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THE GRAMMAR BIBLE

ECOLE DES LANGUES VIVANTES 2007

TABLE DES MATIERES

PARTIE 1 : LE VERBE Lemploi des temps................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 4 Les auxiliaires DO-BE-HAVE................................................................................................. 4 La conjugaison anglaise : utilisations....................................................................................... 5 Les diffrents temps de la conjugaison.................................................................................... 6 - present simple......................................................................................................... 6 - present continuous................................................................................................... 7 - present perfect......................................................................................................... 8 - simple past............................................................................................................... 11 - past continuous........................................................................................................ 12 - past perfect.............................................................................................................. 13 - le futur..................................................................................................................... 15 - le conditionnel......................................................................................................... 17 - temps primitifs........................................................................................................ 19 Les auxiliaires de mode.......................................................................................................... 23 Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 23 Caractristiques gnrales........................................................................................................ 24 Les diffrents auxiliaires de mode et leurs emplois................................................................. 26 - can........................................................................................................................... 26 - could........................................................................................................................ 27 - may.......................................................................................................................... 27

- might....................................................................................................................... 28 - must......................................................................................................................... 28 - should/ought to........................................................................................................ 29 - will.......................................................................................................................... 30 - shall......................................................................................................................... 30 Forme en ing ou infinitif?.................................................................................................... 32 - verbes + infinitif...................................................................................................... 32 - verbes + forme en ing............................................................................................ 33 - verbes + infinitif ou forme en ing......................................................................... 33 - verbes + structure introduite par that...................................................................... 34 Do & Make.............................................................................................................................. 36 PARTIE 2 : LE NOM Types de noms.......................................................................................................................... 38 countables et uncountables ........................................................................................... 38 le pluriel ................................................................................................................................... 39 le cas possessif.......................................................................................................................... 40 PARTIE 3 : DETERMINANTS ET PRONOMS Promoms personnels................................................................................................................. 41 Pronoms one et ones........................................................................................................... 41 Pronoms possessifs................................................................................................................... 41 Pronoms rflexifs..................................................................................................................... 42 Pronoms rciproques................................................................................................................ 42

Pronoms dmonstratifs............................................................................................................. 42 Pronoms indfinis..................................................................................................................... 42 Quantificateurs......................................................................................................................... 43 Pronoms relatifs........................................................................................................................ 44 PARTIE 4 : ARTICLES DEFINIS, INDEFINIS ET ARTICLE ZERO Article indfini : a/an................................................................................................................ 45 Article dfini : the..................................................................................................................... 47 Article zro............................................................................................................................... 50 PARTIE 5 : LES INDEFINIS Some et any.............................................................................................................................. 51 Much, many, (a) little et (a) few .............................................................................................. 53 Each et every............................................................................................................................ 55 All, every et whole................................................................................................................... 57 Both/both of, either/either of, neither/neither of...................................................................... 58 PARTIE 6 : PREPOSITIONS, PHRASAL VERBS ET ADVERBES Prpositions et phrasal verbs.................................................................................................... 60 Quite et rather........................................................................................................................... 64 Still, yet, already, any more, any longer, no longer................................................................. 66 Despite, in spite of, though, although....................................................................................... 67 Like, such as, as, as if............................................................................................................... 68 PARTIE 7: VARIA

Les nombres............................................................................................................................ 70 - cardinaux................................................................................................................. 70 - ordinaux.................................................................................................................. 71 - fractions et dcimales.............................................................................................. 71 - expressions de frquence........................................................................................ 72 - lheure..................................................................................................................... 72 - symboles mathmatiques....................................................................................... 72 - devises..................................................................................................................... 72 Les relatives.............................................................................................................................. 73 La voix passive......................................................................................................................... 75 Le discours indirect.................................................................................................................. 78 Comment traduire le franais on ?......................................................................................... 80 Comment traduire le franais dont ?...................................................................................... 82

LEMPLOI DES TEMPS

1. Introduction 2. Les auxiliaires DO-BE-HAVE 3. La conjugaison anglaise : utilisations Simple vs. Progressif 4. Les diffrents temps de conjugaison 1. Introduction Lutilisation des temps en anglais est une matire qui peut sembler assez complexe. Cependant, avec les bons outils, quelques principes et la mise en place de certains rflexes, tout le monde peut aisment sen sortir. Avant tout, il est important de sortir du systme de la langue franaise. En anglais, certaines nuances qui nexistent pas ncessairement en franais sont exprimes par lutilisation dun temps bien prcis. Pareilles diffrences entre les deux langues sont la cause de pas mal de difficults pour les francophones. Pour viter des erreurs, il faut acqurir quelques automatismes consistant se poser les bonnes questions. En anglais, il sera par exemple important de savoir si laction est longue ou courte ou si elle est finie ou pas. 2. Les auxiliaires Pour former un temps, on a souvent besoin dun auxiliaire. Les plus courants sont DO BE HAVE. Lorsquun auxiliaire est utilis, le verbe nest pas conjugu, on utilise donc la forme de lauxiliaire sans to qui est suivie du verbe principal lequel pourra prendre diverses formes ( infinitif sans to, participe prsent en ING, ou participe pass en ED). a. DO est lauxiliaire des temps simples et sutilise essentiellement dans les questions et les ngations. Present Simple I agree with you. 1

Do you agree with me? They dont agree with us.

Past Simple (attention, lauxiliaire est utilis au pass) He liked my sister. Did he like your sister? He didnt like my sister. b. BE est lauxiliaire du continu. Cet auxiliaire est suivi de la forme -ING du verbe. Present continuous I am waiting for her to come. Past continuous (attention, lauxiliaire est utilis au pass) I was driving the car to the garage when c. HAVE est lauxiliaire du parfait. Cet auxiliaire est suivi de la forme -ED du verbe (attention aux verbes irrguliers : voir annexe) Present perfect I have broken my leg, (this is why Im in hospital). Past perfect (attention, lauxiliaire est utilis au pass) He met his wife after he had taken his degree. Remarques : Les auxiliaires BE and HAVE prennent le dessus sur DO. Ainsi, on naura pas dauxiliaire DO au perfect simple. On peut combiner le parfait et le continu : present perfect continuous : he has been doing. 3. La conjugaison anglaise: utilisations 3.1. Simple vs. Continu/progressif Continu ou progressif : la notion de DUREE est importante. Quand on emploie la forme progressive, on voque une action qui est en train de se passer au moment sur lequel on se focalise. Im waiting for the train. I was getting the lunch ready. Ive been waiting for you for 2 hours. The phone rang when she was having a bath. Simple: pas de notion particulire de dure, le locuteur ne met pas laccent sur cette notion. Laction concerne peut tre brve ou plus longue. Par contre, on met plus laccent sur la rptition de laction, son aspect habituel (porte plus gnrale). Vu que la forme simple

exprime souvent lide de rptition, il nest pas rare que ces formes verbales soient accompagnes dun adverbe exprimant lide de rptition (always, often, sometimes, etc.) I wait for the train every day I always get the lunch ready at home 4. les diffrents temps de conjugaison PRESENT SIMPLE Formation : A la voix active, de manire gnrale, on reprend linfinitif, sauf la troisime personne du singulier, o lon rajoute un s. Il est noter que dans certains cas, on rajoute es plutt que s la troisime personne du singulier. Cest notamment le cas avec : Les verbes se terminant en o comme go et do : goes, does Les verbes se terminant en ss : she misses Les verbes se terminant en ch : he teaches Les verbes se terminant en sh : she watches Les verbes se terminant en consonne +y, avec comme particularit supplmentaire que le y se transforme en i : he tries Quant aux formes ngatives et interrogatives, elles requirent lemploi de lauxiliaire do. Voix active I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Ngation I dont work You dont work He/she/it doesnt work We dont work You dont work They dont work Questions Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work?

Deux exceptions: to be et to have To be I am You are He/she/it is We are You are They are To have I have You have He/she/it has We have You have They have

EMPLOI 1) Pour exprimer une gnralit ou une action rpte, habituelle. The sun rises in the East. (gnralit) Women live longer than men. (gnralit) I go to the movies every week. (action rpte) She often buys expensive clothes. (action rpte) Lorsque le prsent simple est employ pour indiquer une action rpte, il est frquent de retrouver un adverbe ou un complment exprimant la frquence laquelle se droule laction : always, often, sometimes, usually, never, every ou each + dure, etc. 2) Pour exprimer une action future qui est planifie et officielle (horaire de transports en commun, vnements officiels, politiques) The plane leaves tomorrow morning at seven. George Bush arrives on June 28th at 7 oclock. 3) Dans une proposition future introduite par des mots comme when, as soon as, before, after, until, as long as, if, unless She will call me when she arrives home. She will come as soon as she can. !!!! Il est noter que dans une proposition se rapportant au futur introduite par les mots prcits, on ne peut jamais employer de futur avec will ou shall PRESENT CONTINUOUS FORMATION Pour former le present continuous, il suffit dutiliser lauxiliaire be conjugu au prsent suivi du participe prsent du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I am working You are working He/she/it is working We are working You are working They are working Ngation I am not working You are not working He/she/it is not working We are not working You are not working They are not working Questions Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?

Le present continuous est utilis dans les cas suivants: 1) Pour exprimer une action qui est en train de se passer : Its raining again. Im having a shower. Right now, shes cooking. 2) Pour exprimer une action future qui est planifie mais non-officielle (activits non politiques, non administratives, mais qui sont plutt lies des initiatives prives) Hes going to London tomorrow. Theyre getting married in June. Comparaison entre le prsent simple et le present continuous: Present Tense Present Simple Mot cl : en gnral 1. vrit permanente/action rpte She works in a hospital. They go to mass every Sunday. Present Continuous . Mot cl : maintenant, linstant 1. action qui est en train de se passer Please dont disturb me. Im working. Im going to the football game right now. John is always complaining. 2. faits futurs, mais non officiels, bass sur une initiative personnelle ou tant le rsultat darrangements Im visiting Antwerp tomorrow.

2. Faits futurs, planifis, officiels The train leaves at seven.

3) PRESENT PERFECT On distingue le present perfect simple et le present perfect continuous. Ils expriment peu prs la mme chose, savoir quils expriment tous deux un lien entre le pass et le prsent avec comme nuance que la forme continue insiste sur la dure de laction ou encore sur laction elle-mme. Ce temps est principalement utilis pour indiquer une action qui a dbut dans le pass et qui se poursuit dans le prsent. Il se traduit la plupart du temps par un prsent franais, ce qui est dailleurs lorigine de fautes.

FORMATION Present perfect simple : On utilise lauxiliaire have, conjugu au prsent, lequel est suivi du participe pass du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked We have worked You have worked They have worked Present perfect continuous : On utilise lauxiliaire have, conjugu au prsent, suivi de been et du participe prsent du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working We have been working You have been working They have been working Ngation I havent been working You havent been working He/she/it hasnt been working We havent been working You havent been working They havent been working Questions Have I been working ? Have you been working? Has he/she/it been working? Have we been working ? Have you been working ? Have they been working ? Ngation I havent worked You havent worked He/she/it hasnt worked We havent worked You havent worked They havent worked Questions Have I worked ? Have you worked? Has he/she/it worked? Have we worked ? Have you worked ? Have they worked ?

EMPLOI 1) Le present perfect dsigne trs souvent une action qui a commenc dans le pass et qui se poursuit dans le prsent. Souvent, dans ce cas-l, le pr. Perfect est traduit avec un prsent en franais Ive worked here for twenty years = Je travaille ici depuis 20 ans. Weve been living here since 1982 = Nous vivons ici depuis 1982. 2) Le present perfect sempoie parfois avec une action qui appartient au pass proche, et dans ce cas-l, on trouvera les adverbes just ou recently. I have just arrived. Weve received a letter from him recently.

3) Le present perfect semploie aussi pour indiquer une action qui appartient au pass (et pas ncessairement proche) mais qui a un impact sur le prsent. Il y a un rsultat tangible sur la situation prsente : Ive lost my keys. = Jai perdu mes cls (rsultat : je suis devant chez moi et suis incapable de rentrer) Ive mended my car : Jai rpar ma voiture (rsultat : elle roule nouveau) 4) Le present perfect semploie pour indiquer une action (ventuellement finie) sinscrivant dans une priode qui elle nest pas termine. Ive written five letters today. (la journe ntant pas finie, il se peut que jen crive dautres) Ive been to London twice. (il est possible que jy retourne lavenir) Its rained a lot this year. (lanne nest pas finie et il pourrait donc encore pleuvoir) NOTE : Les mots ou structures suivants sont gnralement accompagns du present perfect : FOR et SINCE Le present perfect est souvent utils avec un complment de temps introduit par for ou since : Ive been living here for two years. Ive been living here since 2004. Dans ces phrases, for et since se traduisent par depuis. Ils ne semploient toutefois pas de la mme faon : SINCE est suivi dun complment indiquant un moment prcis du pass qui correspond au dbut de laction. Since 1962 since July 12 since Monday. Since the end of last year Since you came FOR par contre est suivi dun complment de temps indiquant la dure For two days

For several hours For some time

So far, up till now : jusquici So far, we havent got any news. In the past: dans le pass In the past, shes been there several times. Lately, recently : rcemment Ive received a letter from him recently. Its the first time : cest la premire fois Its the first time youve been late. Already/yet : dj Ive already sent a letter to her. Have you received it yet? (n)ever: jamais, ne jamais Ive never met her. Have you ever been to Iceland ? not.... yet : ne pas encore I havent received it yet.

SIMPLE PAST FORMATION Pour former le simple past, il suffit de rajouter la terminaison ed linfinitif sans to. Il est noter que certains verbes ne suivent pas ces rgles. Ce sont les verbes irrguliers quil faut donc tudier par cur. (voir liste temps primitifs) Pour former la forme ngative et la forme interrogative, il convient demployer lauxiliaire did. Voix active I worked You worked He/she/it worked We worked You worked They worked Ngation I didnt work You didnt work He/she/it ddnt work We didnt work You didnt work They didnt work Questions Did I work? Did you work? Did he/she/it work? Did we work? Did you work? Did they work? 9

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EMPLOI Il dsigne une action gnralement courte qui est finie et qui appartient clairement au pass. Souvent, le Simple Past est traduit par un pass compos en franais. We had lunch at Giorgios yesterday. He died in 1967. I bought my car in Germany. I lived in Scotland when I was young. Il est noter que le simple past est souvent utilis avec un complment de temps indiquant clairement que laction appartient au pass. En voici quelques-uns : Yesterday/last week/ two days ago/ when I was young

PAST CONTINUOUS FORMATION Pour former le present perfect continuous, il convient dutiliser lauxiliaire be conjugu au past simple et suivi du participe prsent du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I was working You were working He/she/it was working We were working You were working They wereworking EMPLOI Il dsigne une action qui tait en train de se produire un moment prcis du pass. Gnralement, il sagit dactions longues. He was dying. It was getting colder and colder. What were you doing at 10 oclock last night? She was watching TV when I entered. Ngation I wasnt working You werent working He/she/it wasnt working We werent working You werent working They werent working Questions Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working?

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Comparaison entre le past simple et le past continuous Past Simple Mot cl : action courte dans le pass 1. Action gnralement brve se droulant un moment prcis du pass Peter broke a window last night I wrote to my mother last week. I spent my childhood in Cyprus. Past Continuous Mot cl : action passe pour laquelle on insiste sur la dure 1. Action longue tant en train de se drouler un moment prcis du pass This time last year, I was living in Brazil. What were you doing at ten oclock last night?

2. Action rpte dans le pass They played hockey every Saturday. NOTE: On emploie assez souvent le past simple et le past continuous dans une seule et mme phrase. Dans ce cas, le past continuous exprime une action qui sert de dcor laction plus brve qui est exprime par le past simple : When he entered the room, I was reading my newspaper. PAST PERFECT On distingue le past perfect simple et le past perfect continuous qui expriment tous deux une action antrieure une action passe. Autrement dit, le past perfect exprime le pass dun pass. A la diffrence de la forme simple, la forme continue sert indiquer que laction a une dure limite ou bien alors quelle est termine. FORMATION PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Pour former ce temps, il suffit demployer lauxiliaire have conjugu au simple past, auquel on ajoute le participe pass. Pour former ce dernier, il suffit dajouter le terminaison -ed la fin de linfinitif, sauf lorsque lon a affaire un verbe irrgulier. Dans ce cas, il sagit dtudier les temps primitifs par cur. (voir liste temps primitifs)

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Voix active I had worked You had worked He/she/it had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked

Ngation I hadnt worked You hadnt worked He/she/it hadnt worked We hadnt worked You hadnt worked They hadnt worked

Questions Had I worked? Has you worked? Had he/she/it worked? Had we worked? Had you worked? Had they worked?

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Pour former ce temps, il suffit dutiliser la structure had been et de lui adjoindre la forme en ing du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I had been working You had been working He/she/it had been working We had been working You had been working They had been working EMPLOI PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Le past perfect simple exprime une action prcdant une autre action se droulant elle-mme dans le pass. Il sert donc exprimer le pass dun pass. I gave her the book I had bought the day before. I told her yesterday we had met his wife last week. Il est noter que lon utilise le past perfect avec les structures suivantes: It was the first time It was the first time we had won a game. Ever/never I had never seen such a bad film. Already I had already seen her before. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Ngation I hadnt been working You hadnt been working He/she/it hadnt been working We hadnt been working You hadnt been working They hadnt been working Questions Had I been working? Has you been working? Had he/she/it been working? Had we been working? Had you been working? Had they been working?

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Le past perfect continuous exprime une action prcdant une autre action se droulant elle-mme dans le pass. Il sert donc exprimer le pass dun pass. A la diffrence du past perfect simple, le past perfect continuous ajoute la nuance dune action de dure limite et termine. I had been playing football all day and I was no longer able to walk ! When I met him on the street, I noticed he had been drinking.

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Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Simple Mot cl : antriorit He met his wife after he had taken his degree. They had finished repairing the car when he phoned. Past Perfect Continuous Mot cl : antriorit et on insiste sur laction. It was eight oclock. He had been studying for more than two hours. The room was a mess. The children had been playing there all afternoon.

LE FUTUR Il y a plusieurs formes que lon emploie pour exprimer le futur: GOING TO Cest la faon la plus frquente dexprimer le futur. Going to sert simplement dsigner une action qui va se passer. Cest un futur qui exprime une intention, conviction ou simplement le rsultat dun arrangement personnel. Im going to give you some money. (intention) Arthur and Candice are going to spend their holiday abroad. (intention, arrangement personnel) Its going to rain. (conviction) FUTUR SIMPLE FORMATION Pour former le futur simple, on utilise lauxiliaire will (ou shall aux premires personnes du pluriel) suivi de linfinitif sans to. Il est noter que la forme ngative contracte de shall not est shant, tandis que celle de will not est wont. Voix active I shall/ will work You will work He/she/it will work We shall/will work You will work Ngation I shant/ wont work You wont work He/she/it wont work We shant/wont work You wont work Questions Shall/will I work? Will you work? Will he/she/it work? Shall/will we work? Will you work? 15

They will work EMPLOI

They wont work

Will they work?

Contrairement ce quon imagine, le simple futur nest pas le type de futur le plus frquemment employ. En ralit, il sert exprimer des connotations prcises: 1) Souvent, il sert exprimer lide dune volont, dune promesse I promise I will study! If youll follow me, Ill show you where the park is. 2) Souvent aussi, il sert faire une prdiction One day, youll be famous: prdiction NOTE: On ne retrouve pas la marque du futur dans une une proposition introduite par des mots comme when, as soon as, before, after, until, as long as, if, unless : She will call me when she arrives home. She will come as soon as she can. PRESENT SIMPLE Pour exprimer une action future qui est planifie et officielle (horaire de transports en commun, vnements officiels, politiques) The plane leaves at 7 oclock. The holiday starts on June, 28. The President meets you on Tuesday. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Pour exprimer une action future qui est planifie mais non-officielle (activits non politiques, non administratives, lies des initiatives prives) Im visiting Oxford tomorrow. Nancy is moving out of her flat the day after tomorrow.

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FUTURE SIMPLE CONTINUOUS FORMATION On emploie will be suivi de la forme en ing du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I shall/ will be working You will be working He/she/it will be working We shall/will be working You will be working They will be working EMPLOI 1) Pour indiquer quune action sera en train de se passer dans un moment futur When you arrive, shell be cooking in the kitchen. 2) Pour exprimer un futur plus loign quun autre future exprim par going to Im going to study in Namur for two years, and then Ill be moving to Brussels. CONDITIONNEL En anglais, on distingue le present conditional et le past conditional. Tous deux servent exprimer une hypothse. FORMATION PRESENT CONDITIONAL Ce temps se forme en utilisant would (ou should aux premires personnes du singulier et du pluriel) suivi de linfinitif sans to du verbe conjuguer. La forme contracte de would est d tandis que celle de would not est wouldnt. Voix active I would/should work You would work He/she/it would work We would/should work You would work They would work Ngation I wouldnt/shouldnt work You wouldnt work He/she/it wouldnt work We wouldnt/shouldnt work You wouldnt work They wouldnt work Questions Would/should I work? Would you work? Would he/she/it work? Would/should we work? Would you work? Would they work? 17 Ngation I shant/ wont be working You wont be working He/she/it wont be working We shant/wont be working You wont be working They wont be working Questions Shall/will I be working? Will you be working? Will he/she/it be working? Shall/will we be working? Will you ne working? Will they be working?

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PAST CONDITIONAL Ce temps se forme en utilisant would have suivi du participe pass du verbe conjuguer. Voix active I would have worked You would have worked He/she/it would have worked We would have worked You would have worked They would have worked EMPLOI Tout comme son homologue franais, le conditionnel anglais sert exprimer une hypothse. I would buy a car if I were rich. If you had left, I would have been disappointed. NOTE SUR LE CONDITIONNEL EMPLOI DES TEMPS HYPOTHESE AVEC SI LORSQU ON EXPRIME UNE Ngation I wouldnt have worked You wouldnt have worked He/she/it wouldnt have worked We wouldnt have worked You wouldnt have worked They wouldnt have worked Questions Would I have worked? Would you have worked? Would he/she/it have worked? Would we have worked? Would you have worked? Would they have worked?

Les tudiants francophones ont souvent du mal traduire une structure hypothtique avec si en anglais. Pourtant, comme nous allons le voir, il existe une correspondance parfaite entre les deux langues, de sorte que lon peut traduire les temps franais par les formes similaires anglaises. Si + prsent simple, futur = If + present simple, future Si tu le laisses tomber, il va se casser = If you drop it, itll break. Si tu viens 10h, nous serons prts = If you come at ten, well be ready. rfrence au futur, il est possible que la condition soit remplie. Dans le cas o lhypothse exprime aprs if est remplie, laction exprime au moyen du futur se ralisera.

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Si + imparfait, cond. Prsent = If + past simple, present conditional Si je vivais la mer, je nagerais beaucoup = If I lived by the sea, I would do a lot of swimming. Si on me demandais de travailler pour eux, jaccepterais = If they asked me to work for them, I would accept. il est moins probable que la condition soit remplie (plus hypothtique). Pour que laction exprime par le conditionnel se ralise, il faudrait que lhypothse exprime par if se ralise, ce qui est loin dtre certain. Si + plus-que-parfait, cond. Pass = If + past perfect, past conditional Si je tavais rencontre avant, je naurais pas pous Lilian = If I had met you earlier, I wouldnt have married Lilian. Si javais travaill plus, jaurais russi mes examens = If I had worked harder, I would have passed my exams. la condition ne peut pas tre remplie. On formule une hypothse, un souhait par rapport des vnements passs, et ces hypothses ou souhaits ne peuvent donc plus tre raliss. TEMPS PRIMITIFS Les temps primitifs correspondent aux formes verbales du past simple du participe pass lequel est employ pour former dautres formes verbales

FORMES REGULIERES Exemple : to work Past simple Participe pass Verbe + -ed Verbe + -ed worked worked

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FORMES IRREGULIERES Dans ce cas, il convient dtudier par cur les formes correspondant au past simple et participe pass pour chacun de ces verbes. Infinitif to awake To be To bear To beat To become To begin To bet To bite To bleed To blow To break To bring To build To burn To burst To buy To catch To choose To come To cost To cut To deal To do To draw To dream To drink To drive To eat To fall To feed To feel To fight To find To fly To forbid To forget To forgive To freeze To get To give To go To grow Past simple awoke was/been bore beat became began bet bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost cut dealt did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew Participe pass awaken been borne beaten become begun bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen Got/gotten given gone grown traduction se rveiller tre Porter Battre Devenir Commencer Parier Mordre Saigner Souffler Casser, briser Amener Construire Brler clater, crever Acheter Attraper Choisir Venir Coter Couper Traiter Faire Dessiner Rver Boire Conduire Boire Tomber Nourrir Sentir Se battre Trouver voler Interdire Oublier Pardonner Geler Obtenir Donner Partir Crotre 21

To hang To have To hear To hide To hit To hold To hurt To keep To know To lay To lead To learn To leave To lend To let To lie To light To lose To make To mean To meet To pay To put To read To ride To ring To rise To run To say To see To sell To send To set To shake To shine To shoot To show To shut To sing To sink To sit To sleep To slide To smell To speak To spell

hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke spelt

hung had heard Hid/hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot Showed/shown shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken spelt

Pendre Avoir entendre Cacher Frapper Tenir Blesser Garder Connatre, savoir Poser, dposer Mener Apprendre Laisser Prter Laisser tre couch Allumer Perdre Faire Signifier, avoir lintention de Rencontrer Payer Mettre Lire Aller moto, cheval Sonner Se lever, critre Courir Dire Voir Vendre Envoyer Poser Secouer Briller Tirer Montrer Fermer Chanter Couler Sasseoir Dormir Glisser Sentir Parler peler

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To spend To spill To spit To split To spoil To spread To stand To steal To stick To strike To sting To stink To swear To sweep To swell To swim To swing To take To teach To tear To tell To think To throw To understand To wake To wear To win To write

spent spilt spat split spoilt Spread stood stole stuck struck stang stank swore swept swelled swam swang took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote

spent spilt spat split spoilt spread stood stolen stuck struck stung stunk sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

Dpenser Renverser Cracher Se fendre Gter tendre, se rpandre tre debout Voler Coller, saccrocher Frapper Piquer Puer Jurer Balayer Enfler Nager Se balancer Prendre Enseigner Dchirer Dire Penser Jeter Comprendre Sveiller Porter (des vtements) gagner crire

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LES AUXILIAIRES DE MODE

1. introduction 2. Caractrstiques gnrales Ce quils sont et ce quils font Les verbes exprimant la capacit faire une action. Les verbes exprimant la permission. Les verbes exprimant la certitude. Les verbes exprimant la dduction. Les verbes exprimant les offres, requtes et suggestions. Les verbes exprimant les conseils (advice). Used to. 3. Les diffrents auxiliaires de mode et leurs emplois respectifs

1. Introduction Les auxiliaires de mode sont des verbes qui servent exprimer une nuance prcise, telle que la possibilit, lobligation, le conseil, linterdiction, le reproche ou le regret. Cette nuance, cest ce que lon appelle modalit. Il faut savoir que ces verbes ont des caractristiques importantes: a) ils sont suivis de linfinitif sans to I can see you tomorrow. b) ils ne prennent pas de s la troisime personne du singulier The boss can see you now. c) on nutilise pas lauxiliaire do pour les questions: Can he come with us ? d) Les auxiliaires de mode sont des verbes qui nont ni past simple, ni participe pass et qui ne semploient jamais avec dautres auxiliaires. Lorsquil sagira dexprimer une modalit au pass

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ou au futur, il conviendra donc de trouver des formes quivalentes pour exprimer la mme modalit. 2. Caractristiques gnrales Ce quils sont et ce quils font On peut dnombrer dix verbes de modalits: CAN COULD MAY MIGHT WILL WOULD SHALL SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO Les verbes exprimant la capacit faire une action CAN COULD TO BE ABLE TO for the concert. tomorrow.

verbales

John can run fast. (prsent) John could run fast. (pass) He was able to get two tickets He will be able to see you (action qui a eu lieu dans le pass ou qui se passera dans le futur)

Les verbes exprimant la permission CAN COULD MAY respectueux encore) MIGHT Might I borrow your umbrella please? (extrmement poli, rare) Pour refuser la permission CANT TO BE ALLOWED TO MUSTNT (interdiction totale) Les verbes exprimant la certitude You cant stay up until 9 oclock. Youre not allowed to smoke. You mustnt smoke here. Can I borrow your umbrella please? (peu formel) Could I borrow your umbrella please? (plus poli) May I borrow your umbrella please? (plus

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On peut exprimer la certitude selon lchelle suivante : They are at home. They could be at home. They should be at home. They may be at home. sr They might be at home. may Les verbes exprimant la dduction If shes eating, she must be better. If she isnt eating, she cant be better. Les verbes exprimant les offres, requtes et suggestions. Offrir quelque chose : sandwich/some coffee? Faire une suggestion: me ? Offrir son aide: a swim ? Les verbes exprimant les conseils (advice). SHOULD You should see a doctor. (opinion, conseil ) You shouldnt drink so much coffee. Shall I carry that parcel for you? Would you like to come with us? Would you like a sandwich/some coffee ? I have a ==> moins sr quavec ==> ==> ==> ==> cest un fait certain possible mais pas sr possible mais pas sr possible mais moins

Demander quelque chose: Can/Could/May/Might

Demander qqun de faire qqch: Would you please open the door for

Faire une suggestion qui inclut la personne qui parle: Shall we go for

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OUGHT TO emploi rare)

You ought to vote. (opinion, conseil; You ought not to park so near the corner.

HAD BETTER (plus fort)

Youd better drive more carefully next time. Youd better not overtake here.

MUST

You must phone home at once. (obligation) You mustnt turn left.

Used to Rfre une habitude dans le pass I get up early. I used to get up early. 3. Les diffrents auxiliaires de mode et leurs emplois respectifs CAN 1) Pour exprimer la capacit ou, la forme ngative, lincapacit I can speak five languages. (capacit) My brother can count up to 10,000. (capacit) She can drive lorries. (capacit) I cant drink too much alcohol. Otherwise, I get very sick. (incapacit) Vu que can ne peut semployer quau prsent, il convient de recourir dautres structures pour exprimer une capacit au pass ou au futur. be able to et be capable of peuvent tre employs pour exprimer cette modalit. He will definitely be capable of driving this car. I should be able to finish my homework before tomorrow. 2) Pour exprimer la permission, la demande ou, la forme ngative, linterdiction. Can I get a cigarette? (permission, demande) You can park here, its legal. (permission) You cannot/cant sit down. (interdiction) 3)pour exprimer une possibilit ou impossibilit 27

The prices can be raised. (possibilit) Can you wash this in the machine? No, you cant. (impossibilit) Can this be true ? No, it cant. ((im)possibilit) NOTE Can est souvent employ avec les verbes de perception: Can you smell something is burning? I can see the light. I cant hear you.

COULD 1) pour exprimer la capacit ou, la forme ngative, lincapacit dans le pass He could speak seven languages when he was a kid. My parents couldnt read without glasses. Note: Si la capacit ou lincapacit concerne un fait unique, on emploiera de prfrence une formule comme to be able to ou to manage to When she fell from the horse, I wasnable to react. 2) pour exprimer la possibilit dans le pass He said the prices could be raised. He asked if this book could be found anywhere. Medicine could only be studied in two different universities when I was young. 3) Pour exprimer la permission ou, la forme ngative, linterdiction dans le pass The policeman said we could go.

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The priest asked whether he could come in. 4) Pour formuler une demande polie Could I see your passport? Could I borrow this pen? 5) Could peut tre employ pour exprimer lide dune suggestion, dun ordre ou dun reproche We could go for a walk. (suggestion) You could make an effort. (ordre) You could have told me you were pregnant! (reproche) MAY 1) Pour exprimer la permission ou, la forme ngative, linterdiction. Il sagit dune forme assez formelle et moins frquente que can et could lorsquils expriment la mme ide You may go out. You may not come in, Laura! 2) pour exprimer une possibilit, une ventualit (50 % de certitude) I may be a bit old to play football. She may spend the weekend in Paris. She may not go. He may have missed the train. MIGHT 1) Pour exprimer la permission ou, la forme ngative, linterdiction. Il sagit dune forme assez formelle et moins frquente que may He asked if he might call us back. Might I say something? Might I have a look at your identity card, please? 2) pour exprimer une possibilit, une ventualit peu probable (25% de certitude) I said I might be late. He said it might be a good idea to leave early. I might stay here for a few days. There might be some snow in the south.

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He might not pass the test. She might have killed her dad. 3) peut tre employ pour exprimer lide dune suggestion, dun ordre ou dun reproche We might go for a walk. (suggestion) You might work a bit more. (ordre) They might have told us that the restaurant was closed. (reproche) MUST 1) pour exprimer une dduction Hes drunk two bottles of whiskey. He must be drunk. Ive never seen you in class, but you must be one of my students. 2) pour exprimer une obligation, en particulier lorsquon veut marquer lide que lobligation mane de la personne qui parle. I must go to bed at 8. He insisted that he must see the chairman.

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NOTES: a) A la diffrence de must qui exprime une obligation ressentie ou impose par la personne qui parle, have to exprime une obligation extrieure I must study more = Je dois tudier plus, cest moi qui le dcide. I have to study more = On mimpose dtudier plus. b) La forme ngative de must nexprime pas une absence dobligation, mais bien plutt une interdiction : You mustnt leave now. (interdiction) Cars mustnt be parked here. (interdiction) Labsence dobligation, quant elle, sera exprime par neednt, dont have to: You neednt come to school at seven, it is much too early. You dont have to tell me about your problems if you dont want to. c) must ne peut semployer ni au pass, ni au futur. Dans ces cas-l, on emploiera respectivement had to et will have to Jai d partir hier soir : I had to leave last night. Je devrai travailler plus la semaine prochaine: Ill have to study more next week. SHOULD/ OUGHT TO Should et ought to sont comparables sur le plan de lemploi, mais ought to est plus formel, et donc moins frquent 1) Pour exprimer un conseil, un avertissement You should/ought to study more. Young children shouldnt/oughtnt be allowed to watch such violent programs. 2) Pour exprimer une dduction This jacket should/ought to fit you. We should ask Mr Vanparijs. He should/ought to know. NOTE: Should peut galement tre employ pour exprimer lide de surprise. Who wrote Ltranger? How should I know?

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Why should I give her a very expensive present?

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WILL En plus de rfrer au futur, will peut avoir diffrentes nuances. 1) Il peut exprimer un ordre Will you stop laughing ! 2) Il sert formuler une demande Will you please call her ? 3) Il peut exprimer une offre Will you have lunch with us ? SHALL En plus de rfrer au futur, shall peut avoir diffrentes nuances. 1) Il peut exprimer une offre Shall I phone him for you ? 2) Il sert formuler une suggestion Shall we watch this film now ? TABLEAUX RECAPITULATIFS PAR MODALITE ORDRE CAN/MAY/MAY DEMANDE WILL/WOULD OFFRE SHALL WILL/WOULD CAN/COULD WILL

CAN/COULD MAY SUGGESTION SHALL MUST CAN/COULD/MIGHT

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CONSEIL, AVERTISSEMENT SHOULD/OUGHT TO PERMISSION Demander la permission CAN/COULD MAY/MIGHT Donner la permission CAN MAY/MIGHT refuser la permission CANNOT/CANT MUST NOT/MUSTNT CAPACITE CAN/COULD BE ABLE TO/BE CAPABLE OF EVENTUALITE MAY/MIGHT/CAN/COULD DEDUCTION MUST/HAVE TO NECESSITE/OBLIGATION MUST/HAVE TO

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FORME EN ING OU INFINITIF ? FORME EN ING OU INFINITIF? Pour un tudiant francophone, il nest pas toujours vident de savoir sil faut employer une forme en ing ou un infinitif aprs certains verbes. Voici quelques rgles permettant de rsoudre la majorit de ces problmes. a) certains verbes sont toujours suivis dun infinitif; b) certains verbes sont toujours suivis dune forme en -ing; c) certains verbes sont tantt suivis dun infinitif, tantt dune forme en ing, en fonction des circonstances; d) certains verbes sont suivis dune proposition introduite par that

A) VERBES + INFINITIF To hope/ to want/ to wish/ to desire/ to expect To ask/ to demand To decide To agree/ to refuse To swear/ to promise To choose, to seek, to pretend, to offer, to dare, etc. I decided to leave early because I was fed up with this concert. He promised to call her back, which he never did. I offered to give her a lift home, but she refused. He pretended to be rich, but everyone knew it wasnt true. B) VERBES + FORMES EN -ING To avoid, to burst out, to consider, to delay, to deny, to detest, to dislike, to endure, to enjoy, to escape, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep, to mention, to mind, to postpone, to put off, to practise, to resent, to risk, to stop I cant stand I cant help I cant resist

Its not worth Its no use Its no good He couldnt avoid crashing into a tree. He denied having read the letter. I havent finished cooking. 35

He practised playing the piano for two hours. C) VERBS + INFINITIF OU FORME EN -ING Les verbes suivants sont suivis tantt dun infinitif, tantt dune forme en -ing: To begin, to cease, to continue, to dread, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like, to love, to mean, to neglect, to omit, to prefer, to regret, to remember, to start, to try, I cant bear. Parfois, on peut utiliser un infinitif ou une forme en ing sans quil ny ait la moindre diffrence. Dans la plupart des cas, cependant, il y une diffrence de connotation: 1) To hate to like to love to prefer

+ forme en ing si lon parle de quelque chose dhabituel, de gnral, de permanent + infinitif si lon voque quelque chose de plus spcifique, de limit dans le temps I like swimming. (gnral) I like to swim from 2 to 4. (spcifique) I hate going to rock concerts. (gnral) I hate to go to a rock concert with your mother when shes drunk. (spcifique) We prefer living in town. (gnral) I preferred to live with my dad when I was in New York. (spcifique) Note: Aprs would hate, would love, would prefer, would like + action dans le futur, on emploie habituellement un infinitif. 2) To remember to forget to regret

Ces trois verbes sont suivis dune forme en ing sils rfrent une action qui sest droule dans le pass Par contre, on les utilise avec un infinitif si lon voque une action prsente, future ou si laction na pas eu lieu.

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I remember visiting Paris when I was a child. (se souvenir davoir fait qqc) Remember to call your mum tonight. (se souvenir de faire qqc) I will never forget meeting Kennedy in 1962. (oublier davoir fait qqc) Dont forget to write this letter. (oublier de faire qqc) I forgot to pay the bill last night. (oublier de faire qqc) I regret saying that I didnt like this film. (regretter davoir dit qqc) I regret to say that I do not approve of your choice. (regretter de devoir dire qqc)

3) To try To try est suivi dun infinitif sil veut dire essayer de, sefforcer de Ill try to do better next time. He tried hard to sing but was too sick to do so. Quand il est suivi dune forme en ing, il veut dire trouver une solution, exprimenter. If nobody hears you, try knocking at the back door. If it does not come off with water, try cleaning it with petrol. 4) To mean To mean est suivi dun infinitif sil veut dire avoir lintention de faire quelque chose I meant to write but was too tired. Do you really mean to start studying again? Quand il est suivi dune forme en ing, il veut dire impliquer Taking the early train will mean getting up at five. Being a teacher means working very hard.

D) VERBES + STRUCTURE INTRODUITE PAR THAT To think, to feel, to believe, to consider, to say, to assert, to declare, to admit, to acknowledge, to deny, to confess I think that it was the best thing to do. I said that you were wrong. I deny that I stole this car. 37

He asserted that he would take radical measures to fight against violence. Notes: a) to consider peut tre utilis avec une forme en ing ou une structure en that suivant la signification: At some point I considered resigning because of the frustration I could feel. = envisager de faire qqc I consider that resigning would be totally stupid. = considrer que b) to admit, to acknowledge, to deny peuvent tre employs avec les deux formes sans distinction aucune I admit stealing this car./ I admit that I stole this car. I deny stealing this car/ I deny that I stole this car. c) To confess peut aussi tre utilis de la faon suivante: He confessed to stealing the money.

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DO & MAKE Erreur Typique: *I am always doing this mistake. 1) On emploie DO quand on parle d'une activit sans la prciser. Il est d'ailleurs trs difficile de remplacer DO / Faire par un verbe plus spcifique. Please do something. s'il te plat. What are you doing? faites? I don't know what to do next year. faire l'anne prochaine. 2) DO s'emploie aussi pour parler du travail et des tudes: She never does any work. aucun travail. Can you do a small job for me? petit travail? We have too much to do. faire. I don't like doing housework. le mnage. Have you done your homework? devoirs? 3) On emploie galement DO dans la structure"DO + dterminant + -ing": I must do the shopping. les courses. Have you ever done any skiing? ski? Sans dterminant, on emploie GO: Let's go shopping! courses! 4) MAKE exprime une ide de cration ou de construction. Dans ces cas-ci, il est souvent possible de remplacer MAKE / Faire par un verbe plus spcifique. I've just made a cake. gteau. Je viens de faire un Allons faire les Tu as dj fait du Il faut que je fasse As-tu fait tes Je n'aime pas faire Nous avons trop Peux-tu me faire un Elle ne fait jamais Je ne sais pas quoi Qu'est-ce que vous Fais quelque chose,

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Let's make a plan. My father and I are making a boat. nous construisons un bateau.

Faisons un plan. Mon pre et moi,

5) Dans d'autres cas, il n'y a pas de rgles prcises. Quelques expressions retenir: to do an exercise to do one's duty to do business to do good to do 50 mph to make an offer faire un exercice faire son devoir faire des affaires faire du bien faire 80km/h faire une offre to do one's best to do a favour to do sport to do harm faire de son mieux faire plaisir faire du sport faire du mal

to make a faire une suggestion suggestion to make faire des prparatifs arrangements to make a decision prendre une dcision to make an attempt faire une tentative to make an effort to make a fuss to make money to make a profit to make war to make enquiries faire un effort faire des histoires gagner de l'argent faire du bnfice faire la guerre se renseigner

to make an excuse to make an exception to make a fire

s'excuser faire une exception faire un feu

to make a fortune faire fortune to make a mistake to make noise to make a phone call to make progress to make love to make peace faire une erreur faire du bruit passer un coup de fil faire des progrs faire l'amour faire la paix

Notez que l'on dit to make a bed (="faire un lit"), mais to do a room (="faire une chambre").

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LE NOM

1. Quels sont les types de noms? 2. Countables et uncountables 3. Le pluriel 4. Le cas possessif 1. Quels sont les types de noms? Il existe deux types de noms : les noms communs : sont spars en deux groupes : countables et uncountables (voir aprs). les noms propres : les noms de personnes (Andrew, Jack, Mary) ; les noms du calendrier (Monday, January, Christmas) ; et les noms de pays-nationalits-langue (England-Englishman-English) Ces noms sont toujours crits avec une majuscule.

2. Countables et uncountables Les noms comptables sont des noms qui rfrent des choses que lon peut compter. Ils ont donc une forme au singulier et au pluriel (an apple/two apples ; a woman/two women)

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Les noms non-comptables sont des noms qui rfrent des choses que lon ne peut pas compter. Ils nont par consquent pas de forme plurielle (mme si on traduit par un pluriel en franais). Voici les noms non-comptables les plus frquents en anglais : advice bread chess clothing damage evidence food fruitass hair help homework housework jewellery luggage money music news progress rubbish soap toast traffic travel waste weather work Les nouvelles sont bonnes good Les progrs qui ont t faits which has been made Il y a des preuves evidence Tes cheveux sont mouills wet Il y a beaucoup de dchets of waste Je voudrais des informations some information A piece of Malgr que lon ne peut pas dnombrer en anglais des choses telles que le pain (bread), les renseignements (information), les craies (chalk), etc il est possible de faire rfrence des reprsentants uniques de la catgorie. A bar of chocolate An item of news A loaf of bread a piece of bread a slice of bread A slice of meat A bottle of milk A glass of water A tin of soup A drop of rain A litre of oil 42 I would like There is a lot Your hair is There is some The progress The news is

A piece of advice A piece of research A type of drug

3. Le pluriel Il existe deux types de formes plurielles en anglais le pluriel rgulier : on ajoute s la forme du singulier

Attention aux rgles dorthographe : a) Rgle de base (+s) b) Aprs -s, -sh, -ch et x (+es) car cars name names glass glasses dish dishes match matches box boxes penny pennies story stories day days Journey journeys knife-knives leaf-leaves shelf-shelves wife-wives

c) Consonne + -y devient -ies Voyelle + -y ne change pas d) -f devient -ves

le pluriel irrgulier Les plus courants : man-men woman-women foot-feet mouse-mice tooth-teeth salmon-salmon sheep-sheep medium-media goose-geese deer-deer analysis-analyses

4. Le cas possessif

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Il tablit un rapport de possession entre des tres vivants, des groupes, des collectivits et un objet (ou un animal ou une autre personne). Les structures possibles sont les suivantes : nom singulier + 's pluriel en s + ' Bob's birthday My parents' house pluriel irrgulier + 's The children's room

Autres exemples: My brother's room, The horse's tail, The company's policy, A pilot's job, London's history - Article : s'il y a en franais un article devant le nom du possesseur, on reprend l'article devant le cas possessif en anglais, sauf si c'est une gnralisation. The little girl's doll. The cat's milk. John's car Young people's problems. *The John's car - Dans tous les autres cas (o il ny a pas la notion de possession), on utilise soit theof ou un compos : A bread knife - A bus driver - The street lights - A cookery book - My birthday party - A paper bag - On utilise galement la structure possessive pour exprimer des units de mesure : an hours walk a two days trip a three miles race a one-hour walk a two-day trip a three-mile race

DETERMINANTS ET PRONOMS 1. Les pronoms personnels

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2. Les pronoms one et ones 3. Les pronoms possessifs 4. Les pronoms rflexifs 5. Les pronoms rciproques 6. Les pronoms dmonstratifs 7. Les pronoms indfinis 8. Les quantificateurs 9. Les pronoms relatifs 1. Les pronoms personnels Lorsquils sont sujets (avant le verbe) : I we you they Lorsquils sont objets (aprs le verbe) : me us you them John didnt find us, so he left a message. I really feel sorry for them. Give my regards to him. 2. Les pronoms one et ones On peut utiliser one ou you pour exprimer le on franais: You cant wash without soap. On ne peut pas laver sans savon. Things are better, but one cant expect miracles Les choses vont mieux, mais on ne peut pas esprer de miracles. On nutilise pas en gnral un adjectif tout seul comme si ctait un nom. On ajoute le pronom one. Souvent, on ajoute galement one aprs which dans une question What colour of car did you get ? I got a red one. Which ones do you like? 3. Les pronoms possessifs Determiners My Your His/her/its Our Your Their Pronouns mine yours his/hers/its ours yours theirs you you he/she/it him/her/it

Attention - accord du dterminant avec le possesseur : a boy his a girl her Ann phones her father daily. 45

These children are mine. (= These are my children)

4. Les pronoms rflexifs Au singulier: myself Au pluriel: ourselves yourself yourselves himself/herself/itself themselves

On utilise ces pronoms lorsqu une seule personne est implique dans laction. Un pronom rflexif rfre donc gnralement au sujet de laction I enjoyed myself at the party. Polly can already dress herself. 5. Les pronoms rciproques une seule forme pour tous les cas : each other On utilise each other lorsque deux personnes sont impliques dans laction: They kissed each other. < > They kissed themselves on the hand. 6. Les pronoms dmonstratifs Les pronoms et dterminants ont la mme forme PROCHE (-ci) SINGULIER This boy This girl This tree This book That boy That girl That tree That book PLURIEL These boys These girls These trees These books Those boys Those girls Those trees Those books

LOINTAIN (-l)

7. Les pronoms indfinis somesomeone everyone anyanyone nono one every-

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somebody everybody something everything

anybody anything

nobody nothing

someone = a person everyone = all the people no one = no person anyone = no matter which person (in a positive sentence) 8. Les quantificateurs Noms dnombrables too many eggs plenty of eggs a lot of/lots of eggs (not) enough eggs a few eggs very few eggs hardly any eggs Noms indnombrables too much milk plenty of milk a lot of/lots of milk (not) enough milk a little milk very little milk hardly any milk

a. Utilisations de base pour some et any Some utilisations - dans les phrases affirmatives - dans les offres polies - quand some = certains - dans une question lorsquon sattend une rponse positive devant un pluriel ou un nom indnombrable - dans les phrases ngatives - dans les questions simples - avec hardly - dans une phrase positive lorsquon veut dire it doesnt matter which exemples I want some eggs Do you want some coffee? Some people believe anything Did you buy some clothes?

any

There isnt any bread Are there any eggs? There are hardly any eggs Call any time you like Any student will be able to tell you where the library is.

b. Utilisations de base pour much, many et a lot of - much et many sont gnralement utiliss dans les phrases ngatives - much est utilis devant des noms indnombrables - many est utilis devant un nom pluriel (dnombrable) - a lot of est utilis dans les phrases affirmatives, avec des dnombrables et indnombrables. 47

He hasnt much time He hasnt many books He has a lot of time/a lot of books

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c. Utilisations de base pour (a) few, (a) little few et a few sont utiliss avec des comptables pluriels Few friends. - a few people little et a little sont utiliss avec des non-comptables Little time a little food de) few et little ont la mme signification que hardly any (peu a few et a little ont une signification positive (un peu de) 9. Les pronoms relatifs Les pronoms relatifs sont les suivants: WHO WHO/THAT WHICH THAT WHOSE

lantcdent est une personne Hes the man who/that lives next door.

WHICH/THAT

lantcdent est un objet/animal This is the photo which/that shows my family.

WHOSE une personne.

traduit en franais par dont, lantcdent est She is the person whose car was stolen.

WHOM employe comme

quand lantcdent est complment direct ou indirect

une

personne

Shes the woman whom I met on holiday. Hes the guy to whom you were talking the other day.

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ARTICLES DEFINIS, INDEFINIS ET ARTICLE ZERO

1. larticle indfini : a / an 2. larticle dfini : the 3. 0 article

1. Larticle indfini : a / an Dans l'ensemble, A / AN s'emploie comme l'article indfini "un(e)" en franais: est utilis avec un nom countable au singulier (sauf quelques cas particuliers) I've got a dog. J'ai un chien.

On choisit "a" ou "an" en fonction de la prononciation. "a" est utilis devant un mot commenant par un son-consonne: Ex.: a book, a fire, a dog, a hairy chest. "an" est utilis devant un son-voyelle ou un h muet : ex.: an animal, an hour, an MP, an honest girl. On utilise a-an quand on rfre quelque chose dindfini / quon ne connaissait pas auparavant. (En dautres mots, quand on rfre quelque chose pour la premire fois) ex.: A man booked into a hotel in Coventry. pour parler dun lment reprsentant une classe entire (classifier) ex.: A penguin is a sea bird which cant fly. pour dsigner un lment parmi un ensemble. Ex.: Do you want a sandwich ? Cependant, cette correspondance anglais / franais est, comme le montrent les exemples suivants, loin d'tre parfaite:

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1) Pour dfinir la profession, le rle ou le statut de quelqu'un, il faut employer A / AN: My father's a mechanic. mcanicien. She's an invalid. Mike is a Catholic. 2) On n'omet pas A / AN aprs les prpositions: without an umbrella I used my shoe as a hammer. chaussure comme marteau. sans parapluie J'ai utilis ma Mon pre est

Elle est invalide. Mike est catholique.

3) Aprs what et such, on emploie A / AN devant les dnombrables singuliers: What a nice dress! It's such a pity. dommage. 4) Notez l'emploi de A / AN dans les expressions de frquence, vitesse, etc.: twice a day 50 miles an hour l'heure 100 a week 100 par semaine 5) Notez galement l'emploi de A / AN dans certaines expressions comme: to be in a hurry to have a headache to have a sense of humour l'humour to have a sore throat to have a clear conscience tranquille to have a rest to have a temperature temprature to make a fortune se reposer avoir de faire fortune la avoir mal la gorge avoir la conscience tre press avoir mal la tte avoir le sens de deux fois par jour 80 kilomtres Quelle jolie robe! C'est tellement

6) Le plus souvent, on met A / AN aprs quite (assez) et rather (plutt): It's quite an original idea. originale. C'est une ide assez

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She's rather a nice girl. sympa.

C'est une fille plutt

7) En anglais littraire, l'article se place aprs l'adjectif dans les structures avec as, so, too et how: as large a room as possible grande que possible too hard a task so beautiful a day How wonderful a sensation! sensation! une pice aussi

une tche trop difficile une si belle journe Quelle merveilleuse

Dans un style plus familier, on dirait plutt a room that's as large as possible, a task that's too hard, such a beautiful day, such a wonderful sensation. Articles

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2. Larticle dfini the THE a parfois le mme sens que l'article dfini "le / la / les" en franais, et parfois le mme emploi: the sun The guests are here. le soleil Les invits sont l.

Cependant, l'inverse du franais, THE n'est pas employ dans les gnralisations et dans d'autres cas particuliers repris cidessous:

1. THE (gnralisations) 1) En principe, on n'emploie pas THE dans les gnralisations, mme si le nom est prcd d'un adjectif. I like nature. I don't like towns. Indian tea is the best. meilleur. Life is hard. Meat is expensive. La vie est dure. La viande est chre. J'aime la nature. Je n'aime pas les villes. Le th indien est le

2) Lorsqu'il ne s'agit pas d'une gnralisation, on emploie l'article dfini comme en franais. Comparez: I like music. >< I didn't like the music in that film. musique de ce film. People can be strange. bizarres. ><The people that he knows are strange. connat sont bizarres. Children are tiring. fatigants. >< The children were tiring today. fatigants aujourd'hui. J'aime la musique. >< Je n'ai pas aim la Les gens peuvent tre ><Les gens qu'il

(Tous) les enfants sont >< Les enfants ont t (= les ntres seulement)

3) On emploie parfois THE pour gnraliser avec les dnombrables singuliers. Who invented the telephone? tlphone? I love the sea. J'adore la mer. 53 Qui a invent le

On dit listen to the radio, hear on the radio, mais watch television, hear on television!!!

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2. THE (cas particuliers) 1) Pas d'article devant les noms propres prcds d'un titre: King John Le roi Jean President Lincoln Le prsident Lincoln >< The president will come this afternoon. >< Le prsident viendra cet aprsmidi. 2) Pas d'article devant les principaux btiments et endroits d'une ville: O. Wilde was sent to prison in 1895. emprisonn en 1895. Will she be going to university? He was taken to hospital. l'hpital. Birmingham Airport. Birmingham. Attention: I'll show you the way to the prison. chemin pour l'hpital. 3) Mme rgle pour les termes suivants: bed, et table: It's time to go to bed. lit. We had been at table for well 2 hours.Nous tions table depuis bien 2 heures. Attention: The book lies open on the table. (ouvert) sur la table. Le livre se trouve Il est l'heure d'aller au Je vais vous indiquer le O. Wilde a t

Ira-t-elle l'universit? Il a t emmen L'aroport de

la prison. The bus will take you to the hospital. Le bus vous dposera

4) Pas d'article devant les noms propres la forme possessive: John's coat. Andrew's brother. Le manteau de John. Le frre d'Andrew.

5) Les repas sont souvent employs sans article: What time will you have breakfast? prendrez-vous le petit djeuner? A quelle heure

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Dinner's ready! table!) I'll see him after lunch. djeuner. Attention: The breakfast we had was good. nous avons eu tait

Le dner est servi! (A Je le verrai aprs le

Le petit djeuner que bon

6) Normalement pas d'article devant les jeux et les sports: Arthur's playing tennis just now. ce moment. 7) Pas d'article devant les noms de langues: French is difficult to learn. apprendre. Le franais est difficile Arthur joue au tennis en

8) Normalement pas d'article devant les noms de pays: France is a beautiful country. merveilleux pays. Japan is very powerful. puissant. La Le France Japon est est un trs

Exceptions: les noms de pays qui contiennent un nom commun et les noms pluriels: the United States of America / the U.S.A. the Netherlands the United Kingdom the Philippines 9) Les autres noms gographiques s'emploient normalement comme en franais, sauf: Mount Everest Mount Blanc Lake Michigan Lake Leman Vesuvius Cape Canaveral ... 10) "Le lundi", "le mardi", etc. se traduisent sans article (mais avec une prposition): I always go to the countryside campagne le samedi. on Saturday(s). Je vais toujours la

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11) Expressions fixes frquentes sans THE: at / to / from school at / to university in / to / out of prison at / to / from work in / to / out of bed at night at / from home by car / train in / to hospital on television to go to sleep (=s'endormir) on holiday (= en vacances) 12) Certaines expressions peuvent se traduire de deux faons diffrentes, mais toujours sans THE: He's got blue eyes. His eyes are blue. Il a les yeux bleus.

13) Instruments de musique: normalement avec THE: She plays the guitar very well. guitare. She is interested in the piano. piano. Attention: - pas d'article quand on dsigne les rles dans un groupe musical: An unusual trio of trumpet, guitar trompette, guitare and drums. Un trio peu commun de et batterie. Elle s'intresse au Elle joue trs bien de la

- pas d'article aprs 'ON' qui signifie 'jouant de': A recording featuring Ray Brown on bass. Un enregistrement avec en vedette Ray Brown la basse (= jouant de la basse). 3. zero article (= pas darticle)

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Lorsquon parle de quelque chose en gnral, dune classe ou dune notion. Ex. : I like mussels He teaches literature Water boils at 100C

Avec certains mots : ex. : See you on Monday She spent six months in hospital Lets have breakfast They never watch television Attention: the hospital is being rebuilt. (btiment) I enjoyed the breakfast in that hotel. Turn off the television, will you?

On nemploie pas larticle the dans les gnralisations mme si le nom est prcd dun article : ex. : I like nature I dont like towns Chinese tea is the best in the world.

Lorsquil ne sagit pas dune gnralisation, on emploie larticle comme en franais. Ex. : film Children are tiring tiring today SOME ET ANY En gnral, SOME et ses formes drives (someone, somebody, something) sont employs dans des phrases affirmatives : We bought some flowers. Hes got some work to do. Theres somebody at the door. I want something to eat. Quand ANY et ses formes drives ( anybody, anyone et anything), ils sont dhabitude employs dans des phrases ngatives. We didnt buy any flowers. He never does any work. There isnt anybody at the door. I dont want anything. The children were I like music I like the music in the

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ANY peut tre utilis dans une phrase affirmative si la signification est ngative: He refused to eat anything. (Il a refus de manger quoi que ce soit = il na rien mang Hardly anybody passed the exam. (Personne na pour ainsi dire pass lexamen) Dans la plupart des questions, on utilise ANY: Have you got any luggage? Has anybody seen my bag? SOME est cependant utilis dans les questions dont on suppose quelles auront une rponse positive ou si on offre son aide : You are crying, arent you? Have you got some problems? (vu que la personne pleure, on suppose que la rponse est oui) Would you like something to eat? Can I have some sugar? (on offre son aide) NOTE 1) Any est souvent employ aprs if: If there are any letters for me, can you send them to this address? If anyone calls, let me know about it. 2) Any a souvent la signification de nimporte lequel, nimporte quoi, nimporte quand : You can catch any bus. They all go to the centre. Come and see me any time you want. You left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in. 3) Somebody/ someone/ anybody/ anyone sont toujours employs au singulier: Someone is here to see you. Anyone knows this kind of thing. Mais on les utilise souvent avec des pronoms et des possessifs au pluriel: Someone has forgotten their umbrella.

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If anybody wants to leave early, they can.

MUCH , MANY, (A) LITTLE et (A) FEW 1) Avec quels types de noms sont-ils employs? MUCH et LITTLE sont employs avec des noms indnombrables; cest--dire, au singulier The French dont drink much tea. I havent got much money. I have little free time. MANY et FEW semploient avec des noms employs au pluriel I havent got many shirts. 60

He has few friends. 2) Dans quels types de phrases MUCH et MANY sont-ils employs? MUCH et MANY sont gnralement employs dans des phrases ngatives et des questions Did you have much money ? I didnt see many people. Have you read many books. Have you got many records? NOTE: Normalement, dans une phrase affirmative, MUCH et MANY sont remplacs par a lot of, lots of, a large amount of , plenty of, Shes got plenty of grace but not much wit. I dont read many books but I read a lot of/lots of magazines. He had to pay a large amount of money. We have plenty of time. Shall we have a cup of coffee?

Quexpriment LITTLE et FEW? LITTLE et FEW expriment une ide ngative, savoir quil ny a pas assez de quelque chose. Ils se traduisent par trop peu, pas assez. You must hurry up. Weve got little time. He is far from being popular. Hes got few friends. A LITTLE et A FEW expriment une ide plus positive. Il y a peu de quelque chose, mais quand mme assez, suffisamment. Lets have a drink. Weve got a little time before the train leaves. I enjoy this town. I have a few friends and I am very close to them. 61

COMPARE: He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him. He spoke a little English, so we managed to communicate with him. Dans la premire phrase, on a lide que la personne parle peu, trop peu danglais pour pouvoir communiquer, tandis que dans la deuxime phrase, on a lide que le niveau danglais, bien que limit, est suffisant pour communiquer

NOTE : FEWER et LESS se traduisent par moins Leur emploi est diffrent, vu que less semploie avec un nom au singulier, tandis que fewer semploie avec un nom au pluriel. I have less money than before. Ithink there are fewer people than yesterday.

EACH ET EVERY 1) SIMILARITES EACH et EVERY veulent tous les deux dire CHAQUE Ils sont souvent interchangeables. Each time I see you, you look different. Every time I see you, you look different. Theres a telephone in each room of the house. Theres a telephone in every room of the house. 2) DIFFERENCES 62

Each semploie quand on pense aux choses Every semploie lorsquon pense aux sparment, quand on les considre une choses en tant que groupe, en tant que par une: formant un ensemble. Every semploie avec lide que lon exprime une vrit gnrale Study each sentence carefully Every sentence must have a verb.

Ici, chaque phrase tudier est envisage Ici, on exprime une vrit pour toute sparment, individuellement. Il faudra phrase, nimporte quelle phrase. tudier chaque phrase son tour.

-Each semploie souvent lorsquil est Every semploie souvent avec de grands question de nombres restreints: nombres There are four books on the table. Each book has a different colour. She loves reading. She has read every book in the library. I would like to visit every country in the world. Every semploie aussi pour indiquer des frquences. Every ten minutes/two hours

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NOTES: 1) EACH peut tre utilis seul, ce qui nest pas le cas de EVERY: None of the rooms was the same. Each (one) was different. Have you read all these books? Yes, every one. 2) Everyone et every one Everyone (en un mot) dsigne uniquement des personnes Every one (en deux mots) dsigne la fois des personnes et des choses 3) Every est aussi employ dans des expressions idiomatiques: I loved every minute of it. She pays a visit to her old mummy every single day.

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ALL, EVERY ET WHOLE 1) ALL et EVERYTHING Parfois, les deux formes sont interchangeables: Ill do all I can to help. Ill do everything I can to help. ALL ne peut jamais tre employ seul. Par contre, EVERYTHING peut lui tre employ tout seul. He thinks he knows everything. Everything went wrong. ALL peut aussi semployer pour vouloir dire la seule chose que All Ive eaten today is a sandwich. 2) ALL et WHOLE WHOLE = tout entier, dans son ensemble. Il est gnralement employ avec un nom au singulier pour autant quil ne soit pas indnombrable. Did you read the whole book? She has lived her whole life in Poland. Si on a affaire un nom indnombrable, il convient demployer ALL. Ive spent all the money on food. 3) EVERY/ ALL/ WHOLE + NOTION DE TEMPS EVERY semploie pour exprimer le concept de frquence et traduire TOUS LES I go to the beach every day. (tous les jours) Theres a bus every ten minutes. (toutes les 10 minutes) I get paid every four weeks. (toutes les 4 semaines) The whole day/ all day = toute la journe, la journe toute entire We spent the whole day/ all day on the beach. All the time = toujours, continuellement

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Shes at home all the time. BOTH/ BOTH OF EITHER/EITHER OF NEITHER/NEITHER OF EMPLOI GENERAL Both, either et neither sont utiliss lorsque lon parle de deux choses ou personnes. On peut les employer seuls: Both are cool. Is she Australian or English? Neither. Shes Irish. Do you want coffee or tea? Either. Ils peuvent aussi tre utiliss avec un nom: Both restaurants are good. Neither restaurant is expensive. We can go to either restaurant. NOTE: La structure both the nexiste pas. Une phrase du type Both the people came nest donc pas correcte. 2) BOTH OF EITHER OF NEITHER OF

La structure avec of doit obligatoirement tre suivie de lun des lments suivants: un article dfini (the) un article dmonstratif (this, these, those, that) un possessif (my, your,etc)

Both of these restaurants is really good. Neither of them is expensive. I havent been to either of those restaurants. 3) STRUCTURES SPECIFIQUES: Both.. and.. = et..... et........ / la fois....... et. Both Lisa and Fred were late. I was both tired and hungry last night. Neither. nor. = ni..... ni.......

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Neither Liz nor Richard came to the party. She neither wrote nor phoned. Either . or. = soit..... soit...... Hes either Spanish or Italian. Either you apologize or Ill never speak to you again.

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PREPOSITIONS ET PHRASAL VERBS

1. Prepositions I. Cette partie de la grammaire est trs dense et beaucoup de choses doivent tre apprises sur le tas, par essai et erreur. Voici nanmoins quelques explications utiles. Une prposition est un mot qui se retrouve par dfinition DEVANT un nom, un pronom ou un complment nominal. Ensemble, ils forment un complment prpositionnel. Ex.: with my best friend, at a hotel, by us, in a room Remarque : - la prposition se place parfois la fin dune phrase. La prposition la fin dune phrase (question, subordonne, exclamation, etc.) est courante dans langlais parl et dans langlais crit informel. Ex. : For whom is she working ? working for? The town in which he was born. was born in. Theyre looking after him looked after. Shes in a terrible situation situation shes in! Its difficult to write with this pen. to write with.

Who

is

she

The town (that) he Hes being well What a terrible This pen is difficult

II. IN, AT, ON prpositions de place ou de temps IN TEMPS + year/ month / season/ part of day In 1988, in September, in winter, in the Easter holiday, in the morning PLACE + room / town / country / street (GB) In the kitchen, in York, in Georgia, in Shirley Street + inside a building In the cinema, in the pub + expressions In prison / hospital / bed / a book / newspaper / magazine, etc. + day/date/single day /day+part of + floor / street (USA) / road / river day On the first floor, on the pavement, on On Wednesday, on 15 April, on Easter Fifth Avenue, on this road, on the Seine Monday, on Friday morning +expressions

ON

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AT

On the farm /the island /the beach /the right /the screen /the page /the map/etc. + clock time / meal time / two or three + place on a journey / a house / an days address / an event At 3 oclock, at lunch, at the moment, at Does the train stop at York? Christmas, at the weekend (AM. On) At Mikes house / 65 Shirley Road / at the party + building when focus on activity At the cinema (watching a film)/ at the pub (drinking) +expressions At my desk / the bus stop / the station / home / the seaside / the back of the room / the end of the corridor/etc. III. FOR, SINCE, AGO, BEFORE, FOR, DURING A. FOR SINCE + present perfect For et Since sont traduits par depuis. For sutilise quand on insiste sur la dure dune action (combien de temps) Since sutilise quand on insiste sur le point de dpart dune action (quand) Ex. : Ive been waiting for forty minutes Ive been waiting since ten past six

B. AGO BEFORE Ago sutilise avec le simple past pour traduire lide il y a x-temps Ex. : I passed my driving licence six months ago. Before sutilise avec le past perfect pour traduire lide avant un autre vnement. Ex. : I bought a car in August. Id passed my driving test three months before (= three months before August) C. FOR-DURING During indique quel moment / dans quelle priode un fait se produit. Il rpond la question "quand". during = pendant / au courant de... during the film night 69 during our holiday during the

Notez que DURING est souvent remplac par in ou at: I'll see him in June / There was a storm at night; ou, suivant le contexte, une expression sans prposition: I'll call you this afternoon = Ill call you during the afternoon = Ill call you in the afternoon. Par contre, DURING ne peut pas tre employ pour exprimer la dure dune action.

For indique la dure d'une action. Il rpond la question "pendant combien de temps", et est gnralement intgr dans une expression du type "FOR X hours, days, weeks, months, years". for = pendant (un certain temps) for two hours for a week for ages

IV. Expressions idiomatiques et verbes prpositionnels Les prpositions sont trs souvent utilises dans des expressions idiomatiques : On holiday, in advance, by mistake, for sale, etc. Elles sont galement un lment essentiel des verbes prpositionnels ( ne pas confondre avec des phrasal verbs): To insist on , to care for, to apply for, to agree with, to belong to, to rely on, etc. 2. Phrasal verbs Les phrasal verbs sont trs frquents en anglais et sont essentiels pour parfaire sa connaissance de la langue. Le sujet sera approfondi danne en anne et on ne peut que vous conseiller dtre particulirement attentif lorsque vous rencontrez des phrasal verbs dans un texte. En bref : Les phrasal verbs se forment partir dun verbe + adverbe. Les adverbes des phrasal verbs sont apparents aux prpositions et sont pour cette raison appels adverbes prpositionnels.

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Les Phrasal verbs ( verbes particule) ressemblent donc des verbes prpositionnels mais on peut voir la diffrence entre les deux lorsquon utilise un pronom comme objet. Ex.: I looked up the word in a dictionary. I looked phrasal verb it up! =

the word I looked at the painting. **I looked it at =not correct = verbe prpositionnel I looked at it. Quelques phrasal verbs courants : to give up to take off to write down to wake up to carry on to go back to break down to get up to to come sit in

down

Certains phrasal verbs sont relativement faciles comprendre mais beaucoup dentre eux sont trs idiomatiques et ont donc une signification bien spcifique. Ex. : to turn down a request = to refuse Certains phrasal verbs peuvent tre remplacs par un verbe seul: To find out = to discover up = to arrive To put off = to postpone to go on = to continue to turn

Les adverbes des phrasal verbs peuvent avoir plusieurs significations en fonction du verbe quils accompagnent: Ex. : the car broke down Cut down a tree Turn down the music Turn on the TV Put a coat on Drive on a bit further Cross out a mistake Hand out free tickets Write out the whole list Etc. = stopping completely = completely to the ground = becoming less = connected = wearing = continuing = away, disappearing = to different people = from start to finish

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72

QUITE ET RATHER

QUITE et RATHER veulent tous les deux dire plutt, assez, relativement. Ils ne semploient toutefois pas de la mme faon. 1) QUITE QUITE a une connotation positive Im surprised that you havent heard of her. Shes quite famous. Its quite warm today. QUITE prcde la structure A/AN (+ adjectif ) + nom Its quite a nice day. Its quite an old house. It was quite a surprise. La structure a quite nest pas correcte (a quite nice house) QUITE semploie aussi avec certains verbes, notamment enjoy et like I quite like tennis, but I prefer football. 2) RATHER RATHER a gnralement une connotation ngative. Its rather cold. You should wear a coat. The exam was rather difficult. Lets get a taxi. Its a rather long way to walk. NOTES 1) Rather peut tre utilis avec des noms connots positivement lorsque lide de surprise est prsente. She tends to be aggressive but she was rather nice today. = elle tait inhabituellement sympa Ann didnt like the book but I thought it was rather interesting. = contairement ce que jimaginais vu ce quen disait Anne, jai trouv ce livre intressant

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2) Quite est un synonyme de completely avec certains adjectifs: sure right true clear different incredible amazing certain wrong safe obvious unnecessary extraordinary impossible She was quite different from what I expected. Im quite sure she is dead. Not quite est un synonyme de not completely I dont quite understand what you mean. Are you ready? Not quite.

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STILL YET ALREADY ANY MORE ANY LONGER NO LONGER

1) STILL = encore Still est employ pour indiquer quune action se poursuit, quelle continue. Its ten oclock and she is still in bed. Do you still want to go the party. Il se place immdiatement aprs le sujet ou lauxiliaire. 2) NOT .... ANY MORE/ ANY LONGER/ NO LONGER = (ne) .... plus Not .. any more et Not.. any longer indiquent quune situation a chang. Any more et any longer se placent la fin de la phrase. She doesnt work here any more. We used to be friends but we arent any more. No longer peut galement tre utilis. Il se place immdiatement aprs le sujet ou lauxiliaire. We are no longer friends. I no longer know what to do. 3) YET Yet signifie jusqu prsent. Il est principalement utilis dans des questions et des phrases ngatives. Yet indique que la personne qui parle attend que quelque chose se produise. Il se place en fin de phrase. Its ten oclock and she hasnt arrived yet. Is dinner ready yet? 4) ALREADY Already se traduit par dj. Il se place en milieu de phrase. Where is Sue going on holiday? She has already gone. 75

DESPITE

IN SPITE OF

THOUGH

ALTHOUGH

En anglais, plusieurs mots peuvent tre utiliss afin dexprimer lide de contraste. Ils appartiennent deux catgories: A) IN SPITE OF et DESPITE = MALGRE, EN DEPIT DE Ce sont des prpositions. Ils sont obligatoirement suivis par un nom ou un pronom. In spite of their poverty, the refugees seemed to be happy. Despite her motivation, she didnt succeed in reaching her goal. We won the game in spite of our young age. In spite of et despite ont exactement la mme signification, mais despite est plus formel et donc moins frquent , tant surtout employ lcrit. B)EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH, ALTHOUGH = BIEN QUE, QUOI QUE Ce sont des conjonctions. Ils sont suivis dune proposition (sujet + verbe). Although you studied a lot, you had a very low mark. Even though Rooney did not score, he helped Owen score two goals. I will help you though you dont deserve it. Although, though and even though ont exactement la mme signification, mais although est plus formel et est donc moins frquent, tant surtout employ lcrit. Il est noter que whereas peut tre employ comme synonyme dans ce cas-ci. Note: Il est important de ne pas confondre even though ( qui exprime la concession) et even if (qui exprime une hypothse): Even though you dont know Spanish, you should visit Valencia.

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= Bien que tu ne connaisses pas lespagnol, tu devrais visiter Valence. Even if you didnt know Spanish, you should visit Valencia. = Meme si tu ne connaissais pas lespagnol, tu devrais visiter Valence.

LIKE 1) LIKE

SUCH AS

AS

AS IF

LIKE est employ comme prposition et doit donc tre suivi dun nom ou dun pronom. Le plus souvent, il se traduit par COMME. This house is beautiful. Its like a palace. What does your wife do? Shes a teacher, like me I hate weather like this. Parfois, like est employ comme synonyme de for example Some sports, like motor racing, can be dangerous. 2) SUCH AS Such as est employ comme synonyme de like quand la signifaction est par exemple. Il sagit donc aussi dune prposition. Some sports, such as motor racing, can be dangerous. 3) AS AS peut tre employ de quatre faons diffrentes: A) As se traduit par comme lorsquil est employ comme conjonction, cest--dire suivi dun sujet et dun verbe. I left everything as I found it. They did as they promised. As you know, shes very lazy. NOTE: On ne peut pas employ like dans ce type de structure vu que like est une prposition. Il est toutefois noter que pas mal dangophones font ce type de faute, utilisant like plutt que as dans ce type de structure. B) As peut tre employ comme prposition. Il veut dire en qualit de, en tant que As the manager, she has to make important decisions. During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. 77

!!!Compare: As the manager, I have to make important decisions. (= en tant que manager) Like the manager, I have to make important decisions. (= tout comme le manager) C) As est parfois employ comme synonyme de because pour indiquer une raison. Il se traduit ds lors par parce que, vu que. As it is late, I think we should go. We watched television as there was nothing else to do. D) As peut aussi tre employ comme synonyme de while, voulant dire alors que As they walked along the street, they looked in the shop windows. We waved goodbye at Liz as she drove away in her car. As the day went on, the weather got worse. 4) AS IF AS IF veut dire comme si That house looks as if its going to fall down. Ann sounded as if she had a cold. It looks as if she isnt coming.

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LES NOMBRES

On distingue les nombres cardinaux, ordinaux, les fractions sans oublier les expressions exprimant une frquence. LES CARDINAUX Exemples: 0 100 101 1,000 1,101 3,000 1,000,000 NOTE : 1) Il convient de ne pas oublier and entre les centaines et les dizaines : 125 : a hundred and twenty-five 2) Les multiples de cent, mille, million et milliard restent toujours a singulier 500 : five hundred 12,000 : twelve thousand 5,000,000 : five million 2,000,000,000: two billion nought, zero oh (in telephone numbers), nil (in sports) a / one hundred a / one hundred and one a / one thousand one thousand one hundred and one three thousand (not: three thousandS) a / one million

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Le seul cas ou lon peut trouver un s la fin de ces nombres est lorsquon parle de centaines de, milliers de , millions de , milliards de. Hundreds of people got killed in Iraq last week. Bill Gates made millions of dollars in the space of a few years. 3) Les britanniques et les amricains ne comptent pas de la mme faon : Franais milliard billion Anglais britannique Anglais amricain One thousand million One billion One billion/one million million One trillion

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LES ORDINAUX Exemples: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 21st 100th 101st first second third fourth fifth twenty-first (one) hundredth (one) hundred and first

FRACTIONS ET DECIMALES Examples:


1

/2 /3 /3 /4

(a) half a / one-third two-thirds (a) quarter three-quarters a / one-tenth one and a half

2 1

/10 11/2

Over (a) half (of) our present collection is made in France. We can usually offer a discount of one-third off the list price. Over two-thirds of our workers live in the village. The earliest starting time is (a) quarter past seven. It takes me three-quarters of an hour to walk to the office. This represents a tenth of our investment. The whole process takes one and a half hours. one hour and a half. (not: *one and a half hour)

2.5 two point five 3.75 three point seven five (not: seventy-five) 26.012 twenty-six point zero one two REMARQUES: En anglais, la virgule franaise est remplace par un point 10.3 = ten point three 10.235 = 10 point two three five En anglais, on met une virgule devant chaque srie de trois chiffres positifs 10,000 = ten thousand 10,000,000 = ten million

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EXPRESSIONS DE FREQUENCE once twice three times four times

We meet our major customers twice a year. Il est noter que lon ne peut pas utiliser one time et two times. A la place, il convient dutiliser once et twice LHEURE Written form The meeting will start at... 9.00 9.00 a.m. 9 oclock The meeting will finish 4.30 p.m. at... 16.30 SYMBOLES MATHEMATIQUES 2 + 2 two and/plus two =4 is / equals / is equal to four 4 - 2 four minus / less two 2 x 6 two times / multiplied by six 6 3 six divided by three 22 two squared 3 2 two cubed 24 two to the power four 2
n

Spoken form nine a.m. nine oclock four thirty p.m. half past four sixteen thirty

4
3

the square root of four the cube root of twenty-seven is greater than is less than brackets braces square brackets is identical with / is equivalent to is approximately equal to

27

> < () {} []

two to the power n

A PROPOS DES DEVISES Les noms dsignant une devise prennent la marque du pluriel. 10 dollars 50 pounds Le nom de la devise scrit derrire le nombre mentionn: 50 euros 45 yens Mais il le prcde si on utilise le symbole remplaant la devise: $10 50

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LES RELATIVES

QUEL PRONOM RELATIF UTILISER? INTRODUCTION Un pronom relatif sert remplacer un nom qui le prcde. Afin de choisir le pronom relatif adquat, il convient de se poser deux types de questions : 1) une qui est relative la la nature de lantcdent (tre humain, chose, phrase) 2) une autre par rapport la fonction dans la phrase de lantcdent (sujet, complment) LES DIFFERENTS PRONOMS RELATIFS A) ANTECEDENT= PERSONNE 1) Si cest un sujet, on emploie WHO The man who came last night is a widower. The man who I saw last night is crazy. 2) Si cest un objet, WHOM peut tre employ dans tous les cas The man whom I talked to last night is crazy. The man to whom I talked last night. The girl whom I saw is very cool. B) ANTECEDENT= CHOSE 1) Si lantcdent dsigne une chose (ou un animal), WHICH est toujours valable The bottle which was on the table is empty. The bed which I slept in was very comfortable. The bed in which I slept was very comfortable. The horse which webought is very old. C) ANTECEDENT= phrase Si lantcdent est une phrase, il faut absolument employer WHICH, lequel doit obligatoirement tre prcd dune virgule. She came very early, which was unexpected. I passed my exams very easily, which I celebrated with my friends.

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D) PAS DANTECEDENT Certains pronoms relatifs sont employs sans antcdent. Cest un petit peu comme si lantcdent tait inclus dans le pronom relatif luimme. Whoever did this should be punished. (quiconque) What she did was very rude. (ce que) What surprises me is that she refused to come. (ce qui) D) CAS POSSESSIF Que le possesseur soit une personne ou une chose, on peut toujours employer WHOSE The diplomat whose daughter was kidnapped is visibly shaken. My brother, whose car is brand new, keeps boasting about his purchase. It is a decision whose importance should not be underestimated. Si lantcdent est une chose, on peut galement opter pour la structure: objet + which It is a decision the importance of which should not be underestimated. E) CAS PARTICULIERS Le moment o = the time that

The day that I was born 1976 was the year that she got married La raison pour laquelle = the reason that/why

That is the reason that Im phoning you. The reason why she resigned is still unclear. Lendroit o = the place where/that

Thats the town where I spend my holidays. This is the street that I was born in. Il est noter que dans ces trois cas, on peut dcider de ne pas employer de pronom relatif : The day I was born. The reason Im phoning you. This is the town I was born.

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LA VOIX PASSIVE 1. Introduction Soit une phrase la voie active : Si on la met la voie passive, on obtient : my dad. My dad built this house. This house was built by

Quand on met une phrase la voie passive, on constate que soprent plusieurs changements. Lobjet de la phrase active (this house) devient le sujet de la phrase passive. Cest lui qui subit laction. Quant au sujet de la phrase active, soit celui qui impose laction, il devient complment et est introduit par by. On lappelle complment dagent. Il est noter que le complment dagent ne sera pas mentionn si son identit nest pas connue ou alors si elle nest pas importante : A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. Comme on ne connat pas lidentit des voleurs, inutile dindiquer by some thieves Is this room cleaned every day ? Lidentit de la personne nettoyant la pice nest pas importante, ce qui compte cest le rsultat, --d le fait que la pice soit nettoye. 2. Formation . - Le passif des temps simples se forme comme en franais: to be + participe pass Simple Present Simple Past Present Perfect Pluperfect Simple Simple Future Conditional Future Perfect Past Conditional They help me They helped me They have helped me They had helped me They will help me They would help me They will have helped me They would have helped me I am helped I was helped I have been helped I had been helped I will be helped I would be helped I will have been helped I would have been helped

- Pour les temps progressifs, il suffit dajouter being au milieu: to be + being + p.p. Cependant, le passif progressif nest frquent quau prsent et au prtrit.

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Present Progressive Past Progressive

They are helping me They were helping me

I am being helped I was being helped

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3. Emploi Le passif semploie beaucoup plus en anglais quen franais: - il peut correspondre un passif franais: He was killed by a fanatic. fanatique. The world will be destroyed. dtruit. - il correspond aussi trs souvent une structure franaise avec on ou se: English is spoken here. anglais ici. Im being served, thank you. merci. The passive is used in these sentences. semploie dans ces phrases. 3. Verbes deux complments Certains verbes peuvent tre suivis lactif de deux complments: souvent une personne et un objet. Lorsquils sont au passif, cest gnralement la personne qui est le sujet du verbe. actif Somebody gave John a watch. On a donn une montre John. passif John was given a watch. <John a reu une montre.> - actif (plutt que: A watch was given to John.) (Une montre a t donne John.) passif Les verbes suivis de deux complments sont les suivants : To give to ask to offer to pay to show to tell to teach Le passif On me sert, On parle Le monde sera Il a t tu par un

4. Verbes suivis dune proposition infinitive La plupart des verbes suivis dune proposition infinitive comme tell, ask, expect, need, hate, order, teach, prefer, etc. peuvent semployer au passif, contrairement lusage franais (on + verbe actif)

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actif They told me to sit down. masseoir. passif I was told to sit down. masseoir. 5. Autres structures au passif

Ils On

mont ma

dit dit

de de

On trouve souvent des structures au passif avec les verbes suivants : To think To know Exemple Si lon traduit la phrase: On dit que Paul a 80 ans. On peut opter pour deux structures au passif : years. years. Paul is said to be 80 It is said that Paul is 80 to believe to expect to consider to allege to report to understood

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LE DISCOURS INDIRECT

Quand on veut rapporter ce quune personne dit ou pense, on a deux possibilits: 1) On peut simplement rpter ce que la personne a dit ou pens. Cest ce quon appelle le discours direct. On reproduit simplement ce qui a t dit ou pens en le plaant entre guillemets : Tom said: 'I'm tired = Tom a dit: Je suis fatigu. 2) On peut aussi recourir au discours indirect: Tom said that he was tired = Tom a dit qu il tait fatigu. Quand on a recours au discours indirect, le verbe principal de la phrase est gnralement au pass, de mme que le verbe de la partie qui est rapporte : I told her that I did not want to eat. She said that she was not feeling too well. En general, le prsent employ dans le style direct se transforme en pass dans le style indirect: I said: I will come. devient I said I would come.

Si le past simple est utilis dans le discours direct, on a deux possibilits quand on passe au style direct: -on peut employer le past perfect -on peut employer le past simple Tom said: 'I woke up too late'. 1) Tom said that he woke up too late. 2) Tom said that he had woken up late. Il est noter que lon ne doit pas toujours changer le temps du verbe lorsque lon passe au discours indirect. Il y a deux cas o le verbe ne change pas lors de ce passage: 1) Lorsque la partie indirecte est une description, une vrit gnrale, lorsquelle exprime une ralit immuable qui sapplique toujours au prsent

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She said that New York is a very lively city. I explained that the sun rises in the east. 2) Lorsque la partie indirecte exprime une situation qui est encore dactualit She said that she's hungry. She explained to me that her husband is much older than she is. QUESTIONS INDIRECTES Les questions indirectes ont un ordre diffrent des questions directes : Direct: Monica asked, 'Where is John?' Indirect: Monica asked where John was. Lorsque lon passe au style indirect, il ne faut pas oublier de modifier la structure de la phrase et de placer le verbe derrire le sujet.

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COMMENT TRADUIRE LE FRANCAIS ON ?

On na pas dquivalent direct en anglais. Il se traduit de plusieurs faons selon le contexte. 1) Le passif Le passif semploie lorsque on dsigne une personne dont lidentit est inconnue ou alors peu importante. Cest le moyen le plus frquent de traduire on. Im being served. (= je suis servi, peu qui) Weve been invited... (= nous sommes importe par qui 2) You / One - Quand on signifie nimporte quel individu, il se traduit le plus souvent par you. Ce type de structure sert exprimer une vrit gnrale. You cant learn a language in six weeks. On apprendre une langue en ne peut pas six semaines. On soccupe de moi. importe par On nous a invits... invits, peu

- Dans un style formel, on emploie one la place de you. One cannot learn a language in six weeks. 3) They / People Lorsque on dsigne tout un groupe dont ne fait pas partie la personne qui parle, ou they ou bien people. They/ people drink a lot of beer in Gent. beaucoup de bire en In England they / people drink a lot of tea. beaucoup de th en Angleterre. 4) We On On boit Gand. boit

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We correspond un groupe de personnes incluant la personne qui parle. Yesterday evening we went to see a film. Hier soir, on est all voir un film. What shall we do? Quest-ce quon fait?

5) Someone / somebody Lorsque on signifie quelquun, il se traduit par someone ou somebody. Someones knocking at the door. On frappe la porte.

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COMMENT TRADUIRE LE FRANCAIS DONT ?

1. EMPLOI POSSESSIF Lorsque dont est associ lide de possession, alors, il se traduit par whose
le diplomate dont la fille a disparu (= sa fille lui a disparu). une socit dont le PDG a dclar hier que... (= son PDG elle a dclar ...)

.Notez que whose nest jamais suivi darticle.


the diplomat whose daughter has disappeared... a company whose chairman declared yesterday that...

Whose peut semployer mme quand le nom qui prcde dsigne une chose. Toutefois, dans ce cas, on emploie souvent la tournure of which (place normalement aprs le nom).
a decision whose importance was not realised at the time ... = a decision the importance of which was not realised ... une dcision dont on na pas compris limportance lpoque...

2. EMPLOI NON POSSESSIF Dans dautres cas, dont est complment du verbe qui suit, lequel requiert une prposition. Il na alors aucun sens possessif.
le garon dont je tai parl (= je tai parl de lui) la maison dont je rve (= je rve de cette maison)

Lquivalent anglais est alors : Whom (si lon se rfre une personne) + prposition Which ou that (si lon parle dune chose) + prposition
the boy whom I talked to you about the house which I dream of

On peut ventuellement se passer du pronom dans ce type de phrase:


the boy I talked to you about the house I dream of

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3. Notez ces quivalences (attention lordre des mots): dont certains which dont la plupart which dont aucun which dont le premier which dont deux / trois which dont + superlatif / which
We have hundreds of books, centaines de livres, most of which are very old. trs vieux. He had three daughters, the eldest of whom dont laine was studying psychology. psychologie.

some most none

of of of

whom whom whom

/ / /

the first of whom / two / three of whom / superlatif + of whom


Nous avons des

dont la plupart sont Il avait trois filles, tudiait la

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