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MMME2104 Design and Selection of Mining Equipment Electrical Component Tutorial Sheet 2 Solutions Question 1 (Problem 2-5 in the text

) A coil having 200 turns links a flux of 3mWb, produced by a permanent magnet. The magnet is moved, and the flux linking the coil falls to 1.2 mWb in 0.2s. Calculate the average voltage induced in the coil. We use Faraday’s Law to calculate the voltage induced in the coil, due to the changing flux linkage:
V =N ∆Φ 0.0012 − 0.003 dΦ ≈N = 200 × = −1.8V ∆t 0 .2 dt

*Question 2 (Similar to problem 2-4 in the text) A perfect conductor 2m long is moved at a speed of 36km/h through a magnetic field having a flux density of 1.0 T. a) Calculate the induced voltage If a 1Ω resistor is connected across the ends of the conductor, calculate the following: b) The current in the circuit c) The force required to move the conductor through the field d) The mechanical power required to move the conductor through the field e) The electrical power generated
a) We calculate the induced voltage from Faraday’s Law for a linear conductor: V = BLv = 1T × 2m × 10m / s = 20V
V 20V = = 20 A R 1Ω c) The force required to move the conductor is the Lorentz Force: F = BiL = 1T × 20 A × 2m = 40 N b) With a 1Ω resistor, the current: i = d) The mechanical power is force multiplied by velocity: PM = Fv = 40 N × 10m / s = 400W e) The electrical power is voltage multiplied by current: PE = Vi = 20V × 20 A = 400W The mechanical and electrical powers are the same, and this process demonstrates ideal electromechanical energy conversion (such as in an electric motor).

Calculate the following: a) The secondary voltage E2 b) The secondary current I2 c) The primary current I1 d) The power delivered to the primary e) The power output from the secondary f) The impedance seen by the supply Firstly we calculate the turns ratio of the transformer: a = a) The secondary voltage: Es = Ep = Np Ns = 400 =2 200 600V = 300V 2 a E 300V b) The secondary current: i s = s = = 25 A R 12Ω i 25 A = 12.5 A c) The primary current: i p = s = a 2 d) Power delivered to primary: Pp = E p i p = 600V × 12.44 × 500turns × 60 Hz *Question 4 (Similar to Problem 9-4 in the text) An ideal transformer has 400 turns on the primary and 200 turns on the secondary.44 Nf 4.83 A c) The peak MMF produced by the coil is therefore: MMFpeak = Ni Mpeak = 500turns × 2.83 A = 1414 A d) The peak magnetic flux is obtained from the flux linkage equation (another form of Faraday’s Law): V = 4. and the load is a resistance of 12Ω. If it is connected to a 120V. The primary is supplied by a voltage of 600V.Question 3 (Problem 9-1 in the text) A coil has 500 turns and a reactance of 60 Ω with negligible resistance. 60Hz source calculate the following: a) The value of the magnetizing current b) The peak value of magnetizing current c) The peak MMF produced by the coil d) The peak magnetic flux produced by the coil a) The magnetizing current is found from the source voltage and coil reactance: V 120V iM = = = 2A X 60Ω b) The values in a) are RMS quantities. therefore. the peak magnetizing current is: i Mpeak = 2 × i M = 2.44 NfΦ peak Therefore: V 120V Φ peak = = = 0.5 A = 7500W .9mWb 4.

6Ω .6Ω i rated 151.e) Power output to secondary: Ps = E s i s = 300V × 25 A = 7500W Answers d) and e) are the same and this demonstrates ideal electromagnetic energy conversion in a transformer. calculate the full-load efficiency of the transformer if the power factor of the load is 85 percent a) The results of the short-circuit test allow us to calculate the resistance and leakage reactance referred to the primary side. the following results were obtained: Voltage applied to primary = 2600 V Measured primary current = 70 A Measured electrical power = 10 kW Calculate the following: a) The total resistance and the total leakage reactance referred to the 66 kV primary side b) The nominal impedance of the transformer referred to the primary side c) The percent impedance of the transformer d) If the iron losses at rated voltage are 35kW.04Ω 2 (70 A)2 i sc X p = Z p − R p = 37.6Ω S rated 10 MVA 2 2 c) The percent impedance is then: Zp 37.14Ω Z p ( pu ) = × 100 = 8.5% = Z nom 435.5 A Vrated 66kV The nominal impedance is then: V 66kV Z nom = rated = = 435. f) The impedance seen by the supply: Z p = a 2 Z s = a 2 R = 2 2 × 12Ω = 48Ω *Question 5 (Similar to Problem 10-30 in the text) During a short-circuit test on a 10MVA. we may first calculate the rated primary-side current: S 10MVA irated = rated = = 151.08Ω b) To calculate the nominal impedance referred to the primary side.2kV transformer (see Figure 10. we could have calculated the nominal impedance directly from the apparent power and voltage ratings: 2 2 Vrated ( 66kV ) Z nom = = = 435. 66kV/7.5 A Alternatively. as follows: V 2600V Z p = sc = = 37.28 in the text).14Ω i sc 70 A P 10kW R p = sc = = 2.

85 = 8. at full load the primary-side current will be 151. the transformer operates at rated voltage when at full load.04Ω = 46.83A. Therefore. there are two kinds of active power loss: core (iron) losses and resistive (copper) losses. the line current equals the branch current. In an ideal transformer. the output power equals the input power. consists of the output power plus the losses. the output current is given as: i L −output = 3 × a × i L −input = 433 A b) For a wye-connection. Pin We are asked to find the full-load efficiency for the transformer. We can therefore calculate the resistive losses using the transformer’s resistance referred to the primary side: 2 2 Presistive = i rated R p = (151. For a delta- . In a transformer. the output power is: Pout = S rated × pf = 10 MVA × 0. the transformer operates at rated current when at full load.0% Pin Pout + Pcore + Presistive 8500kW + 35kW + 46.5MW The input power. Therefore. 3-phase line. calculate the following currents: a) In the incoming and outgoing transmission lines b) In the primary and secondary windings Firstly. we calculate the turns ratio of each single phase transformer: N p V p − rated 7200V a= = = = 12 600V N x V s −rated a) The load is given as 450kVA. the transformer’s rated apparent power output is 10MVA. By definition.8kW Therefore. By definition. the input power is also 450kVA. 60Hz are connected in wye-delta on a 12470V.83 A 3 × V L −in 3 × 12470V For a wye-delta connection. the transformer’s full load efficiency is: P Pout 8500kW η = out = = × 100 = 99.d) The definition of efficiency is η = Pout where Pin and Pout are active powers.8kW Question 6 (Problem 12-2 in the text) Three single-phase transformers rated at 250kVA. Therefore. We are given the core losses at rated voltage = 35kW. the input line current will be: S tot 450kVA i L −in = = = 20. the current in the primary winding is the input line current = 20.5A. If the load is 450kVA. Pin.5 A) × 2. For a 3-phase system. Since we are given the power factor of the load. Therefore. At full load. the core losses at full load = 35kW. we know the total apparent power is given in terms of line voltage and current as: S tot = 3VL i L Therefore. 7200V/600V.

5kVA 22. therefore the rated line voltage of the primary is 13. 13. the maximum load for this transformer bank will be 196. the line current is 3 times the branch current.2kV a= = = =4 3.2 kV / 3.9 Since for an ideal transformer the input and output powers are equal. the maximum permissible 3phase supply to the primary is: 15 S tot = 3 × 100kVA × = 196. the outgoing line voltage is given as: VL −input 15kV VL −output = = = 2.5kVA.3kV are connected in wyedelta on a 3-phase 15kV line: a) What is the maximum load that can be connected to the transformer bank? b) What is the outgoing line voltage? Firstly. b) For wye-delta connection.9 (the current rating does not change!). the primary is connected to a line voltage of only 15kV.17kV 3×a 3×4 . therefore the transformer’s apparent power will be reduced by a factor of 15/22.3kV N x V s −rated a) The primary side is wye-connected. *Question 7 (Similar to Problem 12-7 in the text) Three single phase transformers rated 100kVA. we calculate the turns ratio of each single phase transformer: N p V p − rated 13. Therefore.9kV.connection. Therefore the current in the secondary winding is 433 / 3 = 250A. However.2kV × 3 = 22.