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COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN OLD AND MODERN JAWI SPELLING: CASE STUDY ON KITAB HIDAYAH AL-SALIKIN

Che Wan Shamsul Bahri bin Che Wan Ahmad 2 Khairuddin bin Omar 3 Mohammad Faidzul bin Nasrudin 4 Mohd Zamri bin Murah 5 Khirulnizam Abd Rahman

Pusat Teknologi Kecerdasan Buatan Fakulti Teknologi dan Sains Maklumat Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia 1 cwshamsul@kuis.edu.my, {2ko, 3mfn, 4zamri} @ftsm.ukm.my 5 khirulnizam@kuis.edu.my

ABSTRACT

The paper aims to do a comparative analysis between old and modern Jawi spelling used in the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin by Shaykh 'Abd al-Samad al-Falimbani written in 1192AH. This Kitab is the first Malay Kitab printed in Mecca. The major elements of this Kitab are Sufism, Aqidah and Fiqh. This study examines the comparison of the printed Kitab in Penang by Maktabah Matba`ah wa Dar al-Ma`arif using the old Jawi spelling system and the new version transliterated using modern Jawi by Abdul Ghani Jabal Maraqy published by the Jabal Maraqy Enterprise in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Among the aspects considered in this study are related to differences in old and new Jawi, the use of letters of vowel, Arabic loan words, homographic spelling, method of writing and word arrangement in the Malay language.

Keyword : Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin, Jawi, homographic spelling

INTRODUCTION The Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin was authored by Shaykh 'Abd al-Samad al-Falimbani, written in Malay language using the Jawi transcript. The content of this Kitab are based on scripture translation Bidayat Hidayat al-Imam al-Ghazali's work and commentary made personally by al-Falimbani (Mohad Fauzi and Mohd Hasrul, 2012). The Kitab was completed on Tuesday, equivalent to 5 Muharam 1192H/1778M in Mecca. Among the advantages of this Kitab, it is

a Kitab written in Malay using Jawi, first reviewed by Shaykh Ahmad bin Muhammad Zain al-Fatani at Matba'at al-Miriyyah, Mecca. This Kitab continues to be printed to meet the demand of Muslims in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore (Shohana Hussin, 2010).

ADVANTAGES OF OLD JAWI According to Mahmud Haji Ashari et al. (1991), old Jawi writing consists several benefits, among them are: assist in the teaching and learning of the Quran economy by capitalization meets the sound / intonation privilege of letters ( aleef), ( wau) and ( ya) having a systematic method encourage readers to think

It was obvious that the old Jawi spelling was economical due to the less vowel usage. If we write '( 'aku which means I) compared with new Jawi spelling of ''. Word to be written as in ' 'against new Jawi spelling using the addition of the letter '( 'wau), which becomes '( 'supaya which means so that). In old Jawi spelling there are too many possible combinations of words with a reason to shorten or speed-up writing. Among word that is often combined is ( yang). For example, the word ( barang yang) and ( yang amat).

ADVANTAGES OF NEW JAWI New Jawi spelling system introduced in (1986) with the name of the Enhanced Guidelines of Jawi Spelling (Pedoman Ejaan Jawi Yang Disempurnakan (PEJYD)) is intended to meet the present the needs of the future. This system is the result of a formula written in Jawi National Convention held in 1984 in Kuala Terengganu. Jawi spelling system makes Za'ba (1949) as its basis. According to Ismail Dahaman (1991), the system involves five processes, which are: maintaining confirmed words 2

perfecting the imperfect creating the non-existence clarifying the vague tidying up the loose

After that, the new Jawi spelling system was tuned from time to time by the convention held in 1991, 1993 and through the Technical Committee for Jawi Spelling consist of Islamic Center and Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP). Now, PEJYD has been updated to be the General Guidelines for Malay Jawi Spelling (Pedoman Umum Ejaan Jawi Bahasa Melayu (PUEJBM)) which is included in the Daftar Kata Bahasa Melayu (Malay Glossary) (Dahaman Ismail et al. 2008). New Jawi spelling system is said to be much easier for the younger generations to learn Jawi because it is easy to read and referred to. This is due to the usage of more vowels in new Jawi spelling system. It is also similar to the Roman orthography today. The new Jawi spelling system also solved many problems in homographs found in classical Jawi spelling system caused by the lack of vowels in the spelling.

OLD EDITION OF KITAB HIDAYAH AL-SALIKIN In this study, the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin essays Shaykh 'Abd al-Samad al-Falimbani (1935) published by Maktabah wa Matba`ah Dar al-Ma`arif, Penang, which uses old Jawi spelling. The written format is different between the old and the new edition. The older edition was bounded by the writing styles at that time. Most of the writing styles of the Kitab at the time of use each sheet as a whole and no specific format is used. This can save space. However, there is still a clear indication for different headings.

Sentence structure According to Mokhtar Taleb (2007), most of the old spelling or old manuscripts do not use punctuations. The beginning of a new sentence usually starts with the word bahawasanya (whereas), maka (therefore) and lagi (more) as the sentence delimiter signal. Sometimes the words maka (then) and lagi (more) act as conjunctions. The word dan (and) also used at the 3

beginning of the sentence. In addition, there is a hadith or Quranic verses that used as the sentence delimiter. Examples can be found in Appendix A, the contents of topic 1 of the printed Kitabs of Penang.

Homograph Homograph is referring to two or more words that have the same spelling but different meanings. Homograph can also coincided with a homonymous (same sound), for example, the word mereka (to create) with mereka (they) which is similar in terms of raw sound. In Jawi script, most of which occurred due to homograph Jawi writing system itself is only using four vowels( )compared with six letters (a, e (e-pepet), e (e-taling), i, o, u) in Roman (Adi Yasran and Hashim, 2008). Table 1 shows several old Jawi words homograph in topic 1, from the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin printed in Penang. Table 1: Examples of the old Jawi words with homograph Jawi Roman Ilmu Alam Alim Sebut Sabtu Sebat Kamu Kami Tujuh Tujah Tahun Tahan Hampir Hampar

Orthography Most of the older Jawi spelling does not use dots on the letter ( ya) if in the end of the word. According to Mokhtar Taleb (2007), this is because many of the old Kitabs printed in the Arab continent. In Arabic, the letter ( ya) does not use a point when at the end of a word. Unlike other Malay letters, for example ( ca), ( nga), ( nya) with three dots and ( ga) which is used in real-dotted one. Although there are some occurrences whereby there are ga with the dots beneath. 4

Arabic Loan Words There are uses of foreign words that the word Arabic absorption since the Kitab was written in the Arabic Land of Mecca. This word is synonymous with Islamic culture. The author faces difficulties in finding a corresponding meaning in Malay vocabulary. Even though there is match, the meaning does not indicate the original meaning of the Arabic word. Therefore, the scholar who wrote the Kitab was using the Arabic loanwords, which convey the accurate message. nabi syafaat nubuwwah alim quran hadith ulamak afdal fasal fadhilat manfaat ilmu

NEW EDITION OF KITAB HIDAYAH AL-SALIKIN The initiative to translate the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin from the older to the modern edition was pioneered by several modern scholars; among them are Haji Wan Mohd Shaghir Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Jabal Maraqy, Ahmad Fahmi Zamzam and others. In this study, researchers focusing on the Kitab which was originally written by Shaykh 'Abd al-Samad alFalimbani. The new edition was translated by Abdul Ghani Jabal Maraqy on 2009 and published by the Syarikat Jabal Maraqy Kelantan.

Format and Content In accordance with current practices, the new edition of Kitab Hidayah Al-Salikin is available to make full use of computer technology in its production. Scripture contains indent, numbering, titles and sub-titles and various other printing formats. It is easy to read because of the arrangement which is neat and orderly. It also helps the reader to distinguish between topics and sub-topics. Continuity between a topic and the other topic is clearly indicated from next to each other. This new edition is interesting because it provides the source of hadith, the status of hadith and also the narrators. Similarly, the source of the Quran described with the name of the surah, the verses number and the translation. 5

Style of language Modern Malay Kitabs use modern Malay language. Therefore, there is no use of classical Malay word as sayugia, syahdan, hatta and etc. Grammar and usage of the terms are therefore are appropriate in the context of todays modern Malay language. Each sentence in modern Jawi ends with a period. Compared to the old, there were no punctuation such as commas or periods used. Please refer to Appendix B to see the sample excerpt from topic 1 of the modern edition of the Kitab.

Homograph In a new Jawi spelling system, various methods have been used to prevent homograph occur in old Jawi especially by adding the letter aleef ( )on the sound [a]. Most homographs occur in certain words called intrinsic homograph. Intrinsic homograph cannot be resolved in the new Jawi spelling system due to lack of vowels as compared to the Roman orthography. For example, burung (birds) and borong (wholesale), gulungan (rolls) and golongan (category), bila (when) and bela (to defence) (see Table 2) as well as some other word again (Ahmad et al. 2012). The homograph word is not much in the new Jawi spelling system compared to the old Jawi. Since the modern Kitabs have implemented the new Jawi spelling system, homograph is not a major problem anymore.

Table 2: Examples of intrinsic homograph Jawi Roman burung borong gulung golong bela bila

The table is an example of some of the homograph in the modern Jawi spelling system but do not exist in the Kitab reviewed.

COMPARISON This is the part where we will discuss in details the comparison between the Kitab which has two versions; the older and the new Jawi.

Vowel Capitalization The researchers found that the old Jawi spelling used in the old Kitab use vowels in open syllables in the beginning and middle of words but vowels are not used on the final open syllable. This finding also supports the idea by Hashim Musa (2006). Here are some of the words quoted from topic 1, the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin printed at Penang.

kamu lima percaya dua

ini itu mereka kata

ilmu bermula suatu beberapa

Similarly, the closed final syllables are not use vowel letters as below. alim mukmin hampir takut terlebih tahun tujuh tersebut ratus

Shifting Method Shifting method widely used in old Jawi spelling. When there is a particle or suffix to the root word, the vowel aleef is transferred back from the previous syllable. For example, the following words:

Table 3: Examples of using the word Jawi shifting method Roman perjalanan mempusakai mengkayakan menyatakan Jawi Root word

In modern Jawi spelling system, the root word is maintained and added a nuun ( )in the back if the suffix an, as mentioned in the example in Table 4. Table 4: Comparison of old and new Jawi base on the Shifting method Roman perjalanan jabatan mengkayakan menyatakan New Jawi Old Jawi Root word

Vowel-Materialised Rule In Malay, the rule is called huruf saksi terwujud. According to Mokhtar Taleb (2007), this method is used in the new Jawi spelling. Vowel will be added if there is particle or suffix at the end of the root word; it does not have a vowel as in several categories; Tradition Spelling, Ka-Ga rule and the Out of Deranglu rule. Examples are shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Examples of new Jawi words using the vowel-materialized rule Roman inilah Jawi Roman ini Root word Category Tradition Spelling Out of Deranglu rule Ka-Ga rule

katakan banggakan

kata bangga 8

Similarities are found in the use of vowel-materialized for both scripture, as in the Table 6.

Table 6: Vowel-materialised rule in both versions of the Kitab Roman daripadanya kepadanya adalah Jawi Root word

Vowel Insertion Rule In the new Jawi spelling system, the root word is maintained when there are affixes or particles. Unlike the old Jawi spelling, the root word will change if accompanied by a particle or some form of affixes either insertion or shift of vowel. Examples are provided in Table 7 below: Table 7: Old Jawi words applying the insertions of aleef () Roman Lawatan Kesudahan Pelayaran New Jawi Old Jawi Root word

TRANSLITERATION OF OLD AND NEW JAWI TO ROMAN In the context of Malaysia nowadays, there are needs for Jawi-Roman transliteration as the applications are prevalent. Therefore, many old Kitabs have been transliterated from the old to the new Jawi and then to Roman. This process is also called as Romanization of Jawi Kitabs. This also involved the Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin. Figure 1 below shows several of the words quoted from topic 1 of Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin using old Jawi spelling transliterated into Romanized spelling.

Figure 1: Transliteration of old and new Jawi to Roman

In the context of automation process, machine transliteration of new Jawi to Roman is simpler than transliteration directly from old Jawi spelling to Roman. This is due to the lack of vowels or hidden vowels in old Jawi scripture makes it difficult for the machine to decide. Machine should be trained to read some words in Jawi pattern prior of doing transliteration of a word.

CONCLUSIONS From the above discussions, we can see a form of transition from old Jawi spelling to modern Jawi spelling system. Among the major changes is the use of vowels so apparent in the new Jawi system helps a lot in solving the issues of homograph. However, not all the words of the old Jawi converted to the new addition of the vowel. There are several words that still maintain the tradition spelling. The Vowel Insertion rule and Shifting Method are no longer used in modern Jawi. However the vowel-materialised rule is

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still applicable. This is because the nature of modern Jawi itself trying to maintain the root word even though there are affixes. Among the rules that are still relevant in the new Jawi are Ka-Ga and Deranglu rules. If the new generation understand the aforementioned rules, the Jawi learning process will become easier.

LIST OF REFERENCES Adi Yasran Abdul Aziz, dan Hashim Musa. 2008. Isu homograf dan cabarannya dalam usaha pelestarian tulisan Jawi. Jurnal ASWARA 3 (1):109-126. Ahmad, Che Wan Shamsul Bahri C.W., Khairuddin Omar, Mohammad Faidzul Nasrudin, et al. 2012. Isu-Isu Dalam Transliterasi Mesin Manuskrip Melayu Ejaan Jawi Lama Kepada Jawi Baru. Paper read at Seminar Penyelidikan Jawi dan Manuskrip Melayu, 19-20 Jun 2012, at Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam:169-184. Hashim Musa. 2006. Epigrafi Melayu : Sejarah Sistem Tulisan Tangan dalam Bahasa Melayu. 2 ed. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Ismail Dahaman. 1991. Pedoman ejaan jawi yang disempurnakan (1986). In Konvensyen Tulisan Jawi. Kuala Lumpur: Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam, Jabatan Perdana Menteri. Ismail Dahaman, Syeikh Othman Sheikh Salim, Manshoor Ahmad, et al. 2008. Daftar Kata Bahasa Melayu In Rumi-Sebutan-Jawi, edited by Rusli Abdul Ghani, Ibrahim Ahmad, Azman Ahmad and Siti Suhana Mohd Amir. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mahmud Haji Ashari, Ahmad Haji Hasbullah, dan Faridah Haji Majid. 1991. Antara Jawi lama dan baru serta masalah pelaksanaannya. In Konvensyen Tulisan Jawi. Kuala Lumpur: Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam, Jabatan Perdana Menteri. Mokhtar Talib (MATLOB). 2007. Pandai Jawi. 3 ed. Shah Alam: Cerdik Publications Sdn. Bhd. Syeikh Abdus Shamad al-Falimbani. 1935. Hidayat al-Salikin. Penang: Maktabah wa Matba'ah dar al Maarif. Syeikh Abdus Shamad al-Falimbani. 2009. Hidayah al-Salikin. Translated by Abdul Ghani Jabal Maraqy. Kota Bharu: Jabal Maraqy Enterprise.

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Appendix A

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Appendix B

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Appendix C - Cover Kitab Hidayah al-Salikin published by the Jabal Maraqy Enterprise in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

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