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SUBMITTED TO:Miss. Sofia Singla (Dept. of Maths.)

SUBMITTED BY:Name: Jagraj Singh Regd. No: 10807772 Section: 211 Roll No: R211A23 Course: B.Tech-MBA ECE

I Jagraj Singh of section 211, registration no. 10807772 and roll no. R211A23 of B.Tech MBA (ECE) hereby submit the term paper of Engineering Mathematics I on the topic Sequence and Series to Miss. Sofia Singla (Dept. of Mathematics.). Its my pleasure to submit my expressed views on this topic. I also want to thanks to Lovely professional university to giving me this enlarged opportunity.

Submitted to: Miss. Sofia Singla (Dept. of Maths.)


1 Examples and notation 2 Types and properties of sequences 3 Sequences in analysis 4 Series 5 Infinite sequences in theoretical computer science 6 Sequences as vectors 7 Doubly-infinite sequences 8 Ordinal-indexed sequence 9 Sequences and automata

Examples and notation

There are various and quite different notions of sequences in mathematics, some of which ( e.g., exact sequence) are not covered by the notations introduced below. A sequence may be denoted (a1, a2, ...). For shortness, the notation (an) is also used. A more formal definition of a finite sequence with terms in a set S is a function from {1, 2, ..., n} to S for some n 0. An infinite sequence in S is a function from {1, 2, ...} (the set of natural numbers without 0) to S. Sequences may also start from 0, so the first term in the sequence is then a0. A sequence of a fixed-length n is also called an n-tuple. Finite sequences include the empty sequence ( ) that has no elements. A function from all integers into a set is sometimes called a bi-infinite sequence, since it may be thought of as a sequence indexed by negative integers grafted onto a sequence indexed by positive integers.

Types and properties of sequences

A subsequence of a given sequence is a sequence formed from the given sequence by deleting some of the elements without disturbing the relative positions of the remaining elements. If the terms of the sequence are a subset of an ordered set, then a monotonically increasing sequence is one for which each term is greater than or equal to the term before it; if each term is strictly greater than the one preceding it, the sequence is called strictly monotonically increasing. A monotonically decreasing sequence is

defined similarly. Any sequence fulfilling the monotonicity property is called monotonic or monotone. This is a special case of the more general notion of monotonic function. The terms non-decreasing and non-increasing are used in order to avoid any possible confusion with strictly increasing and strictly decreasing, respectively. If the terms of a sequence are integers, then the sequence is an integer sequence. If the terms of a sequence are polynomials, then the sequence is a polynomial sequence. If S is endowed with a topology, then it becomes possible to consider convergence of an infinite sequence in S. Such considerations involve the concept of the limit of a sequence.

Sequences in analysis
In analysis, when talking about sequences, one will generally consider sequences of the form or which is to say, infinite sequences of elements indexed by natural numbers. It may be convenient to have the sequence start with an index different from 1 or 0. For example, the sequence defined by xn = 1/log(n) would be defined only for n 2. When talking about such infinite sequences, it is usually sufficient (and does not change much for most considerations) to assume that the members of the sequence are defined at least for all indices large enough, that is, greater than some given N.) The most elementary type of sequences are numerical ones, that is, sequences of real or complex numbers. This type can be generalized to sequences of elements of some vector space. In analysis, the vector spaces considered are often function spaces. Even more generally, one can study sequences with elements in some topological space.

Main article: Series (mathematics) The sum of terms of a sequence is a series. More precisely, if (x1, x2, x3, ...) is a sequence, one may consider the sequence of partial sums (S1, S2, S3, ...), with Formally, this pair of sequences comprises the series with the terms x1, x2, x3, ..., which is denoted as If the sequence of partial sums is convergent, one also uses the infinite sum notation for its limit. For more details, see series.

Infinite sequences in theoretical computer science

Infinite sequences of digits (or characters) drawn from a finite alphabet are of particular interest in theoretical computer science. They are often referred to simply as sequences (as opposed to finite strings). Infinite binary sequences, for instance, are infinite sequences of bits (characters drawn from the alphabet {0,1}). The set C = {0, 1} of all infinite, binary sequences is sometimes called the Cantor space.

An infinite binary sequence can represent a formal language (a set of strings) by setting the nth bit of the sequence to 1 if and only if the nth string (in shortlex order) is in the language. Therefore, the study of complexity classes, which are sets of languages, may be regarded as studying sets of infinite sequences. An infinite sequence drawn from the alphabet {0, 1, ..., b1} may also represent a real number expressed in the base-b positional number system. This equivalence is often used to bring the techniques of real analysis to bear on complexity classes.

Sequences as vectors
Sequences over a field may also be viewed as vectors in a vector space. Specifically, the set of F-valued sequences (where F is a field) is a function space (in fact, a product space) of F-valued functions over the set of natural numbers. In particular, the term sequence space usually refers to a linear subspace of the set of all possible infinite sequences with elements in .

Doubly-infinite sequences
Normally, the term infinite sequence refers to a sequence which is infinite in one direction, and finite in the other -- the sequence has a first element, but no final element (a singly-infinite sequence). A doubly-infinite sequence is infinite in both directions -- it has neither a first nor a final element. Singly-infinite sequences are functions from the natural numbers (N') to some set, whereas doubly-infinite sequences are functions from the integers (Z) to some set. One can interpret singly infinite sequences as element of the semigroup ring of the natural numbers , and doubly infinite sequences as elements of the group ring of the integers . This perspective is used in the Cauchy product of sequences.

Ordinal-indexed sequence
An ordinal-indexed sequence is a generalization of a sequence. If is a limit ordinal and X is a set, an indexed sequence of elements of X is a function from to X. In this terminology an -indexed sequence is an ordinary sequence.

Sequences and automata

Automata or finite state machines can typically thought of as directed graphs, with edges labeled using some specific alphabet . Most familiar types of automata transition from state to state by reading input letters from , following edges with matching labels; the ordered input for such an automaton forms a sequence called a word (or input word). The sequence of states encountered by the automaton when processing a word is called a run. A nondeterministic automaton may have unlabeled or duplicate out-edges for any state, giving more than one successor for some input letter. This is typically thought of as producing multiple possible runs for a given word, each being a sequence of single states, rather than producing a single run that is a sequence of sets of states; however, 'run' is occasionally used to mean the latter.

Calculating specific terms leads to an "nth term

1. For {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} and {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .} , the formula is

. But this is unhandy since we need the previous term. It is easier to notice that . This is the nth term formula.

Where's the difference in the two sequences? In the domain of the sequences. An infinite sequence is understood to have the domain of the natural or counting numbers. (Sometimes the whole numbers are used when it is convenient.) What we are doing is setting up a one-to-one correspondence between the set of natural numbers and an ordered list of values (the terms).
2. For {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, . . .}, the formula is . 3. For {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . . , 100}, the formula is . 4. The following sequence is very different: {1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...}. This is the

Fibonacci sequence. In this case we are forced to write a formula that explains the next term in terms of the previous two terms. Before I go further, see if you can analyze the process creating the terms. Now see if you can complete the formula. This one has to set the first two terms specifically, so a1 = 1 and a2 = 1. Then an = A curious fact about infinite sets. Analyzing their sizes can lead to interesting results. Sets 1 and 2 above are exactly the same size! No way, you say? Set 2 has the number zero and Set 1 does not. Well, think about the function .

The x values come from the the sequence 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . and the y values are the sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . It is easy to see that we can match up every x with exactly one y. This is called a oneto-one correspondence. Finding it is enough to prove the sizes are the same.

More About Notations In function notation, to ask for a value at 1 in a discrete function, we would write f (1). In sequence notation we write a1. The two ways of asking for a value produce exactly the same result when we are 5. AREThmetic Sequences Series

Arithmetic Sequences Exercise: Find the next term and the general formula for the following: A. {2, B. {0, C. {2, 5, 4, -1, 8, 8, -4, 11, 12, -7, 14, 16, -10, ...} ...} ...}

For each of these three sequences there is a common difference. In the first sequence the common difference is d = 3, in the second sequence the common difference is d = 4, and on the third sequence the common difference is d = -3. We will call a sequence an arithmetic sequence if there is a common difference. The general formula for an arithmetic sequence is

an = a1 + (n - 1)d

Example What is the difference between the fourth and the tenth terms of

{2,6,10,14,...) We have a10 - a4 = (10 - 4)d = 6(4) = 24

Arithmetic Series First we see that 1+ 2 + 3 + ... + 100 = 101 + 101 + ... + 101 (50 times) = 101(50) In general n(n 1 + 2 + 2 3 + ... + + n 1) =

Example What is S = 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 +... + 46

Solution S = 1 + (1 + 1(3)) + (1 + 2(3)) + (1 + 3(3)) + ... + (1 + 15(3)) = (1 + 1 + ... + 1) + 3(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 15) = 16 + 3(15)(16)/2 In General d(n Sn 2 = n (a1)+ 1)(n)

= 1/2 [2n(a1) + d(n - 1)(n)] = 1/2[2n(a1)+ dn2 - dn] = (n/2)[2(a1)+ dn - d]= (n/2)[2(a1) + d(n - 1)]

Or Alternatively

Sn = n/2(a1 + an)

Example How much will I receive over my 35 year career if my starting salary is $40,000, and I receive a 1,000 salary raise for each year I work here? Solution We have the series: 40,000 + 41,000 + 42,000 + ... + 74,000 = 35/2 (40,000 + 74,000) = $1,995,500

Convergent Series
Definition Let {an} be a sequence, and let Sn = a1 + a2 + ... + an, If Sn exists, we say that

the nth partial sum. Sn = an.

an is a convergent series, and write

Thus a series is convergent if and only if it's sequence of partial sums is convergent. The limit of the sequence of partial sums is the sum of the series. A series which is not convergent, is a divergent series. Example The series rn is convergent with sum 1/(1 - r), provided that | r| < 1. For (- 1)n is divergent. ; note particular

other values of r, the series is divergent; in particular, the series Solution. We noted above that when | r| < 1, Sn cases; a/(1 - r) as n


or equivalently,

+ ... = 1.

Example 2 The sum

is convergent with sum 1.

Solution. We can compute the partial sums explicitly:

Sn =



Example 3 The sum

is divergent.

Solution. We estimate the partial sums: Sn = >

+ 1+

+ + +

+ >2

+ ... + if n 15

+ ... +

+ ... +



+ as

+ n

+ .


if n 31

Example 4 The sum harder.]

is convergent. [Actually the sum is

/6, but this is much

Figure 1: Comparing the area under the curve y = 1/x2 with the area of the rectangles below the curve Solution. We estimate the partial sums. Since 1/n2 > 0, clearly {Sn} is an increasing sequence. We show it is bounded above, whence by the Monotone Convergence Theorem , it is convergent. From the diagram, < Sn <

+ ... +

, 1+ -

and so 2.

Thus Sn < 2 for all n, the sequence of partial sums is bounded above, and the series is convergent.

Proposition 1 Let Proof. Write l = as n . The

an be convergent. Then an

0 as n

. l

Sn, and recall from our work on limits of sequences that Sn-1 l-l as n .

an = (a1 + a2 +...an) - (a1 + a2 +...an-1) = Sn - Sn-1


This gives a necessarycondition for the convergence of a series; it is not 1/n is divergent, even though 1/n 0 as

sufficient. For example we have seen that n .

Example 5 The sum

is divergent (Graphical method).

Solution. We estimate the partial sums. Since 1/n > 0, clearly {Sn} is an increasing sequence. We show it is not bounded above, whence by the note after , the sequence of partial sums as n .

Figure 2: Comparing the area under the curve y = 1/x with the area of the rectangles above the curve

From the diagram,

1+ Writing Sn = 1 + + ... + log n for all n. Thus Sn

+ ... +



+ ... +

, we have Sn > log n > Sn - 1, or equivalently 1 + log n > Sn > and the series is divergent. [There is a much better as n , where is Euler's constant.]

estimate; the difference Sn - log n

Proposition : Let convergent.

an and

bn be convergent. Then

(an + bn) and

c.an are

Proof. This can be checked easily directly from the definition; it is in effect the same proof that the sum of two convergent sequences is convergent etc.

Divergent series In mathematics, a divergent series is an infinite series that is not convergent, meaning that the infinite sequence of the partial sums of the series does not have a limit. If a series converges, the individual terms of the series must approach zero. Thus any series in which the individual terms do not approach zero diverges. However, convergence is a stronger condition: not all series whose terms approach zero converge. The simplest counter example is the harmonic series 1+1/2+1/3+1/4+1/5+.=1/n$ n!infinity The divergence of the harmonic series was elegantly proven (here) by the medieval mathematician Nicole Oresme. In specialized mathematical contexts, values can be usefully assigned to certain series whose sequence of partial sums diverges. A summability method or summation method is a partial function from the set of sequences of partial sums of series to values. For example, Cesro summation assigns Grandi's divergent series the value 1/2. Cesro summation is an averaging method, in that it relies on the arithmetic mean of the sequence of partial sums. Other methods involve analytic continuations of related series. In physics, there are a wide variety of summability methods; these are discussed in greater detail in the article on regularization.

Theorems on methods for summing divergent series A summability method M is regular if it agrees with the actual limit on all convergent series. Such a result is called an abelian theorem for M, from the prototypical Abel's theorem. More interesting and in general more subtle are partial converse results, called tauberian theorems, from a prototype proved by Alfred Tauber. Here partial converse means that if M sums the series , and some side-condition holds, then was convergent in the first place; without any side condition such a result would say

that M only summed convergent series (making it useless as a summation method for divergent series).

The subject of divergent series, as a domain of mathematical analysis, is primarily concerned with explicit and natural techniques such as Abel summation, Cesro summation and Borel summation, and their relationships. The advent of Wiener's tauberian theorem marked an epoch in the subject, introducing unexpected connections to Banach algebra methods in Fourier analysis. Summation of divergent series is also related to extrapolation methods and sequence transformations as numerical techniques. Examples for such techniques are Pad approximants, Levin-type sequence transformations, and order-dependent mappings related to renormalization techniques for large-order perturbation theory in quantum mechanics.

A summation method is regular if, whenever the sequence s converges to x, A(s) = x. Equivalently, the corresponding series-summation method evaluates A(a) = x. 1. Linearity. A is linear if it is a linear functional on the sequences where it is defined, so that A(r + s) = A(r) + A(s) and A(ks) = k A(s), for k a scalar (real or complex.) Since the terms an = sn+1 sn of the series a are linear functionals on the sequence s and vice versa, this is equivalent to A being a linear functional on the terms of the series. 2.Stability. If s is a sequence starting from s0 and s is the sequence obtained by omitting the first value and subtracting it from the rest, so that sn = sn+1 s0, then A(s) is defined if and only if A(s) is defined, and A(s) = s0 + A(s). Equivalently, whenever an = an+1 for all n, then A(a) = a0 + A(a). The third condition is less important, and some significant methods, such as Borel summation, do not possess it.