It is the motivational factors like recognition, responsible work and advancement that alone can make executives truly dynamic. Another conclusion that emerges from this theory is that it is through work that a person develops himself psychologically. It is therefore in everyones own interest to take maximum interest in ones own work.

22. 23.

What are the different features of spoken english. 5 Marks

List out your responses to ten typical questions in job interviews. 10 Marks Ans:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Tell us about yourself? What are your strengths and weaknesses? Tell us about your family background? How do you spend your spare time? Why do you want to leave your present job? Why did you choose your particular field of work? Why do you want to join this organization? Where do you see yourself in 5-10 years time? What subjects you liked most during your studies? What are your salary expectations? Give your response to these questions like-

i.

Tell about your brief introduction including your name, last qualification and in which field you r confident. ii. List here your strength and weakness

iii.

Tell about your family including that your father name, his occupation your mother occupation, how many brother and sister you have? What are doing?. iv. Tell here, how do you spent your extra time, to read, to enjoy, to travel, to shopping etc.

v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.


24.

The cause of leaving the previous job. The region for choosing the particular field. Region for joining that particular organization.

What will you looking or thinking about yourself after spending next five-ten years of your life? The subject you like most. How much salary you expectation?

What are the advantages of non-verbal communication when do we use them? 5 Marks Ans:- In technical and business writing it is common to represent information using graphic or non verbal forms. Some of the non verbal modes of communication that are tables, pie charts, bar charts, line graphs, flow charts, tree diagrams etc., Non verbal communication is useful in technical and business writing because it presents information in a very clear and precise manner. It facilitates easy and deeper comprehension amongst readers. It is possible to grasp a lot of data and make comparisons and contrasts by a mere glance. As students of IT, it is very important to acquire the skill of interpreting graphic data and also encoding information in a suitable graphic media In this section you will learn to interpret graphic communication and also transfer them into the verbal mode. Look at the following graphic representation about the distribution of students from different states in a class and read the description given below.

KER 5% UP 14% HP 8%
Description

KAR 13% AP 25%

AP: Andhra Pradesh TN: Tamil Nadu OR: Orissa MP: Madhya Pradesh HP: Himachal Pradesh UP: Uttar Pradesh KER: Kerala KAR: Karnataka

TN 13% MP 11% OR 11%

Introductory Statement (what the graphic representation about)

The pie chart shows the distribution of students from different states in a class. is The maximum number of students in the class is drawn from Andhra Pradesh accounting for a quarter of the strength of the of the class.(25% of the class ). This is closed followed by students from Uttar Pradesh who occupy 14% of the strength of the class. This is again closely followed in the case of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka with 13 % of the class strength in each. Simiilary, the states of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh have an equal share of students, namely, 11% of the total number of students in each. The next lesser number of students are seen in Himanachal Pradesh with 8 % of the students. Kerala, one of the small states, in the country occupies the last position in terms of the number of students in class with a meager 5% . The distribution of students in the class is more or less in at least four states, namely, UP, TN, KAR, OR and MP wherein the percentage of students ranges from 11 to 14. AP tops the list whereas Kerala occupies the last position in their share of students in the class.

Details in full (statement of the quanity, state, Linking Devices

Summing Statement

up

25.

What are the different methods of presentation? What is their advantages and disadvantages.7 Marks
Ans:- Presentations are made in many ways. Sometimes the paper is just read. Sometimes speakers memorize the entire presentation, make note cards and deliver the speech with the help of the note cards or a power point presentation. The third way is to do it extempore. In this method the speaker has only the main points in the form of note cards. He has not memorized the text before hand. He would deliver it natural on the spot. Well all the three types have their own advantages and disadvantages. It depends a lot on who the speaker is. If the speaker is very good in reading a paper naturally and make the audience understand 953 Montieth Road every idea that is conveyed reading a paper is alright. But the disadvantage in reading is in the proper use Chennai of language. Since the audience are going to listen to the speech and not read the speech, 600 023 the language of the presentation should be closer to the language of speech than the language of writing. If the written July 15, 2005 language were used, it would be very difficult for the audience to follow. Some of the characteristics of Ms. Amsaveni spoken language are, broken utterance, meaningful repetition, colloquial expressions, meaningful pauses, Manager appropriate body gestures and simple language. Lunar Solutions If the presentation Inc. is a memorized one, it would be easy for the audience to understand as long as it sounds natural. If the speaker gives an impression that it is memorized, then the audience will tend to lose 1295 Thane Road interest. The deliver can become mechanical. But in the hands of a talented presenter even a memorized Mumbai ,400 034

speech can be delivered as normal as possible. Dear Amsaveni,

Presentation isfor very provided the speaker a proficient of the He I would Extempore like to sincerely thank you thegood time that you spent with me is last Thursday, user briefing melanguage. on should also be an experienced speaker to handle an extempore efficiently. your companys background and operations, and interviewing me for the position of Administive Co-Ordinator in your organization. 26. With example for each, explain different parts of formal and informal letter writing. I was very pleased with the interview from my perspective, as I hope you were from yours. Now

that I have met you and some of your colleagues, and know more about the activities of Lunar Ans:Formal Solutions, I am even more letter: excited about the possibility of working with you and your team than I Given below is a formal thanks letter from a candidate to the Manager of was before the interview. I feel that this job would be a perfect fit for my skills and abilities, and that company after the interview for a post I would definitely be a value-added addition to your company. If you have any follow-up questions, please dont hesitate to call me at (613) 820-7359 or by e-mail at jalexus@sprint.com. I look forward to hearing from you in the near future. Yours sincerely, Jason Alexus

Informal: June 15, 2005 Dear Raju, I am fine. How are you? Its been long since I heard from you. I thought I would get in touch with you to say Hi and break this long silence. I have been rather busy these days. I am doing a course on Multimedia with Arena Soft. It is damn good. The institute gives you a cozy room, good air-conditioning, nice location. everything is good. The course is good too. I am taught photoshop, director and flash. Very interesting. I would always be reminded of your art work , creativity, and imagination. This course would best suit you, I bet. Well you have chosen to be a doctor, so you may not be interested in this course. Well with a mere graduation in economics, I find my future rather gloomy in the job market. I need to equip myself with some skills relevant to todays job. I think this course would place me at a good position. Let us see Do you think that it is a good idea to pursue this course. It is damn expensivethey charge me Rs.30000/ for every six moths and it is a 18 month course. Well. I want to meet you sometime. Why dont you come down this weekend? It is a holiday on Friday too. Let us go cycling into the countryside, swim in the well, pluck and eat mangoes. There is a festival of the village deity this weekend. The place would be very colourful and lively. What do you say? Let me know soon if you would come. I shall make all the arrangements.

Ok, Raju, Bye! Hope to hear from you soon. Love, Ravi

27.

Write nine ways to change people without giving offence or arousing Resentment. 7 Ans:Begin with honest praise and appreciation:- It is always easier to listen to unpleasant things after we have heard some praise of our good points so, if you must find fault, first appreciate the good points in the other person. Call attention to people.s mistakes indirectly:- If you have to criticise and not be hated for it, dont directly condemn it. Tell it indirectly. Give suggestions instead of giving direct orders:- A technique of giving suggestions rather than curt orders makes the other person co-operate rather than rebel. It saves a mans pride and gives him a feeling of importance. Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person:- It isnt nearly so difficult to listen to a recital of your own faults if the criticizer begins humbly by admitting that he too is far from infallible. Let the other man save his face:- It is important, that our actions, however inevitable, does not hurt the other persons pride. How often we ride roughshod over the feelings of others, getting our own way, finding faults, issuing threats, criticising a person in front of others without even bothering about the hurt to the other persons pride? Whereas a few minutes thought, a considerate word or two, a genuine understanding of the other persons attitude would go a long way in alleviating the sting. To spur men to success, be hearty in your approbation and lavish in your praise:- If you and I inspire the people with whom we come in contact to a realisation of the hidden treasures they possess, we can do far more than change people. We can literally transform them. Prof. William Jamees of Harvard, the distinguished psychologist & philosopher of America has said, Compared with what we ought to be we are only half awake. We are only using a small part of our physical and mental resources. Stating the thing broadly, the human individual lives far within his limits. He possesses powers of various sorts which he habitually fails to use. And one of these powers which we are not using to the fullest extent is the magic ability to praise people and inspire them with a realisation of their latent potentialities. So, to change people, praise the slightest improvement, and praise every improvement. Give a man a fine reputation to live up to:- If you want to improve a person in a certain respect, act as though that particular trait were already one of his outstanding characteristics. It might well be to assume and state openly that the other person has the virtue you want him to develop. If you give him a fine reputation to live up to, most of the time he will put in prodigious efforts to live up to it rather than see you disillusioned. The average man can be led readily if you show him that you respect him for some kind of ability.

Make the fault seem easy to correct:- If you tell a person that he is stupid or dumb at certain thing, and that he has no gift for it, and that he is doing it all wrong, you would have destroyed almost every incentive for him to try to improve. But, use the opposite technique-be liberal with your encouragement; make the thing easy to do; let the other know that you have faith in his ability to do it, and that he has an undeveloped flair for it and he will practice and put in all his effort in order to excel. So, if you want to change people, use encouragement. Make the fault you want to correct seem easy to correct .Make the thing you want the other person to do seem easy to do. Make people glad to do what you want:- If you make the other person feel happy about the things you suggest, he will in all probability put in his best effort.

28.

How to learn to communicate? 8 Ans:- In the previous section you learnt what is COMMUNICATION SKILL. Now you need to reflect on how to improve your communication skills. Just as there are partial views of what is communication, there are incomplete views about how to improve communication. Some might think that they should improve their language (grammar/vocabulary/sentence structures) to improve communication. Some other may believe in improving their spoken ability alone is enough to improve communication.. There is also a view that communication would automatically improve without consciously doing anything about it. Let us discuss some of these view points to helping you decide on a correct path to improve communication. After reading this section you should be able plan your own self-activities to improve your communication skills. Now go through the list of activities given below. Read them carefully and think how useful each one of them is for improving communication skills. You may classify them into the following categories: Very Useful Useful Not so useful 1. Reading books 2. Reading newspapers, magazine 3. Listening to news channels on TV 4. Listening to news on Radio 5. Improving vocabulary 6. Learning grammar 7. Watching serials on TV 8. Speaking in the language in a variety of situations 9. Improving pronunciation 10.Improving body language 11.Improving dressing styles 12.Logical thought process 13.Developing a Sense of humour 14.Making use of a dictionary 15.Reading books on communication skills Well, as Communication is a skill, one can acquire it only by practice. There is no other way to improve writing than to communicate in real life. Communication can take place through speech, writing, and body language. Listening and reading are also acts of communication. Therefore in the list of activities

mentioned above all the activities are useful in some way or the other. But the degree of usefulness differ. One would waste time if he pursue the not so useful activities. He is likely to profit if he know which are the useful and the very useful activities. Once you decide on these aspects you can profit by doing the right things to achieve good skills in communication. After you categorized the above activities under the three headings given above, look at the way it has been done for you. Do you agree/disagree with it. Why? Very Useful : 1,2,3,4,8,9, 12, Useful : 5,6,7,10,11,13 Not so useful : 14,15

29.

Write a note on how to learn to write. 7 Ans:- In the previous section you learnt what is writing. Now you need to reflect on how to improve your writing. Just as there are partial views of what is writing, people do hold incomplete views about how to improve writing. Some might think that they should improve their grammar/vocabulary/sentence structures to improve writing. Some other may believe in improving their writing through wide reading. There is also a view that writing would automatically improve without consciously doing anything about it. Let us discuss some of these view points to helping you decide on a correct path to improve written English. After reading this section you should be able plan your own self activities to improve your writing skills. Let us first all check your views on improving writing. Think of your own methods or strategy for improving writing and write down all the activities that you have been involved in for the purpose of improving your writing: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ __________________ Now go through the list given below. Mention the activities that you have included in the list of activities that you made just now that are not included here you have mentioned in your list which you think are not useful. Give reasons. that are most useful 1. Reading books silently 2. Reading books aloud 3. Listening to TV 4. Writing sentences using difficult words 5. Improving vocabulary 6. Learning grammar 7. Writing paragraphs on familiar ideas 8. Writing essays on familiar topics 9. Writing letters, emails etc. 10.Learning proverbs 11. Learning punctuation 12.Taking dictation 13.Reading pictures

14.Reading newspaper 15.Speaking in English daily Well, as writing is a skill, one can acquire it only by practice. There is no other way to improve writing than to write, review, rewrite several times till the writer is satisfied that the piece of writing is good. Therefore in the list of activities mentioned above all the writing activities are useful to improve writing. Reading, listening and speaking may have their influence on our writing but they play a less important role. They will be useful only if we practice writing. If we are in the habit of writing, then our reading , speaking and listening activities also help. If we do not write anything original and only depend on other activities that would not serve the purpose. The act of writing and rewriting the same text till our satisfaction is called the process approach to writing.

30.

Write a paragraph on telephone communication is entirely different from that of a post. 8 Ans:-

31.

What are the features of presentation and public speaking? 8 Ans:- In this unit attempt is made to help you improve your presentation and public speaking skills. In order to make a successful presentation one has to take the following steps: BE CLEAR ABOUT THE OCCASION The speaker should be clear about the purpose of his presentation. The organization of the matter, presentation technique and all other aspects would be guided by the purpose of the presentation. The different purposes for which presentations are generally made are: launching a new product, starting a training course, presenting a new business plan, making a marketing or sales proposal, contribution to a seminar / conference and so on. The presentation techniques would vary from one purpose to the other ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIENCE It is very important to know who the presentation is meant for. The age, sex, nationality, motivation level, background knowledge, qualification and other features of the audience has a great influence on the kind of presentation that you are going to make. Analysis of the audience takes place not only before the presentation starts, it should continue even during the course of the presentation. It is necessary to fine tune and modify the presentation according to audience response. Otherwise the presentation is likely to go either above the heads of the audience or be too elementary for them. If it has to be pitched at their levels, it is important to analyse the audience before and during the presentation. Audience response such as claps, smiles, stares, whispers, silence and every other kind of repose should send signals to the speaker.

AN IDEA OF THE PHYSICAL SETTING The speaker should be aware of the location wherein he is making his presentation. Taking the location for granted may result in utter disaster sometimes. The size of the room, seating arrangement, room temperature, lighting controls, public address system, audio-visual system, acoustics, computer projection and all other infrastructure available in the room should be inspected before hand and the speaker should have a grip on all these facilities. This would help in seating the audience comfortably, plan the speakers own movements in the location and make several other decisions.

32.

Write a formal thanks letter from a candidate to manager of a company after the interview for a post. 7 Ans:-

953 Montieth Road Chennai 600 023 July 15, 2005 Ms. Amsaveni Manager Lunar Solutions Inc. 1295 Thane Road Mumbai ,400 034 Dear Amsaveni, I would like to sincerely thank you for the time that you spent with me last Thursday, briefing me on your companys background and operations, and interviewing me for the position of Administive Co-Ordinator in your organization. I was very pleased with the interview from my perspective, as I hope you were from yours. Now that I have met you and some of your colleagues, and know more about the activities of Lunar Solutions, I am even more excited about the possibility of working with you and your team than I was before the interview. I feel that this job would be a perfect fit for my skills and abilities, and that I would definitely be a value-added addition to your company. If you have any follow-up questions, please dont hesitate to call me at (613) 820-7359 or by e-mail at jalexus@sprint.com. I look forward to hearing from you in the near future. Yours 33. sincerely, What are benefits of good reading ability ? 8 Ans:- There are distinct benefits of good reading ability are : Jason Alexus Firstly, it is important to collect information from many sources. You regularly need to read newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, telephone/railway directories and a whole lot of other things regularly. Dont you
Secondly, it is very important for academic purposes from the primary to the tertiary levels of education. You need to read text books for making notes, writing exams, developing concepts. It is very important for many other academic purposes too. Thirdly, it is well known that reading a wide variety of materials is a great help for language enhancement. We have an opportunity to encounter the best in language in works of art (books). When you read a

number of books you encounter several new words and varied sentence structures and you tend to imitate those, which are impressive to you. Some people consciously read for improvement of language noting down difficult words, expressions, and other attractive features. Wide reading helps in enlarging ones vocabulary, ability to handle a range of structures and thus develop his/her writing ability. It also helps in improving the speed of reading. Though reading is an important activity for everyone interested in improving language, it is of particular significance to the non-natives who learn the language. Because, in reading there is an opportunity to be exposed to the native variety of language. Though it is possible to be exposed to native variety of language in speech too such as in TV, multimedia presentation and so on, confronting native language in print is easier and more common. Printed books are easily available, easy to use and is within the reach of common man. Fourthly, Reading is a great pastime for many. It has been a passion for several great people. Good reading skills are necessary to get into this habit. Reading books is a rich source of aesthetic experience cherished by many in all ages and all walks of life. Well . . .Do you know that reading is one of the best ways to improve your personality?. When you read a novel, or any other book of art, you have an opportunity to look at life in many facets. Each book is a slice of life portrayed from the viewpoint of the author, which may be different from our own perception. As we encounter coherent thought processes of the artists in their works of art on a regular basis, our mind also gets polished and becomes coherent. Thus reading many works of art helps in enlarging the area of our perception leading to development of our personality. After all development of personality is largely nothing but improvement of logical and cohesive thinking process. It refers to ones perception of life around, ability to think coherently and analyse problems or issues, and finally the way one would carry himself about. As reading contributes to the development of all these features, it is considered one of the best tools to improve ones personality. The development of thinking processes is inconspicuous and hence many fail recognize the fact that reading can develop ones personality traits. For many of the daily needs we depend on our ability to read. We need to read signposts, bill boards, name plates, telephone directories, instruction materials, operation manuals and several others. Well, this requires a lower order reading ability. But all the same there is a demand on our ability to read. Finally, it is a wonderful tool for maintaining successful social as well as official interaction. We need

to read and write emails, sms etc frequently these days keep in touch with our friends, relatives and colleagues. Lots of other important documents such as reports, proposals, and other kinds of writing at the offices pose a great demand on ones reading ability.

34.
Ans:-

Discuss, statements and questions and Tags. 7

a.

Syntax of statements and tags In English Language, the structure of a statement is always Subject followed by Verb. a. He (Subject) is (Verb) a boy. b. They ( Subject) dont listen (Verb) to the parents. In English Language, the structure of a question is always Verb followed by the subject and often the subject is arrested between two parts of a verb. a. Is (verb) he (subject) a boy? b. Dont they (subject ) listen to parents ? Dont listen is the verb and the subject is arrested in between. In spoken English in our country very often statements are uttered as questions by pronouncing them with a raising tone. For example a. You did your home work. instead of Did you do your homework? b. You brought tiffin today. instead of Did you bring tiffin today? c. You have done your homework. instead of Have you done your home work? Dont you agree such utterances are common by students as well as teachers? Well this is to advise you that though it may be permissible in spoken English to use the syntax of the statement with a rising intonation, this should not be made a regular practice. There is appropriacy and elegance only in using the right syntax in such contexts. b. Tag question

In English language the rule governing the use of tag questions is that the subject in the tag will agree with the subject in the main statement. Another rule is that if the statement is in positive, the tag will be in negative. If the statement is in negative then the tag will be in positive. For example a. He goes to school. Doesnt he? b. The umbrella is wet. Isnt it? c. They have bought a car. Havent they? d. He doesnt play tennis. Does he? e. Peter met with an accident. Didnt he? But Isnt it? is commonly used as a tag for all cases irrespective of whatever be the subject in the given statement. For instance it is possible to replace all the tags in the 5 examples cited above into isnt it. Isnt it? (here it is a right use of isnt it, because the subject of this sentence is it). Supply appropriate tags the statement given below: a. The principal has declared a holiday tomorrow b. The police have not caught the thief c. The government is going very slow d. It is not raining now e. I look good f. She doesnt dance well

g. Ram had made a fortune in his business h. The software industry has a great future in India i. Today it is not necessary to got to the US for better salary j. The ceremony was postponed.