Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3


1 SHELLS IN ENGINEERING: Thin Shells as structural elements occupy a leadership position in engineering and especially in civil engineering, since they can be used in the construction of large span roofs, liquid retaining structures, domes folded plates and so on.

1.2ADVANTAGE OF USING SHELL STRUCTURE: 1) The efficiency in its load carrying behavior (being treated as a membrane) 2) High degree of reserved strength and structural integrity 3) High Strength : weight ratio (which is the main criteria in measuring a structure efficiency 4) Very High Stiffness 5) Containment of Space 6) High Aesthetic Value 1.3 DISADVANTAGES: - Its impossible to build a story above the story that has a shell roof, thus shells are always used as a terminating roof.

The advantages & disadvantages of CYLINDRICAL UNDER WATER RAILWAY transport. Railway transport occupies a significant role in the transport system of a country because the development of trade, industry and commerce of a country largely depends on the development of railways. Advantages: i. It facilitate long distance travel and transport of bulky goods which are not easily transported through motor vehicles. ii. It is a quick and more regular form of transport because it helps in the transportation of goods with speed and certainty.

iii. It helps in the industrialization process of a country by easy transportation of coal and raw-materials at a cheaper rate. iv.winds does not pose any major threats. v.Can provide as one can be easily transported from one well known region(land),to a totally different environment (underwater). vi. It helps in the quick movement of goods from one place to another at the time of emergencies like famines and scarcity. vii. It encourages mobility of labour ad thereby provides a great scope for employment. viii. Railway is the safest form of transport. The chances of accidents and breakdown of railways are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the traffic can be protected from the exposure to sun, rain snow etc. ix. The carrying capacity of the railways is extremely large. Moreover, its capacity is elastic which can easily be increased by adding more wagons. x. It is the largest public undertaking in the country. Railways perform many public utility services. Their charges are based on charge what the traffic can bear principles which helps the poor. In fact, it is a national necessity. Disadvantages: i. The railway requires a large investment of capital. The cost of construction, maintenance and overhead expenses are very high as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the investments are specific and immobile. In case the traffic is not sufficient, the investments may mean wastage of huge resources. ii. Another disadvantages of railway transport is its inflexibility. It routes and timings cannot be adjusted to individual requirements. iii. Rail transport cannot provide door to door service as it is tied to a particular track. Intermediate loading or unloading involves greater cost, more wear and tear and wastage of time. The time cost of terminal operations are a great disadvantage of rail transport. iv. As railways require huge capital outlay, they may give rise to monopolies and work against public interest at large. Even if controlled and managed by the government, lack of competition may breed in inefficiency and high costs. v. Railway transport is unsuitable and uneconomical for short distances and small traffic of goods. vi. It involves much time and labour in booking and taking delivery of goods through railways ascompared to motor transport.

vii.Customers can be great risk,if any collapse in the structure . viii. Construction cost can be great depending on the complexity of the structure. ix. There is a great possibility that maintenance costs would be high ,unless maintenance is well thought of in the design stage.

General shapes for underwater structures Since the project is mainly of an underwater construction and it is subjected to an external fluid pressure, the most likely shapes to be considered for the structure are circular cylinders and spheres, which tend to be most efficient (resistance wise) when dealing with such loads [8]. It should be emphasised that although spherically shaped shells are better at withstanding underwater fluid pressure as compared to circular cylindrical shaped pressure vessels (i.e. spherical shells require less wall thickness), the latter can offer much more internal volume by making the cylinder longer. This is important when dealing with storage and even more importantly with the customers comfort. Other advantages that circular cylindrical shells have over spherical shells is that they tend to be easier to transport and store [8]. In the case where less material usage is preferred to comfort, spherical shaped shells can come in handy; for example as safety domes. BACKGROUND
A CYLINDRICAL UNDERWATER RAILROAD is an underwater railroad that passes through an aquarium typically with sharks and related aquatic life. They are usually made of thick acrylic glass. Most aquarium tunnels are cylindrical in shape, though tunnels can be made elliptical (to make them wider and still keep the top of the tunnel closer to the visitors), or even square. [1]