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Atul R. Saraf et al.

/ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

OPTIMIZATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL MACHINING


ATUL R. SARAF
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Raigad, Maharashtra State, India atul.saraf001@gmail.com*

Dr. M.SADAIAH
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Raigad, Maharashtra State, India msadaiah@dbatu.ac.in

SANTOSH DEVKARE
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Raigad, Maharashtra State, India santoshdevkare@gmail.com Abstract : This paper presents the machining of Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper using Photochemical Machining (PCM). Twenty-seven experimental runs base on full factorial (33) Design of Experiments (DoE) technique were performed. The control parameters considered were the etchant concentration, etching temperature and etching time. The response parameters were Undercut (Uc) and the Surface roughness (Ra). The effects of control parameters on undercut and surface roughness were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique and their optimal conditions were evaluated. An optimum surface roughness was observed at an etching temperature of 55 c, an etching concentration of 600 gm/litre and 15 minutes etchings time. The minimum undercut (Uc) was observed at the etching temperature of 45 c, etching concentration of 600 gm/litre and 15 minutes etching time. It was found that etchant temperature and etching time are the most significant factors for undercut. Keywords: PCM, DoE , ANOVA, Surface Roughness, Undercut.

ISSN : 0975-5462

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

1. Introduction The PCM is one of the non-conventional machining processes that produces a burr free and stress free flat complex metal components. The machining takes place using a controlled dissolution of work-piece material by contact of the strong chemical solution. The PCM industry currently plays a vital role in the production of a variety of precision parts viz. microfluidic channels, silicon integrated circuits, copper printed circuit boards and decorative items. It is mainly used for manufacturing of micro-components in various fields such as electronics, aerospace and medical. It employs chemical etching through a photo-resist stencil as a method of material removal over selected areas. This technique is relatively modern and became established as a manufacturing process. The newly-developed products made from PCM especially relevant to Microengineering, Micro-fluidics and Microsystems Technology. OFHC copper is an important material for various engineering applications, as because of its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, easy fabrication, and good strength and fatigue properties. An aqueous solution of ferric chloride (FeCl3) is the most commonly used etchant. Less literature is available on the photochemical machining of OFHC copper. In the literature, Cakir (2006) studied that the copper etching with CuCl2 etchant and a suitable regeneration process of waste etchant simultaneously. This would reduce the overall manufacturing cost and environmentally friendly etching process which ultimately enhances the productivity. David et al. (2004) studied the characterization of aqueous ferric chloride etchant used in industrial photochemical machining. He found that FeCl3 is most commonly used etchant with a wide variety of grades. Rajkumar et al. (2004) investigated the cost model for PCM which defines standards for industrial etchants and methods to analyse and monitor them. Cakir (2004) stated that the etch rate of FeCl3 is higher than CuCl2 but CuCl2 gives a better surface finish than FeCl3 during machining of Cu-ETP copper. From literature, it is observed that no statistical study has been reported to analyse the interaction effects of process parameters on etching process of OFHC Copper. Till date an accuracy of PCM depends only on the skill and experience of the operator. Work to date an optimal set of process parameters is not calculated. The statistical study is necessary to investigate the performance in different ranges as well as to find the global optimum process parameters. It is also necessary to find out the single optimum process parameters setting to satisfy the requirements of excellent etching quality. In this work, an attempt is made to study the optimum process parameters by using full factorial design method and an ANOVA technique.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 9 September 2011

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

2. Experimental work In this work, Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) was used as an etchant for machining of OFHC copper. The chemical composition of OFHC Copper is shown in Table 1. The etchant, FeCl3 was prepared in 600,700, and 800 gm/litre respectively. For each experiment 5000 ml. of etchant was used.
Table 1. Chemical composition of OFHC copper.

Grade Copper

Type OFHC

Cu 99.99

P 0.0003

Tellurium 0.0010

Cr -

Ni -

P -

S -

Etchant was poured into etching bath that is coated by insulator jacket to control chemical etching temperature and also partially air tight is shown in Fig. 1. Photochemical machining tests were carried out at 45 C, 50 C and 55 C. The temperature was maintained within a range of 1 C. Single-sided chemical etching process was used. The etching times were 15, 20, and 25 minutes.

Fig. 1. Experimental set-up for etching.

The DOE technique was used to design the experiments to know the interaction of process parameters. Each parameter was designed to have three levels namely low, medium and high respectively (Number of treatment conditions = 3k = 33 = 27) using a full factorial DoE technique. The experimental design matrix was a simplified method of putting together an experiment (Table 2).

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Vol. 3 No. 9 September 2011

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Table 2 . Experimental design matrix.

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Temperature (Co) 45 45 45 50 50 50 55 55 55 45 45 45 50 50 50 55 55 55 45 45 45 50 50 55 55 50 55

Concentration (gm/litre) 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800

Time (minute) 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 20 25 15 20 15 25

3. Results and discussion The analysis of experimental data was performed in order to determine the effect of temperature, time and concentration on the magnitude of undercut and surface roughness. The analysed results are presented using main effects and interaction plots. 3.1 Statistical analysis of the undercut (Uc) The summary of analysis of variance (ANOVA) is shown in Table 3. It is observed that the factor undercut has a significant effect at 95% confidence interval as evident from ANOVA Table 3. It is observed that etching time and etchant temperature has a large contribution on the variability of undercut among the selected parameters. However, the concentration has negligible effect on undercut. The ANOVA for undercut shows that the time and temperature are the most significant parameters for undercut.

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)
Table 3. ANOVA for undercut (mm).

Control factor Temperature (0C) Concentration(gm/litre) Time (Minute) Temperature* Concentration Temperature*Time Concentration*Time Error Total

Degree of freedom 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26

Sequential sum of squares 0.0060512 0.0000223 0.0262614 0.0004097 0.0007259 0.0011228 0.0001252 0.0347185

Adjusted sum of squares 0.0060512 0.0000223 0.0262614 0.0004097 0.0007259 0.0011228 0.0001252

Adjusted sum of squares 0.0030256 0.0000111 0.0131307 0.0001024 0.0001815 0.0002807 0.0000156

F-ratio 193.35 0.71 839.12 6.55 11.60 17.94

p-value 0.000 0.519 0.000 0.012 0.002 0.000

S=0.00395577

R-sq.=99.64%

R-sq. (Adj.) = 98.83%

Etching process if prolonged, undercut was always going to be more, as etching starts in sidewise with downward action also. The evaluation of undercut as a function of temperature, concentration and time is shown in Fig. 2.

Main effects plot for undercut Uc (mm)


Fitted Means
Tepmerature 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 Time

Mean

0.10 45 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 600 700 800 50 Concentration 55 15 20 25

Fig. 2. Main effect plots for undercut Uc (mm).

The main effects plots show that the response undercut was increased with increasing in etch time and temperature. But initially at lower level undercut was very small and it was very high at higher levels. The parameters that have greater influence on undercut in the decreasing order of importance are temperature, time

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

and concentration as shown in Fig. 2. The temperature has the most dominant effect amongst all the main parameters. Further, it is better to set the concentration, time and temperature at a lower level. It is observed from the main effects plots (Fig. 2) that the optimum etching performance parameters for the undercut were observed at a temperature of 45 c, a concentration of 600 gm/litre and etching time of 15 minutes. Fig. 3 shows the interaction plot for undercuts, with each plot exhibits the interaction between two different machining parameters.

Interaction plot for undercut Uc (mm)


Data Means
600 0.20 700 800

0.15

T epmer atur e

Tepmerature (c) 45 50 55
0.20

0.10

C oncentr ation

0.15

C oncentration (gm/litre) 600 700 800 Time (minutes) 15 20 25

0.10 0.20

0.15

T ime

0.10 45 50 55 15 20 25

Fig. 3. Interaction plots for undercut Uc (mm).

An interaction between factors takes place when the variation in response from a level of a factor to another level varies from the change in response in the same two levels of a another factor; this implies that the effect of one factor is dependent upon another factor. 3.2 Statistical analysis of surface roughness value (Ra) The summary of analysis of variance (ANOVA) is shown in Table 4. It is observed that the factor Ra has a significant effect at 95% confidence interval as evident from ANOVA Table 4. It is also observed that etching time and the enchant concentration have a large contribution on the variability of Ra among the selected parameters. However the temperature has negligible effect on surface roughness value.

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Table 4. ANOVA for surface roughness Ra (m).

Control factor Temperature (0C) Concentration (gm / litre) Time (Minute) Temperature * Concentration Temperature* Time Concentration* Time Error Total

Degree of freedom 2 2 2

Sequential Sum of squares 0.07509 1.54596 7.51387

Adjusted sum of squares 0.07509 1.54596 7.51387

Adjusted mean of squares 0.03754 0.77298 3.75693

F-ratio

p- value

Significant (Yes / No) NO YES YES YES

0.41 8.43 40.98

0.677 0.011 0.000

4 4 4 8 26

3.06522 0.04231 1.99484 0.73338 14.97067

3.06522 0.04231 1.99484 0.73338

0.76631 0.01058 0.49871

8.36 0.12 5.44

0.006 0.973 0.020 NO YES

0.09167

S = 0.302774

R-Sq = 95.10%

R-Sq(adj.) = 84.08%

It is observed etching time is the most significant parameter which affects the surface roughness (Ra). Etching process if prolonged; Ra was always going to be higher. Fig. 4 shows the evaluation of surface roughness as a function of temperature, concentration and time. According to the main effects plot, we can evidence that response Ra was increased with increasing in the etch time.

Main effects plot for surface roughness Ra (m)


Fitted Means
Temperature 2.0 1.5 1.0 45 50 Time 55 600 700 800 Concentration

Mean

2.0 1.5 1.0 15 20 25

Fig. 4. Main effect plots for surface roughness value Ra (m).

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Initially, Ra was very small. It increases as time increases and remains approximately constant for an increase in the temperature. The effect of concentration on the surface roughness shows different trends than temperature and time. The value of Ra increases initially and then starts reducing. The time has the most dominant effect amongst all the main parameters. After analysing, it is advisable to set the temperature at a higher level, time and concentration at lower levels. It is found from the main effects plots (Fig. 4) that the optimum etching performance parameters for the Ra value were observed at a temperature of 55 c, a concentration of 600 gm/litre and time of 15 minutes. Fig. 5 shows the interaction plots of Ra in the PCM process. Two way interactions among the control parameters were assessed for their effects on the surface roughness.

Interaction plot for surface roughness Ra (m)


Data Means
600 3 2 T emper atur e 1 3 2 C oncentr ation 1 3 2 T ime 1 45 50 55 15 20 25 700 800

Temperature (c) 45 50 55 Concentration (gm/liter) 600 700 800 Time (minutes) 15 20 25

Fig. 5. Interaction plots for surface roughness Ra (m).

Fig.5 shows the interaction plots among the three process parameters for their effect on surface roughness. 4. Conclusions From the experimental investigations based on full factorial method and the analysis of the results, the following conclusions are drawn. It is observed from the ANOVA, the input variables time and temperature both have statistically significant effects on the undercut. It is also observed from the ANOVA that the input variables time and concentration both have statistically significant effect on the surface roughness value Ra.

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Atul R. Saraf et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

The above discussion confirmed the validity of the full factorial methodology for enhancing the etching performance and optimizing the etching parameters. The undercut and surface roughness are greatly improved by this approach.

An optimum surface roughness (Ra) was observed at 55 c of etchant temperature, 600 gm/litre of etchant concentration and 15 minutes etching time. For minimum Undercut (Uc), the temperature was 45 c, etchant concentration 600 gm/litre and etching time 15 minutes.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] O. Cakr, 2006, Copper etching with cupric chloride and regeneration of waste etchant, journal of materials processing technology, 175, 6368. David M. A., 2004, Photochemical Machining: From Manufacturings Best Kept secret to a $6 Billion per annum, Rapid Manufacturing Process, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Systems,53, 559-573. David M. A., Heather, J.A. Heather J.A., 2004, Characterization of aqueous ferric chloride etchants used in industrial photochemical machining, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 149, 238245. Davis, P.J., Overturf, G.E., 1986, Chemical machining as a precision material removal process, precision engineering , 67-71. Douglas, C. M.,1997, Design and Analysis of Experiments. Fifth Edition, John wiley and sons, INC. Rajkumar, R., Heather J.A., Oscar Zamora., 2004, Cost of photochemical machining, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 149, 460465.

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