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Good Morning All,

I would like to introduce a very important topic Multiple Intelligence in ELT and how best can we utilize humans interactive abilities towards effective learning style.

The article Integrating MI in EFL/ESL classroom was published in Internet TESL Journal volume #14, no.5, May 2008, has discussed the most recent approach in primary English teaching method i.e. Theory of Multiple Intelligences This theory was first introduced in 1983, by an American Psychologist Howard Gardner who defined MI as the Theoretical Framework of Defining, Understanding, Assessing and Developing human intelligences factors in one of his books Frame of Mind. (Barbara Prashnig the Power of Diversity, 2004) He prescribed that instead of 1 or 2 intelligences, there are seven intelligences i.e. Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Kinaesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal & later in 1997 in one of his interviews he added eighth intelligence Naturalist.





Word Smart: This includes children who think in terms of words. They learn best by saying, hearing, and seeing words. Number Smart: Some children that think in conceptual terms. They look for abstract patterns and relationships and they learn best by forming concepts Picture Smart: Students learn visually and need to be taught through images, pictures, and colour. Body Smart: This intelligence is the most common of the eight with 65% of children demonstrating a tendency to use their bodies to understand in different situations. Will also demonstrate their capacity to use gross and fine motor skills. Music Smart: Many children learn through rhythm and melody. It is easier if the information is sung, tapped or whistled. Gardner refers to these children as music- smart. People Smart: Children that learn best by relating and cooperating. They need a lot of dynamic interaction with other people. They





tend to have lots of friends, prefer to work in cooperative groups, Can mediate conflicts, and are quick to volunteer. Self Smart: Children have a deep awareness of their inner feelings, dreams and ideas, They learn best when left to themselves. They are reflective and know how to concentrate for long periods of time. These children have higher order thinking skills Nature Smart: Show an acute awareness of the environment and its attributes. Distinguish among, and classify those attributes and relate to animals. Investigating and discovering things in nature.

The Theory of MI endeavours different methods of teaching & learning styles. Learning Styles can be defined as the way humans prefer to concentrate on, store and remember new and/or difficult information, while Multiple Intelligences is a theoretical framework defining/understanding/assessing/and developing peoples different intelligence factors. In simpler terms, Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences are the input and output in childrens learning cycles. This concept had been endorsed by a Scholar Michael Berman who in his book (A Multiple Intelligence Road to an ELT Classroom) in 1998 suggested an outline of MI theory and illustrated the variety of exercises/activities and tasks that can be used during ELT lessons, to cater the particular type of intelligences in practices He advised that teachers to apply this theory with knowledge and understanding to make possible ways to achieve a successful cognitive learning of their students.

There are numerous of ways in which you can incorporate this theory to enhance the teaching and learning style; such as

1. Words Are Not Enough

The discourse among teachers and students shouldnt only be verbal; instead different MI activities for younger learners should include body movements as well as senses, colours and sounds

Younger learners tend to learn more in the environment of kinaesthetic learning style therefore use of all senses can be utilized successfully. ample of objects and visuals to work with classroom and other surroundings should be utilized effectively exhibition of an activity before kids to carry out

2. Telling Jokes in The Class

Younger students will not be able to understand joke if you tell them, therefore they can Create puppets and then tell jokes to their peers. Also compose a song for the joke and then act out the joke in the classroom. This would encourage learners to think and practice language as well as stimulate humour.

3. Play with the Language Children in groups can play with the language by making up rhymes & chants, singing songs, telling stories, etc. Children could clap the beat as they sing a song or say rhymes.

Could also draw (or colour) pictures of songs, rhymes and chants. Act out the songs, rhymes and chants.

Songs, rhymes and chants can contribute to the child's global development in many different ways. repetitive nature and rhythm make them an ideal vehicle for language learning This will help to develop a sense of rhythm in English language. The main overall purpose, however, is that singing, chanting and acting together is fun and it stimulates the childs sense of humour. So this helps children play with the target language in humorous and fun fill environment.


Cooperation not Competition The ideology of the theory of Multiple Intelligences is based on Cooperative learning not on the Competitive, therefore awards and prizes should be avoided.

Cooperative learning give support to interpersonal intelligence by making a very useful source of language learning and creating an effective atmosphere of involvement and togetherness.

5. Using Storybooks Storytelling can build an intense acquisition environment and an ideal learning conditions which is useful to promote learners comprehension level, as stories are rich in vocabulary and grammar pattern. They would also improve students cognitive strategies such as 1. listening for general meaning 2. predicting 3. guessing meaning 4. hypothesizing

There are several activities which can be followed on from regular book reading. a.

Drawing and Colouring Redraw characters Create maps showing where the story takes place Think of other possible cover illustration and so on Teachers can keep the results of their effects and then use as collages and posters to decorate appropriate areas of the book corner.

b. Handicrafts Students can be encouraged to create their own Masks Hats Puppets Models of streets and buildings, etc.

Inspired by the characters and places in the books they have enjoyed

This will improve their oral comprehension through the language used for giving instructions.

c. Songs and Rhymes Students can also compose songs for the storybooks they have read and then sing a song in the classrooms. Children are comfortable with songs and music and this can add variety to the class.

d. Vocabulary Activities Picture dictionary In groups or individually illustrate words by drawing pictures or cut them out of magazines or catalogues. Play card games to learn newly learnt words

e. Drama Act out the story Compose songs and sing in some part of drama This has clear advantage for language learning. It persuades children to speak and gives them the chance to communicate, even with limited language and using non verbal communication, such as body movements and facial expressions. It gives students chance to improve with language, emotions, and social interactions.

f. Games

Card games in teams Develop new games A jigsaw activity where a student from one team joins another team in the class to learn the game and then returns back to his/her group and teaches the game to friends in the group.

Conclusion To conclude my presentation I have learnt that MI theory is a tool to help pupils develop a better understanding and appreciation of their own strengths and learning preferences.

As a teacher we should know the fact that every individual student differs in various ways. We need to identify the pupils strength and plan a lesson accordingly to help them in learning. Their preferred style should be adopted for effective learning. This would definitely increase

the responsibility i.e. to know your various pupils strength and to help them using their strength while learning. For this purpose teacher need to encourage two way communications between themselves to learn more about pupils strength and weaknesses.

Having equipped with the knowledge and implementation of these 8 intelligences, teachers can make sure that they present adequate range of the activities so that as much of their pupils learning ability can be exploited as possible.

Q1. How can you improve ELT with the application of MI? Q2. Can you illustrate of these various kinds of intelligences?

Bibliography: Gkhan Bas (2008) the Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 5 Turkey http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Bas-IntegratingMultipleIntelligences.html Integrating Multiple Intelligence in EFL/ESL classrooms Valerie Schuetta, Teaching the 8 Multiple Intelligences (M. Ed. Reading Specialist)

8 MI Illustration used for display www.connectionsacademy.com

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