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Chapter

1
History and Physical Chemistry of HDPE

Lester H. Gabriel, Ph.D., P.E.

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HISTORY AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF HDPE


History of HDPE and HDPE Pipe
At the very close of the 19th century, German chemist Hans von Pechmann noted a precipitate while working with a form of methane in ether. In 1900, German chemists Eugen Bamberger and Friedrich Tschirner identified this compound as polymethylene, a very close cousin to polyethylene. Thirty years later, a high-density residue was created by an American chemist at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Carl Shipp Marvel, by subjecting ethylene to a large amount of pressure. Working with ethylene at high pressures, British chemists Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson created a solid form of polyethylene in 1935. Its first commercial application came during World War II, when the British used it to insulate radar cables. In 1953, Karl Ziegler of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (renamed the Max Planck Institute) and Erhard Holzkamp invented high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The process included the use of catalysts and low pressure, which is the basis for the formulation of many varieties of polyethylene compounds. Two years later, in 1955, HDPE was produced as pipe. For his successful invention of HDPE, Ziegler was awarded the 1963 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Today, plastic materials used for pipes are classed under thermosetting or thermoplastic resins. Plastic highway drainage pipes belong almost entirely to the thermoplastic group (most commonly, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), PVC and ABS). They exhibit attributes of toughness, flexibility, chemical resistance and non-conducting electrical properties. Thermoplastic highway drainage pipes have been used for highway drainage since the early 1970s. Since then, growing out of applications for agricultural drainage, more HDPE drainage pipes have been installed than all other plastic pipes combined. They are being used for storm sewers, perforated underdrains, storm drains, slope drains, cross drains and culverts.

Physical Chemistry and Mechanical Properties of HDPE


High-density polyethylene (HDPE) (0.941 < density < 0.965) is a thermoplastic material composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms joined together forming high molecular weight products as shown in Figure 1-1c. Methane gas (Figure 1-1a) is converted into ethylene (Figure 1-1b), then, with the application of heat and pressure, into polyethylene (Figure 1-1c). The polymer chain may be 500,000 to 1,000,000 carbon units long. Short and/or long side chain molecules exist with the polymers long main chain molecules. The longer the main chain, the greater the number of

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atoms, and consequently, the greater the molecular weight. The molecular weight, the molecular weight distribution and the amount of branching determine many of the mechanical and chemical properties of the end product. Other common polyethylene (PE) materials are medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) (0.926 < density < 0.940) used for low-pressure gas pipelines; low-density polyethylene (LDPE) (0.910 < density < 0.925), typical for small-diameter water-distribution pipes: Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), which retains much of the strength of HDPE and the flexibility of LDPE, has application for drainage pipes. Less common PE materials are ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (density > 0.965) and very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) (density < 0.910). Other thermoplastic materials used for drainage pipes are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polybutylene (PB) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS).

Figure 1-1a,b,c H H C H
Figure 1-1a: Methane

H H

C = C H H H C H H
Figure 1-1b: Ethylene

H H C H

H C H

H C H

H C H

H C H

Figure 1-1c: Polyethylene Molecular Chain

The property characteristics of polyethylene depend upon the arrangement of the molecular chains. The molecular chains, shown schematically in Figure 1-1c, are three-dimensional and lie in wavy planes. Not shown, but branching off the main chains, are side chains of varying lengths. The number, size and type of these side chains determine, in large part, the properties of density, stiffness, tensile strength, flexibility, hardness, brittleness, elongation, creep characteristics and melt viscosity that are the results of the manufacturing effort and can occur during service performance of polyethylene pipe.

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Polyethylene is characterized as a semi-crystalline polymer, made up of crystalline regions and amorphous regions. Crystalline regions are those of highly ordered, neatly folded, layered (in parallel) and densely packed molecular chains. These occur only when chains branching off the sides of the primary chains are small in number. Within crystalline regions, molecules have properties that are locally (within each crystal) directionally dependent. Where tangled molecular chains branching off the molecular trunk chains interfere with or inhibit the close and layered packing of the trunks, the random resulting arrangement is of lesser density, and termed amorphous. An abundance of closely packed polymer chains results in a tough material of moderate stiffness. High-density polyethylene resin has a greater proportion of crystalline regions than low-density polyethylene. The size and size distribution of crystalline regions are determinants of the tensile strength and environmental stress crack resistance of the end product. HDPE, with fewer branches than MDPE or LDPE, has a greater proportion of crystals, which results in greater density and greater strength (see Figure 1-2). LDPE has a structure with both long and short molecular branches. With a lesser proportion of crystals than HDPE, it has greater flexibility but less strength. LLDPE structurally differs from LDPE in that the molecular trunk has shorter branches, which serve to inhibit the polymer chains becoming too closely packed. Hypothetically, a completely crystalline polyethylene would be too brittle to be functional and a completely amorphous polyethylene would be waxlike, much like paraffin. Upon heating, the ordered crystalline structure regresses to the disordered amorphous state; with cooling, the partially crystalline structure is recovered. This attribute permits thermal welding of polyethylene to polyethylene. The melting point of polyethylene is defined as that temperature at which the plastic transitions to a completely amorphous state. In HDPE and other thermoplastic materials, the molecular chains are not cross-linked and such plastics will melt with the application of a sufficient amount of heat. With the application of heat, thermoplastic resins may be shaped, formed, molded or extruded. Thermosetting resins are composed of chemically cross-linked molecular chains, which set at the time the plastic is first formed; these resins will not melt, but rather disintegrate at a temperature lower than its melting point, when sufficient heat is added.

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Figure 1-2

HDPE (Linear)

HDPE (Branched)

Figure 1-2: Schematic of Linear and Branched Arrangements

During processing, elevated temperatures and energy associated with forming and shaping the polyethylene cause random orientations of molecules within the molten material to directionally align in the extruding orifice. At room temperatures, the ordered arrangement of the layered crystalline polyethylene molecules is maintained. Tie molecules link the crystalline and amorphous regions. When the capacities of the polymer chains are overwhelmed by tension, the polymer flows (alters its shape). Tensile forces (stresses) then initiate brittle fracture, evidenced by cracking. In HDPE this may occur at very high strain rates. Once a crack is initiated, tensile forces (stresses), which were contained prior to the event of cracking, are released. These released tensile forces (stresses) are captured by the material at the leading tips of the crack, thereby greatly increasing the intensity of the stress field and the likelihood of continued cracking at that point and all points forward. The terms stress riser and stress intensity factor are used to identify and quantify the increase in the stress field at the tips of a crack. If these regions contain and adequately respond to this increased burden, then the cracks will not propagate; if they do not, crack propagation will result. This characterizes the mechanism of slow crack growth. Stress risers are proportional to the measure of stress. Cracks will not propagate in a stress-free environment or where the level of stress at the tip of a crack is at a sufficiently low threshold. When the tip of a propagating crack leaves a crystal, it enters the disordered, non-layered, more loosely packed, tangled molecules of the amorphous region where the energy associated with the stress field is partially dissipated as the tangled mass of molecules adjusts in time to the sustained forces.

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When polyethylene is pulled at low strain rates, in those areas where stretching has taken place, elongated rearrangement of the mass will be irreversible when molecular chains begin to slip by one another. Ultimate tensile strength occurs when the bonds between the molecular chains are fractured. The energy that would otherwise be stored in the system and which would otherwise be available to restore the region to its original geometry, is dissipated and unrecoverable with the event of the fracture. The new arrangement of molecules alters the stress/strain response of the remaining region. With increasing load and fewer bonds to resist, the material is less stiff and therefore takes less force to cause a unit of deformation. This phenomenon is noted on a stress-strain curve by an ever-decreasing slope as the curve bends increasingly to the right as the process continues. This is what defines strain softening, a characteristic of polyethylene and all materials that yield under increasing load. (The curved stressstrain curve of Figure 1-3 is an example of a strain softening material.) With sustained loads, the continuing deformation is defined as plastic flow. If, at some point in the deformation process the deformation is maintained, the loads and resulting internal stresses relax. This process of adjustment is called stress relaxation.

Mechanical Properties and Cell Classifications


HDPE is a non-linear viscoelastic material with time-dependent properties. A thermoplastic pipe, serving as only one component of a pipe/soil composite structure, benefits by its attribute of stress relaxation wherein stresses (forces) are shed and transferred to the soil. Predictability of performance of a pipe in service (stress, strain and deformation responses, stability) requires knowledge of the mechanical properties of the HDPE resin and knowledge of the profile geometry. ASTM D 3350 resin cell classifications provide the means for identification, close characterization and specification of material properties for polyethylene. Manufacturers of HDPE drainage pipes may choose higher cell classifications than the minimums required by these specifications in order to optimize competing economic and performance constraints of production, handling and service. Density, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution dominate the resin properties that influence the manufacture of the polyethylene pipe and the subsequent performance of the pipe. Table 1-1 lists cell classification properties and the ASTM specification governing the laboratory procedure that defines and determines each. (Note that melt index (MI) is inversely related to molecular weight.) Note that cell classifications for density and molecular weight are included in Table 1-1; molecular weight distribution (MWD) is not.

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Table 1-1
CELL CLASSIFICATIONS (SEE ASTM D 3350)
Property
Density

ASTM Specification
ASTM D 1505 Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique ASTM D 1238 Test Method for Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer ASTM D 790 Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials ASTM D 638 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics

Classification
3

Classification Requirement
0.941-0.955 gm/cm3

Melt index (MI)

0.4 > MI 0.15

Flexural modulus (Ef )

758 Ef <1103 MPa 110,000 Ef < 160,000 psi 21 ft < 24 MPa 3000 ft< 3500 psi

Tensile strength (ft )

Slow crack growth resistance Environmental stress crack resistance (ESCR)

ASTM D 1693 Test Method for for Environmental Stress-Cracking of Ethylene Plastics

test condition B, 24 hr duration 50% failure (max)

Hydrostatic Strength Classification Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB)

(not pressure rated) ASTM D 2837 Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials (not specified by ASTM) 0

Color (C)

2% C 5%

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Molecular Weight Distribution


The distribution of different sized molecules in a polyethylene polymer typically follows the bell shaped normal distribution curve described by the Gaussian probability theory. As with other populations, the bell shaped curve can reflect distributions ranging from narrow to broad. A polymer containing a broad range of chain lengths is said to have a broad molecular weight distribution (MWD). Resins with this type of distribution have good Environmental Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR), good impact resistance and good processability. A polymer with a narrow MWD contains molecules that are nearly the same in molecular weight. It will crystallize at a faster, more uniform rate. This results in a product that will hold its shape. Polymers can also have a bimodal shaped distribution curve which, as the name suggests, seem to depict a blend of two different polymer populations, each with its particular average and distribution. Resins having a bimodal MWD contain both very short and very long polyethylene molecules, giving the resin excellent physical properties while maintaining good processability. MWD is dependent upon the type of process used to manufacture the particular polyethylene resin. For polymers of the same density and average molecular weight, their melt flow rates are relatively independent of MWD. Therefore, resins that have the same density and melt index (MI) can have very different molecular weight distributions. The effects of density, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution on physical properties are summarized in Table 1-2.

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Table 1-2
EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN DENSITY, MELT INDEX AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION
Property
Tensile Strength (At Yield) Stiffness Impact Strength Low Temperature Brittleness Abrasion Resistance Hardness Softening Point Stress Crack Resistance Permeability Chemical Resistance Melt Strength Gloss Haze Shrinkage Increases Decreases Decreases

As Density Increases, Property:


Increases Increases Decreases Increases Increases Increases Increases Decreases Decreases Increases

As Melt Index Increases, Property:


Decreases Decreases Slightly Decreases Increases Decreases Decreases Slightly

As Molecular Weight Distribution Broadens, Property:

Decreases Slightly Decreases Decreases

Increases Decreases Increases Slightly Decreases Decreases Increases Decreases Decreases Increases Increases Decreases Increases

Density
The density of polyethylene is a measure of the proportion of crystals within its mass. Crystals, a result of the layering and close packing of polyethylene molecules, are denser than the tangled, disordered arrangement of molecules in the amorphous regions. Copolymers are often used to create and control the formation of side branches. Homopolymers, with densities of 0.960 and above, are produced without copolymers and experience very little branching. To reduce the density, butene, hexene or octene are added to make a copolymer. Butene will add branches two carbon units long; hexene, four carbon units long; and octene, six carbon units long. The greater the length of the branched carbon chains, the lower the final density. ASTM D 3350 classifies polyethylene by density as follows: high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (0.941 < density < 0.965), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) (0.910 < density < 0.925), medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) (0.926 < density <

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0.940). Less commonly employed PE materials are homopolymers (density > 0.965) and very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) (density < 0.910). Flexural stiffness and tensile strength increase with density; the result is increasing brittleness, and decreasing toughness and stress crack resistance.

Melt Index
The melt flow rate measures the viscosity of the polyethylene resin in its molten state. It is a parameter related to the average molecular weight of the resin chains of polymer extruded through a standard size orifice under specified conditions of pressure and temperature in a ten-minute period of time. The greater the lengths of molecules, the greater the molecular weight and the greater the difficulty in extruding the resin through the standard orifice. The result: resins of greater viscosity as measured by a lower melt flow rate. When the test is conducted with pressure delivered by a standard load caused by a 47.6 lb (21.6 kg) weight at a temperature of 374F (190C ), the resulting melt flow rate is termed the melt index (MI). The greater the viscosity, the lower the melt index value. A lower MI (higher average molecular weight) is predictive of greater tensile strength, toughness and greater stress crack resistance. However, the lower the MI, the greater the energy required, at any extrusion temperature, to extrude polyethylene resin. The average molecular weight, as measured by the MI, does not identify the range of chain lengths within the molecules; the molecular weight distribution (MWD) does. Polyethylene polymers of the same MI and the same density may have very different properties if the molecular weight distributions (MWD) are different. A polymer with a narrow MWD will crystallize more rapidly and with greater uniformity, resulting in less warpage and greater fidelity to the intended geometry. A polymer with broad MWD may have better stress crack resistance, impact resistance and ease of processing.

Flexural Modulus
The flexural modulus (Ef ) is a material stiffness that is, in part, predictive of a structure or a structural elements resistance to bending under the application of loads. When combined with the geometric stiffness (a function of the moment of inertia and other geometric properties), the composite stiffness is termed the bending stiffness. The greater the bending stiffness, the greater the bending resistance and, other things being equal, the greater the bending stresses. For flexible pipe, the material modulus (E) is a composite of the materials flexural stiffness (Ef ) and ring compression stiffness (Ec ). Current design practice assumes equivalence for working values Ef and Ec.
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Non-linear stress/strain curves of HDPE, and the modular values derived therefrom, are sensitive to rates of load application and are generally linear up to approximately 2% strain. Stress and strain are determined at the point of maximum bending on a simply supported test beam caused by a centrally applied load. The slope of the line drawn between points of zero strain and 2% strain on a stress/strain curve typically defines the flexural modulus. Because of the stress relaxation attribute of HDPE, the less rapid the loading and the longer the duration of load application, the flatter the early slope of the stress/strain curve and the lower the estimate of flexural modulus; hence the need for a carefully defined (see ASTM D 790) rate of load application. (See Figure 1-3.)

Figure 1-3
Fast rate of loading

Stress

Slow rate of loading

Strain Figure 1-3: Curves of Stress v Strain (immediately after loading)

For HDPE pipes, the minimum pipe stiffness requirements set by specification determines, in part, the amount of material required, the cost of which dominates the cost of the finished pipe delivered to the job site. The characteristics of the stress/strain curve and the associated values of stress, strain and pipe stiffness are sensitive to the rates of application of load and displacement. Stiffness requirements for pipes of any material may be met by material adjustments to the modulus of elasticity, geometric adjustments to the moment of inertia, or both. Profile pipe walls, easily shaped in HDPE by extrusion and/or vacuum forming, are designed to increase the walls moment of inertia above that which would be the case for a solid wall pipe of the same material content, thereby enabling an optimization of cross-sectional area. The flexural modulus increases with density for a given melt index. See Table 1.2 for the effects of changes in density and melt index on the more general properties of HDPE.

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Tensile Strength
The point at which a stress causes a material to deform beyond its elastic region (permanent deformation) is called the tensile strength at yield. When stressed below the yield point, an elastic material recovers all the energy that went into its deformation. Recovery is possible for polyethylene when the crystals are subjected to low strain levels and maintain their integrity. A formulation of greater density (higher fraction of crystals, lower melt index) is predictive of greater tensile strength and increasing brittleness. The force required to break the test sample is called the ultimate strength or the tensile strength at break. The strength is calculated by dividing the force (at yield or break) by the original cross-sectional area. ASTM D 638, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, is used to determine the tensile properties of polyethylene pipe resins. Test specimens are usually shaped as a flat dog bone, but specimens can also be rod-shaped or tubular per ASTM D 638. During the tensile test, polyethylene, which is a ductile material, exhibits a cold drawing phenomenon once the yield strength is exceeded. The test sample develops a neck down region where the molecules begin to align themselves in the direction of the applied load. This strain-induced orientation causes the material to become stiffer in the axial direction while the transverse direction (90 to the axial direction) strength is lower. The stretching or elongation for materials such as polyethylene can be ten times the original gauge length of the sample (1000% elongation). Failure occurs when the molecules reach their breaking strain or when test sample defects, such as edge nicks, begin to grow and cause failure. Fibrillation, the stretching and tearing of the polymer structure, usually occurs just prior to rupture. Tensile or compressive elastic deformations of a test specimen along a longitudinal axis excite respective inward or outward deformations parallel to a transverse axis normal to the first. Poissions ratio is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain. When tested according to ASTM E 132, Standard Test Method for Poissons Ratio at Room Temperature, Poissons ratio for polyethylene is between 0.40 and 0.45.

Environmental Stress Crack Resisitance (ESCR)


Under certain conditions of temperature and stress in the presence of certain chemicals, polyethylene may begin to crack sooner than it would at the same temperature and stress in the absence of those chemicals. This phenomenon is called environmental stress cracking (ESC).

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Stress cracking agents for polyethylene tend to be polar materials such as alcohols, detergents (wetting agents), halogens and aromatics. The property of a material to resist ESC is called environmental stress crack resistance, or simply ESCR. The mechanism is not fully understood, but failures from ESC tend to be due to the development of cracks in areas of tensile stress which slowly grow and propagate over time. Stress cracking may be avoided by using appropriate resin formulations of stress crack resistant materials; appropriate geometric designs and manufacturing controls that prevent the occurrence of severe stress risers; and by limiting stresses and strains during pipe installation. There are over 40 different ESCR test methods used to determine the chemical resistance of various materials. The standard test currently used in the polyethylene industry is the bent-strip test. It is also called the Bell Test, since it was developed during the 1950s for wire and cable coatings for the telephone industry. ASTM D 1693, Standard Test Method for Environmental Stress Cracking of Ethylene Plastics, describes the test method used to determine the ESCR value for polyethylene. Ten small compression-molded specimens are notched and bent and then placed into a holder. The holder is immersed into a tube of a surfactant, typically one such as Igepal CO-630 at 212F (100C) and 100% concentration, and the time to failure is noted. The results are reported using the notation Fxx, where xx is the percentage of samples that have failed. For example, the statement F20=500 hours means that 20% of the samples have failed within 0 to 500 hours. This test was developed when the time to failure was less than 10 hours. Excellent stress crack resistance of modern resins, coupled with stress relaxation in the pre-bent samples results in a test method wherein few failures occur. The efficacy of the test diminishes after a few hundred hours. This test is currently used mainly as a quality assurance test rather than providing definitive rankings of pipe performance.

Notched Constant Ligament Stress (NCLS)


Disadvantages of the ESCR test method are overcome with the Notched Constant Tensile Load (NCTL) test as described in ASTM D 5397. Because ASTM D 5397 is intended for geosynthetic materials using membranes as the specimen, a new test method was developed for piping materials the Notched Constant Ligament Stress (NCLS) test. In this test method, HDPE resin is compression molded into a plaque. Dumbbell samples are machined from the plaque and notched in the midsection. Samples are placed in an elevated temperature bath containing a wetting agent for acceleration. The sample is then subjected to a constant ligament stress until a brittle failure occurs from slow crack growth. This is now an ASTM test method, F 2136.

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HDPE A Material of Choice


Metal, plastic, concrete and clay make up most of the materials used for the manufacture of drainage pipes. Metal pipes may be steel, ductile iron or aluminum; concrete pipes may be steel-reinforced, earth-reinforced, non-reinforced, precast or cast-in-place; and plastic pipes may be of thermosetting resins (e.g., glass-reinforced epoxy or polyurethane) or thermoplastic resins (e.g., HDPE, PVC, polypropylene or ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)). The material longest in use is vitrified clay; the newest materials are plastic. Some pipes are built with a combination of materials; corrugated steel pipes lined and/or coated and/or paved (inverts) with plastic, bituminous or concrete materials. Durability (mostly, resistance to chemical and electro-chemical corrosion and abrasion), surety of structural performance over time, integrity of joints, surety of hydraulic performance (as pipe ages), ease of construction, availability and life cycle costs dominate the choice of pipe material(s). Highway drainage facilities are often subject to hostile effluents and embedment soils. Concrete pipe is subject to chemical attack when in the environments of low pH (acids) and/or soluble salts (sulfates and chlorides) in drainage waters and neighboring soils. Sulfates, mainly those of sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium, are found in many locations in the states of the northern Great Plains, in the alkali soils of western and southwestern arid regions, and in seawater. Uncoated (or otherwise unprotected) galvanized steel pipes are degraded in environments of low pH and low resistivity of soil or water. Permissible levels of pH vary by jurisdiction; a range of soil or water of 6.0 < pH < 9.5 is generally accepted. Unlike pipes of concrete, steel, aluminum and iron, thermoplastic and vitrified clay pipes do not corrode or otherwise degrade in these environments; expensive maintenance is not required. Unlike metal pipes and steel reinforcement of concrete pipes, thermoplastic and vitrified clay pipes are nonconductors; cathodic protection is not required to prevent degradation due to galvanic corrosion at locations of low soil resistivity or in the vicinity of stray electrical direct currents. Polyethylene is often used to line and encase metal pipes thereby offering barrier protection from aggressive soils or stray electrical currents leading to galvanic corrosion. HDPE offers a range of 1.5 < pH < 14. Accidental highway spillage of high concentrations of some organically based chemicals, such as crude oils and their derivatives (solvents, gasoline, kerosene) or concentrated acids and bases, may cause swelling and softening of thermoplastic materials if sustained over long periods (measured in months). Of the four most common drainage pipes of thermoplastic materials (ABS, PVC, polypropylene, and HDPE), resistance to these aggressive chemicals is in the order noted; ABS the least resistive, HDPE is the most resistive.

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Polyester and epoxy thermosetting resin pipes, reinforced with continuous windings of glass filaments, primarily intended for sanitary sewers, were found to be corrosive in the presence of available hydrogen ion (present in acids and water). Penetration to the glass/resin interface may result in debonding of the glass reinforcement and wicking along the glass/resin interface. Thermosetting resin pipes reinforced with randomly oriented chopped fibers of short lengths have succeeded these pipes. The chemical inertness of HDPE and the flexible trampoline response of the long chain molecules of HDPE result in a highly corrosion-resistant material. HDPE pipe is most often favored for transporting slurries containing highly abrasive mine tailings. Abrasion of metal, bituminous and concrete protective coatings of metal and concrete pipes (a function of the square of the flow velocity) leave these pipes vulnerable to accelerated erosion after penetration to the bare pipe material. For the same conditions of embedment, the more flexible the pipe the lesser the proportion of overburden load attracted to the pipe. The attribute of stress relaxation of HDPE pipes (and thermoplastic pipes in general), which is greater than any relaxation of the embedding soil, assures that overburden loads and stresses within the pipe walls will decrease with time. The result is that a significant proportion of loads initially resisted by a flexible pipe will be transferred to the soil of the pipe/soil composite structure; the opposite is true for rigid pipes. Furthermore, the ability of buried flexible pipes to alter their shapes from circles to ellipses is exactly what transforms much of what would be bending stresses (which include tensile stresses) into membrane ring compression stresses. For the same conditions of embedment, rigid pipes (which lack the ability to comply with alteration of shape) respond with greater tensile stresses than flexible pipes and, in the case of concrete pipes, require steel reinforcement to manage these tensile stresses. HDPE pipes, properly embedded in a competent soil mass, result in a formidable soil/pipe composite structure that is almost entirely in the favored ring compression. Favorable and commonly accepted roughness values of Mannings n of 0.010 - 0.013 make smooth-lined corrugated HDPE a favorable choice for the transport of drainage waters. Velocity of flow is insensitive to changes in pipe shape due to service loads. The non-stick surface of HDPE resists scaling and pitting, and therefore does not require a design with a less favorable Mannings n to accommodate future conditions.

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Additional Considerations
Crack Resistance: Weak molecular bonds, perpendicular to the densely packed layered molecules of polyethylene crystals, tie adjacent molecules. In response to tensile stresses, cracks may form and propagate parallel to these layers by rupturing these weak bonds. Less dense and disordered arrangements of molecules in amorphous regions are more resistant to crack propagation than the layered molecules in crystals. For polyethylene resins of the same molecular weight, the lesser the density, the greater the resistance to stress cracking. The greater the proportion of crystals, the greater the density and brittleness of the resin. Density alone, however, is an inadequate predictor of stress crack resistance. All common materials, extruded or otherwise shaped or formed at elevated processing temperatures, shrink during cooling. Residual stresses, which result, combine with those stresses resisting externally applied loads. In processes where stretching after forming takes place result in mechanical properties parallel to the direction of stretch different than those oriented perpendicular to the direction of stretch. At low rates of strain, should cracking of these orthotropic materials occur, they are likely to be parallel to the direction of stretch. A more general purpose of ASTM D 1693, the test for ESCR, is prediction of the performance of ethylene resins subjected to environments such as soaps, wetting agents, oils, detergents or other materials likely to be stored or marketed in containers. This test is likely to assure proper material formulation (inclusive of post-consumer recycled resins) and to minimize contaminant inclusions.

Compression
The response of a buried flexible pipe is dominated by compression. Note in Table 1-1 there is no cell classification for compression. For purposes of design and for small strains (less than 2%), the compression modulus is taken to be of equal magnitude as the elastic tensile modulus. At greater stress levels, compression strain is less than the tensile strain. HDPE in compression does not tear or crack; stability for thin elements is a design consideration.

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Bibliography
AASHTO M294 Materials Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe AASHTO Section 18 Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges ASTM D 695 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics ASTM D 3350 Standard Specifications for Polyethylene Plastic Pipe and Fittings Gabriel, L.H. and Moran, E.T., Service Life of Drainage Pipe, Synthesis of Highway Practice 254, Transportation Research Board, 1998. Gabriel, L.H., Bennett, O.N., and Schneier, B., Polyethylene Pipe Specifications, NCHRP Project 20-7, Task 68, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., October 1995. Gabriel, L.H., When Plastic Pipe Responds Relax and Enjoy, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Structural Performance of Pipes, Ed., Mitchell, Sargand and White, Ohio University, 1998. Kampbell, N.E, Kozman, D.P. and Goddard, J.B., Changes in Hydraulic Capacity of Corrugated HDPE Pipe With Time, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Structural Performance of Pipes, Ed., Mitchell, Sargand and White, Ohio University, 1998. Koerner, Hsuan, Lord, Stress Cracking Behavior of High Density Polyethylene Geomembranes and Its Minimization, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, July 1992. Kuhlman, C.J., Weed, D.N., and Campbell, F.S., Accelerated Fracture Mechanics Evaluation of Slow Crack Potential in Corrugated Polyethylene Pipes, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, February 1995. Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI), Engineering Properties of Polyethylene, The Society for the Plastics Industry, Inc., 1993 Zhang, C., and Moore, I.D., Nonlinear Mechanical Response of High Density Polyethylene. Part I: Experimental Investigation and Model Evaluation, Polymer Science and Engineering, Vol. 37, No.2.

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Notes

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Chapter

2
Understanding Flow

Orin Bennett

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UNDERSTANDING FLOW
The process of designing drainage facilities, including culverts and pipelines, consists of two distinct functions. The engineer must determine the maximum volume of flow to be transported by the drainage facility, and the type and size of drainage structure that will transport that maximum volume of flow. Many different procedures are available to determine design flow and to size drainage structures. Numerous texts and manuals have been developed to guide the design engineer. In addition many agencies for which drainage facilities are being designed have developed standard procedures for hydrologic analysis and drainage structure design. Because, quite properly, practice varies from state to state and often within states, this chapter is not intended to serve the full function of a design manual, but rather it is intended to identify procedures for determining design flow and for sizing drainage structures. A description of various flow and pipe sizing methodologies is provided; manuals or texts that include detailed design procedures are referenced.

Flow in Storm Water Conveyances


As a watershed begins to accept precipitation, surface vegetation and depressions intercept and retain a portion of that precipitation. Interception, depression storage and soil moisture each contribute to groundwater accretion, which constitutes the basin recharge. Precipitation that does not contribute to basin recharge is direct runoff. Direct runoff consists of surface runoff (overland flow) and subsurface runoff (interflow), which flows into surface streams. The basin recharge rate is at its maximum at the beginning of a storm, and decreases as the storm progresses. The method of the United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) for the calculation of runoff breaks down basin recharge into two parts, initial interception and infiltration. A typical direct runoff history diagram (or hydrograph) is presented in Fig 2.1. The shape of the hydrograph is different from basin to basin. It is a function of the physical characteristics of the drainage basin, rainfall intensities and distribution pattern, land uses, soil type and the initial moisture condition of the soil.

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Figure 2-1

Figure 2-1: Typical Runoff Hydrograph

Direct runoff is precipitation minus basin recharge (sum of initial interception and infiltration) and is depicted by the area under the hydrograph above the groundwater base flow, ABC. Runoff volume, which varies directly with basin precipitation, is often taken as the precipitation modified by a coefficient reflecting basin recharge. That is, R = CP Where: R = runoff volume, cf C = runoff coefficient P = precipitation, in. An efficient estimate of the runoff coefficient C is very critical for computing the conversion of rainfall to runoff. The runoff coefficient is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Equation 2-1

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Several methods are available for computing the peak rate of storm runoff. Three commonly used methods are explored in this chapter: the Rational Method, the SCS Technical Release 55 (TR-55) method and the Hydraulic Engineering Center (HEC) computer modeling method. The Rational Method, the method of choice in many jurisdictions, requires subjective engineering judgement for the interpretation and specification of input variables. The TR55 method is less vulnerable to subjective judgment. The HEC computer modeling method is widely used and provides for detailed watershed evaluation. Consider that there are three levels of determining maximum flow for a drainage facility. For small drainage shed areas of ordinary importance, the Rational Method with appropriate engineering judgments provides adequate design information. Larger drainage shed areas (greater than 100 acres) with a drainage conveyance facility of greater importance demands a more realistic storm evaluation, which includes a method of considering basin infiltration, basin recharge and the ability to consider subshed areas. Much larger and complex watershed areas containing subshed areas with different characteristics and where routing between subshed areas is a consideration may require the more complex modeling method found with the Hydraulic Engineering Center computer models.
The Rational Method

For storage related design issues, it is necessary to determine total runoff volume from a basin over a given period of time. For the design of most storm water conveyances, it is sufficient to determine the instantaneous peak rate of flow due to a specified storm event. The Rational Method is useful to calculate the peak rate of flow at a specific collecting point of a drainage basin. This method was first employed in Ireland in urban storm sewer designs by Mulvaney in 1847. The use of this method is still recommended by many engineers for small watersheds (less than 100 acres). To calculate the peak rate of flow: Q p = CC f iA

Equation 2-2

Where: Q p = the peak rate of flow, cfs C = the runoff coefficient = (runoff )/(rainfall) Cf = the frequency factor ranging from 1 to 1.25 for a return period from 1 to 100 years i = the average rainfall intensity during the storm duration time period, in/hr A = the basin area, acres

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The equation may also be expressed in this form: Q p = 640 C C f iA

Equation 2-3

Where: Q p = peak rate of flow, cfs i = average rainfall intensity during the storm duration time period, in/hr A = basin area, miles2 Note: Some regions may have Cf incorporated into C, in which case Cf would not appear in the above equation. Watershed Area, A The basin (watershed) area for a drainage basin is that surface area contributing runoff to a specified collection point. Topographic information is used to determine the boundaries of the contributing surface area. For urbanized areas topographic information may come from residential subdivision or commercial and industrial development improvement plans. For undeveloped areas topographic surveys of the watershed may be available or can be developed by various surveying and mapping techniques. For large areas it is common to use United States Geological Survey (USGS) quadrangle sheets as a reliable source of topographic information. It is often necessary to develop sub-watersheds within the primary watershed being considered. Each sub-watershed will have its own shed area, time of concentration and rainfall intensity. The smaller and more impervious the watershed area, the more accurate the results of the Rational Method (Equation 2.2) becomes. The larger the watershed area, the longer the flow channel and, therefore, the longer the time of concentration and the lesser the likelihood of a uniform intensity of rainfall throughout. One hundred acres is often taken as the upper limit of watershed area when using the Rational Method. Intensity, i The rainfall intensity, i, is dependent upon the duration of rainfall and the frequency of the storm event or the Return Period. Short duration storms and storms of longer return periods are often more intense than longer, frequent storms. Rainfall intensity/ duration/frequency (IDF) curves are developed from historically collected rainfall data from rain gauge recordings. Information gathered at a rain gauge site can be considered representative of 10 square miles of drainage area that is expected to experience uniform meteorological conditions. The IDF curve at the Sacramento California International Airport is shown in Figure 2.2.

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Figure 2-2

Figure 2-2: Intensity Duration Frequency Curve at the Sacramento, California International Airport

IDF curves are available from the National Weather Service, most State Departments of Transportation, local flood control agencies, and other governmental agencies. For application in the Rational Method, probable maximum values for a specific design storm frequency, or return period, are used to provide the maximum design rate of flow for sizing storm conveyance facilities. Typical return period design criteria for storm water conveyance and control structures are given in Table 2.1. Most local agencies have developed standards that specify the return period design requirement for storm water conveyance facilities within their jurisdiction. Most also have modified IDF curves set up with large factors of safety for establishing the design flow.

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Table 2-1
Type of structure
Highway culverts Low traffic Intermediate traffic High traffic Highway Bridges Secondary system Primary system Farm drainage Culverts Ditches Urban drainage Storm sewers in small cities Storm sewers in large cities Airfields Low traffic Intermediate traffic High traffic Levees On farms Around cities Dams with no likelihood of loss of life Small dams Intermediate dams Large dams

Return Period Used for Design (years)


5 10 10 25 50 100 10 50 50 100 5 50 5 50 2 25 25 50 5 10 10 25 50 100 250 50200 50100 100+

Table 2-1: Typical Design Return Period

Frequency Factor, Cf For storms with a frequency or return period of 10 years or less, Cf is unity. However, for storms of higher return periods, rainfall intensity increases, infiltration and other losses are reduced, and Cf increases. Table 2.2 lists Cf values for various storm frequencies.

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Table 2-2

Return Period (years)


10 25 50 100

Cf 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.25

Table 2-2: Frequency Factor, Cf

Runoff Coefficient, C Many factors or variables affect the magnitude of runoff coefficient, C. These include slope of the ground, type of ground cover, soil moisture, travel length and velocity of overland flow, travel length and velocity of stream flow, rainfall intensity and other phenomena. However, effects on the runoff coefficient are dominated by the type of ground surface and it is that variable that establishes the value of C. The engineer responsible for the design of highway and other drainage facilities must anticipate and assess the most likely effects of future development of all the land in the watershed of interest. Increasing volumes of storm runoff due to reduced infiltration and greater peak discharges due to decreased travel time attend increasing urbanization. The coefficients in Table 2.3 reflect expected surface conditions upon buildout of the watershed.

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Table 2-3
Type of Development Urban business Commercial office Residential development Single-family homes Condominiums Apartments Suburban residential Industrial development Light industry Heavy industry Parks, greenbelts, cemeteries Railroad yards, playgrounds Unimproved grassland or pasture Type of Surface Area Asphalt or concrete pavement Brick paving Roofs of buildings Grass-covered sandy soil Slopes 2% or less Slopes 2% to 8% Slopes over 8% Grass-covered clay soils Slopes 2% or less Slopes 2% to 8% Slopes over 8% Values of C 0.70-0.95 0.50-0.70 0.30-0.50 0.40-0.60 0.60-0.80 0.25-0.40 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.10-0.30 0.20-0.40 0.10-0.30 Values of C 0.70-0.95 0.70-0.80 0.80-0.95 0.05-0.10 0.10-0.16 0.16-0.20 0.10-0.16 0.17-0.25 0.26-0.36

Table 2-3: Values of C for Ground Surfaces

For the Rational Method, rainfall intensity is assumed to be consistent. For an actual storm event, the design rainfall intensity may occur at the beginning or at the end of the duration of a storm. The antecedent rainfall is the volume of rainfall that occurs from the beginning of rainfall to the occurrence of the design rainfall intensity. It is a common practice to assume C does not vary through the duration of a storm. Mitci developed the following relationship to determine the runoff coefficient, C:

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C =

0.98t (P) + 0.78t (1-P) 4.54 + t 31.17 + t

Equation 2-4

Where: C = the runoff coefficient which has been correlated to the antecedent rainfall t = time, in minutes, from the beginning of the rainfall to the end of the design intensity rainfall P = the percent of impervious surface Time of Concentration, tc If rainfall were applied at a constant rate to an impervious surface, the runoff from the surface would eventually equal the rate of rainfall. The time required to reach that condition of equilibrium is the time of concentration, tc , the travel time of a water particle from the hydrologically most remote point in a drainage basin to a specified collection point. If the rainfall duration time is greater than or equal to tc , then every part of the drainage area is assumed to contribute to the direct runoff at the collection point. tc is used as the design storm duration time. Rainfall intensity for the Rational Method is assumed to be constant. If the duration of the storm is less than tc, peak runoff will be less than if the duration is equal to tc. For storms of duration longer than tc , the runoff rate will not increase further. Therefore, the peak runoff rate is computed with the storm duration equal to tc. Actual rainfall is not constant and this simplifying assumption is a weakness of the Rational Method. Water moves through a watershed in some combination of sheet flow, shallow concentrated flow, stream flow and flow within storm drainage structures (pipes, canals, etc.). There are many ways to estimate tc ; formulas exist for predictions of overland and channel flow. Time of concentration is the total time for water to move through each flow regime until it reaches the collection point. The time of concentration of overland flow may be estimated from the Kirpich equation: tc = 0.00013 L 0.77 S -0.385 Equation 2-5 Where:

tc = concentration time, hrs


L = the longest length of water travel, ft S = ground surface slope = H L H = Difference in elevation between the most remote point on the basin and the collection point, ft.
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The Kirpich empirical equation is normally used for natural drainage basins with well-defined overland flow routes along bare soil. For overland flow on impervious surfaces, the tc obtained should be reduced by 60%. For overland flow on grass surfaces, the computed tc should be increased by 100%. The Upland Method is a graphical solution for finding the average overland flow velocity and can be used for overland flow in basins with a variety of land covers. This method relates tc to the basin slope and to the length and type of ground cover. A graphical solution for finding the average overland flow velocity can be obtained from Figure 2.3. The time of concentration, tc, is commonly taken as the longest length of flow travel divided by the average velocity of flow.

Figure 2-3

Figure 2-3: Average velocities for estimating travel time for shallow concentrated flow (U.S. Soil Conservation Service Technical Release 55)

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For small drainage areas without a defined channel and from which runoff behaves as a thin sheet of overland flow, the Izzard formula (Equation 2.6) can be used for estimating the concentration time, tc , where iL < 500:
1/3 0.0007i + K tc = 4iL 2/3 1/3

Equation 2-6

Where:

tc = concentration time, min


L i S K = = = = length of overland flow travel, ft rainfall intensity, inches/hour slope of ground surface, ft/100 ft retardance coefficient

Values of retardance coefficient, K: 0.007 = for smooth asphalt surface 0.012 = for concrete pavement 0.017 = for tar and gravel pavement 0.046 = for closely clipped sod 0.60 = for dense blue grass turf For sheet flow of less than 300 feet, Mannings kinematic solution can be used to compute Tt:
0.8 Tt = 0.007(nL) 0.4 (P2)0.5 S Where: Tt = travel time, hours n = Mannings roughness coefficient (Table 2-4) L = flow length, ft P2 = 2-year, 24-hour rainfall, in S = slope of hydraulic grade line (land slope), ft/100 ft

Equation 2-7

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Table 2-4
Description Open channel, earth, uniform section With short grass, few weeds In gravely soils, uniform section, clean Open channel, earth, fairly uniform section No vegetation Grass, some weeds Dense weeds or aquatic plants in deep channels Sides, clean, gravel bottom Sides, clean, cobble bottom Open channel, dragline excavated or dredged No vegetation Light brush on banks Open channel, rock Based on design section Based on actual mean section - Smooth and uniform - Jagged and irregular Open channel not maintained, weeds and brush uncut Dense weeds, high as flow depth Clean bottom, brush on sides Clean bottom, brush on sides, highest stage of flow Dense brush, high stage Roadside ditch, swale, depth of flow up to 0.7 ft Bermuda grass, Kentucky bluegrass, buffalo grass: - Mowed to 2 in. - Length 4 to 6 in. Good stand, any grass: - Length about 12 in. - Length about 24 in. Fair stand, any grass: - Length about 12 in. - Length about 24 in. Roadside ditch, swale, depth of flow 0.7-1.5 ft Bermuda grass, Kentucky bluegrass, buffalo grass: - Mowed to 2 in. - Length 4 to 6 in. Good stand, any grass: - Length about 12 in. - Length about 24 in. Fair stand, any grass: - Length about 12 in. - Length about 24 in. Typical Values 0.022-0.027 0.022-0.025 0.022-0.025 0.025-0.030 0.030-0.035 0.025-0.030 0.030-0.040 0.028-0.033 0.035-0.050 0.035 0.035-0.040 0.040-0.045 0.08-0.12 0.05-0.08 0.07-0.11 0.10-0.14

0.045-0.07 0.05-0.09 0.09-0.18 0.15-0.30 0.08-0.14 0.13-0.25

0.035-0.05 0.04-0.06 0.07-0.12 0.10-0.20 0.06-0.10 0.09-0.17

Table 2-4: Typical Values of Mannings n Coefficients


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Table 2-4 cont. Description Minor Streams Fairly regular section: - Some grass and weeds, little or no brush - Dense growth of weeds, depth of flow materially - greater than weed height - Some weeds, light brush on banks - Some weeds, heavy brush on banks - Some weeds, dense willows on banks - For trees within channel, with branches submerged - at high stage, increase all values above by: Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel, steep banks Bottom of gravel, cobbles and few boulders Bottom of cobbles, with large boulders Floodplains (adjacent to natural streams): Pasture, no brush: - Short grass - High grass Cultivated areas: - No crop - Mature row crops - Mature field crops Heavy weeds, scattered brush Light brush and trees: - Winter - Summer Medium to dense brush: - Winter - Summer Brass pipe, smooth Steel Lockbar and welded Riveted and spiral Cast iron pipe Coated Uncoated Wrought iron pipe Black Galvanized Corrugated metal pipe Subdrain Riveted CSP Helical CSP Typical Values

0.030-0.035 0.035-0.05 0.04-0.05 0.05-0.07 0.06-0.08 0.01-0.10 0.04-0.05 0.05-0.07

0.030-0.035 0.035-0.05 0.03-0.04 0.035-0.045 0.04-0.05 0.05-0.07 0.05-0.06 0.06-0.08 0.07-0.11 0.10-0.16 0.009-0.013 0.010-0.014 0.013-0.017 0.010-0.014 0.011-0.016 0.012-0.015 0.013-0.017 0.012-0.014 0.024-0.027 0.011-0.027

Major streams (surface width at flood stage more than 100 ft) 0.028-0.033

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Table 2-4 cont. Description Structural Plate Spiral Rib Plate Lucite pipe Glass lined pipe Cement or cement lined pipe Neat surface Mortar Concrete pipe Culvert, straight and free of debris Culvert with bends, connections and some debris Finished Sewer with manholes, inlet, etc., straight Unfinished, steel form Unfinished, smooth wood form Unfinished, rough wood form Polyvinyl Chloride pipe Polyethylene pipe Corrugated Corrugated, smooth interior Smooth wall Wood Conduit Stave Laminated, treated Clay pipe Common drainage tile Vitrified sewer Vitrified sewer with manhole, inlet, etc. Vitrified subdrain with open joint Brickwork Conduit Glazed Lined with cement mortar Sanitary sewers coated with sewage slimes, with bends and connections Paved invert, sewer, smooth bottom Rubble masonry, cemented
Modified from Advanced Drainage System, Technical Notes 2.120, 1997

Typical Values 0.024-0.033 0.012-0.013 0.008-0.010 0.009-0.013 0.010-0.013 0.011-0.015 0.010-0.013 0.011-0.015 0.011-0.015 0.013-0.017 0.012-0.014 0.012-0.016 0.015-0.020 0.010-0.015 0.021-0.030 0.010-0.015 0.010-0.015 0.010-0.014 0.015-0.020 0.011-0.017 0.011-0.017 0.013-0.017 0.014-0.018 0.011-0.015 0.012-0.017 0.012-0.016 0.016-0.020 0.018-0.030

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Assumptions that attend this simplified form of Mannings kinematic solution are: (1) shallow steady uniform flow (2) constant intensity of rainfall excess (that part of a rain available for runoff ) (3) rainfall duration of 24 hours (4) minor effect of infiltration on travel time Rainfall depth can be obtained from IDF curves representative of the project location. The rainfall intensity in the Izzard formula may be estimated as follows: (1) assume tc (2) determine the intensity from the appropriate IDF curve (3) calculate tc from the Izzard formula (4) Iterate steps 1 through 3 until the estimated value of tc converges with the calculated value After a maximum of 300 feet, sheet flow usually becomes shallow concentrated flow. The average velocity for shallow concentrated flow can be determined from Figure 2-3, in which average velocity is a function of watercourse slope and type of channel. After determining average velocity in Figure 2-3, use Equation 2.9 to estimate travel time for the shallow concentrated flow segment. Open channel flow is flow that is confined by sidewalls, natural or constructed, and free to travel under the influence of gravity. When runoff flows in an open channel or pipe, the length of the channel or pipe and the velocity is used to determine time of concentration, tc , for that portion of the watershed. The following Mannings equation may be used to determine the average velocity of open channel flow. Mannings equation is
2/3 1/2 V = 1.49 r s n

Equation 2-8

Where: V = average velocity, ft/sec r = hydraulic radius in feet and is equal to the cross section area of the flow divided by the wetted perimeter, ft2/Pw Pw = wetted perimeter, ft s = slope of the hydraulic grade line (channel slope), ft/ft n = Mannings roughness coefficient for open channel flow

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Then, the travel time Tt can be estimated by: Tt = L 3600V Equation 2-9

Where: Tt = travel time, min L = flow length, ft V = velocity, ft/sec Application of the Rational Method In urban areas, the drainage area usually consists of subareas of different surface characteristics with different runoff coefficients. The peak rate of total drainage area runoff can be computed by the following composite analysis of the subareas: Qp = i Where: Qp = Cj = Aj = n =

C A
j=1

j j

Equation 2-10

peak rate of flow, cfs runoff coefficient for jth subarea the area for jth subarea in acres the number of subareas draining into the collection point

The SCS TR-55 Method

In 1964, the United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) developed a computer program for watershed modeling. That watershed model was presented in Technical Release 20 (TR-20). The model is used for watershed evaluation and flood plan studies. To estimate runoff and peak rates of flow in small watersheds, a simplified method was developed by SCS and presented in Technical Release 55 (TR-55). It can be downloaded @ www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/water/quality/common/TR55/TR55.html. For small watersheds, stream flow records are often unavailable. Even when stream flow records are available, urbanization may cause inaccurate statistical analysis. The TR-55 method allows development of hydrologic models using watershed characteristics to estimate peak discharge from that watershed. The TR-55 model begins with a rainfall amount uniformly imposed on a watershed for a twenty-four hour distribution period. Twenty-four hours was used because of the availability of daily rainfall data that could be used to estimate twenty-four hour rainfall amounts.

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Rainfall is converted to mass rainfall using a runoff curve number (CN). TR-55 developed runoff curve numbers based upon watershed characteristics including soil type, type and amount of plant cover, amount of impervious area, runoff interception and surface storage. Runoff is then transformed into a hydrograph using a graphical or tabular computation method. The result is a peak discharge or design flow that can be used for drainage structure design. TR-55 can be used for any location in the United States. It provides a nationally consistent method of determining peak flow and can be used as a check of peak flow computations made by other methods. If major discrepancies are found, a more thorough evaluation of the computations may be warranted. Following are the steps necessary to determine a peak flow rate using the TR-55 Method. Step 1. Determine the Area of the watershed basin as discussed earlier in this chapter. Step 2. Determine the Hydrologic Soil Group (HSG) of the shed area. Soils are classified into hydrologic soil groups to indicate the rate of infiltration and the rate at which water moves within the soil. HSGs are defined by SCS in TR-55 as follows: Group A soils have low runoff potential and high infiltration rates even when thoroughly wetted. They consist chiefly of deep, well to excessively drained sands or gravels and have a high rate of water transmission (greater that 0.30 in/hr). Group B soils have moderate infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consist chiefly of moderately deep to deep, moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse textures. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission (0.15-0.30 in/hr). Group C soils have low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consist chiefly of soils with a layer that impedes downward movement of water and soils with moderately fine to fine texture. These soils have a low rate of water transmission (0.05-0.15 in/hr).

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Group D soils have high runoff potential. They have very low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consist chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high water table, soils with a clay pan or clay layer at or near the surface, and shallow soils over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very low rate of water transmission (0-0.05 in/hr). Step 3. Determine the type of cover found in the shed area. Cover types can be determined by field observation, aerial photograph, or land use maps. Step 4. Determine the Curve Number (CN) for the watershed area. SCS Runoff Curve Number Method The SCS Runoff Curve Number (CN) method is described in detail in National Engineering Handbook, Section 4 (SCS 1985) and is calculated as follows: Q = (P-Ia)2 (P-Ia)+S Equation 2-11

Where: Q = P = S = Ia =

runoff, in rainfall, in potential maximum retention after runoff begins, in initial abstraction, in

Initial abstraction (Ia) is the total of all losses before runoff begins. It includes water retained in surface depressions, water intercepted by vegetation, evaporation and infiltration. Ia is highly variable but generally is correlated with soil and cover parameters. Through studies of many small agricultural watersheds, Ia was found to be approximated by the following empirical equation: Ia = 0.2S Equation 2-12

By removing Ia as an independent parameter, this approximation allows use of a combination of S and P to produce a unique runoff amount, substituting equation 2.12 into equation 2.11 gives
2 Q = (P-0.2S) (P+0.8S)

Equation 2-13

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S is related to the soil and cover conditions of the watershed through the CN. CN has a range of 0 to 100, and S is related to CN by S = 1000 -10 CN Equation 2-14

TR-55 provides tabular solutions for CN for each cover type, hydrologic condition and hydrologic soil group. Upon determination of CN for each cover type, hydrologic condition and hydrologic soil group, calculate the weighted CN for the total watershed area. CN (area1) x % of shed area = CN1 CN (area2) x % of shed area = CN2 CN (area3) x % of shed area = CN3 Step 5. Determine Time of Concentration, tc. The time of concentration (see Equation 2-5) is the summation of the travel time through each consecutive segment of the watershed area. Travel time for sheet flow, shallow concentrated flow and open channel flow can be calculated as discussed earlier in this chapter. Step 6. Determine initial abstraction, Ia. Ia is dependent upon the Curve Number only. Using the CN found in Step 3, the initial abstraction Ia is found in tabular form in TR-55. Step 7. Compute Ia/P Ia was determined in Step 6. P is the highest peak discharge for the watershed. The highest peak discharges from small watersheds usually occur during intense, brief rainfalls that may be distinct events or part of a longer storm. These intense rainstorms do not usually extend over a large area and intensities vary greatly. Different rain fall distributions can be developed for each watershed to emphasize the critical rainfall duration for the peak discharges. However, to avoid the use of a different set of rainfall intensities for each drainage area size, it is common practice in rainfall-runoff analysis to develop a set of synthetic rainfall distributions.
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For the small size drainage areas, a storm period of 24 hours is appropriate for determining runoff volumes, even though 24 hours is a longer period than needed to determine peak runoff. TR-55 provides synthetic rainfall distribution with various intensities. Rainfall with 24 hour duration and various intensities can also be obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or more local weather or water resource agencies. Step 8. Determine the type of rainfall distribution. A geographic depiction of rainfall distribution types is provided in TR-55. Types I, IA, II and III are dependent upon storm intensity. Step 9. Graphically determine united peak discharge, qu In steps 5, 6, 7 and 8 rainfall distribution type, Time of Concentration and Ia/P have been determined. With these parameters, TR-55 provides graphical methods of determining the peak unit discharge qu (See Figure 2-4). Step 10. Calculate peak discharge. Peak discharge Q p is calculated using Equation 2-15. Q p = q u A m QFp Where: Qp = qu = Am = Q = Fp = Equation 2-15

peak discharge, cfs unit peak discharge, cfs per square mile per in drainage area, square miles direct runoff, in pond or swamp adjustment factor

Unit peak discharge, qu, was determined in Step 9. Drainage basin Area A (watershed area) was determined in Step 1. Direct runoff, Q, is determined by Equation 2.11 and 2.13. Pond or swamp adjustment factor, Fp, adjusts for the total area of ponding throughout the watershed. TR-55 provides a Table giving Fp for various percentages of the watershed found by observation to be pond areas.

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Hydraulic Engineering Center Computer Modeling Method

For large, complex watersheds and for important or sensitive culvert installations, it may be necessary to utilize a sophisticated computer solution for determining runoff hydrographs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydraulics Engineering Center, has developed a set of hydraulic models for use in watershed management. HEC-HMS (Hydraulic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System) is widely used and accepted to model watershed hydrology. It is capable of simulating a large number of separate sub-shed areas, actual storm events, infiltration methods and methods for routing flows from point to point within the watershed. The HEC-HMS software can be downloaded at www.hec.usace.army.mil/. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS (Hydraulics Engineer Center-River Analysis System) is a computer program which determines water evaluations in open channels under steady flow conditions. It has culvert routines and when used with the peak flow from the runoff hydrograph (from HEC-HMS), it can be used to validate a previously estimated culvert size and slope. The HEC-RAS software can be downloaded at www.hec.usace.army.mil/.

Design of Culverts
The basis for conduit design is the energy equation for conduit flows. At a point along any reach of pipe, the total energy head can be expressed as the sum of the V2). The Energy elevation head (Z), the pressured head (P/) and the velocity head (2g Grade Line represents the profile plot of the total energy head along the concerned pipeline. The Hydraulic Grade Line represents the profile plot of the piezometric head (the sum of Z + P/) along the concerned pipeline. The energy conservation equation between Points A and B along a pipeline shown in Figure 2.4 can be expressed as:

Figure 2-4

Figure 2-4: Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line along a Pipeline
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PA + Z + VA2 = PB + Z + VB 2 + A A B B 2g 2g Where: PA = pressured head @ Section A ZA = Elevation head at Section A

Equation 2-16

2 A AV 2g = Kinetic Energy head with adjusting factor due to non-uniform velocity distribution at Section A

hL = hf+ hml = Sum of the major and minor losses hf = Sum of major loss due to friction between Sections A and B hml = Sum of all the minor losses between Sections A and B The major friction loss hf can be calculated by the Darcy-Weisbach Equation: hf = f L V D 2g
2

Equation 2-17

Where: f = L = D = V = g =

Friction factor Length of pipe flow between Sections A and B, ft Diameter of pipe, ft Average velocity, ft/sec Acceleration due to gravity ft/sec/sec

Friction factor, f, is a function of Reynolds number R and relative Roughness coefficient. The friction factor, f, can be obtained through the Moodys diagram, Figure. 2.5.

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Figure 2-5

Figure 2-5: Moodys Diagram

The minor losses, which include entrance, contraction, expansion, bends and other fittings can be calculated by the equation: hml = K V 2g
2

Equation 2-18

Where: hml = minor head loss K = Sum of loss coefficients which can be obtained from Table 2.5 V = Average inflow velocity for the concerned transition or fittings

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Table 2-5
Description Pipe entrance hL = KeV2/2g Contraction Sketch Additional Data r/d 0.0 0.1 >0.20 D2/D1 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 0.90 D1/D2 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 Without vanes With vanes 90 smooth bend r/d 1 2 4 6 8 10 Globe valve wide open Angle valve wide open Gate valve wide open Gate valve half open Return bend Tee straight-through flow side-outlet flow 90 elbow 45 elbow K Ke 0.50 0.12 0.03 Kc = 180 0.50 0.49 0.42 0.32 0.18 0.10 KE = 180 1.00 0.92 0.72 0.42 0.16 Kb = 1.1 Kb = 0.2 Kb = 0.35 Kb = 0.19 Kb = 0.16 Kb = 0.21 Kb = 0.28 Kb = 0.32 Kv = 10.0 Kv = 05.0 Kv = 00.2 Kv = 05.6 Kb = 02.2 Kt = 00.4 Kt = 01.8 Kb = 00.9 Kb = 00.4

hL = KcV2 2/2g Expansion

hL = KEV2 1/2g 90 miter bend

Threaded pipe fittings

Table 2-5: Loss coefficients for various transitions and fittings


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Hydraulics of Culverts
When stream channels pass under transportation facilities, such as highways or roadways, railroad embankments, irrigation canals or other geographical obstructions, a drainage structure is required to pass the water under the obstruction. The two common types of structures are open channels with bridges and culverts. Culverts are designed to pass the design flow without overtopping the surrounding embankment and without erosion of the fill (or embankment) at either the upstream or downstream end of the culvert. The flow in a culvert is a function of the following geometric variables: Crosssectional size and shape (circular, rectangular or other), slope S, length L, roughness n and entrance and exit hydraulic properties. Flow in a culvert may occur as an open channel flow, or as completely full pipe flow, or as a combination of both. The headwater depth Hw and tailwater depth Tw are the two major factors that dictate whether the culvert flows partially or completely full. Culvert flow may be controlled at the inlet or the outlet. Pressure and the nature of the flow, subcritical or supercritical, play an important role in determining whether the inlet or outlet controls the flow, and consequently, the hydraulic capacity of the culvert. Inlet Control Inlet control of flow occurs when the culvert barrel is capable of conveying more flow than the inlet will accept. The control section for inlet control is located at the entrance of the culvert. Critical depth occurs at or near the entrance, and the flow regime immediately downstream is supercritical flow. The hydraulic characteristics downstream of the inlet control section do not affect the culvert capacity. The inlet geometry (barrel shape, cross-sectional area and the inlet edge) and headwater depth play the major role in inlet control. Figure 2.6 shows the possible types of inlet control flows.

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Figure 2-6

Water Surface
Hw

Outlet unsubmerged

Hw

Water Surface

Outlet submerged Inlet unsubmerged

Hw

Water Surface

Inlet submerged

Median Drain

Hw

Water Surface Outlet submerged

Figure: 2-6: Types of Inlet Control

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Outlet Control Outlet control flow occurs when the culvert barrel is not capable of conveying as much flow as the inlet opening will accept. The control section for outlet control flow in a culvert is located at the barrel exit or further downstream. Either subcritical or pressure flow exists in the culvert barrel under the outlet control situations. All of the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the culvert play a role in determining its flow capacity. These characteristics include all the governing factors for inlet control, tailwater depth Tw , slope S, roughness n, and length of the culvert barrel. Figure 2.7 shows the possible types of outlet control flows.

Figure 2-7
Hw

Water Surface (W.S.)


W.S. H

Tw

W.S. H

Hw

Tw

Hw

W.S.

Tw

Hw

H W.S.

Hw

H W.S.

Figure: 2-7: Types of Outlet Control (HDS No. 5)

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Determination of Culvert Capacity


There are six basic culvert flow types. Three of these flow types occur under unsubmerged entrance conditions and three occur under submerged entrance conditions, all six are described below. Following each culvert type is an illustration depicting flow of that type. Following the illustration is the discharge formula for that culvert type. Unsubmerged Entrance Type 1: Steep slope flowing partially full, discharge depth less than critical depth, therefore inlet control exists.

Q = C d A c 2 g H w+ V1 2 g -d c -h 1,2
2

Equation 2-19

Where: Cd = Hw = V 1 = dc = h1,2 = Ac =

discharge coefficient headwater depth, ft approaching velocity, ft/sec critical flow depth, ft head loss from Section 1 to Section 2, ft flow area at critical depth, ft2

Type 2: Shallow slope flowing partially full, discharge depth greater than critical depth, therefore outlet control exists, even though tail water depth is less than critical depth.

1 2 g-d -h -h Q = C dA c 2 g H w +Z+V c 1, 2 2,3


2

Equation 2-20

Where: h2,3 = head loss from cross section 2 to 3, ft


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Type 3: Shallow slope flowing partially full discharge depth greater than critical depth therefore outlet control exists.

z
1 2 g-h -h -h Q = Cd A 3 2 g Hw+Z+V 3 1,2 2,3
2

Equation 2-21

Where: A3 = flow area at cross section 3, ft2 H3 = flow depth at cross section 3, ft Submerged Entrance Type 4: Culvert flowing full, discharge is submerged, discharge depth greater than critical depth, therefore outlet control exists.

Q = CdAo 2g(Hw+Z-Tw) 1+29n2 L/Ro4/3 Where: Tw = n = L = Ao = Ro = tailwater flow depth, ft Mannings roughness coefficient length of culvert, ft cross sectional area of full culvert flow, ft2 hydraulic radius of full culvert flow, ft

Equation 2-22

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Type 5: Culvert flowing full discharge not submerged but outfall greater than critical depth, therefore outlet control exists.

Q = CdAo 2g(Hw+Z-D) 1+29n2 L/Ro4/3 Where: D = diameter of culvert, ft

Equation 2-23

Type 6: Culvert flowing part full, discharge depth less than critical depth, therefore inlet control exists.

1 2g-D 2 Q = CdAo 2gHw+Z+V


2

Equation 2-24

To determine the type of flow for a given culvert configuration, the following steps are recommended: 1. 2. 3. Determine the design flow for the culvert location, as discussed earlier in this chapter. Using Mannings equation and the design flow from Step 1, estimate the size of the culvert. Determine the critical depth, dc , and the normal depth, dn, for the culvert. Normal depth is the depth at which uniform flow will occur. Normal depth may be determined by the Manning equation (Equation 2.8) and substituting expressions involving diameter for A and R.

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Critical depth is defined as the depth for which specific energy is a minimum. Specific energy is the sum of the depth and the velocity head. Flow at critical depth can be expressed by Equation 2.25. Q2 = a g T Where: Q = flow, cfs a = area of the flow stream, ft2 T = top width of the flow stream, ft Handbook of Hydraulics, King & Brater has tabular solutions for dc. 4. Determine the depth of the tailwater flow in the channel downstream of the culvert, Tw. Determine the type of culvert flow as follows: If dn < dc and Tw < dc If dn > dc and Tw < dc If dn > dc and Tw > dc 6. then Type 1 then Type 2 then Type 3 Equation 2-25

5.

Using the discharge equation for the identified type of flow, check the computed flow with the designed flow and then confirm the size of the pipe. If the discharge equation produces a different size culvert, repeat the trial.

Culvert Types 1 through 4 are usually not difficult to identify and classify during design. Types 5 and 6, however, can be difficult to identify. Bouthaine developed relationships for Type 5 and 6 culverts that are provided in Figures 2.8 and 2.9. Figure 2.9 is used for circular sections. The procedure to determine Type 5 or 6 culvert is as follows: 1. Compute r/D and compute 29n (h1-Z) where r is the radius of the inlet edge Ro4/3 and h1, is the height of water at the inlet above the outlet.
2

2.

Select Figure 2.9 corresponding to the appropriate r/D.

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3. 4.

Plot the point defined by So and L/D for the culvert in Figure 2.9.
2 If the point plots to the right of the computed value of 29n (h1-Z) then Ro4/3 the culvert is Type 5; if to the left, the culvert is Type 6.

Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts (HDS No. 5)


It is difficult to determine if the flow capacity of a culvert will be controlled by the culvert inlet (inlet control) or if the flow capacity will be controlled by the conditions of the barrel of the culvert (outlet control). The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) developed a culvert design manual called the Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts. It is FHWA Report No. FHWA-IP-85-15 HDS No. 5 and is often referred to as HDS-5. This design manual utilizes a method of design that assists in determining whether a culvert will have inlet control or outlet control. By utilizing the HDS-5 Culvert Design Form, the type of culvert flow becomes clear and produces confidence that the culvert sizing is correct. The HDS-5 design method uses a Culvert Design Form to walk the designer through a step-by-step process to determine upstream and downstream water elevations. Completing the Culvert Design Form is most easily accomplished using the charts, tables and monographs found in HDS-5. Stepping through the analysis required to complete the Culvert Design Form provides a thorough evaluation of the hydraulics of the culvert. HDS-5 has a computer program associated with the design method referred to as HY8. HY8 FHWA Culvert Analysis (Version 6.1) is available electronically on line and can be downloaded from www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/hydsoft.htm. HY8 can be a valuable design tool. However, the program is DOS based and is not particularly user friendly. Using HY8 efficiently requires experience with the program.

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Figure 2-8

Figure: 2-8: Smooth pipe or box sections

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Figure 2-9

Figure: 2-9: Circular Sections

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Figure 2-9

Figure: 2-9: Circular Sections

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Summary
Several design methods are available for determining design flow and drainage structure sizing. Many agencies have design requirements that are less general than those included herein. Refer to agency design standards for particular agency requirements. Based upon a review of agency requirements and appropriate engineering judgment regarding the particular watershed and drainage structure, the designer should select appropriate design methods. Upon completion of a drainage conveyance facility design, careful consideration should be given to the proposed installed condition of the designed drainage facility (culvert or pipeline). For the completed design, evaluate inlet control versus outlet control, the installed capacity of the designed conveyance facility, headwater and tailwater elevations, and discharge velocity.

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Bibliography
American Iron & Steel Institute, Modern Sewer Design Handbook, 2nd Edition, 1990. P.B. Bediant and W.C. Huber, Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1988. G.L. Bodthaines, Measurement of Peak Discharge at Culverts by Indirect Method, Techniques of Water Resources Investigations, U.S.G.S., Washington D.C., 1982. R.L. Bras, Hydrology and Introduction to Hydrologic Science, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1990. V.T. Chow, D.R. Maidment and L.W. Mays, Applied Hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1988. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Report No. FHWA-IP-85, 15, HDS No. 5, 1985. A.T. Hjelmfelt, Jr. and J.J. Cassidy, Hydrology for Engineers and Planners, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1975. Hydrologic Engineering Center, HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package Users Manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Davis California, 1990. D.M. Gray, Editor in Chief, Handbook on the Principles of Hydrology, National Research Council of Canada, 1970. R.S. Gupta, Hydrology and Hydraulic Systems, Waveland Press, Inc., 1995. T.V. Hromodke II, Computer Methods in Urban Hydrology: Rational Methods and Unit Hydrograph Methods, Lighthouse Publications, 1983. King & Brater, Handbook of Hydraulic, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1963. R.K. Linsley, J.B. Franzini, Water Resources Engineering, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1964. R.K. Linsley, Jr., M.A. Kohler and J.A.H. Paul Hus, Hydrology for Engineers, 3rd Edition, New York, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1982.

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R.K. Linsley, J.B. Franzini, D.L. Freyberg and G. Tchobanoglous, Water Resources Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1992. R.H. McCuen, A Guide to Hydrologic Analysis Using SCS Methods, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1982. R.H. McCuen, Hydrologic Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc.,1998. National Engineering Handbook, Section, 1985. O.E. Overton and M.E. Meadows, Storm Water Modeling, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1976. V.M. Ponce, Engineering Hydrology Principles and Practices, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989. Portland Cement Association, Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics, printed by Portland Cement Association, 1964. E.F. Shulz, Problems in Applied Hydrology, Water Resources Publications, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1976. Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Assocation, Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction, 4th Edition, 1991. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soils Construction Service, Engineering Division Technical Release 20, 1964. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soils Construction Service, Engineering Division Technical Release 55, 1986. W. Viessman, Jr., and G.L. Lewis, Introduction to Hydrology, 4th Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996. E.M. Wilson, Engineering Hydrology, MacMillan and Co. LTD., Great Britain, 1969.

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Notes

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Chapter

3
Use of Corrugated HDPE Products

Orin Bennett

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USE OF CORRUGATED HDPE PRODUCTS


Corrugated HDPE Pipe Characteristics
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a versatile material and has some ideal characteristics for use in underground structures. HDPE pipe is relatively lightweight allowing for easier and less costly transportation and installation costs. It is not brittle and therefore not susceptible to cracking during pipe handling and installation activities. Once formed into a pipe, HDPE has a smooth surface, which is resistant to abrasion, corrosion and chemical scouring. The smooth surface provides excellent pipeline flow characteristics. HDPE pipe is structurally strong and has the ability to support large loads. HDPE has the ability to relax under stress. This characteristic provides advantages for underground structures and also helps define limitations of use. As HDPE pipe is loaded, the pipe relaxes immediately, and over time, allows the load to be transferred to the adjacent soil. This characteristic allows the pipe to off-load points of local stress. Stress relaxation may result in slight pipe reformation over time to accommodate inplace loading conditions. Such re-formations are believed to cause long-term structural stability. Corrugated HDPE is an excellent choice for gravity flow or low-head pipeline situations. The structural stability of corrugated HDPE pipe is produced by three pipe designs. According to AASHTO M294, they are defined as: Type C This pipe shall have a full circular cross section, with an annular corrugated surface both inside and outside. Type S This pipe is a full circular dual-wall cross section, with an outer corrugated pipe wall and a smooth inner liner. Type D This pipe is a circular cross section consisting of an essentially smooth inner wall joined to an essentially smooth outer wall with annular or spiral connecting elements.

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Figure 3-1

Figure 3-1: Type C HDPE Pipe with Interior and Exterior Corrugations

Typically, Type C pipe with interior and exterior corrugated walls is available in 3-inch through 24-inch diameters. Interior and exterior corrugated pipe in smaller diameters are connected with separate snap-on connections with no gasket. In larger diameters, the connections are made with corrugated bands secured with plastic ties. The specific design of the pipe as shown in Figure 3-1 varies by manufacturer. Each section is associated with specific structural properties and performance characteristics. Those characteristics are available from the manufacturer for use in load calculations.

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Figure 3-2

Figure 3-2: Type S HDPE Pipe with Corrugated Exterior and Smooth Interior

Pipe manufacturers provide various pipe joining methods depending on the pipe style and project requirements. Coupling bands, with or without a gasket, wrap around the pipe and are secured with plastic ties. Gasketed bell and spigot joints are also widely used. Nonrated and nonpressure tested watertight joints are suitable for the majority of nonpressure (gravity flow) drainage applications and typically do not experience significant leakage. For environmental and other reasons, most manufacturers also have a pressure-rated watertight joint suited for nonpressure applications. Joints are rated at either 10.8 psi or 5.0 psi when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3212.

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Figure 3-3

Figure 3-3: Use of a Gasketed Coupling for HDPE Sewer Pipeline Application

Although HDPE pipe products are versatile, the primary use of corrugated HDPE is for gravity flow water management. Examples of these water management systems include: storm drainage subsurface drainage sanitary sewers leachate collection detention/retention stormwater management systems Storm Drainage Corrugated HDPE has become the pipe of choice for many of these drainage applications. Stormwater systems require a wide range of pipe sizes and cover requirements in both landscaped and parking areas. Corrugated HPDE is a durable and cost-effective pipe material for these on-site drainage facilities. The pipe materials approved for drainage conveyance in public rights-of-way are determined by the jurisdiction responsible for maintenance of such facilities. HPDE has been used for highway and roadway drainage culverts and storm drainage

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systems for more than 20 years. Most state Departments of Transportation, cities and counties have included HDPE in their Departments Standard Construction Specifications. Installations have included culverts under very high fills and under minimal cover. Many installations have been monitored and have demonstrated satisfactory to exceptional performance. Concerns of insufficient strength, cracking and deterioration over time have proven to be unwarranted.

Figure 3-4

Figure 3-4: Highway Drainage Culvert with HDPE Flared End Section

Subsurface Drainage Corrugated HDPE pipe can also be produced with perforations. The perforations allow subsurface water to be collected and transplanted to favorable locations for discharge. Subdrainage systems are used to collect leachate under landfill sites. Subdrainage systems also are used to control and direct underground water transport and to encourage proper surface water percolation in golf courses, athletic fields, hillside development projects and in agricultural fields. Often, subdrainage systems are used to lower the groundwater table. For athletic field development, subdrainage systems have been connected to air vacuum systems to encourage the downward movement of surface and subsurface water.

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Perforated corrugated HDPE pipe is often used to control water levels in agricultural land. Perforated pipe is installed to collect and transport subsurface drainage and/or groundwater or to control the depth to groundwater. Sanitary Sewers HDPE pipe is an ideal septic system leach pipeline material. One type of HDPE pipe has been specifically designed with special perforations to allow percolation. Leachate Collection The mining industry has a special application of subdrainage that is ideal for corrugated HDPE perforated pipe. A technique called heap leaching is used to recover low-grade deposits of copper, gold and silver. A cyanide solution sprayed over soil containing gold or silver converts the minerals to a chemical compound. The solution is collected in a perforated pipe subdrainage system and transported to ponds. The gold or silver is recovered from the ponds using carbon absorption or precipitation. HDPE is well-suited to this process because it is highly resistant to chemical attack. Tests have shown little or no degradation of HDPE with long-term exposure to a pH range from 1.5 to 14.0. Detention/Retention Storm Water Management Systems Current regulations in most areas limit the rate of storm water runoff as well as the level of pollutants allowed in discharged storm water. Urbanization of land can dramatically alter the natural movement of water. When runoff is transported away from critical areas, it can cause problems where recharge of aquifiers is necessary to maintain a steady groundwater supply. To counter these problems, storm water retention systems hold runoff until the surrounding soil can accept it via percolation, allowing aquifiers to be recharged. In other cases, the existing storm drainage trunk system is not designed to accept increased peak flow and the runoff must be retained until the peak flow has subsided. Many jurisdictions require developers of projects to assure that downstream peak storm discharge flows remain the same after development. Storm water retention and detention systems can be either above-ground ponds or subsurface piping. Ponds are the least prone to early siltation and clogging, but could present child safety and long-term aesthetic problems such as insect breeding, weed growth, odor and refuse control. Subsurface retention/detention systems use available land efficiently at a low maintenance cost, while posing little or no public safety or aesthetic problems. Underground storage facilities developed by placing several pipes in series is a common use of corrugated HDPE pipe.

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Figure 3-5

Figure 3-5: On-Site Storm Water Detention Facilities

Other Systems
Corrugated polyethylene pipe is used in a wide variety of other applications, several of which are described below. Contact the manufacturer for detailed information for these and other applications. Roof Leader and Landscape Area Drainage Residential, industrial and commercial buildings all have demand for roof leader and landscape area drainage facilities. Small diameter corrugated interior and exterior HDPE is the most commonly used product available for these types of uses. The combination of flexibility, durability and strength is not offered by other materials. Ventilation Systems Perforated corrugated HDPE pipe also has become the product of choice for ventilation systems. Pipe placed in the bottom of grain storage bins introduce air via blowers to evaporate moisture from the grain piles. Another application utilizes perforated HDPE pipe to collect air from the discharge of an air scrubber for disbursement under a filter media to remove contaminant particles.
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Earth Cooling Tubes Earth cooling tubes are a viable method for space cooling, and are being used as an alternative to conventional air conditioning. In these systems, warm air is moved through the cool earth via tubes. The air is then used to achieve a cooling effect. Corrugated polyethylene tubing is particularly suited for this application because the corrugations provide a greater surface area for the heat transfer process to take place. Floating Systems HDPE is resistant to corrosion and chemical attack. Those properties, along with its relative light weight, has allowed it to be used as a holding vessel for floats. Polystyrene-filled corrugated HDPE pipe is used as floats in various applications. A common use of these floats is as pontoons for floating boat docks. Various dock materials are easily attached to the corrugated HDPE pontoons of any length to form the appropriately shaped floating dock. Similar floats also have been used to provide the support for polyurethane covers of liquid waste and chemical storage ponds.

Figure 3-6

Figure 3-6: HDPE Pipe Used for Floating Dock Construction

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Subsurface Irrigation and Drainage


Relining of Failed Pipes with Corrugated HDPE Corrugated HDPE pipe can be used as a structural insert inside failing culverts, storm drains or sewers made of corrugated metal or concrete. The HDPE pipe becomes the load-bearing structure after the annulus is filled with grout. Corrugated HDPE pipe with a smooth interior must be inserted from a pit, or at the end of the existing culvert. The inserted HDPE pipe will reduce the original inlet area. If the reduction is too drastic, a short, specially designed HDPE taper may be attached to the inlet end to increase the inlet area. Aeration in Sewer Sludge Composting Perforated corrugated polyethylene pipe is an integral component when composting sewer sludge. The perforations allow controlled aeration of the sludge. Many communities have found that they can compost sewer sludge and market the finished compost.

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Chapter

4
The Pipe/Soil Structure Actions and Interactions

Lester H. Gabriel, Ph.D., P.E.

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THE PIPE/SOIL STRUCTURE ACTIONS AND INTERACTIONS


Composite Structures Principles of Analysis
Predictability of a structural designs performance is one of many important purposes of structural analysis. Elastic analysis of structures requires that very specific conditions at all points within the structure and on its boundary are satisfied. Forces of action and reaction must be in equilibrium, deformations of adjacent points within and on the boundaries of a structural element must be compatible, and only appropriate stressstrain laws may be employed. If, and only if, displacements of a linear elastic material are small, analysis may be relied upon to be a powerful predictor of performance. Properly designed steel girders experience service displacements of about 0.5%. Corrugated flexible steel, aluminum and plastic pipes experience service displacements of about 5%. The larger the displacement, the less reliable are the predictions. To enhance performance, structures and structural elements are often designed as composites of multiple materials. Familiar examples include reinforcing bars in concrete and fiberglass filament reinforcement of pressure vessels of thermosetting resins. Both reinforcing materials provide toughness in fields of tension. Steel beam and concrete floor decks, when working as a composite structure of two materials, perform much more favorably than the sum of the capabilities of each. The same is true for a composite structure of pipe and soil. The buried pipe/soil structural composite requires properly selected and compacted soils surrounding the pipe to reinforce it in a manner that favorably minimizes the pipes bending stress and maximizes ring compression. It is the performance of the pipe/soil composite structure that must be predicted by engineering design. Techniques of structural analysis are complex. For superstructures of buildings and bridges, loads are assigned most often guided by minimums set by specification. For composite structures such as buried pipelines, culverts, footings, earth retaining walls, tunnels, mine shafts and subsurface structures reasonable methods for assigning loads on each element of the composite structure are often incorporated into rational design strategies. The Ring Deflection and Ring Compression theories analyze the performance of the separate elements of the composite after loads are assigned to each. The Burns and Richard and finite element solutions are strategies wherein loads are assigned to the pipe/soil composite. Elastic analysis of surface and gravity embankment loads propagating through an assumed elastic soil medium, and interacting with a pipe of assumed elastic properties, becomes the determinant of loads at the interface between soil and pipe.

CHAPTER 4: THE PIPE/SOIL STRUCTURE ACTIONS AND INTERACTIONS

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Unsupported/Unburied Pipe
Structural Stiffness Material Response Stress, an internal force response of a deformable body subjected to external forces, is associated with a deformation that excites a strain response. The relationship between stress and strain differs for each and every material. An elastic material responds to load in a manner that is essentially independent of the time duration of load application, provided that the measure of load is sufficiently small to maintain the integrity of a linear, or nearly linear, stress-strain response. Energy associated with an elastically deformed element is stored (conserved) within the element and, with removal of load, such stored energy is available for complete geometric recovery of the element. The system is called conservative. The assumptions of elastic analysis include a linear, elastic, conservative response with small displacements. Other materials may have an inelastic and/or non-linear response with a time dependency measured in years (concrete is such an example). Still other materials may have an inelastic, non-linear response with a time dependency measured in seconds (plastics make up such a class of materials). For other than linear, elastic, time-independent materials, departures from the ideal must be accommodated. For plastics, concrete and other non-linear materials, the curvilinear stress-strain response is linearized with the use of a secant modulus. At usual levels of working stress, the slope of a proper secant modulus is taken as a close approximation to the tangent of the stress-strain curve (Figure 4-1).

Figure 4-1

Figure 4-1: Tangent and Secant Moduli


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Plastic materials creep with sustained load and do not fully recover during the relaxation phase with removal of load (Figure 4-2). They are non-linear viscoelastic and may be characterized with a creep modulus when the load is maintained, and/or a relaxation modulus when the deformation is maintained. At strain levels approximating those of pipes in service, modular values of creep and relaxation are approximately equal they decrease with time. See Figure 4-3 for a typical curve of stiffness relaxation, similar to a relaxation modulus, for a solid wall HDPE pipe subjected to a 10% instantaneous displacement.

Figure 4-2

Figure 4-2: Creep and Relaxation

Figure 4-3

Figure 4-3: Stiffness Relaxation

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When restrained at connections, supports and intermediate points, the geometric properties related to the stiffness of a structural element that affect deformation are moment of inertia, area of cross-section and length. These properties, coupled with the nature of end and intermediate restraints, determine the measure and character of a bodys internal response to applied forces.

Figure 4-4

90 arc

P
Figure 4-4: End Loaded Curved

Reasonable estimates of the measure, character and distribution of loads attracted to pipe and soil can only be judged if the stiffness of each is reasonably well known. For an elastic material, where time is not a factor: The stiffness [k] of a structural element responding to an applied force is that force [P] required to cause a unit of deformation [] co-linear with, and in the direction of, the applied force. Therefore: k = P/ Equation 4-1

This definition of stiffness (Equation 4.1) works well for materials whose properties are time-independent; i.e., materials which do not creep and/or relax in service. For time-dependent materials such as plastics, creep and stress relaxation occur; the rate of load application dominates the outcome of the measure of stiffness.

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For time-dependent materials, it is useful to redefine stiffness as follows: (The subscript i indicates that instant following the initial application of load.) The stiffness [ki] of a structural element responding to an applied force is that force [Pi] required to cause a unit of deformation [i ] co-linear with, and in the direction of, the applied load force at the instant following the application of load. Therefore: ki = Pi/I Equation 4-1a

Thermoplastic materials are not elastic, but rather viscoelastic. Viscoelastic materials exhibit two time-related behaviors: creep and stress relaxation. Creep is increasing strain with increasing or constant stress, the latter a condition witnessed in the laboratory. It causes flexible pipe to deflect under soil load until the pipe/soil composite structure essentially stabilizes. Stress relaxation is decreasing stress with increasing or constant strain, the latter occurring to the stabilized soil/pipe composite. Both creep and stress relaxation are initiated at the instant of load application. Stress relaxation prevents stress levels from remaining at extremely high levels, and thus plays a very beneficial role in buried pipe behavior. For unburied or unsupported pipes of elastic materials, and for unburied or unsupported pipes of plastic materials, at the instant of application of load as shown in Figure 4-5, the relationship between load and deflection is given by:

Figure 4-5

Figure 4-5: Two-Point Load

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0.1488WR oc EI

W (E)(I/R 3 )

Equation 4-2

load (material stiffness) (geometric stiffness)

Equation 4-2a

Where: = P = R = E = I =

deformation force effective radius of pipe modulus of elasticity moment of inertia of the wall profile

Identifying the denominator in Equation 4-2a as the composite stiffness, k, Equation 4.1 is obtained with rearrangement of terms. Knowledge of the pipes material stiffness properties alone is insufficient for the prediction of the performance of the pipe part of the soil/pipe composite structure. Properties of geometric stiffness must also be known. Parallel Plate Test Included as part of ASTM D 2412, Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel Plate Loading, is the application of two loads, at the opposite ends of a diameter, equal in magnitude, opposite in direction and co-linear. There is no pattern of loading that will excite greater moments at crown, invert and springlines and lesser ring compression throughout than that shown in Figure 4-5. Therefore, the test is not representative of a typical installation and is not accurate for predicting field performance. Curved Beam Test The Curved Beam Test (CBT) of HDPE pipe, more closely than the parallel-plate test (ASTM D 2412), approximates service conditions. The curved beam arc section, cut from the circular sections of manufactured pipe and loaded as shown in Figure 4-4, includes a greater proportion of ring compression than that which is present in the parallel plate test on the full circular cross-section when loaded as shown in Figure 4-5.

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Pipe stiffness at the instant of load application, a time-independent stiffness, is preferred for the following reasons: The load at the time of placement dominates the final displacements. At the instant of application of load, small deflection theory has not been violated. At the instant of load application, load relaxation has not interfered with the estimate of stiffness. In thermoplastic materials, in general, and in HDPE, in particular, the stress relaxation is very rapid in the beginning. Figure 4-6 is the load-time curve for a curved beam cut from a 48 in. (1200 mm) profile wall HDPE pipe and subjected to a nearly instantaneous (approximately 3/4 of 1 second) 5% shortening of the vertical chord connecting the end points of the curved beam, as shown in Figure 4-4. When the deflection is held constant, 20% of the load has attenuated in slightly over 2 seconds. After one day, only 30% of the initial peak load maintains the 5% deflection and equilibrium of forces.

Figure 4-6

Figure 4-6: HDPE Curved Beam Study

Buried/Supported Pipe
Interaction of a Soil Envelope with a Flexible Pipe Flexibility in buried pipes is a desired attribute. Understanding how the flexible pipe relates to its neighboring soil thereby establishing a functional pipe/soil composite structure is key to successful design. A buried pipe and its adjacent soil elements will attract earth embankment loads and live loads in accordance with a fundamental principle of structural analysis: stiffer elements will attract greater proportions of shared load than those that are more flexible.

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This principle is illustrated in Figure 4-7 where, given the same well-compacted soils surrounding the pipe, the more flexible pipe attracts less crown load than the rigid pipe of the same outer geometry. The surrounding soil is of greater stiffness than the flexible pipe and of lesser stiffness than the rigid pipe. For thermoplastic flexible pipe, soil stiffer than the pipe settles less than the pipe displaces, thereby permitting development of soil abutments, a necessary condition for the formation of a soil arch. A second necessary condition is realized when the (intergranular) shear strength of properly compacted soil some distance above the pipe is mobilized to maintain its geometry. The earth load on the crown of the pipe culvert is the portion between the crown and some effective location of the soil arch (shown schematically by the dashed lines). This load is less than the prism load a rectangular prism of earth extending from the top of the culvert surface to the top of the embankment, with a base exactly the width of the outer dimensions of the culvert (shown schematically by the dotted lines). For the rigid structure, the more compliant soil adjacent to the pipe settles more than the pipe decreases in height. The shear resistance provided by the soil contacts results in an earth pillar (shown schematically by the dashed lines in Figure 4-7), attracting a load greater than the prism load.

Figure 4-7
soil arch
L

pillar prism
L

prism

FLEXIBLE PIPE Figure 4-7: Crown

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L

RIGID PIPE

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To maximize the opportunity for stress relaxation in a bedded pipe (and simultaneous transfer of load from pipe to soil) and for creep to be negligible control of the selection, placement and compaction of backfill is essential. In a properly designed and constructed flexible pipe/soil composite, the stiffness of the soil will be substantially greater than the stiffness of the pipe. The attributes of pipe flexibility in a pipe/soil composite structure are manifested in many ways. Proper installation will insure the following advantages: Denser soil at springline favors the development of more competent abutments necessary for the development of a soil arch. Less dense soil immediately above the crown also favors the development of a soil arch. The presence of a competent soil arch reduces the proportion of gravity loads attracted to the pipe (Figure 4-8). Denser soil at springline favors the development of lateral passive pressure. Greater lateral passive pressure gives rise to moments, shears and displacements opposing those that exist in the pipe in response to gravity loads only. When a flexible pipe laterally elongates and vertically shortens in response to gravity loads, it adds density and stiffness to the soil in the vicinity of springline and reduces soil density and stiffness in the vicinity of the crown. This results in a lesser proportion of prism load than would otherwise be attracted to the crown. The vertical arching factor (VAF) is the parameter that quantifies the proportion of prism load interacting with the crown (see Chapter 5).

Figure 4-8

Figure 4-8: Benefit of Springline Support

All of these interaction effects occur simultaneously and enhance the stability of the composite structure.

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Stress Relaxation and Creep Creep in thermoplastic materials is a complex relationship between strain and time. Where pressure loads occur in pipelines (e.g.; gas, water), hoop (ring) tension is the pipes response. When the internal pressure is relieved, the hoop tensile stress will relax but not immediately and not completely. If internal pressure is sustained, creep occurs and the associated hoop tension may cause ductile tearing, brittle fracture, neither or both. The time to any creep failure varies inversely with the magnitude of sustained stress. Except for very shallow burial, the response of a non-pressure gravity flow drainage pipeline is dominated by the external soil loads. For sustained loads, with stress relaxation and the resulting attenuation of the pipes bending and ring residual material stiffnesses, load is transferred to the stiffer soil of the pipe/soil composite structure. This additional load in the soil results in some adjustment of the soil envelope, including the further development of lateral pressure in the vicinity of springline. This increase in lateral pressure counteracts the bending due to gravity loads, and the result is a further increase in ring compression. When attenuating relaxation of pipe stiffness results in negligible transfer of load to the soil, the forces at the pipe/soil interface and displacement of the composite pipe/soil structure become essentially fixed and stable. Studies by Howard and Janson confirm that in poorly compacted soils, final pipe deflection after two to three years is more a function of change in soil stiffness than stress relaxation of the pipe material, an additional argument for proper soil and proper compaction of the soil envelope. Influence of Profile Wall Geometry An important property of a flexible pipe is that it has the ability to adjust its geometry in a manner that reduces internal resisting moments in favor of increased ring compression. Greater ring compression and lesser bending result in lower net tension or none at all, a favorable outcome. Within constraints of handling, shipping and storage, the greater the flexibility, the more efficient the in-service performance of buried pipes. Studies have shown that the flexural stiffness may be disregarded in favor of studying only the hoop response with little lost accuracy in analytical predictions. A properly bedded flexible pipe gives rise to reasonably predictable passive soil forces in the vicinity of springline.

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Production line pipes of the same nominal diameter manufactured from identical HDPE material specifications and of equal pipe stiffness (as defined by ASTM D 2412) but of different wall profile geometry perform differently under similar soil loading. Laboratory studies confirm that the geometry of the wall profile greatly influences the response of the pipe.

Application to Thermoplastic Non-Pressure Drainage Pipes


AASHTOs Section 18 includes recommendations of measures of mechanical properties for design of HDPE and PVC gravity drainage pipes including initial and 50-year elastic moduli. After 50 years of sustained load (not necessarily the age of the installation or pipe), the prescribed minimum modulus of elasticity is reduced by 80% for HDPE and 65% for PVC. Interface pipe/soil loads of interaction are diminished as relaxation of the pipe material and, to a lesser extent, the soil occurs. Furthermore: Minimum 50 year moduli do not indicate a softening of the pipe material but is (sic) an expression of the time dependent relationship between stress and strain. For each short term increment of deflection, whenever it occurs, the response will reflect the initial modulus. The moduli of elasticity of AASHTO Section 18 are defined by tests of centrally located loads on simply supported beams, applied at 12.5 0.5 mm/min. They are evaluated as secant moduli (Figure 4-1) at 2% strain. Bending is the dominating response; axial compression is absent. In many time-independent engineering materials, flexural compression and axial compression moduli are close in value. For purposes of design, they often are assumed to be the same. However, ring compression is likely to dominate the stress response of flexible pipes buried in a stiffer soil mass. AASHTO Section 18 does not address a ring compression modulus. But for purposes of design and predictions of performance, modular values of beam flexural compression are used for ring compression calculations.

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Bibliography
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, M 294 Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300-to-900 mm Diameter. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, M 304, Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Profile Wall Drain Pipe and Fittings Based on Controlled Inside Diameter. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Section 18. Soil-Thermoplastic Pipe Interaction Systems. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. ASTM Standards, D 2412. Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel Plate Loading. Howard, Amster K., Load-Deflection Field Test of 27-inch (675-mm) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Pipe, Buried Plastic Pipe Technology, ASTM STP1093. 1990, pp. 125-140. Janson, L.E., Short-term versus Long-term Pipe Ring Stiffness in the Design of Buried Plastic Sewer Pipes, Proc. Int. Conf. Pipeline Design and Installation, ASCE, Las Vegas, 1990, pp. 160-167. McGrath, Timothy J., Calculating Loads on Buried Culverts Based on Pipe Hoop Stiffness, Transportation Research Board, 1999 Annual Meeting, p. 10. Moser, A.P., The Structural Performance of Buried 48-inch Diameter N-12 HC Polyethylene Pipes, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 1994.

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Notes

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Chapter

5
Design Methodology

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DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Overview of Structural Considerations
All pipe, whether flexible or rigid, relies on the backfill structure to transfer loads into the bedding. As a result, all pipe also must be installed as designed to perform as expected. This chapter sets forth the design methodology for corrugated polyethylene pipe meeting the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) M252 and M294 and MP7 used in non-pressure applications. Section properties for use in the design procedure are presented. Material properties, backfill criteria and load conditions play important roles in pipe performance. The design procedure evaluates deflection, buckling, bending stress, bending strain and wall stress. This procedure establishes limits for each condition. Height of Cover tables showing minimum cover in trafficked installations and maximum cover heights under a variety of backfill conditions are shown in Tables 5-4 and 5-5 respectively. Sample calculations also are provided. Corrugated polyethylene pipe performance has been extensively documented and researched through laboratory and field installations. This work reinforces the conservatism of this design procedure.

Introduction
This chapter was developed to assist those who utilize or specify corrugated polyethylene pipe, meeting the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) M252 and M294 specifications, as well as CAN/CSA standards, in non-pressure applications to better understand its structural capabilities. Although it has been in use for nearly three decades in the United States and Canada, corrugated polyethylene pipe is still considered to be one of the newer products in the storm sewer and culvert markets. An extensive amount of laboratory testing, computer simulations and actual installations confirm the performance of these products. Pipe behavior can be broadly classified as flexible or rigid, depending on how it performs when installed. Flexible pipe can move, or deflect, under loads without structural damage. Corrugated polyethylene pipe is an example. Rigid pipe is sometimes classified as pipe that cannot deflect significantly without structural distress, such as cracking. Reinforced and non-reinforced concrete pipe are examples.

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Both flexible and rigid pipe depend on proper backfill. Backfill characteristics, and also trench configuration in the case of rigid pipe, enter into the design procedures. For flexible pipe, deflection allows loads to be transferred to and carried by the backfill. Rigid pipe transmits most of the load through the pipe wall into the bedding. Proper backfill is very important in determining how the load is transferred, for either flexible or rigid pipe. Refer to the appropriate chapters of this design manual for further information on proper installation techniques. Numerous research projects have investigated the behavior of flexible pipe. Polyethylene pipe performance has been evaluated through the use of actual field installations, post-installation inspections, load cell tests and finite element computer analyses. As a result, nearly three decades after its introduction, the behavior of corrugated polyethylene pipe has probably been analyzed more than any other conventional drainage pipe. The information in subsequent areas of this document provides a step-by-step guide for the structural design of gravity flow corrugated polyethylene pipe. The methodology represents the state-of-the-art design procedure, and has been proven through actual installations to be conservative.

Differences Between Flexible and Rigid Pipe


Nearly all pipe can be classified as either flexible or rigid, depending on how it performs when installed. Flexible pipe takes advantage of its ability to move, or deflect, under loads without structural damage. Common types of flexible pipe are manufactured from polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), steel and aluminum. Rigid pipe is sometimes classified as pipe that cannot deflect more than 2% without significant structural distress, such as cracking. Reinforced and non-reinforced concrete pipe and clay pipe are examples. Figure 5-1 shows the difference between how flexible and rigid pipe respond to loads.

Figure 5-1

Figure 5-1: Pipe Response to Loading


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Both flexible and rigid pipe require proper backfill, although the pipe/backfill interaction differs. When flexible pipe deflects against the backfill, the load is transferred to and carried by the backfill. When loads are applied to rigid pipe, on the other hand, the load is transferred through the pipe wall into the bedding. For both types of materials, proper backfill is very important in allowing this load transfer to occur. Figure 5-2 shows the pipe/backfill interaction and the corresponding load transfer.

Figure 5-2

Figure 5-2: Pipe/Backfill Interaction

Flexible pipe offers significant structural benefits to the project designer. In many situations, a properly installed flexible pipe can be buried much deeper than a similarly installed rigid pipe because of the flexible pipe/backfill interaction. A rigid pipe is often stronger than the backfill material surrounding it, thus it must support earth loads well in excess of the prism load above the pipe. Conversely, a flexible pipe is not as strong as the surrounding backfill; this mobilizes the backfill envelope to carry the earth load. The flexible pipe/backfill interaction is so effective at maximizing the structural characteristics of the pipe that it allows the pipe to be installed in very deep installations, many times exceeding allowable cover for rigid pipe when identically installed.

The Viscoelastic Nature of Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe


Flexible pipe is manufactured from either plastics or metals. Plastics and metals are, however, very different types of materials. Metals exhibit elastic properties and plastics exhibit viscoelastic, or time-dependent, characteristics. It is this difference that is key to understanding corrugated polyethylene pipe and its installed performance as compared to other types of flexible pipe.

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Making the assumption that the characteristics of viscoelastic materials can be analyzed using the same techniques used for elastic materials will undoubtedly yield misleading results. One of the most common misconceptions surrounding plastics, particularly polyethylene, is that they lose strength with time. This idea stems from applying elastic behavior criteria to a viscoelastic material. When a corrugated polyethylene pipe is deflected, or strained, in the laboratory, the stress versus strain curve that results has a high initial modulus that almost immediately begins to decrease. Figure 5-3 shows a diagram of what the stress/strain relationship could look like.

Figure 5-3

Figure 5-3: Typical Stress/Strain Relationship for Polyethylene

The elastic modulus, or flex modulus as it is commonly referred to for viscoelastic materials, is the ratio between the change in strain and the change in stress levels. The modulus is high initially, but then begins to decrease. The pipe appears to require less force over time to maintain the same strain level. If the material behaved according to elastic principles, it could be described as losing strength. However, polyethylene is viscoelastic and the conclusion that the material is losing strength would be erroneous. This concept is not an insignificant one for polyethylene. With typically referenced short-term (quick) and long-term modulus values of 110,000 psi (758 MPa) and 22,000 psi (152 MPa), respectively, design results would be very different. The question of which value to use in design certainly deserved more attention, and research projects were initiated to gain more understanding. The University of Massachusetts designed a research project specifically to address the effect time has on the modulus of polyethylene. A corrugated polyethylene pipe was placed in a frame that allowed measurements of both stress and strain under repeated load intervals, and for a relatively long time. A load was applied to the pipe to create an initial level of deflection. The pipe reacted as predicted with an initial high

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modulus which began to decrease almost immediately. With the pipe still deflected, the stress level was increased another increment. The pipe again responded with its initial modulus which then immediately began to decrease. Several more load increments were applied with the pipe responding the same each time. Graphical representations of the pipe response are shown in Figure 5-4.

Figure 5-4
5-4a

5-4b

5-4c

Figure 5-4: Effects of Repeated Loads on Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe

Part (c) of Figure 5-4 shows a modulus that seems to be decreasing over time. However, the modulus that occurs each and every time a new load is applied, regardless of when, remains approximately the same. This behavior is not indicative of a material that is losing strength.

Design Criteria
Design of non-pressure polyethylene pipe requires knowledge of material properties (Chapter 1), installation conditions (Chapter 6) and external loads (Chapter 4). All of these elements combine to define the behavior of the installed pipe. This section describes the criteria that enter into the design procedure found later in this chapter.
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Pipe Section Properties As in the design of other structural components, the geometry of the pipe wall influences how it will perform in the pipe/soil structure. Pipe properties include the moment of inertia of the wall profile (I), distance from the inside diameter to the neutral axis (c) and the cross-sectional area (AS). Pipe stiffness (PS) per ASTM D 2412 is the value obtained by dividing the force per unit length of specimen by the resulting deflection in the same units at the prescribed percentage deflection. The 5% limit is arbitrary and, although substituted directly in the design equations, PS is a quality check and should not be interpreted to be a performance limit. The section properties in Table 5-1 represent a range of commercially available products, some of which include a smooth interior. Since pipe profiles vary, data for specific products should be obtained directly from the manufacturer.

Table 5-1
Inside Diameter, ID
in 4 6 8 10 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 mm 100 150 200 250 300 375 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500

Typical Outside Diameter, OD


in 4.7 7 9.9 12 14.7 17.7 21.5 28.7 36.4 42.5 48 55 61 67.3 mm 119 178 251 305 373 457 546 729 925 1080 1219 1397 1549 1709

Minimum Pipe Stiffness at 5% Deflection, PS


pii 35 35 35 35 50 42 40 34 28 22 20 18 16 14 N/m/mm** 241 241 241 241 345 290 275 235 195 150 140 125 110 97

Section Area, AS
in2/in 0.0448 0.0568 0.0837 0.1044 0.125 0.159 0.195 0.262 0.327 0.375 0.391 0.429 0.473 0.538 mm2/mm 1.138 1.443 2.126 2.652 3.175 4.043 4.953 6.646 8.297 9.525 9.927 10.901 12.014 13.665

Distance from Inside Diameter to Neutral Axis, c


in 0.139 0.192 0.297 0.393 0.35 0.45 0.5 0.65 0.75 0.9 1.11 1.15 1.25 1.37 mm 3.531 4.876 7.535 9.97 8.89 11.43 12.70 16.51 19.05 22.86 28.19 29.21 31.75 34.798

Moment of Inertia, I
in4/in 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.22 0.52 0.52 0.82 1.0 mm4/mm 11.5 54.1 142.6 303.2 393.3 868.5 1016.0 1900.9 2671.1 3637.9 8898.2 8898.2 13552.1 16518.2

*Data represents a range of values encompassing most commercially made pipe meeting AASHTO M252, M294 or MP7. Contact the pipe manufacturer for information on specific products. **Typical Canadian values for Canadian pipe stiffness are as per CAN/CSA B182.6

Table 5-1: Representative Section Properties* for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Meeting AASHTO M252, M294 and MP7

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An important soil property used in design, the shape factor (Df), is a function of pipe stiffness, type of backfill material, and the compaction level. This factor is used in the bending stress and bending strain equations. Table 5-2 lists shape factors for a variety of typical installation conditions.

Table 5-2
Gravel GW, GP, GW-GC, GW-GM, GP-GC and GP-GM
Pipe Stiffness, PS pii (kPa) 14 (97) 16 (110) 17 (117) 20 (138) 22 (152) 28 (193) 30 (210) 34 (234) 35 (241) 38 (262) 40 (276) 42 (290) 46 (320) 50 (345) Dumped to Slight (<85% SPD) 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 Moderate to High (85% SPD) 6.2 5.8 5.7 5.4 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.2

Sand SW, SP, SM, SC, GM, GC or Mixtures


Dumped to Slight (<85% SPD) 5.4 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 Moderate to High (85% SPD) 7.2 6.8 6.7 6.4 6.3 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1

Notes: 1) Interpolate for intermediate pipe stiffness values. 2) For Class IA and IB backfill materials, use the appropriate Gravel column. 3) Information has been modified from ANSI/AWWA C950-88, p. 28, for pipe stiffnesses appropriate for corrugated polyethylene pipe.

Table 5-2: Shape Factors (Df)

Loads Loads are considered to be either a live (moving) load or a dead (static) load. Live loads change in position or magnitude; whereas dead loads remain static throughout the design life of the drainage system. The most commonly considered live loads in pipe applications are vehicular loads, usually from trucks, trains or aircraft. The soil load is often the sole dead load consideration, however foundation loads and groundwater conditions should be factored in the design when appropriate.

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Live Loads (LW) Vehicular loads are typically based on the AASHTO H-25 configuration. Figure 5-5 represents a 25 ton (22.7 metric ton) semi-truck with a 40,000 lb (18,140 kg) axle load. Similarly in railroad applications, the load is represented by the Cooper E-80 configuration at 80,000 lb/ft (119,300 kg/m) of track.

Figure 5-5

Figure 5-5: AASHTO H-25 Highway Load Source: AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges

In applications where the pipe is buried relatively shallow, it can experience an additional force from the rolling motion of the vehicle. To account for this additional force, the stationary vehicular load is multiplied by an impact factor. For highway loads, AASHTO establishes a range of impact factors from 1.3 at about 1 ft. (0.3 m) of cover to 1.1 at depths just under 3 ft. (1 m). Impact has negligible influence at depths over 3 ft. (1 m). Table 5-3 provides information about the resultant H-25, HS-25 and E-80 vehicular forces at various cover heights with impact included in the shallow cover situations.

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Table 5-3
AASHTO H-25 or HS-25(1) Cooper E-80(1)
Cover, ft. (m)

AASHTO H-25 or HS-25(1)

Cooper E-80(1)

Live Load Live Load Cover, Live Load ft. (m) Transferred to Distribution Transferred to Pipe, PL, psi Width, LW Pipe, PL, psi in (mm) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) 1 (0.3) 15.63 (0.108) 2 (0.6) 6.95 (0.048) 3 (0.9) 5.21 (0.036) 4 (1.2) 3.48 (0.024) 5 (1.5) 2.18 (0.015) 6 (1.8) 1.74 (0.012) 7 (2.1) 1.53 (0.011) 8 (2.4) 0.86 (0.006) 10 (3.0) negligible 12 (3.7) negligible 31 (787) 52 (1321) 73 (1854) 94 (2388) 115 (2921) 136 (3454) 157 (3988) 178 (4521) N/A N/A N/R 26.39 (0.1824) 23.61 (0.1632) 18.40 (0.1272) 16.67 (0.1152) 15.63 (0.1080) 12.15 (0.0840) 11.11 (0.0768) 7.64 (0.0528) 5.56 (0.0384)

Live Load Live Load Live Load Transferred Distribution Transferred to to Pipe, PL, Width, LW Pipe, PL, psi psi (N/mm2) in (mm) (N/mm2) negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible negligible N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4.17 (0.0288) 3.47 (0.0240) 2.78 (0.0192) 2.08 (0.0144) 1.91 (0.0132) 1.74 (0.0120) 1.39 (0.0096) 1.04 (0.0072) 0.69 (0.0048) negligible

14 (4.3) 16 (4.9) 18 (5.5) 20 (6.1) 22 (6.7) 24 (7.3) 26 (7.9) 28 (8.5) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7)

Notes: 1) Includes impact where required. 2) N/R indicates that the cover height is not recommended. 3) N/A indicates that the information is not applicable. 4) Information has been modified from Buried Pipe Design, Moser, McGraw-Hill, 1990, p. 34.

Table 5-3: Live Load Data for AASHTO H-25 or HS-25 and Cooper E-80 (PL, LW)

Loads from aircraft vary widely in magnitude and distribution. The FAA pavement design manual should be referenced for more specific information. This information is available on the FAA Web site. Some construction vehicles may pose a temporary, although severe, live load consideration. The magnitude and distribution of the load should be evaluated. Mounding and compacting additional cover over the pipe when necessary, then grading following construction, may be warranted in situations where the pipe has little cover. In general, for equipment between 30 and 60 tons (27.3 and 54.5 metric tons) with weight distributions similar to the HS-25 configuration, a minimum of 2 ft. (0.6 m) of cover is needed over the pipe. Higher loads will require a minimum of 3 ft. (1 m) of cover. Dead Loads The soil load is calculated in this design procedure using two different techniques, the soil column load (WC) and the soil arch load (W A). It is important to understand the differences between these two methods, as well as when to use the results from each of them.

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Soil Column Load (WC) The soil column load is defined as the weight of the soil directly above the outside diameter of the pipe at the height of the pipe crown and must be used to determine deflection. The deflection equation was developed from empirical relationships based on the soil column load. In reality, the actual soil load is less than the calculated column load because the column is suspended, in part, by adjacent soil columns. The soil column load is calculated as follows: WC = H S OD 144 Where: WC = soil column load, lb/linear inch of pipe H = burial depth to top of pipe, ft. S = soil density, pcf OD = outside diameter of pipe, in. (Table 5-1) Or, in metric units: WC = 9.81x10-6 (H)(S)(OD) Where: WC = H = S = OD =

Equation 5-1

Equation 5-1(a)

soil column load, N/linear mm of pipe burial depth to top of pipe, m soil density, kg/m3 outside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1)

Soil Arch Load (W A) The soil arch load (W A) more closely represents the actual soil load experienced by a pipe. The arch load calculation uses a vertical arching factor (VAF) to reduce the earth load in order to account for the support provided by adjacent soil columns. The soil arch load must be used to determine wall thrust. The arch load is determined using the procedure described below. First, the geostatic load is calculated by determining the weight of soil directly above the outside diameter of the pipe plus a small triangular load extending just beyond the outside diameter. The equation for the geostatic load, Psp, is shown in Equation 5-2 and 5-2(a).

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Psp = (S)(H + 0.11 OD 12 ) 144 Where: Psp = H = S = OD =

Equation 5-2

geostatic load, psi burial depth to top of pipe, ft. soil density, pcf outside diameter of pipe, in. (Table 5-1)

Or, in metric units: Psp = (9.81)(S)[H + 1.1 x 10-4(OD)] Where: Psp = H = S = OD =

Equation 5-2(a)

geostatic load, N/m2 burial depth to top of pipe, m soil density, kg/m3 outside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1)

Next, the vertical arching factor (VAF) must be determined. This factor accounts for the support provided by adjacent soil columns by reducing the geostatic load. The vertical arching factor is computed as shown in Equation 5-3 or 5-3(a). VAF = 0.76 0.71 Where: VAF = Sh = = S = MS = R = = ID = C = E = = = AS = Sh 1.17 (S ) h + 2.92 Equation 5-3

vertical arching factor, dimensionless hoop stiffness factor; S MS R/(EAS) capacity modification factor for soil, 0.9 secant constrained soil modulus, psi (Table 6-3) effective radius of pipe, in. ID/2+c inside diameter of pipe, in. (Table 5-1) distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, in. (Table 5-1) modulus of elasticity of polyethylene 110,000 psi for short term conditions 22,000 psi for long term conditions section area, in2/in (Table 5-1)

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Or, in metric units: S VAF = 0.76 0.71 h 1.17 Sh + 2.92

Equation 5-3(a)

Where: VAF = vertical arching factor, dimensionless Sh = hoop stiffness factor; = S MS R/(EAS) S = capacity modification factor for soil, 0.9 MS = secant constrained soil modulus, kPa (Table 6-3) R = effective radius of pipe, mm = ID/2+c ID = inside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1) C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, mm (Table 5-1) E = modulus of elasticity of polyethylene = 758,500 kPa for short term conditions = 151,700 kPa for long term conditions AS = section area, mm2/mm mm (Table 5-1) After the geostatic load, Psp, and the VAF have been determined, the soil arch load can be found as shown in Equation 5-4 or 5-4(a). W A = (Psp)(VAF) Where: W A = soil arch load, psi Psp = geostatic load, psi VAF = vertical arching factor, dimensionless Or, in metric units: W A = (Psp)(VAF) Where: 2 W A = soil arch load, N/m Psp = geostatic load, N/m2 VAF = vertical arching factor, dimensionless Equation 5-4

Equation 5-4(a)

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Hydrostatic Loads The pressure of groundwater must also be accounted for only if present at or above the pipe springline. Equations 5-5 and 5-5(a) provide the method to calculate hydrostatic pressure. PW = W (Hg) 144 Where: PW = hydrostatic pressure at springline of pipe, psi W = unit weight of water, 62.4 pcf Hg = height of groundwater above springline of pipe, ft. Or, in metric units: PW = (9.81)(W)(Hg) Where: PW = hydrostatic pressure at springline of pipe, N/m2 W = unit weight of water, 1000 kg/m3 Hg = height of groundwater above springline of pipe, m Design of corrugated polyethylene pipe in nonpressure applications involves calculating wall thrust, deflection, buckling, bending stress and bending strain. Criteria for pipe, installation conditions and loads from the design criteria section are required for this procedure; references are made to areas where the required information can be found. Maximum and minimum cover height tables calculated using the following procedure have already been prepared and can be found in this chapter (Tables 5-4 and 5-5). A sample problem using this procedure is shown at the end of this chapter. Wall Thrust In the soil structure interaction, the load reduction (i.e. pipe relaxation) with time is faster than the apparent tensile strength reduction (i.e. creep). These calculations are in conformance with AASHTO. Thrust, or stress, in the pipe wall is determined by the total load on the pipe including soil loads, vehicular loads and hydrostatic forces. The pipe must be able to withstand these forces in order for it to remain structurally stable. The critical wall thrust, determined in Equations 5-6 or 5-6(a), must be equal to or greater than the wall thrust calculated in Equations 5-7 or 5-7(a). Equation 5-5

Equation 5-5(a)

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For installations that involve only dead loads, the wall thrust analysis uses the longterm material properties throughout the procedure. For installations where both dead loads and live loads are present [typically any trafficked installation with 8 ft. (2.4 m) or less of cover], two wall stress analysis are required. The first analysis accounts for both the dead loads and live loads and employs the short term material properties throughout the procedure. The second analysis accounts for only the dead load and employs the long term material properties throughout. The more limiting of the two analysis governs. Tcr = (Fy)(As)( p) Where: Tcr = Fy = = = AS = p = Equation 5-6

critical wall thrust, lb/linear inch of pipe minimum tensile strength of polyethylene, psi 3000 psi for short term conditions 900 psi for long term conditions section area, in2/inch of pipe (Table 5-1) capacity modification factor for pipe, 1.0

Or, in metric units: Tcr = (Fy)(As)( p) Where: Tcr = Fy = = = AS = p =

Equation 5-6(a)

critical wall thrust, N/linear m of pipe minimum tensile strength of polyethylene, kPa 20,700 kPa for short term conditions 6,200 kPa for long term conditions section area, mm2/mm of pipe (Table 5-1) capacity modification factor for pipe, 1.0 Equation 5-7

OD T = 1.3(1.5W A+1.67PLC L+PW)( 2 ) Where: T = W A = PL = CL = = LW = OD = PW =

calculated wall thrust, lb/in soil arch load, psi (Equation 5-4) live load transferred to pipe, psi (Table 5-3) live load distribution coefficient the lesser of (LW/ OD) or 1.0 live load distribution width at the crown in. (Table 5-3) outside diameter, in. (Table 5-1) hydrostatic pressure at springline of pipe, psi (Equation 5-5)

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Or, in metric units: OD T = 1.3(1.5W A+1.67PLC L+PW)( 2000 ) Where: T = W A = PL = = CL = = LW = OD = PW =

Equation 5-7(a)

calculated wall thrust, N/m soil arch load, N/m2 [Equation 5-4(a)] live load, N/m2 (1x106)(live load transferred to pipe from Table 5-3) live load distribution coefficient the lesser of (LW/ OD) or 1.0 live load distribution width at the crown, mm (Table 5-3) outside diameter, mm hydrostatic pressure at springline of pipe, N/m2 [Equation 5-5(a)]

Foundation Loads Some pipe installations are beneath or near foundations. This load contribution must be added to the prism load before proceeding with the design process. Soil mechanics textbooks include procedures to determine the effect of foundation loads a specified distance away from the point of application.

Design Procedure
Deflection Deflection is the change in inside diameter that results when a load is applied to a flexible pipe. When deflections are small, as in most pipe installations, the reduction in vertical diameter is approximately the same as the increase in horizontal diameter. In pipe design, it is the vertical dimension that is usually of more concern. Vertical deflection is usually limited to 7.5% of the base inside diameter; the base inside diameter is the nominal diameter less manufacturing and out-of-roundness tolerances inherent to the manufacturing process. This level of deflection is highly conservative and still provides a safety factor of approximately 3 against reverse curvature. This limit also is used in the design of other thermoplastic pipe and has been incorporated into several product specifications. Pipe stiffness (PS), dead (WC) and live (WL) loads, and backfill conditions (E') are needed to predict deflection. Use the modified Iowa equation [Equations 5-8 or 5-8(a)] to calculate deflection. y = K(DLWC+WL) 0.149PS+0.061E' Equation 5-8

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Where: y = K = DL = WC = WL = = OD = PS = E' =

deflection, in bedding constant, dimensionless (commonly assumed to be 0.1) deflection lag factor, dimensionless; 1.0 when the soil column load is used soil column load on pipe, lb/linear inch of pipe (Equation 5-1) live load, lb/linear inch of pipe OD*PL(from Table 5-3) outside diameter of pipe, in pipe stiffness, pii (Table 5-1) modulus of soil reaction, psi (Table 6-3)

Or, in metric units: y = 1000K(DLWC+WL) Equation 5-8(a) 0.149PS+0.061E' Where: y = deflection, mm K = bedding constant, dimensionless(commonly assumed to be 0.1) DL = deflection lag factor, dimensionless; 1.0 when the prism load is used WC = soil column load on pipe, N/linear mm of pipe [Equation 5-1(a)] WL = live load, N/linear mm of pipe = OD*PL(from Table 5-3) OD = outside diameter of pipe, mm PS = pipe stiffness, kPa (Table 5-1) E' = modulus of soil reaction, kPa (Table 6-3) Buckling The potential for wall buckling is determined by the burial conditions (E') and the pipe stiffness (PS). The critical buckling pressure found from Equation 5-9 or 5-9(a) must be greater than the actual pressure found by Equation 5-10 or 5-10(a). Critical buckling pressure: PCR = 0.772 E' PS 1/2 SF 1-2 Where: PCR = critical buckling pressure, psi E' = modulus of soil reaction, psi (Table 6-3) PS = pipe stiffness, pii (Table 5-1) = poisson ratio, dimensionless; 0.4 for polyethylene SF = safety factor, 2.0

Equation 5-9

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Or, in metric units: PCR = 0.772 E' PS 1/2 SF 1-2 Where: PCR = critical buckling pressure, kPa E' = modulus of soil reaction, kPa (Table 6-3) PS = pipe stiffness, kPa (Table 5-1) = poisson ratio, dimensionless; 0.4 for polyethylene SF = safety factor, 2.0 Actual buckling pressure: PV = RW H S W HW WL + + 144 144 OD Where: PV = actual buckling pressure, psi RW = water buoyancy factor, dimensionless = 1 - 0.33 (HW/H) H = burial depth to top of pipe, ft S = soil density, pcf W = unit weight of water, 62.4 pcf HW = height of groundwater above top of pipe, ft WL = live load, lb/linear inch of pipe = OD*PL (from Table 5-3) OD = outside diameter of pipe, in (Table 5-1) Or, in metric units: PV = 0.00981[(RW H S) + (W HW)] 1000WL + OD Where: PV = actual buckling pressure, kPa RW = water buoyancy factor, dimensionless = 1 - 0.33 (HW/H) H = burial depth to top of pipe, m S = soil density, kg/m3 W = unit weight of water, 1000 kg/m3 HW = height of groundwater above top of pipe, m WL = live load, N/linear mm of pipe = OD*PL (from Table 5-3) OD = outside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1)

Equation 5-9(a)

Equation 5-10

Equation 5-10(a)

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Bending A check on the bending stress and strain will ensure that they are within material capability. Bending stress should not exceed the long term tensile strength of polyethylene, 900 psi (6,200 kPa) and bending strain should not exceed 5%. Bending stress and strain can be found with Equations 5-11 or 5-11(a) and 5-12 or 5-12(a), respectively. Stress, b = (2)(Df)(E)( y)(yO)(SF) Equation 5-11 2 DM Where: b = bending stress, psi Df = shape factor, dimensionless (Table 5-2) E = long term modulus of elasticity of polyethylene, 22,000 psi y = deflection, in (Equation 5-8) yO = distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of the pipe, in = the greater of OD - DM or DM - ID 2 2 OD = outside diameter of pipe, in (Table 5-1) ID = inside diameter of pipe, in (Table 5-1) SF = safety factor, 1.5 DM = mean pipe diameter, in = ID + 2c C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, in (Table 5-1) Or, in metric units: Stress, b = (2)(Df)(E)( y)(yO)(SF) Equation 5-11(a) 2 DM Where: b = bending stress, kPa Df = shape factor, dimensionless (Table 5-2) E = long term modulus of elasticity of polyethylene, 151,700 kPa y = deflection, mm [Equation 5-8(a)] yO = distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of the pipe, mm = the greater of OD - DM or DM - ID 2 2 OD = outside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1) ID = inside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1) SF = safety factor, 1.5 DM = mean pipe diameter, mm = ID + 2c C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, mm (Table 5-1)
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Bending strain: B = 2Df y yO SF Equation 5-12 2 DM Where: B = bending strain, in/in Df = shape factor, dimensionless (Table 5-2) y = deflection, in (Equation 5-8) yO = distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of the pipe, in = the greater of OD - DM or DM - ID 2 2 OD = outside diameter of pipe, in (Table 5-1) ID = inside diameter of pipe, in (Table 5-1) SF = safety factor, 1.5 DM = mean pipe diameter, in = ID + 2c C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, in (Table 5-1) Or, in metric units: B = 2Df y yO SF Equation 5-12(a) DM2 Where: B = bending strain, mm/mm Df = shape factor, dimensionless (Table 5-2) y = deflection, mm [Equation 5-8(a)] yO = distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of the pipe, mm = the greater of OD - DM or DM - ID 2 2 OD = outside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1) ID = inside diameter of pipe, mm (Table 5-1) SF = safety factor, 1.5 DM = mean pipe diameter, mm = ID + 2c C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, mm (Table 5-1)

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Minimum & Maximum Cover Limitations


The design procedure described in the prior section can be time-consuming and may provide an unnecessarily high level of detail for many installations. The information in this section is designed to provide answers to common cover height questions much more quickly. The two typical cover height concerns are minimum cover in trafficked areas and maximum burial depths. Both can be considered worst case situations from a load perspective. Minimum Cover in Trafficked Applications Pipe in traffic areas (AASHTO loads) should have at least 1 ft. (0.3 m) of cover over the pipe crown for 4" - 48" (0.1 m - 1.2 m) diameter pipe and 1.5 ft. (0.5 m) of cover for 54" and 60" (1.55 m - 1.5 m) diameter pipe. In theory, the pipe can be buried with slightly less cover, but application variables are such that 1 ft. (0.3 m) is the conservative limit. The backfill envelope should provide a minimum E' value of 1,000 psi (6,900 kPa). In Table 5-4, this condition is represented by a Class III material compacted to 90% Standard Proctor Density, although other material can provide similar strength at slightly lower levels of compaction. Structural backfill material should extend 6 in. (0.15 m) over the crown of the pipe; the remaining cover should be appropriate for the installation. If settlement or rutting is a concern, it may be appropriate to extend the structural backfill to grade. Where pavement is involved, subbase material can be used. The pavement layer can sometimes be included as part of the minimum cover. For flexible pavement, the paving equipment load and the amount of the cover over the pipe must be considered to determine if the resultant load can be supported by the pipe/backfill system. Minimum cover calculated for flexible pavement is measured from the top of the pipe to the bottom of the pavement section. Minimum cover calculated for rigid pavement is measured from the top of the pipe to the top of the pavement section.

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Table 5-4
Note: Minimum covers presented here were calculated based on a minimum of 6 in. (0.15 m) of structural backfill material over the pipe crown with an additional layer of compacted native soil for a total cover as shown. In shallow trafficked installations, especially where pavement is involved, it may be best to use a good quality compacted material to grade, to prevent surface settlement and rutting.

Inside Diameter, ID in (mm)


3 (75) 4 (100) 6 (150) 8 (200) 10 (250) 12 (300) 15 (375)

Minimum Cover, H ft (m)


1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)

Inside Diameter, ID in (mm)


18 (450) 21 (525) 24 (600) 30 (750) 36 (900) 42 (1050) 48 (1200) 54 (1350) 60 (1500)

Minimum Cover, H ft (m)


1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1.5 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5)

Table 5-4: Minimum Cover Requirements for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe

Based on Class III Backfill Compacted to 90% Standard Proctor Density and AASHTO HS-25 Load Maximum Cover The prism load was assumed in the design procedure, which results in very conservative maximum cover limits. Highway loads have negligible effect in deep burials, as shown in Table 5-3. Maximum cover limits for corrugated polyethylene pipe are shown in Table 5-5 for a variety of backfill conditions. This table was developed based on pipe properties from Table 5-1.

Table 5-5
Class I
Pipe Dia. uncompacted 4 17(ft)* 6 16 8 14 10 13 12 13 15 13 18 13 24 13 30 13 36 13 42 11 48 11 54 11 60 11 compacted 59(ft) 57 51 50 49 49 49 51 51 50 47 46 44 45

Class II

Class III

85% 90% 95% 100% 85% 90% 95% 17(ft) 24(ft) 37(ft) 59(ft) 15(ft) 18(ft) 24(ft) 16 24 36 57 15 17 24 14 21 32 51 13 15 22 13 20 31 50 12 14 21 13 20 31 49 12 14 21 13 20 31 49 12 14 21 13 20 31 49 12 14 21 13 21 32 51 12 14 21 13 21 32 51 12 14 21 13 20 31 50 12 14 21 11 19 29 47 10 13 19 11 18 29 46 10 12 19 11 18 28 44 10 12 18 11 18 28 45 10 12 19

Note: Alternate backfill materials and compaction levels not shown in the table may also be acceptable. This is a general guideline based on Table 5-1. Contact the manufacturer for further detail. *All cover heights measured in feet.

Table 5-5: Maximum Cover Heights based on Table 5-1 Section Properties
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Bibliography
Corrugated polyethylene pipe has been extensively researched in the laboratory and through actual installations. This section summarizes the findings of some of those projects; additional information about these and other reports can be obtained from various manufacturers. Pipe Deflections A Redeemable Asset. Written by Dr. Lester Gabriel and Michael Katona, and published in Structural Performance of Flexible Pipes, edited by Sargand, Mitchell and Hurd, October 1990, pp. 1-6. This paper provides an easy-to-read description of the role of deflection in properly performing flexible pipe. Deflection is not a liability, but a behavior that forces the backfill material to take on the majority of load. Deflection allows flexible pipe to be installed in applications with surprisingly deep burials. Analysis of the Performance of a Buried High Density Polyethylene Pipe. Written by Naila Hashash and Ernest Selig, University of Massachusetts, and published in Structural Performance of Flexible Pipes, edited by Sargand, Mitchell and Hurd, October 1990, pp. 95-103. In 1988, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation began a study to evaluate the behavior of corrugated polyethylene pipe backfilled with crushed stone under a 100 ft. (30.5 m) burial depth. This document, which is a status report of the pipe condition 722 days after installation, summarizes one of the most heavily instrumented pipe installations to date. Measured vertical deflection was 4.6% and horizontal deflection was 0.6%. Much of this was due to a slight (1.6%) circumferential shortening. This is well within the 7.5% generally accepted limit. Soil arching reduced the load on the pipe by 77%, which shows that the prism load is a very conservative method to estimate this load component. Field Performance of Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe. Written by John Hurd, Ohio Department of Transportation, and published in Public Works magazine in October 1987. This article summarizes the results of a field study conducted in 1985 on 172 culvert installations. These installations represented real-world applications where backfill procedures may or may not have been conducted in accordance with standard ODOT recommendations. Regardless, the primary findings regarding structural integrity were that shallow cover, even with heavy truck traffic, did not appear to cause significant amounts of deflection; the deflection that did occur seemed to be due to installation.
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Short-Term Versus Long-Term Pipe Ring Stiffness in the Design of Buried Plastic Sewer Pipes. Written by Lars-Eric Janson and published in Pipeline Design and Installation, proceedings from the International Conference sponsored by the Pipeline Planning Committee of the Pipeline Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, March 1990, pp. 160-167. This report describes the viscoelastic behavior of polyethylene. The author endorses use of short-term properties when the pipe is backfilled in a stable environment, such as firm silty/clayey soils. Design Method for Flexible Pipe. Written by Dr. Timothy McGrath Stiffness of HDPE Pipe in Ring Bending. Written by Timothy McGrath, Ernest Selig and Leonard DiFrancesco, and published in Buried Plastic Pipe Technology 2nd Volume, 1994, pp. 195-205. This project was conducted to determine how or if the modulus of elasticity changes over time. The pipe was deflected and held in position to generate a stress/strain curve. Although the results gave the appearance that the material was losing strength over time, repeated incremental loads caused the pipe to respond with its short-term modulus which did not decrease at any time. Stress Relaxation Characteristics of the HDPE Pipe-Soil System. Written by Larry Petroff and published in Pipeline Design and Installation, proceedings from the International Conference sponsored by the Pipeline Planning Committee of the Pipeline Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, March 1990, pp. 280-293. This is an excellent report on the viscoelastic nature of polyethylene which discusses both creep and stress relaxation behaviors. One of the major points made is how deflection decreases with time; over 80% of the total deflection that a pipe will experience throughout its life will occur within the first 30 days. Petroff also indicates that the highest stresses for polyethylene pipe buried in a compacted granular material occur soon after installation, but relax soon thereafter. Laboratory Test of Buried Pipe in Hoop Compression. Written by Ernest Selig, Leonard DiFrancesco and Timothy McGrath, and published in Buried Plastic Pipe Technology 2nd Volume, 1994, pp. 119-132.

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This project involved developing a fixture so as to subject the pipe to purely compressive forces. A pressure of 55 psi (380 kPa) was reached wherein equipment problems developed. The authors indicated this pressure was the equivalent of 100 ft. (30.5 m) of cover in other tests they had performed. At this pressure, the pipe also experienced a 3% circumferential shortening that resulted in a significant beneficial soil arching. Structural Performance of Three Foot Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Buried Under High Soil Cover. Written by Reynold K. Watkins and published in Structural Performance of Flexible Pipes, edited by Sargand, Mitchell and Hurd, October 1990, pp. 105-107. A 3 ft. (900 mm) diameter corrugated polyethylene pipe was tested in a load cell to determine if it performed as well as the smaller sizes. The author supports the use of the short-term modulus of elasticity for design and recognizes stress relaxation. The report concludes that, There is no reason why corrugated polyethylene pipes of 3 ft. (900 mm) diameter cannot perform structurally under high soil cover provided that a good granular pipe zone backfill is carefully placed and compacted. This is consistent with the backfill and material recommendations set forth in previous sections.

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Sample Calculations
Example 1 (Standard Units) A 15-inch corrugated polyethylene pipe is proposed as a culvert. AASHTO HS-25 loads are anticipated and minimum cover will be 1 ft. (0.3 m). Groundwater is below the pipe invert. Backfill material will be the native soil which, in this situation, is categorized as a Class III (SM) material. Density of this material is 120 pcf. Minimum compaction will be 90% Standard Proctor Density. Determine whether this will be a successful installation based on wall stress, deflection, buckling, bending stress and bending strain. Wall Thrust Because this installation involves both live (vehicular) and dead (soil) loads, two wall thrust analyses must be made. The first analysis accounts for both the dead loads and live loads and employs the short term material properties throughout the procedure. The second analysis accounts for only the dead load and employs the long term material properties throughout. The more limiting of the two analyses governs. Analysis 1 (This analysis accounts for both dead loads and live loads and employs the short term material properties throughout the procedure.) Tcr = (Fy)(As)( p) Where: Tcr = Fy = AS = p = Equation 5-6

critical wall thrust, lbs/linear inch of pipe tensile strength, 3000 psi for short term conditions section area, 0.159 in2/inch of pipe (Table 5-1) capacity modification factor for pipe, corrugated HDPE 1.0

Substituting: Tcr = (3000)(0.159)(1.0) = 478 lb/in To check whether the calculated wall thrust is in excess of this value, use Equation 5-7.

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T = 1.3[1.5WA+1.67PLC L+PW] (OD/2) Where: T = W A = = Psp = Psp S H OD Psp = = = = =

Equation 5-7

= VAF =

calculated wall thrust, lb/in soil arch load, psi (Equation 5-4) (Psp)(VAF) (S) [H + 0.11(OD/12)] 144 geostatic load, psi soil density, 120 pcf burial depth, 1.0 ft outside diameter, 17.7 in (Table 5-1) (120) [1.0 + 0.11(17.7/12)] 144 1 psi S 0.76 0.71 h 1.17 Sh + 2.92

Where: VAF = vertical arching factor Sh = hoop stiffness factor Sh = ( S)(MS)(R) EAS S = capacity modification factor for soil, 0.9 MS = secant constrained soil modulus, 1000 psi (Table 6-3) R = effective radius of pipe, in = ID/2+c = 8.375 in ID = inside diameter of pipe, 15 in (Table 5-1) C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, 0.45 in (Table 5-1) E = short term modulus of elasticity of polyethylene, 110,000 psi Sh = (0.9)(1,000)(8.375) (110,000)(0.1592) = 0.43 S VAF = 0.76 0.71 h 1.17 Sh + 2.92 = 0.92 W A = (Psp)(VAF) = (1.0)(0.92) = 0.92 psi

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PL = live load transferred to pipe, 12.5 psi (Table 5-3) C L = live load distribution coefficient = the lesser of LW/OD or 1.0 LW = live load distribution width at the crown, 31 in (Table 5-3) PW = hydrostatic water pressure at the springline of pipe, 0 psi, (Equation 5-5); provided groundwater is at the pipe springline or lower, it can be ignored Substituting: T = 1.3[1.5(0.92)+1.67(12.50)(1.0)+0] 17.7 2 = 256 lb/in (T<Tcr; wall stress is well within limit)

Analysis 2 (This analysis accounts for only dead load and employs the long term material properties throughout.) Tcr = Where: Tcr = Fy = As = p = (Fy)(As)( p) critical wall thrust, lbs/linear inch of pipe tensile strength, 900 psi for long term conditions section area, 0.1592 in2/inch of pipe (Table 5-1) capacity modification factor for pipe corrugated HDPE 1.0 Equation 5-8

Substituting: Tcr = (900)(0.1592)(1.0) = 143 lb/in To check whether the calculated wall thrust is in excess of this value, use Equation 5-9, recalling that live load is not included. T = 1.3[1.5W A+1.67PL CL + PW] Where: T = W A = = Psp = Psp S H OD = = = =

(OD 2 )

Equation 5-9

calculated wall thrust, lb/in soil arch load, psi (Equation 5-4) (Psp)(VAF) (S) [H + 0.11(OD/12)] 144 geostatic load, psi soil density, 120 pcf burial depth to top of pipe, 1.0 ft outside diameter, 17.7 in (Table 5-1)

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Psp = (120) [1.0 + 0.11(17.7/12)] 144 = 1 psi S VAF = 0.76 0.71 h 1.17 Sh + 2.92

Where: VAF = vertical arching factor Sh = hoop stiffness factor Sh = ( S)(MS)(R) EA S = capacity modification factor for soil, 0.9 MS = secant constrained soil modulus, 1,000 psi (Table 6-3) R = effective radius of pipe, in = ID/2+c = 8.375 in ID = inside diameter of pipe, 15 in (Table 5-1) C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, 0.875 in (Table 5-1) E = long term modulus of elasticity of polyethylene, 22,000 psi Sh = (0.9)(1,000)(8.375) (22,000)(0.1592) = 2.15 VAF = 0.76 0.71 2.15 1.17 2.15 + 2.92 = 0.62 W A = (Psp)(VAF) = (1.0)(0.62) = 0.62 psi PW = hydrostatic water pressure at the springline of pipe, 0 psi, (Equation 5-5): In this example, provided groundwater is at the pipe springline or lower, it can be ignored.

Substituting: T = 1.3[1.5(0.62)+0] 17.7 2 = 10.7 psi (T<Tcr; wall stress is well within limit)

Of the two analyses, neither violates their respective critical wall stress value; the wall thrust is within acceptable limits.

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Deflection: y = Equation 5-10 K[(DL)(WC)+WL] (0.149)(PS)+(0.061)(E') Where: y = deflection, in K = bedding constant, dimensionless; assume 0.1 DL = deflection lag factor, dimensionless; typically 1.0 WC = soil column load on pipe, lb/linear inch of pipe (Equation 5-1) WC = (H)(S)(OD) 144 WC = (1.0) (120) (17.7) 144 = 15 lb/linear inch of pipe WL = live load, lb/linear inch of pipe = (OD)(live load transferred to pipe from Table 5-3) = (17.7 in)(15.6 psi) = 276 lb/linear inch of pipe PS = pipe stiffness (Table 5-1) = 42 psi E' = modulus of soil reaction, psi (Table 6-3) = 1,000 psi based on a Class III material compacted to 90% SPD Substituting: y = 0.11[(1.0)(15)+276] [(0.149)(42)+(0.061)(1000)] = 0.48 in = 3.2% (design OK; deflection is well within 7.5% limit) Buckling: PCR = 0.772 E' PS 1/2 SF 1-2 Where: PCR = critical buckling pressure, psi = poisson ratio, dimensionless; 0.4 for polyethylene SF = safety factor, 2.0 Substituting: PCR = 0.772 (1,000) (42) 2 1-0.42 = 86 psi

Equation 5-11

1/2

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To check whether the actual buckling pressure is in excess of this value, use Equation 5-12: PV = (RW)(H)(S) + (W)(HW) + (WL) 144 144 OD Where: PV = actual buckling pressure, psi RW = water buoyancy factor, dimensionless = 1 - 0.33 (HW/H) W = unit weight of water, 62.4 pcf HW = height of groundwater above top of pipe, ft = zero in this situation Equation 5-12

Substituting: PV = (1.0)(1.0)(120) + (62.4)(0) + 221 144 144 17.7 = 13 psi (design OK; actual buckling pressure is less than allowable) Bending Stress: Bending stress should be less than the long term tensile stress, 900 psi (Fy). Equation 5-13 b = (2)(Df)(E)( y)(yO)(SF) 2 DM Where: b = bending stress, psi Df = shape factor, dimensionless (Table 5-2) = 5.3 for SM material compacted to 90% SPD and PS of 42 psi E = modulus of elasticity of polyethylene, 22,000 psi yO = distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of pipe, in = the greater of OD - DM or DM - ID 2 2 = 0.875 in SF = safety factor, 1.5 DM = mean pipe diameter, in = ID + 2c = 16.750 in C = distance from inside diameter to neutral axis, in (Table 5-1) = 0.875 in

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Substituting: b = 2(5.3)(22,000)(0.48)(0.875)(1.5) 16.7502 = 524 psi (design OK; actual stress is less than allowable 900 psi) Bending Strain: B = (2)(Df)( y)(yO)(SF) DM2 Where: B = bending strain, in/in

Equation 5-14

Substituting: B = (2)(5.3)(0.48)(0.875)(1.5) 16.7502 = 0.024 in/in = 2.42% (criteria OK; actual strain is less than allowable 5%) Conclusion: This is a suitable application for 15" corrugated polyethylene pipe. All criteria are well within allowable values.

Appendix Variable Definitions


AS = C = CL = Df = DL = DM = E = E' = Fy = H = Hg = HW = I = ID = K = LW = MS = section area, in2/in (mm2/mm) distance from the inside surface to the neutral axis, in (mm) live load distribution coefficient, dimensionless shape factor, dimensionless deflection lag factor, dimensionless mean pipe diameter, in (mm) modulus of elasticity, psi (kPa) modulus of soil reaction, psi (kPa) tensile strength, psi (kPa) burial depth to top of pipe, ft (m) height of groundwater above springline of pipe, ft (m) height of groundwater above top of pipe, ft (m) moment of inertia of the wall profile, in4/in (mm4/mm) inside diameter of pipe, in (mm) bedding constant, dimensionless live load distribution width at the crown, in (mm) secant constrained soils modulus, psi (KPa)

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OD PCR PL PS Psp PV PW R RW SF Sh T Tcr VAF WA WC WL yO y S W B b p S

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

outside diameter of pipe, in (mm) critical buckling pressure, psi (kPa) live load transferred to pipe, psi (N/m2) pipe stiffness measured at 5% deflection, pii (kPa) geostatic load, psi (N/m2) actual buckling pressure, psi (kPa) hydrostatic pressure of springline, psi (N/m2) effective radius of pipe, in (mm) water buoyancy factor, dimensionless safety factor hoop stiffness factor, dimensionless wall thrust of pipe, lb/in (N/m) critical wall thrust of pipe, 16/linear inch of pipe (N/m) virtual arching factor, dimensionless soil arch load, psi (N/m2) soil column load, lb/linear inch of pipe (N/linear mm of pipe) live load, lb/linear inch of pipe (N/linear mm of pipe) distance from centroid of pipe wall to the furthest surface of the pipe, in (mm) deflection, in (mm) soil density, pcf (kg/m3) unit weight of water, pcf (kg/m3) bending strain, in/in (mm/mm) poisson ratio, dimensionless bending stress, psi (kPa) capacity modification factor for pipe, dimensionless capacity modification factor, dimensionless

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Notes

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Chapter

6
Installation and Construction

Lester H. Gabriel, Ph.D., P.E.

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INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTION


This chapter provides information on the handling and installation of corrugated polyethylene pipe and fittings in non-pressure applications including most sewers, culverts and subdrainage systems. All types of pipe, regardless of material, must be installed as specified to perform as expected. The Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Safety and Health Regulations for Construction requires observance of its safety and other guidelines during all phases of construction including foundation preparation, excavation, pipe handling, assembly and backfilling. Stricter requirements may be required in some states and local jurisdictions. Additional guidelines for the installation of corrugated polyethylene pipe are located in the following standards: ASTM D 2321 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications CAN/CSA B182.11 Recommended Practice for the Installation of Thermoplastic Drain, Storm and Sewer Pipe and Fittings AASHTO Section 30 Thermoplastic Pipe

Importance of Good Installation Practice


The structural design of a buried pipeline presumes the response to loads of a pipe/ soil composite structure. Attention to detail on the part of the contractor, transporter and yard handler is essential to insure proper performance. Proper dimensional controls of trench excavation, pipe laying and pipe joining are essential to the success of a project. Correct selection and compaction of the soils composing the pipe/soil envelope are likely to dominate the structural performance of both pipe and soil. The desired constant pressure around the pipe and uniform support of the pipe in the longitudinal direction cannot be achieved in the absence of good practice. ASTM D 2321, AASHTO Section 30 and CAN/CSA B182.11 define good practices for the installation of thermoplastic pipe. Each recommends proper techniques for trench excavation, placement, bedding and backfill to assure the pipe performs well during its full service life. AASHTO Section 30 is narrowly focused on gravity flow highway and airport drainage pipelines under pavements subjected to heavy wheel loads. Shallow burial is a major consideration. ASTM D 2321 is broadly focused on the general class of gravity flow pipelines, which include both drainage and sanitary facilities. Non-trivial differences exist between the two specifications. Federal, state, county and city governments, or other agencies or organizations of jurisdiction, are
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responsible for setting the particular governing standards appropriate to the installation of interest. References to specifications in this chapter are not intended for use in all pipelines at all locations; they are intended only to serve as examples of good practices.

Transportation, Handling and Storage


The contractor should conduct an inspection at the time of delivery to verify that the correct products and the expected quantities are received. Pipe walls and corrugations, gaskets, pipe ends, couplers or other joints, and accessories should be visually inspected for damage such as cuts, gouges, delamination, bulges, flat areas and ovality that may have occurred during shipment. Nominal pipe size, manufacturers name, date code and applicable standards generally are marked on the pipe. To prevent injury to construction personnel and damage to pipes, dropping and/or rolling of pipes during unloading and handling should be prevented. Refer to the manufacturers instructions for unloading of trucks, trailers and railcar platforms. Pipes 18 in. (450 mm) or less may be hand lifted and placed by two people. Larger sizes require mechanical equipment; a minimum of two lifting slings of fabric or plastic, located at third points along the length, is preferred. (Metal chains and cables are to be avoided.) Equipment such as loading booms or forklifts should not be used since they can damage the pipe. Pipe should never be dropped on the ground. Palletized pipe should remain on pallets for jobsite storage. Non-palletized pipe should be stockpiled for temporary storage in a flat debris-free area clear of construction traffic. Do not remove tie-down straps or bands until the pipes have been secured. Pipes should be stockpiled on level ground and restricted to a stack height no greater than 6 ft. (2 m). To prevent rolling, blocking should be provided at approximately third points along the length. The removal of any one pipe should not cause shifting or rolling of any of the remaining pipes. The pipe should be supported along its length, avoiding concentrated loads along bell ends. Any protective covering of gaskets should remain until the pipe is ready for installation; exposed gaskets should be protected from dust and exposure to sunlight. Couplers and fittings should be stored flat to prevent distortion and damage. For pipe with attached bells, a common stacking method is to alternate the direction of the pipe lengths so that the bells are not stacked on each other. For smooth interior pipe, nesting smaller pipes inside larger pipes can minimize the storage space. Factory installed gaskets on the spigot may be protected by positioning them between pipe corrugations. Nesting corrugated interior pipe should only be done when the pipe can be easily removed. Extreme summer heat could affect the ovality or shape of some pipes. It is recommended that products be rotated during storage to eliminate such deflection.
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Trench Excavation
The soil envelope of a pipe/soil composite structure will reflect the qualities of the native materials beyond the trench walls containing the pipe. If the soil stiffness beyond the trench wall is stiffer than the expected stiffness of the compacted trench fill, then the specified trench width is generally governed by that width necessary to insure the prescribed compaction. For competent in-situ soil, wider than necessary trench widths are not advised. Should the soil stiffness beyond the trench wall be less stiff and/or readily more compressible than the required trench fill, then the trench width is often specified by the customer agency or organization to be wider than usual (see ASTM D 2321). Success of the design of the installation depends, in part, upon realization of the geotechnical information describing the in-situ soil properties. If, during the course of excavation, the soils or soil properties are not what were expected as noted in the contract, the organization responsible for design should be informed. See Figure 6-1 for definitions of trench terms.

Figure 6-1

Figure 6-1: Trench Terms

In the absence of unusual conditions, and for purposes of guidance, the provisions of ASTM D 2321 and CAN/CSA B182.11 are noted. According to ASTM D 2321, the trench width should be no wider than what is required to safely and conveniently compact backfill material on either side of the pipe. Trench widths will reflect the selection of backfill material, ease of compacting backfill in the haunch zone (from pipe bottom to springline), compaction methods, pipe diameters and the width of the nearest larger size excavator bucket (for pipes of diameter 10 in. (250 mm) and
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smaller). In unsupported unstable soils, knowledge of the depth of cover, the stiffnesses of backfill and in-situ soils, and the size of the pipe are required for a determination of the trench width by the responsible engineer. AASHTO Section 30 requires a minimum trench width of not less than 1.5 times the pipe outside diameter plus 12 in. (300 mm). ASTM D 2321 establishes trench widths as the greater of either the pipe outside diameter plus 16 in. (400 mm) or 1.25 times the pipe outside diameter plus 12 in. (300 mm). See Table 6-1.

Table 6-1
Minimum Trench Width1
Inside diameter in. (mm) 4 (100) 6 (150) 8 (200) 10 (250) 12 (300) 15 (375) 18 (450) 21 (525) 24 (600) 30 (750) 36 (900) 42 (1050) 48 (1200) 54 (1350) 60 (1500) 72 (1800)
1

Typical Outside Diameter in. (mm) 5 (120) 7 (177) 9 (233) 11 (287) 14 (356) 18 (450) 21 (536) 24 (622) 27 (699) 34 (866) 41 (1041) 48 (1219) 54 (1372) 61 (1577) 67 (1707) 80 (2032)

AASHTO Sec 30 Min. Trench Width in. (mm) 19 (480) 22 (570) 26 (650) 29 (740) 33 (840) 39 (980) 44 (1110) 49 (1240) 53 (1350) 63 (1600) 73 (1870) 84 (2130) 93 (2360) 105 (2670) 113 (2870) 132 (3350)

ASTM D 2321 Min. Trench Width in.(mm) 21 (530) 23 (580) 25 (640) 27 (690) 30 (760) 34 (870) 38 (970) 43 (1080) 46 (1180) 55 (1390) 63 (1610) 72 (1830) 80 (2020) 90 (2276) 96 (2440) 112 (2840)

Also refer to manufacturers recommendations

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For two, or more, parallel pipes in a common trench, properly compacted backfill is required between pipes. Minimum spacing between pipes may be satisfied by the following (see Table 6-2):

Table 6-2
Minimum Spacing of Parallel Pipes in a Single Trench
Normal Diameter (D) in. (mm) < 24 (600) > 24 (600) Minimum Spacing in. (mm) 12 (300) D/2

Depending on the type of backfill, the compaction equipment and joining methods, these dimensions may need to be increased. Stable sidewalls are a requirement for all trench construction. Proper slopes for unbraced walls or appropriate bracing and shoring with sheeting or shields for vertical walls are required. As sheeting and shoring are removed, compaction of material in the void space must proceed with the removal of supports. Geotextiles, or filter fabrics, may be considered in areas where the native soil is very soft and/or migrates easily. Geotextiles designed for strength and stability may help overcome some of the structural deficiencies in soft native soils and allow reductions in trench widths. They may also be placed on the trench bottom and sides to separate native soils and backfill material. All trenches should be backfilled as soon as practicable, but not later than the end of each working day. Also, care should be taken to protect excavated soil from collecting moisture while the trench is prepared and pipe is laid. Uniformity of the underlying soil that forms the trench bottom will avoid stress concentrations and associated irregular pipe deformations. The condition of short reaches of non-uniform in-situ soils may be remedied by compacting and leveling the native soils. Alternatively, for the full width of the trench, the trench bottom may be over-excavated, often to a minimum depth of 6 in. (150 mm), and replaced with a layer of properly compacted (as specified) imported material. This same alternative is appropriate for the condition of a trench bottom that initially includes the occurrence of large protruding boulders. Where pipe segments are joined with protruding features, such as the bells of bell and spigot joints, recesses constructed in the trench bottom, followed by hand compaction of backfill around the joint, will provide continuous support and uniform bearing.

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Differential settlements may compromise the structural integrity of a buried pipe. Trench bottoms should be free of large stones, clumps of soil, frozen soil and debris; they should be slightly over excavated to allow for bedding material. If trench bottoms have less than ideal soil conditions, the preferred method is to remove the poor soil and replace it with soil that will provide predicable behavior. If replacement of the soil is not possible, long reaches of soft-to-hard trench bottoms may be managed with a minimum of two short lengths of pipe with gasket joints that will accommodate the tendency of longitudinal pipe rotation in the transition zone. The use of long lengths of pipe across the transition zone carries the risk of a pipes joints opening, or crosssectional distortion in response to unavoidable rotation. If unexpected deposits of soil that, when wetted, will settle rapidly (dry silts and sands of low density) or swell (expansive clays) are encountered, the contractor is advised to contact the agency of jurisdiction for preferred strategies addressing anticipated problems. Alternatives may include removing the offending material followed by recompaction of the original or higher quality soil, chemical stabilization of the in-situ soil, and/or various schemes for protecting against the accumulation of water in the sensitive regions. Dry trench conditions are a prerequisite for proper placement and embedment of drainage pipe. Surface water draining towards the trench must be redirected. Water in the trench during pipe installation can create a safety hazard. Maintenance of line and grade is more difficult with a tendency for pipe flotation. Dewatering is required to minimize these disabilities and the likelihood of instability of trench walls and slopes. Ground water should not be permitted to rise above the trench bottom until after the installed pipe is fully bedded and enough fill is in place to prevent flotation. When well points are used to lower the ground water, adjacent areas and structures must be monitored to prevent damaging subsidence. Sheeting and shoring for vertical trench walls should not permit the seepage of water and soil in areas where groundwater is higher than the trench bottom. Any loss of fines due to seepage or dewatering is evidence that soil voids in the vicinity of the pipe are being created. To limit this type of damage to the pipe/soil composite structure, dewatering operations must be monitored for the presence of a significant loss of fines.

Laying and Joining of HDPE Pipes


Pipe sections should be lowered into the trench without damage to the pipe or pipe ends where couplings are to be made. Field cuts may be made with a handsaw or power pipe cutoff saw. For pipes of annular corrugations, square cut only through a corrugation valley, never through a corrugation sidewall. Spirally corrugated pipe should be cut with a cutting guide (a standard coupling is useful) or reference marks
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around the circumference. Where skew or bevel cut ends are required, they should be properly reinforced with concrete slope-collars, headwalls or mortared riprap, as is appropriate. When the assembling of pipes is interrupted, closures should be placed at ends of pipes to prevent the introduction of dirt, water, animals and other foreign matter. Unless otherwise specified, all joints of all drainage pipes are generally required to be soil tight. Joints that will permit the transport of soil at any time during its service life must be expected to cause problems related to erosion of invert and springline support. The integrity of the pipe/soil composite structure risks being severely compromised. Split couplings are often used for soil tight joints; they cannot be used for watertight joints. Gasketed joints (or welded joints) are often used when water tightness is required. Gasketed joints are flexible joints, which are of value in effecting long-radius horizontal and vertical curves without the use of special fittings or skewed cuts. During handling, placement and joining, bell and spigot joints, other gasketed joints, and gaskets must be free of mud, grit and other foreign material in order to enable effective joining and sealing. All manufacturers provide instructions for lubricant type and manner of application to the gasket, and/or the surface in contact with the gasket. Each gasketed joint should be inspected for cleanliness and proper lubrication before mating; a dry unlubricated spot is a source for a leak. After the joint is aligned, it is necessary to drive the spigot end of one pipe its proper distance into the receiving bell of an adjoining pipe. Pipe should be laid with bells upstream. A bar and block (to protect the bell end) may be used to provide the levered action. This consists of a vertical bar driven into the ground (the fulcrum), bearing against a horizontal wood block that protects the upstream end of the pipe to be moved. Alternatively, mechanical equipment may be used to provide the necessary force. Avoid sudden thrusts of force, which can damage the pipe. The gasket must always remain in its intended groove. At laterals, catch basins and manholes, attention to proper fit and alignment is required. All pipe manufacturers are prepared to supply tees, wyes, elbows, end caps and other styles of fittings. The design engineer and/or the pipe manufacturer, not the contractor, are usually responsible for connection detail design. Taps connections coming into the pipe perpendicular to its axis may also be needed to connect a downspout or similar small diameter pipe to the storm sewer. For systems not required to be watertight, options include using a fitting designed for such an application. Watertight systems may require additional fittings or adapters. The pipe manufacturers instructions for insertion and sealing should govern for each pipe size and profile of his/her inventory.
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It is not unusual for corrugated polyethylene pipe to be connected to other types of pipe materials. Available options depend on the joint quality required throughout the system and the particular combination of pipe materials. In most storm sewer applications, the pipe can be joined by butting the pipe ends together, wrapping them with a geotextile, and pouring a concrete collar around them. Although such a connection is dependent on contractor expertise, it will generally limit soil intrusion but not provide a watertight joint. Watertight connections between different materials will require additional fittings and adapters. If those options are not acceptable, a manhole should be used to make the transition. Manholes facilitate changes in pipe size, grade or direction, and cleanout access. Catch basins serve as inlets for surface storm water drainage and cleanout access. Precast concrete manholes and catch basins are manufactured with openings for standard inlet or outlet connections. Usually, the drainage pipe is inserted into a prepared hole slightly oversized to receive a standard size pipe. When a hole must be cut in the concrete, it should be only slightly larger than the pipe it receives. Grouting of the remaining void space secures and seals the connection; non-shrink grout is an option. Manufacturers have other pipe-to-manhole connectors from HDPE to concrete, such as rubber boots, that provide either water or soil tight performance, depending on the needs of the system. Special care should be taken when preparing the foundation for manholes, catch basins and the drainage pipes that connect to them. To preclude the possibility of significant differential settlements, compaction of the supporting soil should be firm for both pipe and structure. If the manhole should settle more than the pipe in the trench, the pipe would be forced to assist in the support of the manhole a possibility not anticipated by the design. Shorter lengths of pipe with end connections that will allow for even minor rotation will benefit the structural performance and improve the efficiency of pipe-to-structure seals. Special care should also be taken with respect to any previously installed pipes, fittings, etc. that may become part of the new system.

Bedding, Haunching, Initial Backfill and Final Backfill


Uniformity of support and proper alignment of the pipe require a trench bottom of stable soils and free of protruding rocks. Good practice often requires over-excavation and replacement of the foundation material with a suitably-graded soil mixture to inhibit migration of fines and subsequent loss of pipe support. Embedment materials are those used for bedding, haunching and initial backfill (See Figure 6-1). Very often compaction of fill soils in the foundation, bedding, haunch and initial backfill zones is limited to 6 in. (150 mm) layers (after compaction). AASHTO Section 30 requires a minimum of 8 in. (200 mm) layers before compaction.
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Controlled low strength mortar (CLSM) and controlled density fill (CDF) are flowable fills which with restraints to prevent pipe flotation may be used for backfill and bedding. With CLSM backfill, AASHTO Section 30 permits a reduction in trench width to a minimum of the outside diameter plus 12 in. (300 mm). When CLSM is used, the pipe cannot be perforated and all joints shall have gaskets. Bedding is required to establish line and grade and to provide firm, but not hard, pipe support. Compacted granular material over a flat trench foundation should be spread evenly and compacted uniformly to a firm, but not hard, support. Bedding materials may be Class I, II or III, except that AASHTO Section 30 limits the maximum particle size for bedding material to 1.25 in. (32 mm). Class IA materials (see Table 6-4 for definitions of soil classification) should not be used where groundwater flow is anticipated unless a geotextile trench wrap is used to prevent soil migration. Class III materials are suitable when moisture content is controlled. Approximately 4 in. (0.1 m) of bedding should be placed and compacted on the foundation to equalize load distributions along the invert of the pipe. The pipe can be placed on the bedding, then backfilled under the haunches. While not common, a shaped bedding that conforms to the outside of the pipe also can be used. Typically, the bedding equal to one-third the pipe O.D. should be loosely placed, while the remainder shall be compacted to a minimum 90% of maximum density per AASHTO T99 (see Figure 6-2).

Figure 6-2

Figure 6-2: Location of Bedding Area of the Backfill Envelope

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Figure 6-3

Figure 6-3: Bedding Angle

The bedding constant, (K), is a coefficient that accounts for the bedding support provided to the pipe. It is a function of the bedding angle. Very commonly, a value of 0.1 is assumed. Figure 6-3 and Table 6-3 provide additional details on appropriate values for alternative bedding constants.

Table 6-3
Bedding Constant Values
Bedding Angle, degrees 0 30 45 60 90 120 180 Bedding Constant 0.110 0.108 0.105 0.102 0.096 0.090 0.083

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The depth of the trench is dictated by the geography of the site and the pipe slope required. However, if an adequate foundation for the pipe is not available at the desired depth, additional excavation will be required. Rock outcroppings, very soft soils such as muck, and other similar materials do not provide proper support. They should be removed and replaced with suitable granular material. A soils engineer should be consulted for conditions of unyielding material or soft soils. The haunching area of the backfill envelope provides the majority of the resistance against soil and traffic loadings. The backfill material should be installed uniformly in layers, or lifts, on each side of the pipe. Larger, more angular backfill materials can usually be placed in thicker layers than materials with smaller, rounder particles. The backfill should be shoveled under the pipe, taking care to fill voids. If compaction is required, it should be conducted in such a way that the pipe alignment is not disturbed. Backfill construction should continue up to the pipe springline to complete the haunch area. Haunch materials may be Class I, II or III; they must be compacted to a minimum 90 percent standard Proctor. Voids and haunch areas are to be hand filled when Class IA materials are used. Initial backfill materials must provide adequate pipe support and protect the pipe from stones or cobbles in the final backfill. Initial backfill extends a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) above the crown of the pipe. Class I, II, III and low plasticity Class IVA materials may be used. In practice, use of Class IVA fine-grained, inorganic, low to medium plasticity materials (ML and CL) is discouraged since compaction must take place at or near optimum moisture content to achieve the required density and thereby provide proper pipe support. Because these materials may not be suitable under high fills, surface wheel loads, or heavy construction equipment, they are used only under the direction of the responsible engineer. High plasticity clays and silts (Class IVB and all Class V materials) are not recommended for initial backfill. Class III materials are suitable only in dry trench conditions. Table 6-4 summarizes soil classifications. See ASTM D 2321 for complete details. (Also see AASHTO M 145 for details of that agencys soil classifications.)

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Table 6-4
Backfill Class and Quality
Pipe Embedment Material ASTM D 2321* Class Description IA Open-graded, clean manufactured aggregates IB Dense-graded, clean manufactured, processed aggregates Clean, coarsegrained soils Notation N/A ASTM D 2487 Description Angular crushed stone or rock, crushed gravel, crushed slag; large voids with little or no fines Angular crushed stone or other Class IA material and stone/sand mixtures; little or no fines Well-graded gravel, gravel/sand mixtures; little or no fines Poorly graded gravel, gravel/sand mixtures; little or no fines Well-graded sands, gravelly sands; little or no fines Poorly graded sands, gravelly sands; little or no fines Silty gravels, gravel/sand/silt mixtures Clayey gravels, gravel/sand/clay mixtures Silty sands, sand/ silt mixtures Clayey sands, sand/clay mixtures Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands, silts with slight plasticity Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity; gravelly, sandy or silty clays; lean clays Inorganic silts, macaceous or diamaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic soils Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Peat and other high organic soils N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 1000 (6,900) AASHTO M43 Notation 5 56 E', psi (kPa) for Degree of Embedment Compaction Min. Std. Lift Proctor Placement Density (%) Depth Dumped 18 (0.45 m) Dumped 1000 (6,900) Slightly < 85% 3000 (20,700) Moderate 85% - 95% 3000 (20,700) High > 95% 3000 (20,700)

N/A

II

GW GP

57 6 67

85%

12 (0.30 m)

N/R

1000 (6,900)

2000 (13,800)

3000 (20,700)

SW SP

III

Coarse-grained soils with fines

GM

Gravel and sand with <10% fines

90%

9 (0.20 m)

N/R

N/R

1000 (6,900)

2000 (13,800)

GC

SM SC IVA** Inorganic fine-grained soils ML

CL

IVB

Inorganic fine-grained soils

MH

CH

Organic or highly organic soils

OL

OH

N/R: Use not recommended by ASTM D 2321 for part of the backfill envelope. *Refer to ASTM D 2321 for more complete soil descriptions. **Use under the direction of a soils expert.

PT

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Compaction Strategies and Equipment


As has been noted in earlier chapters, the performance of flexible pipe largely depends on the quality of the compacted fill in the embedment zone. The denser the fill, the more likely gravity loads of surcharge and live wheel loads will be attracted away from the pipe by the soil adjacent to the pipe. Furthermore, the denser the fill the lesser the tendency towards pipe ovality. Density is measured in kg/m3, Mg/m3 or in lb/ft3. A flexible pipe will perform in a stable and predictable manner as a pipe/soil composite structure when properly bedded throughout the embedment zone (Figure 6-1). After first connecting the pipe and checking for grade and alignment, haunching material at the underside of the pipe (5 oclock and 7 oclock locations) should be uniformly placed and tamped to the required compacted density before placing the remainder of the embedment materials. Properly compacted soils in these haunch locations can prevent pipe deformations. For all pipe materials, good construction practices require uniform compaction around the pipe to maintain grade and alignment. All embedment materials should be worked to insure uniform compaction. Handheld mechanical tampers are preferred between the pipe and trench wall. If necessary, vibratory equipment is preferred for the clean coarse-grained crushed stone, gravels and sands of Classes I and II. Consolidation of cohesionless material by watering (jetting or puddling) should only be used under controlled conditions and when approved by the engineer. Jumping jacks and walk-behind vibratory rollers, suitable for most classes of embedment and backfill materials, are generally used to provide the vibratory, kneading and impact force needed for soils of fine materials and high plasticity. For some non-free draining borderline Class II, Class III and Class IVA soils, ASTM D 2321 requires the moisture content be held 3% of optimum; AASHTO Section 30 requires a range of 3% to +2%. During placement and compaction of the embedment side fill, care must be taken to avoid elongation of the vertical diameter of the pipe in excess of the manufacturers recommendation. Engineers should establish the minimum embedment density based on an evaluation of specific project conditions. Do not assume that the minimum standard Proctor densities listed here are applicable for all projects. ASTM recommends a minimum of 85% standard Proctor for Class II and better soils, 90% for Class III soils and 95% for Class IVA soils. These recommendations are based on attaining an average modulus of soil reaction (E') of 1000 psi. AASHTO Section 30 recommends a minimum of 90% for all soils that meet their structural backfill requirements. At springline, the engineer or manufacturer may recommend a minimum allowable compaction
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of 95% standard Proctor density depending upon the specified acceptable limits of deflection. Compaction of the final backfill must satisfy loading, pavement and other requirements in addition to those of the pipe. Final backfill containing boulders or frozen debris should not be placed within 24 in. (600 mm) of the pipe. When placing and compacting embedment soils, care should be taken to employ methods that will not disturb or damage the pipe. ASTM D 2321 does not permit compaction by hydrohammer unless first approved by the responsible engineer and unless the pipe/soil structure is protected by a minimum of 48 in. (1200 mm) of compacted backfill. Direct contact between the compaction equipment and the pipe should always be avoided. Sufficient backfill to prevent damage should be placed before using heavy compaction or construction equipment directly above the pipe. ASTM D 2321 requires the initial backfill be no less than 6 in. (150 mm) above the crown of the pipe. Amster Howard comments on this requirement and makes the following recommendations: Some specifications and standards for flexible pipe require that the compacted embedment continue up to a point 6 to 12 inches (150 to 300 mm) over the top of the pipe. For any compaction method, except saturation and vibration, this means that compaction equipment will be operating extremely close to the top portion of the pipe. When compacting soil at the sides of the pipe, the pipe is affected by the horizontal component of the impact force hitting the soil, which is much less than the vertical force. However, with the compaction equipment over the pipe, the vertical impact force is directed at the pipe and can cause impact damage that may not be readily apparent. Additionally, the pipe flexes as the impact is transmitted through the soil and does not provide a firm base to compact the soil against. Consequently, it is difficult to get high degrees of compaction (over 85% standard Proctor). When a standard or specification calls for 90 to 95% standard Proctor in this area over the pipe, attaining that degree of compaction is extremely rare for most types of flexible pipe. To reduce impact damage when the backfill soil is compacted (as under roads, landing strips, etc.), there should be at least 12 in. (300 mm) of cover over the pipe before using hand-held or walk behind compaction equipment, and at least 3 ft. (1 m) of cover before using ride-on equipment. These comments about compacting directly over the top of the pipe do not apply if the saturation and vibration method of compacting cohesionless, free-draining material is used. Similarly, filling up the trench with a material such as flowable fill does not create any of the (above) problems.

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Unless protected by sufficient cover, heavy construction equipment and other vehicles may damage the pipe/soil structure. Before allowing such traffic, the responsible engineer should establish a minimum depth of compacted backfill above the pipe. For embedment materials compacted to comply with the ASTM D 2321 densities noted previously, it is recommended to use the greater of one pipe diameter or 24 in. (600 mm) for Class IA and IB materials, and one pipe diameter or 36 in. (900 mm) for Class II, III and IVA materials. Ground water and drainage flow during and after construction may cause migration of fines when coarse and open-graded material is placed adjacent to a finer material, often the trench wall. A degradation of the pipe/soil composite structure with unacceptable deflections can be the result. In some cases a stone filter or geotextile filter fabric along the fine soil boundary may be used to minimize such migration. For particular applications and related soil parameters, geotextile manufacturers can provide guidance on appropriate products.

System Inspection and Field Testing


Pipe installation, like any other engineered system, can benefit from frequent inspections to ensure that the pipe is installed according to specification. Timely inspections are required during construction to insure compliance. Performance inspections are required after completion of the work. Attaining the specified degree of compaction is essential for the satisfactory performance of the pipe. Standard ASTM tests define the materials, processes and procedures for determining in-place field density tests by the following methods: sand cone, nuclear, sand replacement, water replacement, rubber balloon, drive cylinder and sleeve. During construction, an experienced inspector can visually detect departures from proper alignment, grade, permissible deflections and unexpected deformations, as well as faulty joints, taps and other connections. Closed circuit television (CCTV) can be used to inspect small diameter pipes, sanitary sewer pipes and pipes which may present safety hazards. This procedure is very common in the sanitary sewer market. Problems should be remedied as soon as discovered. TV cameras should be capable of scanning the full extent of joints. The engineer may require additional testing of the pipes deflection performance. For pipes large enough for entry of personnel, diameter changes may be determined by direct measurement. For smaller diameter pipes, a mandrel may be pulled from manhole to manhole. As long as the deflection does not exceed the mandrel
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dimensions, it will go through the pipe. For this reason, mandrels are sometimes referred to as go/no go devices. Information obtained from mandrel tests can easily be misinterpreted, so a great deal of caution should be used when interpreting the findings. Mandrels may not be able to pass through pipe for a variety of reasons unrelated to deflection, such as blockage caused by debris, protrusion of fittings, joint misalignment, and grade changes. Manholes must be large enough to accept an assembled mandrel. It is extremely cumbersome to use mandrels to test pipe larger than 24 in. (600 mm). Visual inspection or CCTV is preferred for pipes larger than 24 in. (600 mm). In the event of isolated areas of deflection greater than specification limits, re-rounding of the pipe with special equipment, without any excavation, should be considered. Long lengths of pipe with deflection levels greater than permitted are most likely due to compaction deficiencies. Material around the pipe may have to be excavated and replaced with proper material, properly compacted. A pipe that has not deflected to the point of reverse curvature can be re-rounded and reused. To assure watertight joints in sanitary sewers and some storm sewers in environmentally sensitive areas, joints may need to be pressure tested after installation. Air or water can be used, although air is the most common because of safety considerations. Test requirements may vary from region to region, but most require the pipe to be pressurized to at least 3.5 psi (24.1 kPa) and held for a period of time based on the length and diameter of pipe. A small drop in pressure is usually permitted. See ASTM F 1417 and CAN/CSA B182.11 for more detailed information.

Summary of Pipeline Installation Considerations


The successful performance of buried pipelines of all materials is dependent on the interest, care and attention to detail on the part of the contractor. Installation contractors should have a basic understanding of the pipe/soil composites structure. This will enable the contractor to anticipate problems that may arise from poor construction practice not otherwise recognized as such. The following are the key areas of consideration: Proper excavation and preparation of the trench will inhibit unanticipated longitudinal and cross-sectional strains and stresses in the pipe. The buried pipe is sensitive to uniformity of the type and density of material of the trench bottom and sidewalls. Unexpected pockets or reaches of rocks, boulders or low-density soils encountered in the excavation should be reported. To avoid differential settlements being resisted by the pipe, shorter sections of pipe should bridge the transitions where different foundation soils meet.
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Standing or flowing water in the trench will soften the toe of the sidewall and increase the likelihood of unstable sidewalls and slopes. Ground water control should ensure a dry trench until the trench backfill is sufficient to prevent flotation of the pipe. Maintaining ground water control until backfilling is complete is preferred. To maintain the integrity of the in-situ soil in the vicinity of the trench, pumped water should be reasonably free of fines. Surface waters should be diverted away from the trench. Water flowing along the exterior of the pipe should be expected to erode compacted trench backfill and/or trench sidewall support for the pipe. In the case of free-draining granular trench backfill located in groundwater of any form, intermittent impervious trench dams (or plugs) of compacted cohesionless materials should be included to still the flowing water. Uniform compaction of embedment materials along the length of the pipe will distribute the reaction at the underside of the pipe and inhibit excessively large deflections of the pipes cross-section. To assure proper final compacted soil densities, trench braces, shields and boxes must be removed prior to the completion of the compaction. Uniform support for the pipe is essential. Intermittent supports should not be used to establish the grade line. Clearance should be provided at protruding joints (bell and spigot, wrap-around joint couplings) of the pipe to prevent the likelihood of heavy and excessive point loads to these joints. Inspection helps insure that the pipe is installed according to project requirements. The installation integrity can usually be verified with a visual inspection, or CCTV in inaccessible situations. Deflection tests using mandrels are an alternative. Watertight, nonpressure systems may require pressure testing according to recognized procedures after installation to verify performance.

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Bibliography
AASHTO Section 30 Thermoplastic Pipe. AASHTO M 145 Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes. ASTM D 1556 Density of Soil In Place by the Sand Cone Method. ASTM D 2167 Density of Soil In Place by the Rubber Balloon Method. ASTM D 2321 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications. ASTM D 2922 Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth). ASTM D 2937 Density of Soil In Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method. ASTM D 4564 Density of Soil In Place by the Sleeve Method. ASTM D 4914 Density of Soil and Rock In Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit. ASTM D 5030 Density of Soil and Rock In Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit. ASTM F 1417 Standard Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer Lines Using Low-Pressure Air. CAN/CSA B182.11 Recommended Practice for the Installation of Thermoplastic Drain, Storm and Sewer Pipe and Fittings. Howard, Amster, Pipeline Installation, Relativity Publishing, Lakewood, Colorado, 1996.

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Notes

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Chapter

7
Durability and Service Life

Lester H. Gabriel, Ph.D., P.E.

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DURABILITY AND SERVICE LIFE


Durability of Drainage Pipes
Durability is the property to resist erosion, material degradation and subsequent loss of function due to environmental and/or other service conditions. Abrasion, chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion are the most common durability concerns for drainage pipes. Erosion of drainage pipes by changes in flow patterns also may include: impingement by suspended solid particles or gas bubbles striking the surface; turbulence at pipe entrances and sharp bends, as well as aggregate and sediment deposits. Although an unlikely event for culverts and storm drains, high pressure and sub-atmospheric pressures that may be associated with high velocity flows may cause cavitation. Corrosive chemicals carried by the water expose the inverts of storm drain pipelines and culverts to corrosion-abrasion damage. The invert, host to both an electrolyte and varying concentrations of oxygen, may also be exposed to electrolytic corrosion. In hostile environments, materials such as unprotected concrete and unprotected steel develop corrosion products that are more brittle and thus more vulnerable to bedload abrasion. As the corroded surface is stripped away, a fresh surface is exposed and new corrosion products form. If this cycle continues, eventual structural failure must be considered. Longevity of exposed pipes depends upon the qualities of the protective barriers. Palliative measures such as protective coatings, linings and pavements are at risk of being eroded, cracked or delaminated.

Corrosion
Chemical corrosion of buried pipelines and culverts may occur in the presence of soils and waters containing acids, alkalis, dissolved salts and organic industrial wastes. Surface water, ground water, sanitary effluent, acid rain, marine environments and mine drainage carry these contaminants. Some may occur in regions of high rainfall, others in arid locations. Sulfates, carbonates and chlorides degrade concrete a process often accelerated in regions where freeze-thaw cycles leave the material open to deeper penetration by the offending elements. Vitrified clay and plastic pipes are largely inert. Zinc, aluminum, aluminum-zinc alloy metallic coatings, asphaltic coatings with and without fiber and polymer coatings offer metal pipes varying measures of protection against soil-side and water-side chemical and electrochemical corrosion.

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Electrochemical corrosion of metal pipelines and culverts may occur where oxygen starved and oxygen rich locations on, and in the vicinity of, the pipe respectively become anodes and cathodes. A potential difference will cause current flow through a circuit composed of an electrolyte (soil moisture in the vicinity of the pipe or liquid within), an anode (a region on the pipe giving up electrons), a cathode (a region on the pipe accepting electrons) and the pipe as a conductor. Loss of pipe material occurs at the anode. Stray direct current from a nearby electric railway or a cathodically protected utility is another source of potential difference. The degree of electrochemical degradation of corrugated steel pipe increases with lower pH and lower resistivity of soil and water. Reinforced concrete pipelines and culverts are also vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion. Permeable to moisture, concrete may serve as the electrolyte for highly anodic bare steel that can form where concrete cover has spalled off reinforcing bars. A potent corrosion cell may result. Unlike metals, polyethylene pipes are non-conductors and are not vulnerable to galvanic corrosion associated with electrochemical attack. Polyethylene pipes are not degraded by pH extremes, aggressive salts or chemically induced corrosion. Unlike metals, HDPE pipes are non-conductors, insensitive to low soil resistivity, and therefore not subject to electrochemical corrosion. The Federal Lands Highway (FLH) policy is that plastic alternatives may be specified without regard to resistivity and pH of the site. The same is true for many states. HDPE pipes are effective for drainage of hostile effluents, such as acid rain, acidic mine wastes, aggressive landfill leachates and effluents with high concentrations of road salts, fuels and motor oils. Laboratory studies indicate that only a negligible increase in abrasive wear of HDPE pipes may be expected when the pH drops from neutral (pH = 7) to medium-low acidic conditions (pH = 4). A reported field study showed that HDPE pipe is unaffected by acid mine run-off of pH ranging from 2.55 to 4.

Abrasion
Chemicals and abrasion are the most common durability concerns for drainage pipes, especially when the effluent flows at high velocities. In test after test, results show that it takes longer to abrade through polyethylene than concrete and metallic pipes. In fact, in testing in both the United States and Europe, polyethylene has demonstrated wear rates up to 10 times less than steel.

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Abrasives such as stones or debris can result in a mechanical wearing away of the pipe. The extent of the problem depends on the type of abrasive, frequency that the material is in the pipe, velocity of the flow, and the type of the pipe material. The effect of abrasives may be seen in the pipe invert where exposure is most severe. Over time, abrasives can result in a loss of pipe strength or reduction in hydraulic quality as they gradually remove wall material. Abrasion is a precursor to accelerated corrosion. The Federal Lands Highway Project Development Design Manual has defined measures of abrasion for typical flow conditions (rather than a particular design flood) as follows: nonabrasive no bed load and very low velocities low abrasive minor bed loads of sand and velocities less than 1.5 m/s (5 fps) moderate abrasive moderate bed loads of sand and gravel and velocities between 1.5 and 4.5 m/s (5 and 15 fps) severe abrasive heavy bed loads of sand, gravel and rock and velocities exceeding 4.5 m/s (15 fps) The FLH design guide permits unrestricted use of HDPE and PVC for nonabrasive and low abrasive conditions. Many states permit the unrestricted use of plastic pipes for all abrasive environments.

Other Durability Items


Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and oxygen induce degradation in plastics that usually alter the materials physical and mechanical properties. The function of UV stabilizers is to inhibit the physical and chemical processes of UV-induced degradation. The most common UV stabilizer used in the polyethylene pipe industry is finely divided carbon black, which is the additive most effective in stopping these UV-induced reactions. However, colors with UV stabilizers, other than black, may be just as effective in inhibiting UV degradation. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 704) rates polyethylene with a 1 (slow burning) in a scale from 0 to 4; higher ratings indicate increasing vulnerability. Polyethylene piping, in sizes up to and including 18 in. (457 mm) diameter has been used for 30 years in the natural gas industry without reported problems. Whereas prudence suggests that corrugated HDPE should be protected from exposure to major grass fires at drainage inlets and outlets, most states consider the risk insignificant or minimal. A Battelle study notes that the flammability of plastic pipe is a non-issue. Non-HDPE pipes typically have linings and coatings used for protection against

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corrosion and abrasion. Many of these coatings are also combustible. For all types of pipes, if exposure to fire is a considerable risk, there are numerous preventive measures that can be considered to prevent fire damage. Rip-rap or gravel around exposed ends, steel end sections or other methods can be used to keep grass or combustibles away from the pipe end.

Service Life
Control and disposal of surface water runoff during periods of abnormally high rainfall with associated floods require efficient and reliable systems of drainage of predictable longevity. Estimates of years of reliable low maintenance service, anticipated in the design phase, is dependent upon service experiences, choice of pipe materials, environmental considerations, regional construction practices and economic constraints. The desired service life of a drainage system is specified by the agency of jurisdiction. A 50-year design life is generally the minimum specified; therefore a service life in excess of that brings further economies to the installation. The service life of corrugated HDPE pipe manufactured from todays materials is expected to exceed 100 years. Well-defined and timely maintenance is key to achieving the anticipated longevity. Inspection strategies vary. Rehabilitation or replacement is justified when it is unsafe, or uneconomical, to maintain elements of the drainage system in service. Trenchless methods of rehabilitating metal and concrete include sliplining, flexible tube lining and Portland cement mortar lining. The use of preformed linings of plastic are often followed with grouting of the annular space between the liner and the existing pipe. Corrosion and abrasion damage to culverts and drainage pipelines is irreversible. Initial service life calculations must be inclusive of expectations of long-term durability, structural integrity and hydraulic capacity. When possible, useful service life may be extended by corrective measures. These costs must be weighed against costs of replacement. In cases of pipelines and culverts under high fills, addressing associated problems such as traffic interruption may be very costly.

Life Cycle Cost Analysis


Comparisons of design alternatives often employ the use of life cycle economic analyses. The life cycle cost of an alternative system or part of a system anticipates all the costs that are likely to occur over the service life. Included are costs of the initial investment, inspection as well as scheduled maintenance, repair, rehabilitation and/or replacement and disruption of services. Estimates are required for useful

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survival life, salvage credits, residual value, discount rate and time period of analysis. The likelihood of rural areas changing into urban areas and the associated needs for future increases in hydraulic capacity and accommodation of changes in aggressiveness of the effluent must be incorporated into life cycle analyses. Predictions of useful service lives for cross drains, side drains, storm drains, under drains and sanitary sewers of all materials appear in a joint survey by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Associated General Contractors (AGC) and the American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA). FLH policy requires all permanent drainage pipe installations to be designed for a minimum of a 50-year maintenance-free service life temporary installations excepted. Alternatives with different costs are compared over the expected life of a project. Discount rates which include expectations of inflation are estimated a risky process which will significantly influence the analysis. Low discount rates favor greater initial costs and lower future expenditures and vice versa. The lowest present worth estimate of alternatives is the most sound economic basis for selection. The present worth of a cost n years after the initial investment is obtained by multiplying a present worth factor (PWF) by the estimated expenditure. With i defined as the discount rate: PWF = 1/(1+i)n Equation 7-1

Estimating a discount rate of 8%, what is the present worth of a $500,000 maintenance expenditure programmed to occur in 20 years? What is the present worth of this same expenditure if the discount rate is estimated to be 10%? i = 8%: PWF = 1/(1+i)n = 1/(1+.08)20 = 0.215 Present Worth = $500,000(0.215) = $107,300 PWF = 1/(1+i)n = 1/(1+.10)20 = 0.149 Present Worth = $500,000(0.149) = $74,300

i = 10%:

Note the impact of the discount rate on the outcome, the value of which should be consistent with the economic policies of the organization being served. Also, the estimated cost of maintenance n years into the future is sensitive to present approximations of the course of inflation.

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Optional time periods for life cycle analyses include: desired service life, expected survival time to earliest rehabilitation or replacement, longest expectation of survival, time to anticipated capacity increase or any other period that is consistent with the physical and economic constraints of the owner of the facility. Refer to the work of T. J. Wonsiewicz (March 1990) for further discussion of discount rates and inflation. Uncertainty of any of the alternatives may seriously skew the outcome of life cycle analyses. Experiences with pipes of different materials in local environments similar to the drainage facility of interest should be a major influence in the assignment of expected survival life.

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Bibliography
Cross-Reference for Drainage Pipe Specifications for Waterways, Airports, Railroads, Transit and Highways, AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee, Subcommittee on New Highway Materials, Task Force 22 Report. Modern Sewer Design, Fourth Ed., American Iron and Steel Institute, 1990. Cassidy, M., Review Specifications and Performance Requirements for Plastic Pipe Systems, Battelle, Columbus, Ohio, 1994. Economic Studies for Military Construction Design - Applications, TM 5-802-1, Department of the Army, Headquarters, December 31, 1986. Gabriel, L.H., Abrasion Resistance of Polyethylene and Other Pipes, California State University, Sacramento, 1989. Gabriel, L.H. and Moran, E.T., Service Life of Drainage Pipe, Synthesis of Highway Practice 254, Transportation Research Board, 1998. Goddard, J.B., Nine Year Performance Review of a 24 Diameter Culvert in Ohio, Structural Performance of Flexible Pipes (Sargand, Mitchell & Hurd), Balkema, Rotterdam, 1990. Kirschmer, O., Problems of Abrasion in Pipes, Steinzeugin Formationen, 1966, No. 1, pp. 3-13. Federal Lands Highway Project Development Design Manual, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-DF-88-003, June 1996 Metric Edition, section 7.4.D, (electronically published http://www.bts.gov/NTL/data/pddm-m.pdf ). Wonsiewicz, T.J., Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Discount Rates and Inflation, Pipeline Design and Installation, ed. K.K. Kienow, ASCE Pipeline Division, March 1990, pp. 639-648.

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Chapter

8
Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Lester H. Gabriel, Ph.D., P.E.

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QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE


Control of the quality of the raw material to be used in the production of pipe is the first essential and necessary condition for compliance with the specified requirements of the finished product. HDPE resins used to produce corrugated polyethylene pipe must be sampled, tested and approved for use to assure compliance with AASHTO and ASTM cell classification requirements. A resin vendors certification characterizing the material (e.g.; virgin material, etc.) and stating compliance with all requirements must accompany all raw material resins used in the manufacture of the pipe. The pipe manufacturers responsibility includes testing, randomly selected samples from each lot for verification of density (ASTM D 1505) and melt index (ASTM D 1238), tensile strength (ASTM D 638) and environmental stress crack resistance (ASTM D 1693, ASTM D 5397 or ASTM F 2136). For reference and manufacturing process control purposes, accepted material lots should be assigned identifying numbers. Permanent records should be kept. Control of the quality of the pipe manufacturing process is the next essential and necessary condition for compliance. A competent quality control program for manufacturing includes the following: continuous inspection of each step using visual and/or automated inspection procedures testing samples of the finished pipe, selected at a predetermined frequency In addition to records of the above items, and to insure traceability of the manufactured pipe, quality control reports must record the plant, date and shift of manufacture, production line and resin lot designations. All conforming products must be identified with permanent markings indicating the manufacturer, manufacturing plant, date of manufacture, applicable specification designation and the pipes nominal diameter. A well-designed QA/QC program will include periodic audits of the efficacy of the program itself. Such audits will generally address: evaluation of manufactured pipe and fittings in inventory inspection and recalibration (if necessary) of QC testing equipment QC inspection and reporting procedures raw material sampling, testing and lot control procedures product certification procedures processing of customer complaints; corrective actions processing of recommendations from plant personnel
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Manufacturing Processes
Resins used in the manufacture of corrugated HDPE profile wall drainage pipe are most often supplied as small cylindrical pellets in a natural white color. The pipe manufacturer must add color and UV inhibitor to the resin. Carbon black, highly absorbent of degrading ultra-violet radiation, is the most effective, most cost-effective and common pigment used. Studies on UV exposure indicate carbon black pigment effectively protects HDPE from UV degradation. A minimum 1% carbon black has been shown to eliminate tensile strength loss for HDPE for sufficient time (3 years) until the pipe can be installed. For some corrugated pipe applications, 1% carbon black provides sufficient UV resistance. Other, more rigorous applications may require greater UV resistance. Increasing the carbon black level is one way to obtain the resistance. However, colors with UV stabilizers other than black may be just as effective in inhibiting UV degradation. Also, some manufacturers use a colored stripe or a colored liner for identification purposes. These modifications are typically minor and should not affect the UV resistance of the remaining black corrugated pipe. All finished pipe should comply with the requirements of ASTM D 3350. Resins may also include stabilizers (antioxidants) added to prevent oxidation of the free radical molecules of the polyethylene chain. Unless inhibited, oxidation may result in a degradation of physical properties during the manufacturing process and over time. High temperatures required for extrusion of the resin encourage the formation of free radicals. A balance exists between the amount and type of stabilizers added to the resin and the time-temperature requirements of the manufacturing processes. AASHTO requires the certification of properties and qualities of drainage pipe resins, including density, melt index, flexural modulus, tensile strength, ESCR and/or SP-NCLS tests. See Section 5.0 of the included Plastic Pipe Institutes Protocol for Third Party Validation of Manufacturers Certification for details of certification of proprietary formulations of blended virgin resins. Profile wall corrugated HDPE pipe is generally produced with one or more variations of a vacuum forming process or an extrusion process. Fittings are generally produced utilizing a blow, vacuum, injection or a rotationally molding process. The principles, and some important details of each of these processes, follow.

The Extrusion Process for HDPE Profile Wall Pipes


Proper control and execution of the extrusion process is critical to the success of the manufacture of corrugated HDPE pipes. Extrusion is a continuous process wherein previously dried polymer in pellet form is heated to a melt and, after mixing and
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the application of pressure, extrudate is forced through a die and assumes a desired shape. See Figure 8.1 for a schematic of the extrusion process. Cold pellets are fed to the barrel through a hopper and then from the feed zone they are driven forward by the screw. The feed rate and the temperatures of the barrel, screw and die control the quality of the outcome of the process. It is in the metering zone where the pressure necessary to force the material through the die, generally less than 5000 psi, is developed. Venting with applied vacuum is necessary to remove gases trapped in approximately 190oC (375oF) melt, which otherwise may degrade the strength and appearance of the extruded HDPE. Motors in the range of 300 HP drive the process.

Figure 8-1

Figure 8-1: Extrusion Process

Single screw extruders are selected for manufacture of HDPE pipe because they have adequate mixing capabilities; they also have the ability to overcome the considerable shear resistance of the molten resin at lower melt temperatures (than is the case for twin screw machines, also used for extrusion of plastics). Running between 75 and 150 rpm, outputs are in excess of 1500 lb/hr for the most common profiles. Singlescrew extruders used in profile extrusion typically range from 1 to 6 inch diameters. The viscosity, melting point, thermal sensitivity and shear heating qualities of the molten resin all affect the quality of the extrudate. On leaving the die, the hot and flexible extrudate is shaped and cooled. Uniform and gradual cooling with air and chilled water inhibits unwanted variations in wall thickness and warpage of the end product. Various forming techniques are available. Vacuum forming to an external mold creates the corrugated profile. Sectional breakaway clamshell molds riding on a closed loop track provide the means for manufacture of a continuous run of pipe.

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To manufacture dual wall profiles with smooth interiors and corrugated exteriors, a thin wall cylindrical tube is extruded into the interior of the simultaneously vacuum formed corrugated exterior shell and, with air pressure, thermally welded to the outer shell. Pipes with smooth interiors and smooth exteriors (honeycomb profiles) are manufactured by a continuous process whereby a complex ribbon is extruded, the cross-sectional geometry being that of the finished wall. The ribbon is comprised of a flat top surface, a flat bottom surface, and a web pattern of shear transfer elements between the two. The pipe barrel is created by winding the extruded ribbon around forming rollers and thermally welding the mating helically positioned edges. Immediately after being formed, proper cooling and annealing of the pipe will permit the pipe to maintain its shape and minimize residual stresses. Immersion of smaller pipes and spraying of larger pipes are designed to reduce the temperature of the pipe below 85oC (185oF), necessary for cutting and subsequent handling at the end of the production process.

Fittings
Injection Molded Fittings: For elbows, tees, couplings, reducers, caps and other common fittings for application to pipes generally of size 12 in. (300 mm) or less, injection molding is a common method of manufacture. HDPE material is injected into a shaped cavity of a breakaway mold (for purposes of removal of the finished fitting). Pressure then forces the material to assume the shape of the cavity. Cooling then permits the ejection of the fitting from the opened mold. Appropriate tests and inspections must validate strength, absence of voids and fidelity of dimensions. Fabricated Fittings: For pipe fittings as above to pipes generally larger than 12 in. (300 mm) and for non-standard configurations of pipes of all sizes. Parts are thermally joined by heat fusion, extrusion welding or hot gas welding. Heat fusion is preferred for pressure applications. Thermoformed Fittings: For sweep elbows, swaged reducers and forged stub ends, sections of pipe are heated in a bath, reshaped and cooled.

Quality Control and Quality Assurance Programs


The corrugated polyethylene pipe industry has developed an industry QC/QA program. This program is designed to give producers the responsibility for controlling the quality of product produced, and to use the quality control information generated to receive certification from specifying agencies. It requires pipe producers to perform

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quality control sampling, testing and record keeping on their products. It allows specifying agencies to perform quality assurance sampling, testing and record keeping to confirm the performance of the producers quality plan as set forth herein. The industry has also implemented a third party product certification program for products that meet or exceed the requirements in AASHTO M294 and MP7 for HDPE resins and pipes. (See the included Protocol for Third Party Validation of Manufacturers Certification.) The main features of the Protocol may be summarized as follows: Manufacturer enters into licensing agreements with PPI and an Administrator. Using AASHTO M 294/MP7 requirements, the Administrator tests the Manufacturers product to verify compliance with the applicable standard. The Manufacturer will provide copies of test reports and other relevant information to the Administrator for review and verification of completeness and accuracy. Assuming that compliance with the Protocol requirement is demonstrated, the Administrator will so notify the Manufacturer. PPI will list the Manufacturer in a directory of participating Manufacturers. The Manufacturer is then eligible to use the Program Marks for his Administrator-validated Product. The Administrator will periodically inspect the applicants place of manufacture to determine continuing compliance with the requirements of the program and the functioning of applicants quality program. In addition, AASHTO sponsors the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP). The NTPEP provides a complete set of test data that can be compared directly with the AASHTO specification requirements or the specific requirements of any agency for corrugated polyethylene pipe. The NTPEP requires that the manufacturer submit their quality assurance/quality control plan for review by the participating agencies. Under the NTPEP, State DOTs may inspect production facilities at any time to assure that they are complying with the requirements of the AASHTO specifications and their own QA/QC plan. Both the PPI Third Party Certification Program and the AASHTO NTPEP are voluntary, although agencies and consults have the right to require or specify participation in one or both plans as a prerequisite to providing pipe on their projects.

PPIs QC/QA Program


General Description The Plastic Pipe Institutes Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Quality Assurance/Quality Control Program is designed to give producers the responsibility for controlling the quality of product and to use the quality control information generated in the process of receiving certification from specifying agencies. It requires producers to
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perform quality control sampling, testing and record keeping on the product. It allows specifying agencies to perform quality assurance sampling, testing and record keeping to confirm the performance of the producers quality plan as set forth herein. It is the intent of the program that acceptance or rejection of product be based on the producers total quality program.

QA/QC Program Requirements


Basic Requirement Each plant shall have a program with three basic elements: QA/QC Plan The producer will prepare a written quality control plan. The plan may be generic but must be site-specific. The plan will describe in detail how the producer proposes to control the equipment, materials and production methods to insure that the specified products are obtained. The plan will list the personnel responsible for production and quality control at the site. The following specific information will also be included in the plan: Identification of the physical location the plant, to include a description of the property site and references to the nearest identifiable points such as highways and towns. The method of identification of each lot of product during manufacturing, testing storage and shipment. Some specifying agencies may require special means of identifying and segregating product. The method of sampling, conditioning and testing of raw materials and finished product including lot sizes and type of tests performed as well as a description of equipment used to perform the tests. This plan will also include a method to trace the raw material lot to the finished product. A plan for dealing with quality control sample failures. This plan will include how the producer plans to initiate an immediate investigation and implement corrective actions to remedy the cause of the problem. This plan will also include the tests performed, the methods used to determine what tests are performed, and the person responsible for making the determination A loading and shipping control plan which includes a description of the methods by which the products are to be loaded and shipped. The plan will also include methods of ensuring that all products are properly identified. Approved Laboratories The program requires all tests to be conducted at laboratories qualified to perform the required tests. Each producer may establish and maintain its own laboratory
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for the specific performance of quality control testing. The producer will identify the location(s) of the testing laboratories. The equipment required for a qualified laboratory shall be capable of performing the required tests referenced by the applicable product specifications and industry standards such as AASHTO M252 and M294. Records on equipment calibration and maintenance and sample collection and analysis must be maintained at the laboratory. Quality Control Technician(s) The Quality Control Technician(s) shall report to the Plant Manager and have overall responsibility for implementing the Quality Control Program at the plant. All samples must be taken and tested by the Quality Control Technician, designated by the producer.

Interface between Producer and Specifying Agency


Scope The producer has total responsibility for establishing, maintaining and operating the QA/QC Program. The producers QA/QC Program shall comply with the requirements outlined in this guideline. The Specifying Agency is responsible for monitoring the producers implementation of the QA/QC Program to the extent that the Agency deems necessary. In addition to complying with the requirements of this QA/QC Program, the producers facility QA/QC Program shall comply with applicable national specifications and any additional requirements of the Specifying Agency. If required as part of the monitoring activity, the Specifying Agency may perform sampling, testing and inspection activities at the producers facilities. The Specifying Agency may take samples of the product at the producers distribution yards. Annual Guarantee and Registration If required by the Specifying Agency, the producer will provide an Annual Guarantee and Registration in accordance with the requirements of the Agency.

Certification of Facility QA/QC Program


Basic Requirements The Specifying Agency may take the actions necessary to verify the producers compliance with this QA/QC Program and Agency requirements. Verifying producer compliance with this program may involve monitoring basic elements.

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Facility QA/QC Program As part of the facility certification procedure, the Specifying Agency may review the facility QA/QC Program to verify compliance with the program outlined herein. The Specifying Agency may perform sampling and testing in accordance with applicable national specification and any supplemental requirements of that Agency. Laboratories and Sampling Areas The Specifying Agency may inspect all portions of the facility that perform sampling or testing activities for the purpose of verifying raw material and/or product compliance. The Agency may review test procedures, test and equipment records, and inspect testing equipment for compliance with Program and Agency requirements. Technician Qualifications and Performance The Specifying Agency may review the qualification of technicians involved with raw material or product sampling and testing to verify compliance with requirements of the QA/QC Program. In addition, the Agency may observe the technicians performance of sampling and testing procedures to verify compliance with the QA/QC Program. Raw Material and Product Quality To evaluate raw material and product quality, the Specifying Agency may require that comparable samples be taken and tested by both producer and Agency for the purpose of correlation testing. The results of this evaluation may be used by the Agency to establish a reference point for future correlation with the producers raw material or product quality. Facility Certification If the Agency verifies the facilitys compliance with Program and Agency requirements, the Agency may issue a Facility Certification. Each year, the Agency may perform any of the above evaluations deemed necessary and, if all the Evaluations verify compliance with program and Agency requirements, the Agency may renew the Facility Certification or approval. Agency Inspections Scheduled and random inspections by the Specifying Agency may be conducted at any time to verify facility compliance with Program and Agency requirements. During scheduled and random facility inspections, the Agency may take samples of raw materials and product for evaluation. If any portion of the Facility QA/QC

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Program is determined to not be in compliance with Program and Agency requirements, the producer and Agency will work jointly to eliminate the deficiency and re-certify the facility. Correlation Testing The specifying Agency may take samples of raw materials or product for correlation testing during any inspection of the facility. Product samples may be taken during visits to distribution yards or Agency maintenance or project sites. The raw material and product samples may be tested for the following physical properties:

Plant
Material (Polyethylene) A Specifying Agency may sample incoming raw material during plant visits in order to evaluate polyethylene resins used for the production of pipe. The material sampled does not have to be the material that is to be used to produce pipe produced for that Agency. The evaluations conducted on samples from a lot of polyethylene resin may include: density melt index SP-NCLS Product (Polyethylene Pipe and Fittings) Specifying Agency may sample pipe during plant visits. The evaluations conducted on pipe samples taken from pipe may include: pipe stiffness pipe flattening brittleness joint integrity Other Locations The Specifying Agency may take pipe samples from distribution yards that may be tested for: brittleness pipe flexibility pipe stiffness pipe flattening

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Lot Sizes Quality assurance lot sizes for pipe 12 in. (300 mm) in diameter and smaller will be a minimum of 20,000 lineal feet (7000 m). Lot sizes for quality control samples for pipe larger than 12 in. (300 mm) in diameter will be a minimum of 5000 lineal feet (1500 m). The minimum lot quantities are applicable for sampling conducted at the producers facility. Sample Identification and Record Keeping For sampling and testing performed by the Specifying Agency, it is critical that care be taken to properly identify samples and record test data accurately. Samples will be identified by a unique identification system that allows correlation with comparable samples taken by the producer. Quality Control test reports prepared on the samples taken at the producers facilities shall include identification of the producers production lot and QC tests. Evaluation of Test Results The results of the Agencys correlation testing will be used to evaluate the producers laboratory and procedures. Material or product will not be rejected solely on the basis of testing by the Agency. If testing by the producer and Agency do not correlate, the producer and Agency will work jointly to identify the source of any significant variations in test results. The producer will record the results of all evaluations. If the Agencys evaluation of the producers QA/QC Program demonstrates noncompliance with the Agency requirements, the Agency and producer will perform additional tests on the questionable raw material or product. If Agency tests demonstrate that the raw material or product is non-compliant, the Resolution System defined in this program will be employed.

Sampling and Testing Producers


Producers Quality Control The producers Quality Control (QC) samples are used by the producer to monitor the quality of product being produced and shipped. Standard Specifications The producer is responsible for all sampling and testing in accordance with these guidelines, applicable national specifications and supplemental requirements by Specifying Agencies.

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Raw Materials Incoming raw material evaluations will be performed on all polyethylene resin used for the production of pipe. The incoming raw material evaluations will consist of a density and melt index test on each lot of polyethylene resin. A lot is defined as a collection of units of product manufactured under conditions of productions that are considered uniform. For each raw material shipment, the lot size will be defined by the resin supplier. A method of tracing the raw material lot to the raw material supplier will be provided. Finished Product (In-Plant) Unit weight will be performed a minimum of one time per shift, per diameter, per machine. Wall thickness measurements for uniformity will be performed at the same frequency as the unit weight. Measurements will be performed with an approved measuring device such as calipers or micrometers in accordance with ASTM 2122. The producer will conduct continuous visual inspections on the exterior and interior wall for uniform production quality and workmanship. A method of tracing the finished product to the raw material will be provided. Referee Samples If the test result for a sample indicates the raw material or pipe does not comply with specification requirements, a referee sample will be immediately obtained by the producer. Referee samples are to be the same size, and taken in the same manner as the original sample. If the referee sample indicates the raw material or pipe complies with the specification requirements, the producer is to identify and record the reason for the original failure and then may resume normal testing procedures. If the referee sample indicates the raw material or pipe does not comply with the specification requirements, the producer will initiate an investigation to determine the cause of the failure. The investigation will include the material, sampling and test procedures, equipment used in the production and testing of the material. If the cause can be attributed to any of the above categories, the producer will take corrective action to bring the raw material, procedure or equipment into compliance. The producer will then record the corrective action on the test report, and take another referee sample for verification testing. If the second referee sample indicates the raw material or pipe meets the specification requirements, the producer will resume normal testing procedures.

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Notification of Non-Compliant Product


The producer will immediately notify the Specifying Agency of any test failures on pipe shipped to or in transit to the Agency project or facility or to a location not under the producers control. The producer will identify, segregate and dispose of any remaining inventory under his control that does not comply with applicable specifications. The producer will maintain records regarding disposition of non-compliant product.

Sample Identification and Record Keeping


Sample identification and record keeping are critical. Care must be taken to properly identify samples and record test data accurately. Producers Quality Control samples will be uniquely identified to provide traceability. Quality Control and Quality Assurance records will be retained by the producer for a minimum of two years, and made available to the Specifying Agency upon request. Quality Control test reports will include the lot identification. Test reports will indicate the action taken to resolve non-compliant raw material or product.

Correlation and Resolution System


Correlation The producers Quality Control test results and the corresponding Specifying Agency test results will be evaluated to correlate the performance of the sampling and testing procedures and results. If the results of the Correlation tests are not in agreement, an investigation will be made to determine the source of the difference. The investigation will include a review of the sampling and testing procedures and testing equipment of the producer and the Specifying Agency. The results of the investigation will be recorded on the appropriate Plant Quality Assurance form. Resolution System If any pipe, fitting or coupling fails to conform with the applicable specifications, it may be re-tested to establish conformity. Individual test results will be used to determine conformity. The purchase agreement between the purchaser and producer of the product and the requirements of the Specifying Agency will determine the methods utilized to resolve product quality concerns.

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Appendix A
Quality Control Test Forms Each plant will submit copies of all final quality control test report forms used with the plants quality control plan. Test reports shall contain the following information: Name and address of the testing laboratory and appropriate individual. Identification of the report and the date issued. Identification of the lot represented by the sample. Description, identification and conditions of the test sample. Date of receipt of the test sample. Date(s) of test performed. Identification of the standard test method used and a notation of all known deviations from the test method. Test results and other pertinent data required by the standard test method. Identification of any test results obtained by a subcontractor.

Appendix B
Sampling and Test Procedures The following is a partial list of common test names used in Specifying Agency manuals and corresponding ASTM or AASHTO designations. This list is not intended to be all inclusive, nor is it intended to be a list of all tests required for certification of the products and raw materials covered by this program. Quality Control Tests Raw Materials Density (ASTM D 1505) Met Index (ASTM D 1238) SP-NCLS (ASTM F 2136) Pipe Brittleness (ASTM D 2444) Flexibility Pipe 10 in. (250 mm) in diameter or smaller (AASHTO 252) Type C/CP Elongation (AASHTO M252) Stiffness (ASTM D 2412) Flattening (ASTM D 2412) Dimensions (ASTM D 2122) Perforations (AASHTO M252) Unit Weight

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PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE THIRD PARTY PRODUCT CERTIFICATION PROGRAM PROTOCOL FOR THIRD PARTY VALIDATION OF MANUFACTURERS CERTIFICATION
Table of Contents
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 Introduction Definitions General Pipe Product Certification Resin Certification Administrator Inspection Of Pipe Manufacturing Facilities De-certification After Administrator Inspection and Requalification Manufacturer-Administrator Disagreement Quality Program Miscellaneous Appendix I

1.0 Introduction
This Certification Protocol is part of a third party certification program for HDPE virgin resin and HDPE corrugated pipe sponsored by Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA), a division of the Plastics Pipe Institute, Inc., (PPI). This Certification Protocol constitutes part of the Agreements entered into by the Manufacturer, PPI, and the Administrator. Under this program, a Manufacturer certifies that corrugated polyethylene pipe it produces under this program meets or exceeds the requirements in AASHTO M 294/MP7 (the Standard). The Administrator validates the Manufacturers certification through appropriate testing and inspection of Manufacturers virgin HDPE resin and HDPE corrugated pipe, and review of Manufacturers QC program.

2.0 Definitions
2.1 Administrator: A third party agency designated and authorized by PPI to validate Manufacturers certification on behalf of PPI in accordance with this certification protocol.

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2.2 Conformance: Compliance with specified requirements. 2.3 Control: To exercise authority over and regulate. 2.4 Corrective Action: Measures taken to rectify conditions adverse to quality and to eliminate or prevent recurrence. 2.5 Day or Days: In measuring time, the term day or days, as used in this Certification Protocol, refers to calendar and not business days. 2.6 Documentation: Recorded information. 2.7 Manufacturer: Any organization producing products or materials for certification under this third party certification protocol. For purposes of this protocol Manufacturers shall be either pipe producers or resin producers. a. Pipe producer An applicant who makes corrugated polyethylene pipe as specified by AASHTO M 294, Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300- to 1200- mm Diameter, or AASHTO MP7, Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 1350 and 1500 mm Diameter. b. Resin producer An applicant who makes HDPE virgin resin in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO M 294, Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300- to 1200- mm Diameter, or AASHTO MP7, Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 1350 and 1500 mm Diameter. 2.8 Product: Corrugated polyethylene pipe as defined in Section 4.2. Product types are corrugated (C), smooth (S) and profile (D). Perforated classes are Class II, Class I and non-perforated. 2.9 Program Mark: As used in this Certification Protocol, the term Program Mark refers to a permanent affixation or printing on a pipe, or labeling of a resin box, indicating that the resin or pipe is certified under this Protocol. The Program Mark may also be used in promotional literature as defined in Section 3.8. The PPI Certification Oversight Committee (PPI staff and selected members of PPI) determines the design and information in the Program Mark.

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2.10 Quality Assurance: Those planned, systematic, and preventive actions that are required to ensure materials and Products will meet specified requirements. 2.11 Quality Control: Inspection, testing, or examination to ensure materials and Products were produced to conform to specified requirements. 2.12 Quality Program: An established, documented system to ensure quality. 2.13 Validation: The process by which a separate determination is made by the Administrator that Manufacturers certification is in accordance with the Protocol requirements. 2.14 Verify: Determine that an activity or condition conforms to specified requirements.

3.0 General
3.1 Overview of Program: The main features of the Protocol may be summarized as follows. Manufacturer enters into licensing agreements with PPI and the Administrator. Using AASHTO M 294/MP7 requirements, Administrator tests Manufacturers Product to verify compliance with the applicable Standard. Manufacturer will provide copies of test reports and other relevant information to the Administrator for review and verification of completeness and accuracy. Assuming that compliance with the Protocol requirement is demonstrated, Administrator will so notify Manufacturer. PPI will list Manufacturer in a directory of participating Manufacturers. The Manufacturer is then eligible to use Program Marks for his Administratorvalidated Product. Administrator will periodically inspect the applicants place of manufacture to determine continuing compliance with the requirements of the program and the functioning of applicants quality program. Administrator and PPI both agree to protect the confidentiality of information they receive as detailed in the agreement with Manufacturer. 3.2 Participation: Any Manufacturer of HDPE resin or HDPE corrugated polyethylene pipe as defined in AASHTO M 294/MP7 may participate in the program to certify one or more Products under this program. Applicants must enter into an Agreement with the Administrator and PPI. For a pipe Manufacturer having more than one facility, each facility producing certified Product(s) must participate in the program. As described elsewhere in this Certification Protocol, each participating facility is subject to inspection for the certified Product(s) produced on site.
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3.3 PPI Functions: a. The PPI Certification Oversight Committee guides PPI activity in connection with the Protocol subject to the approval of the PPI Board of Directors, President, and legal counsel. b. PPI will license the Manufacturer to use the certification Mark on certified Product provided the Manufacturer complies with all the requirements set forth in the licensing Agreements with both PPI and the Administrator as well as this Certification Protocol. c. A diligent effort has been made to select appropriate standards and conduct a reliable program. However, PPI makes no representation, warranty or guarantee in connection with the standard or the program and expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from participation, for any violation of federal, state, or municipal regulation with which the underlying AASHTO standard may conflict, or for the infringement of any patent resulting from the use of the AASHTO standard. PPI shall maintain a current list of certified HDPE resins and notify participating Manufacturers when changes are made. PPI shall also maintain a list of Manufacturers certified Products. PPI shall promptly advise the Administrator and all participating Manufacturers when revisions or changes have been made to the Standard, and the effective date of implementation under this Protocol. The PPI Certification Oversight Committee shall review the Certification Protocol on an annual basis. The PPI Certification Oversight Committee shall designate the Administrator. 3.4 Administrator Functions: The Administrator shall perform the administration, testing and validation functions under the Protocol. Administrator will conduct in-plant inspections, sample and test pipe and virgin HDPE resin (or confirm resin certification) to validate Manufacturers certification, develop and review test data and perform other administrative services. Administrator shall verify that an applicant has a functioning quality program. Administrator will notify program participants promptly as to how it will manage re-testing of certified Product(s) and validation of new Product(s).

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3.5 Applicable Standards: a. The Standards designated for this Protocol are AASHTO M 294 and MP7. The requirements from these Standards are outlined in Section 4.2. b. Questions as to the applicability of the designated Standard to Manufacturers Products are to be determined by Administrator. Administrator validation applies to the criteria as defined in AASHTO M 294/MP7; Administrator will disregard internal company criteria. 3.6 Revisions to Standard: a. When AASHTO revises the Standard, the Administrator, consistent with this Certification Protocol, shall notify program participants of how they will handle testing and validation of Products. b. When a revised Standard is published, a phase-in period as defined in Section 3.6 (c) will be allowed to accommodate compliance with any revision to the Standard. For the purposes of this Certification Protocol, a revision to the Standard shall be considered published when it is printed in its final form and generally available to the public through AASHTO. c. Testing will be consistent with the revised Standard upon its publication. Testing to the previous specifications or most recent prior revision will be accepted for a period of ninety (90) days after publication of the revision. All certifying Products must be produced in compliance with the latest revision of the Standard within six (6) months of the publication of the revision unless the Administrator notifies participants that a longer period is needed for testing. The Administrator can waive re-testing under the revised Standard when previous test results adequately demonstrate compliance with the revised Standard or if the revised Standard establishes less stringent criteria. 3.7 Program Mark: a. By affixing the Program Mark, the resin or pipe Manufacturer is certifying that its products (resin or pipe) have been manufactured, sampled, and tested in accordance with this Protocol and comply with its requirements. In addition, the use of the Program Mark indicates that resin or pipe Manufacturer has obtained approval from PPI to use the Program Mark.
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b. The Program Mark represents that the resin or pipe Manufacturer is producing a product that is a faithful representation of the tested and certified product in design, construction and fabrication. Neither PPI nor Administrator represents, warrants or guarantees that products bearing the Program Mark do in fact conform to AASHTO M 294/MP7 requirements. c. Program Marks are to be printed on or affixed to each length of pipe for Manufacturer-certified Products. Manufacturer shall comply with applicable AASHTO marking requirements d. The Program Mark must be used and may not be modified. The Program Mark shall not be used or placed in such a manner as to imply any other endorsements or certifications by PPI or the Administrator. e. The Resin or pipe Manufacturer shall not knowingly release a product for sale with the Program Mark affixed to a product that does not meet the requirements of AASHTO M 294/MP7. If a resin or pipe Manufacturer knowingly releases such products for sale that do not comply with the requirements of AASHTO M 294/MP7, all previously certified product in the non-compliant facility will be automatically de-listed pending inspection and re-certification under Sections 5.5 or 7.5. 3.8 Manufacturer Literature: a. Resin or pipe Manufacturers are permitted to use the Program Mark in their promotional materials and literature only after an appropriate agreement between the resin or pipe Manufacturer, PPI, and the Administrator is executed and the resin or pipe are certified under this Protocol. b. To avoid misunderstanding, references to certification in resin or pipe Manufacturer literature must specify the particular products that are certified, unless all of the products mentioned in the literature or advertising are certified under this Protocol. c. Participating resin or pipe Manufacturers shall provide PPI with copies of current literature and promotional materials that refer to this Certification Protocol. PPI shall review this resin or pipe Manufacturer literature and determine Protocol compliance.

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4.0 Pipe Product Certification


4.1 Manufacturers Request: Manufacturer will contact Administrator to coordinate pipe Product testing for initial Product certification. The PPI designated Administrator and Manufacturer execute a valid licensing Agreement under this Protocol in order to conduct testing. A copy of the Manufacturers quality control program complying with the Protocol Appendix I shall be provided to the Administrator at the time initial certification is sought, and shall be available for Administrator review during plant inspections or as requested by the Administrator. 4.2 Product Certification Requirements and Product Attribute Groupings: a. Product requirements are in AASHTO M 294 and MP7. Pipe inside diameter requirements are for the minimum inside diameter. b. Each unique corrugated polyethylene pipe Product that a Manufacturer desires to be certified under this Protocol should be separately tested. For initial certification, and for future plant audits, Administrator will test every pipe diameter. Within each pipe diameter, each product type corrugated (C), smooth (S) and profile (D) must be tested. For initial certification only, within each product type, see table below to determine priority for testing perforated classes. When one perforated class passes, no further testing is required within that product type: Priority Perforated class (1) Class II Perforated (2) Class I Perforated (3) Non Perforated c. For initial Product certification purposes, it does not matter at which of the Manufacturers plants the Product is made, provided that the Manufacturer provides an assurance that each of the facilities that produce such Products use the same or similar manufacturing procedures. d. Products with similar attributes that can logically be placed in a Product attribute group may be certified based on the testing of a representative Product or Products from the Product attribute grouping. Because it is not practical to define the term Product attribute grouping precisely and because the logical grouping of Products may vary based on the characteristic being assessed, Manufacturers should contact the Administrator to discuss and agree upon the propriety of the Manufacturers definition of a particular Product attribute group and the necessary associated testing.
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4.3 Samples: Pipe samples must be submitted to Administrator in a sufficient quantity to conduct all testing, with: a. Information showing Manufacturers name and description of Product. b. Information demonstrating that the HDPE resin used to fabricate the Product has been certified in accordance with this Protocol. 4.4 Product Test Report: The Product test report will include the following information: a. Manufacturers Name and Address b. Product Identification (1) Product name, (2) Product series or model number c. Product Description (1) Product Type (2) Product dimensions (minimum inside diameter, mm; wall thickness, mm; length, m) (3) Perforation Class (if applicable) d. Test Results (1) For each test contained in the specification, the specification paragraph number, the test description, the reference paragraph number, the reference test method, the applicable criteria measurement for the specification, and the test results are to be listed. (2) The following is the list of properties to be tested. The test report shall verify compliance achieved (pass/fail), or that the test was not performed where the laboratory does not complete the test. (Parenthetical references are to the relevant sections of AASHTO M 294/MP7). (a) Minimum inside diameter (7.2.3) (b) Liner thickness (7.2.2) (c) Length (7.2.4) (d) Perforations (7.3) (e) Pipe stiffness (7.4) (f ) Pipe flattening (7.5) (g) Environmental stress cracking (7.6) (h) Brittleness (7.7) (i) Joint integrity (9.6) (for fittings)
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e. Related documentation submitted by Manufacturer. f. An authorized laboratory representative signature. g. Each test report and its related documentation constitute the basic reference material for validation by the Administrator, through in-plant inspection of subsequent manufacture of the Product, that such production is a faithful reproduction in all respects of the certifying specimen and in compliance with the applicable specifications. 4.5 Notice of Product Certification: a. A notice will be sent to Manufacturer stating the date on which certification has been granted and the Product designation. b. The Notice of Product Certification shall contain the following information: (1) Manufacturers name, pipe diameter, pipe type and all appropriate classes as described in Section 4.2; (2) Report number and date. (3) A statement that the quality control program is satisfactory and meets minimum requirements. 4.6 Notice of Product Failure to Certify: a. If the tested Product does not comply with all the requirements of the Standard, a notice will be sent to Manufacturer by certified mail, return receipt requested, stating that its Product(s) did not certify under the Protocol. De-certification based on unsatisfactory inspection is addressed separately in Section 7.0. b. The notice will include: (1) Manufacturers name, pipe diameter, pipe type and all appropriate classes; (2) Report number and date; and (3) The specific test failure or failures on which non-compliance is based.

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4.7 Modification of Certified Products: a. When design changes are made in a certified Product and Manufacturer believes that this change will still result in a Product equivalent to the certified Product, Manufacturer shall notify the Administrator. Manufacturer shall submit a summary of properties in Section 4.2 to the Administrator to demonstrate compliance. b. This process also applies to changes in Product formulation (raw materials), except that substitution of PPI listed resins from different suppliers is not considered a change in the Product. Equivalency can be established by supplier technical data, pipe producer testing, or generally recognized industry practices. c. The legal responsibility for the authenticity of submitted data rests on the Manufacturer. This procedure is only intended for use in cases of design changes or Product formulation changes deemed not to affect compliance. 4.8 Recognition of Prior Tests: a. At the discretion of Administrator, results from tests conducted before this Protocol became effective, or tests conducted before a revision to AASHTO M 294/MP7 is published, may be deemed to satisfy the applicable testing requirement provided that: (1) The tests and reports fully comply with the Product Certification Requirements of Section 4.2 and provide the information needed by Administrator to validate Manufacturers certification under AASHTO M 294/MP7; (2) Administrator deems the testing laboratory to be certified to perform the tests conducted; and (3) Manufacturer certifies that there has been no change in the Product or production processes that would affect the Products compliance. The Administrator may request additional information or evidence supporting the request for recognition of prior test results.

5.0 Resin Certification


5.1 Initial certification: a. Resin Manufacturer contacts the Administrator to request that their HDPE resin be listed by PPI as a certified resin.
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b. Administrator conducts material testing per AASHTO M 294/MP7, Section 6.1 to assure compliance with these requirements. In addition, Administrator conducts SP-NCTL testing to assure resin meets the 15% yield stress/24 hour requirement. c. Administrator notifies resin Manufacturer and PPI that all requirements have been met. PPI will then include the resin on the certified HDPE resin list. A corrugated pipe Manufacturer must use a resin(s) that is on the PPI certified resin list. d. The corrugated pipe Manufacturer may also independently request PPI listing of their private formulation made by in-plant dry blending two or more virgin PE resins. The pipe Manufacturer must reveal to the Administrator and to PPI the specific resin components and their ratio for this formulation. Administrator tests a melt blend of the formulation to assure that all material requirements of AASHTO M 294/MP7 Section 6.1 have been met (while the individual components may not meet the AASHTO requirements, a melt blend of the components must meet the requirements). Administrator notifies pipe Manufacturer and PPI that all requirements have been met. PPI will then include this material formulation in the certified HDPE resin list. Only the pipe Manufacturer that owns this private formulation may use it for corrugated pipe production. The PPI listing is for this formulation only. A change in either of the HDPE resins, or the supplier used in the blend, would require another listing. 5.2 Non-compliance: If any listed HDPE resin fails to comply with the requirements of the specification when tested by the Administrator during a pipe plant audit, the following provisions will apply: a. Administrator will report this to the resin Manufacturer and the pipe Manufacturer and identify the part of the specification the HDPE resin does not comply with. b. Resin Manufacturer must take corrective action as soon as possible and reply with an action plan within fourteen (14) days of notification that the corrective action has or will be taken. c. A retest for the HDPE resin that was not in compliance will be scheduled as soon as reasonably possible after corrective action is taken, but no longer than thirty (30) days after the corrective action.
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d. If the resin Manufacturer and Administrator do not agree on the retest results, PPI may select another laboratory to conduct the test on the suspect HDPE resin see Section 8. PPI will make the final decision on these discrepancies. Any issues related to rounding will follow the guidelines of ASTM E 29. If the HDPE resin is determined to be in non-compliance, PPI will remove that resin from the certified list. PPI will notify all pipe Manufacturers in the program that this resin is no longer certified. The Administrator and pipe Manufacturer shall determine the extent of non-compliance for affected Product in inventory and determine what action, if any, should be taken with respect to its disposition. e. For the resin Manufacturer to be reinstated on the PPI certified list with the resin deemed to be in non-compliance, that resin is treated as if it were a new product.

6.0 Administrator Inspection of Pipe Manufacturing Facilities


6.1 Frequency: Administrator will conduct its first pipe plant inspection within ninety (90) days after the pipe Manufacturer has been certified. Each year including the first year Administrator will perform a minimum of one (1) in-plant inspection per Manufacturer. Administrator shall inspect each Manufacturers pipe plant at least once during a five-year period. If the Manufacturer has more than four plants, the Administrator shall not inspect more than 25% of the Manufacturers plants in a given year (rounded up to higher whole number). If a plant has not been audited in a given calendar year, they shall submit either an internal audit summary or results of another 3rd party audit to the Administrator by April 1 of the following year to demonstrate that plants conformance to the PPI Protocol. The Administrator shall test each Manufacturers Product at least once in a five-year period. If the Manufacturer has more than four Products, the Administrator shall not test more than 25% of the Manufacturers Product line in a given year (rounded up to higher whole number). A Product is defined as each pipe diameter and each pipe type (C, S and D). At least one Product shall be tested each plant audit, regardless of the 25% limit. These inspections will be unannounced visits made during normal business hours. Manufacturer will provide Administrator with a schedule of normal business hours and holidays, along with Product size range produced at each plant. In the event that Administrator makes an unannounced visit for the purposes of this program during normal business hours, and the pipe plant is closed, Manufacturer will be billed, at the discretion of Administrator, for the visit and revisit.
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6.2 Scope: Administrators representative will be equipped with copies of the current AASHTO M 294/MP7, other standards or references referred to by AASHTO M 294/MP7, this Certification Protocol, test reports, documentation and other data on Manufacturers certified Products and any other necessary materials. An integral part of each in-plant inspection will be an examination of Manufacturers in-house quality program and records. It is the responsibility of Manufacturer to maintain an in-house quality program as outlined in Section 9.0 and Appendix I of this Certification Protocol. 6.3 Inspection Testing: a. Inspection testing will be performed on a sample or samples selected at random by Administrator from the Product line either in production (with corresponding resin) or in inventory at pipe Manufacturers facility (with corresponding production records). Administrators inspector will select test samples, appropriately mark them, and see that they are prepared for testing without alteration. b. Administrator shall use the criteria specified in Sections 4.4.d.2 and 5.2 to verify compliance. c. The Product samples selected may be transported to the Administrators laboratory. If Manufacturer has its own test facilities that are acceptable to Administrator, testing of Manufacturers own pipe in its own facility is permissible provided that Administrators inspector or representative witnesses it. d. The cost of these inspection tests will be borne by Manufacturer. 6.4 Immediate Corrective Action: If the Administrator determines that a Product is not in compliance during a plant inspection, the pipe Manufacturer will be given the opportunity to correct it immediately. The pipe Manufacturer must take immediate corrective action, and must formally inform the Administrator within seven (7) days from the date of the receipt of a notice of non-compliance (date of plant inspection) of the immediate remedy. If the Administrator approves this immediate remedy, the Manufacturer may continue marking the Product as certified. If the Administrator does not approve the immediate remedy, or if the Manufacturer does not notify the Administrator within seven (7) days, the Administrator will send a notice of de-certification consistent with Section 4.6 and/or 7.0 to the Manufacturer with a copy to PPI.
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6.5 Inspection Reports: a. Administrator will communicate with Manufacturer regarding any matters requiring clarification or other action on the part of Manufacturer. Administrator will discuss its findings with Manufacturers personnel at the time of the on-site inspection; this is normally done at a closing conference. All official comments or decisions with respect to compliance or non-compliance of a certified Product will be confirmed in writing from the Administrator within thirty (30) days of the site visit. b. The inspection report is confidential and is mailed only to the pipe Manufacturer or designated representative, with the exception that a copy will be made available to the appropriate PPI staff or counsel upon request.

7.0 De-certification after Administrator Inspection and Re-certification


7.1 Administrators Notice of Non-Compliance: If the Administrator finds a Product to be in non-compliance after a pipe plant inspection, the Administrator will report this to the pipe Manufacturer via certified mail, return receipt requested with a copy to PPI, within ten (10) days after the determination of the non-compliance. Examples of non-compliance include failure to; (1) make faithful reproductions of tested Products, (2) follow this Certification Protocol or the underlying agreements, (3) meet the performance criteria in AASHTO M 294/MP7, or (4) maintain a QA/QC program. Administrator will completely describe the reasons for non-compliance of the Product and inform the Manufacturer of the problem and of the corrective action required. If the Manufacturer and Administrator do not agree on the test results, PPI may select another laboratory to conduct the test on the suspected Product see Section 8. PPI will make the final decision on these discrepancies. Any issues related to rounding will follow the guidelines of ASTM E 29. 7.2 Manufacturer Notice of Corrective Action: Upon formal receipt of a notice of non-compliance, the pipe Manufacturer must cease applying Program Marks to the Product listed in the notice of non-compliance. The Administrator and Manufacturer shall determine the extent of noncompliance for this Product in inventory and determine what action, if any, should be taken with respect to its disposition. To resume participation in the program, the Manufacturer must take corrective action as soon as possible and reply within fourteen (14) days that the corrective action has been taken.
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In addition, a retest for this Product deemed to be in non-compliance must be scheduled within thirty (30) days after first receiving formal notification of this non-compliance. All costs for this extra Product testing will be borne by the Manufacturer. The Manufacturer may not resume marking the Product as certified under this Protocol until the Administrator approves the corrective action and the retest is in compliance; any Product manufactured before this occurs shall not be marked as certified. If the Administrator does not approve the immediate remedy or if the retest still results in non-compliance, the Administrator will inform the Manufacturer with a copy to PPI and the de-certification notice will be consistent with Section 4.6. If the Product is determined to be in non-compliance, PPI will remove that Product from the certified Product list. 7.3 Administrators Notice of Intentional Non-Compliance: This paragraph addresses findings of intentional non-compliance, which leads to immediate de-certification of all Products found to be intentionally non-compliant. Examples of intentional non-compliance are: a. use of a non-PPI listed HDPE resin, b. repeated non-compliance by the Manufacturer, or c. falsification of records. The Administrator will report these findings via certified mail to the Manufacturer, return receipt requested, with a copy to PPI within twenty-four (24) hours after a determination of intentional non-compliance. The Administrator will outline the specifics of the findings of intentional non-compliance in the certified letter. Upon receipt of a Notice of Intentional Non-Compliance, the Manufacturer must cease applying Program Marks to all Products found intentionally non-compliant, and make a good-faith effort to recall all non-compliant Products. In addition, all intentionally non-compliant Products in the care and custody of the Manufacturer must have the Program Marks removed or obliterated. PPI will immediately remove all intentionally non-compliant Products from the list of certified Products. 7.4 Suspension of Manufacturer Literature: A final determination of intentional non-compliance will require suspension of the use of Manufacturer literature that represents the intentionally non-compliant Product as certified under this Protocol. Manufacturer will discontinue distribution or use of the literature and remove or obliterate all inappropriate references from literature in the Manufacturers care, custody, and control.
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7.5 Requalification: To re-certify the excluded Product following intentional non-compliance, the Manufacturer must reapply and submit the same full testing and inspection data that apply to new Products. In the event of an intentional non-compliance, the manufacturers certification under this protocol shall be suspended for a period of six months. Upon conclusion of the six month suspension, the manufacturer may apply for product certification under this protocol through the submittal of testing and inspection data as required for newly certified products.

8.0 Manufacturer-Administrator Disagreements


A thorough understanding of this Certification Protocol and proper operation of the program should minimize any disputes or disagreements. If, however, a disagreement or dispute arises between a resin or pipe Manufacturer and Administrator concerning the certification of a Product or other aspects of this program, the resin or pipe Manufacturer may request that the PPI Executive Director review the Administrators determination. 8.1 Procedure and Timing of Review: Manufacturer-Administrator disagreements shall be handled as follows: a. On receipt of written notice of de-certification, the pipe or resin Manufacturer has seven (7) days to notify PPI and the Administrator that Manufacturer is seeking review of the Administrators determination. The resin or pipe Manufacturers notice must be in writing and contain sufficient information to accurately identify the factual background, the nature of the dispute, and the decision or action sought. b. After receipt of Manufacturers notice, Administrator has seven (7) days to submit materials to PPI supporting the Administrators determination. c. Within fourteen (14) days of receiving resin or pipe Manufacturers notice, PPI will form a review panel, whose members shall include the PPI Executive Director, PPI Counsel, and other neutral qualified individuals with pertinent laboratory, technical, or industry experience. The PPI Executive Director shall chair the review panel and determine the panels composition in consultation with PPI Counsel.

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d. The review panel may, at its discretion, hold hearing(s) on the issues raised in Manufacturers notice. The PPI review panel will promptly inform the PPI Certification Oversight Committee of the disagreement, and seek any guidance or comments that the PPI Certification Oversight Committee might wish to make. The review panel will strive to reach a determination within thirty (30) days after receipt of Manufacturers notice. e. If the review panel has not reached a determination within thirty (30) days after receipt of Manufacturers notice, the PPI Executive Director shall so inform the President of PPI. f. If the review panel has not reached a determination within forty-five (45) days after receipt of Manufacturers notice, the PPI Executive Director, with advice of PPI Counsel, shall render a final determination on Manufacturers request. In the event that the PPI Executive Director is unavailable or incapacitated, the person empowered to act as President will make a final determination, provided that person has no conflicting commercial interest, such as being employed by a competing company or being a past employee of the contesting Manufacturer. In this case, the Vice President will make the final determination. 8.2 Marking During Review Process: Except when it appears to the PPI Review Panel that the alleged defect or other deficiency may have a significant adverse effect on the quality or performance of the pipe in question, the resin or pipe Manufacturer may continue to mark the Product in question during the review process. If de-certification is sustained by PPI, Manufacturer will cease marking the de-certified product. Any master list of certified products will be changed promptly if de-certification is upheld.

9.0 Quality Program


Manufacturer shall prepare and maintain a written (hard copy or electronic) QA/QC program to ensure that the quality of Products is in accordance with the requirements of the underlying agreements, this Certification Protocol Appendix I and AASHTO M 294/MP7. When establishing its quality program, each Manufacturer should include elements that it considers

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necessary to assure that Products meet the requirements of the standard and other quality criteria. The Manufacturer shall also provide information that demonstrates tracability of the pipe to the certified resin. A copy of the quality program shall be provided to the Administrator at the time initial certification is sought and shall be available for Administrator review during plant inspections or as requested by the Administrator.

10.0 Miscellaneous
10.1 Public Statements and Confidentiality: PPI and the Administrator will not make any public comments on the status of a particular Manufacturers Products or test results except to note whether Manufacturers Products appear in the program directory of certified Manufacturers. Special care must be taken to ensure that no comments are made concerning the status of any Manufacturers Product during the testing and certification period. At no time shall public comments be made concerning Manufacturers who chose not to participate in this program. As used here, public comments include statements at PPI meetings. PPI and Administrator are obliged to maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information received from participating companies. This obligation is detailed in the formal agreement between PPI and the Administrator, and in the individual agreement between Manufacturer and the Administrator and PPI. 10.2 Directory: Administrator will report monthly to PPI on companies and Products certifying under the program as well as changes or de-certifications. PPI will prepare a list or directory of certified HDPE resins and Manufacturers whose Products are certified under the program. The directory will be revised periodically to add newly certified Products or Manufacturers and delete discontinued Products or decertified Manufacturers. 10.3 Use of Non-participating Products: This program is not intended in any way to inhibit the purchase or use of Products from companies not approved to use the Program Mark. 10.4 Patent Rights: Nothing contained in this program is to be construed as granting any rights, by implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use in connection with any method, apparatus, or Product covered by patents, nor as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of patents. 10.5 Fees: Manufacturer is required to pay promptly any applicable fees due to PPI or the Administrator, or other costs as described in the underlying
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Agreement or this Certification Protocol. Failure to pay fees per invoice terms will subject Manufacturer to de-certification or exclusion from the program. 10.6 Modification of Guidelines: The PPI Board of Directors will approve all revisions to this Certification Program

11.0 Appendix I
11.1 Quality Control Plan: a. It is the responsibility of the Manufacturer to control the quality of the Products produced and to provide the quality control information needed for acceptance by the buyer/user. The Manufacturer is required to perform quality control sampling, testing and record keeping on all products they produce. All Products produced by the Manufacturer must meet all the requirements of the standard specifications, which for corrugated polyethylene pipe are AASHTO M294/MP7. Since each Manufacturer is knowledgeable about their manufacturing process and Products history, each Manufacturer determines their appropriate quality control testing frequency. Suggested minimum frequencies for tests outlined in Section 4.4.d.(2) are: (1) Minimum inside diameter once per week (2) Liner thickness once per week (3) Length once per day (4) Perforations once per week (5) Pipe stiffness three times per week (6) Pipe flattening three times per week (7) Environmental stress cracking once per production run (8) Brittleness three times per week (9) Joint integrity (for fittings) once per production run b. The Manufacturer must supply to the Administrator a written quality control plan that details how the Manufacturer will control the equipment materials, and production methods to insure that the specified products meet the requirements of AASHTO M294/MP7. The following information must be included in this quality control plan: (1) Provide a list of manufacturing facilities and location of plants. (2) Provide a list of the applicable Products produced at each plant.

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(3) Provide the name and title of the individual responsible for the quality control program at each plant. (4) Identify the method of sampling and testing of raw materials and Product including the lot size and tests performed. (5) Designate the frequency for each test conducted by the Manufacturer. (6) Designate the methods used to identify each lot of material during manufacturing, testing, storage and shipment. (7) Identify program for handling nonconforming product (resin or pipe) and investigation and corrective action procedures to remedy the problem. 11.2 Annual Update a. An annual update is required for all plants that were not subject to an Administrator audit during the calendar year. This update will assure the Administrator that all requirements of AASHTO M 294/MP7 were met for all the certified Products by summarizing results of QC tests in accordance with the Manufacturers QC plan. b. The Manufacturer must submit this annual update to the Administrator by April 1 of the following year. c. The Administrator will review the Manufacturers annual update to verify that the quality control plan has been implemented and is being followed. 11.3 Sampling and Testing a. The quality control plan approved for each Manufacturer and/or Manufacturers location shall detail the methods and frequency of sampling and testing for all raw materials and products purchased or manufactured at that location. All testing shall be in accordance with current specifications and procedures referenced in AASHTO M294/MP7. b. Samples of materials and pipe may be taken by the specifying agency. c. Specifying agency may require annual third party independent assurance tests. d. Samples must be identified for record keeping.

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e. Manufacturers Quality Control samples are to be uniquely identified by producing plant. f. Quality Control and Quality Assurance data are to be retained by the Manufacturer for two years and made available to the specifying agency upon request. g. Quality Control test reports shall include the lot identification. h. Unless requested at the time of ordering, test reports do not have to be filed for specific projects. i. Reports shall indicate the action taken to resolve non-conforming product.

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