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TheuseofferrocementinCuba.

Atthemiddleofthedecadeof1960,inCubawasexpoundedthenecessitytodevelopafishing fleet that could satisfy the necessity of the growing demands of the country for the exploitation of the sea resources. Then, it was necessary to substitute the old fishing ships made of wood, because wood was scarce in Cuba and has to be imported from other countries, and neither there was not experience in the construction of steel ships, and did not existed qualified workers for this type of construction, and neither existed a siderurgical industrytoguarantythenecessarysteel. In 1967, in our land were known the results obtained by the ships construction with ferrocement in New Zealand and in Canada and it was decided to build a similar prototype to one made of wood named FCI that was finished in 1969, and once that it was at the sea it displaced more that was calculated, and this defect was produced due to the weight of the hull. This and other problems were detected during the sailing and they caused that the ship did not fulfil the established requirements by the nautical rules, and it was the cause that not othertypewasconstructed. After the analysis of the obtained results with the FCI a new design was implemented that began to be built in the years 19701972 and with it were obtained better marine conditions. Starting from 1970, under the direction of the author, began a searching program about the characteristic of the ferrocement that ended in 1973 with the testing to natural scale of prototype ship, the FCIV and for it were taken in mind the former experiences and the fact the it could represent a qualitative jump in the construction of fishing ships. Its characteristic were: Length:18.25m Beam(Wide):5.40m Maximumdraught:1.90m Depthofhold(height):2.50m Displacement:70t Motivepower:300HP

The obtained results allowed to approve the construction in series of the, FCIV (Fig. l.3l) and established the bases for a structural solution of the ships built with ferrocement that has to beconstructedinCuba,becauseuptothismoment,onlytheexperiencethatwasnomuch determinedthedimensionsandthereinforcementtobeused.

Fig. 1.31 Barco de pesca F.IV. Fig. 1.32 Barco de pasajeros. Ro Canmar, Matanzas, Cuba.

Starting from 1974, new models of fishing ships ships to fish fishes with flake, langoustier and tuna fish has been constructed in our land, and also ships for the recreation, transportationandfishingsports,etc.(Figs.1.32,1.33and1.34).


Fig. 1.33 Barco de pasajeros. Cienfuegos, Cuba. Fig. 1.34 Cabaas flotantes para campismo, Ro Canmar, Matanzas, Cuba.

Since then, our land stopped completely the use of wood for this purposes because the technological processes that have been introduced made possible a high production of ferrocement ships, and already in 1985 existed eight production centers that were able to constructmorethantwohundredunitsperyear(Fig.1.35).

Fig. 1.35 Flota de barcos de pesca. Crdenas, Matanzas. Fig. 1.36. Patana de ferrocemento prefabricada en proceso de montaje, Habana, Cuba.

In1974theauthormadethestructuraldesignofaflatboatwherewerecombined,forthefirst time in Cuba, prefabricated elements of reinforced concrete (vierendel beams, girders) with ferrocement (hull liner and deck). Their dimensions were 30 x 9 x 2.70m, it had 250t of dead weight and 350t loading capacity in the deck and only 2.5cm thickness in the hull. This was developed in the Construction Center of Searching and Experimentation (CIEC) of Havana, andthedesignwasleadbytheArch.EnriqueD'JhongCaula;itwasconstructedinsegmentsof 3mlargethatlaterwerejoinedbytheprestressed.(Figs.1.36and1.37). In the year 1981 an accident caused a tearing of almost 3m in the bottom of the flat boat and this one was hoisted and transported by a big floating crane and was repaired in the shipyard ofCasablancainHavana,anditmaintainedinaperfectstateduringmanyyears. Lately, the constructions with ferrocement have been multiplied in the country: water

reservoir, monuments, pontoom and tanks that have been built in different provinces and have obtained satisfied results by the Ministry of Sugar (MINAZ) with the advising of the authorinthereconstructionwithferrocementofmetallictanksof800to5000m3.(Figs.1.38, 1.39, 1.40, 1.41). However, the most significant and numerous are the building of houses, swimming pools, reservoirs, works for urban household goods and figures of animals of great dimensions.En1984,itwasbuiltthefirstswimmingpoolofferrocementinCuba,designedby the author and built in Vila Loma, JIbacoa beach by the Empresa Playas del Este de la Habana (EnterpriseBeachesoftheEastofHavana).Theswimmingpoolhas25x12.5mandinitsmore deeper part 1.80m depth, with a thickness of 25mm in the walls that are formed with prefabricated panels and 20mm in the bottom built with concrete in situ (Figs 1.42 and 1.43). Thetotalcostwasalmostseventimeslowerthanonebuiltwithreinforcedconcretewithsame size. Since then, many swimming pools have been built in the country and is planned to increaseittoallthepopularcampingbasesandrecreationcentersthatrequiresit(seechapter 6). In1982,intheBaconaoParkintheprovinceofSantiagodeCubabegantheconstructionofthe Valle de la Prehistoria (Valley of the Prehistory), where to a natural scale has been built, up to now, more than hundred sculptures of prehistoric animals work of the sculptor Dagoberto Morenothathavel2mhighandl8mlarge(Figs.1.44,1.45,1.46,1.47,and1.48).Thistypeof work of great dimensions has been employed for giving atmosphere to other zones of the park that has become one of the focus of tourist attractions more important in the province andwithoutdoubt,inthefutureforallthecountry.

Fig. 1.37. Patana prefabricada de ferrocemento terminada. Habana, Cuba.

Fig. 1.38. Monumento en honor al general Antonio Maceo. San Pedro de Puntabrava, Cuba.


Fig. 1.39 Depsitos de agua de pequea capacidad, Ciudad de La Habana. Fig. 1.40. Reconstruccin tanque de acero utilizando ferrocemento Pinar del Ro, Cuba.

Fig. 1.41. Cubierta terminal area. SantiagodeCuba,Cuba.

1.42. Piscina de Jibacoa en Fig. construccin.LaHabana,Cuba.

Fig. 1.43. Piscina de Jibacoa terminada. La Habana,Cuba.

Fig. 1.44. Valle de la Prehistoria. Baconao,SantiagodeCuba.


Fig. 1.45. Valle de la Prehistoria. Baconao, SantiagodeCuba. Fig.1.46.ValledelaPrehistoria.Baconao.Rocasy avesprehistricas.SantiagodeCuba,Cuba.

Fig.1.47ValledelaPrehistoriadeBaconao.Hombre. SantiagodeCuba,Cuba.

Fig. 1.48. Valle de la Prehistoria de Baconao. Fig. 1.48. Valle de la Prehistoria de Baconao. Cafetera en roca. Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.

Fig. 1.47. Valle de la Prehistoria de Baconao. Hombre. Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.

In 1986, the ferrocement began to be used in the construction of economics houses. In April was built the first experimental and in October, the first village in the tourist plan Baconao of the province of Santiago de Cuba. This positive experience was spread quickly to other

provinces of the country, above all to Camaguey, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio and La Habana, where an industrial technology has been implemented with highly satisfactory results in houseswithone,twoorthreestories(Figs.1.49,1.50and1.51).(Seechapter6).
Fig. 1.49. Primera vivienda de ferrocemento construidaenPinardelRo.Cuba.

Fig. 1.50. Edificio prefabricado de ferrocemento para viviendas.PinardelRo,Cuba.

Fig. 1.51. Vivienda biplanta de ferrocemento en construccin.Baconao,SantiagodeCuba.