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Prevention and control of air pollution: Following measures may be adopted for control of air pollution: [1] Restriction

of smoke emission: The first and foremost step that should be taken to control air pollution is to prevent the emission of smoke from various sources. For this, two points are to be considered(i) The machines of factories, automobiles, generators etc. should be well maintained so that emission of smoke form them is reduced. In factories, tall chimneys should be used so that the smoke is diluted. To ensure this, laws should be framed and enforced by the government. (ii) A proper selection of fuel is to be made; for this coal and diesel should be replaced by electricity, natural gases, smokeless coal etc. as far as possible. [2] Purification of air : Modem techniques should be used to remove pollutants from air ; for example(i) Electrostatic precipitators can be used for making the air free from dust and smoke. (ii) Filters should be used in factories and machines to absorb poisonous gases from their (iii) Scrubber can be used to remove gases like NH2 and S02 from air by spraying water. (iv) Plantation should be encouraged in densely populated places and deforestation should be banned because plants purify the air by absorbing CO2, [3] Proper planning of industry and towns: Towns and industry (factories) should be planned and developed at a safe distance from each other. [4] Restriction of the use of insecticides. [5] Prohibition of smoking [6] Nuclear explosions: Nuclear explosions and wars should be stopped. 5. What are the major air pollutants ? Write about their effects. Ans: The major air pollutants and their effects are as follows -Major Air Pollutants 1. Carbon mono- oxide Effect It has a high affinity to haemoglobin and replace oxygen. It forms an unstable compound called carboxyhaemoglobin in blood which causes headache and slows down mental and physical activities. High CO2 concentration forms a blanket around the earth which prevents the heat from escaping from earth which prevent which causes rise in temperature leading to global warming, S02 oxidises to sulphur trioxide which on combinatiop with water form dilute solution of H2SO4 The sulphuric acid when precipitated form acid rain. It is poisonous to plant life, fish and other aquatic animals. It to acts on unsaturated hydrocarbons form Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (pAN). It

2. Carbondioxide (CO2)

3. Sulphur dioxide S02

4. Nitrous oxide (NO)

causes eye irritation, pulmonary congestion or even death. It is mainly a suspension of carbon particles in air 5. Smog which reduces the amount of sunlight reaching the earth. When it combines with water vapour to give rise to smog it causes eye irritation, eye watering, lung cancer, bronchial diseases etc. Q. How is photochemical smog produced? 2 Ans: Photochemical smog is formed when hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide mix with other pollutants and free radicals of oxygen. Nitrogen dioxide impart the brownish colour of the smog. These chemicals mainly arise from fumes and exhaust of motor vehicles. The complicated reaction that involves in smog formation is induced by the sunlight and contains substances such as, peroxides, aldehydes, ketones, peroxyacids, sulphur trioxides and some metal particles. Photochemical smog is a serious phenomenon of gigantic industrial cities. 7. Write short notes on (i) Green house effect and (ii) Acid rain. Ans: (i) Green house effect: Continuous burning of fossil fuel and deforestation increases 'the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes increase in temperature. In natural process, the earth is heated by the sun. The heat is radiated back to the earth. But excess carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere does not allow the heat radiated by earth to pass into the outer space. The thick layer of CO2 functions like glass panel of a green house. The increasing CO2 concentration of the troposphere is alarming as it is causing rise in temperature. If it continues, glaciers and ice caps will melt which will flood many coastal cities of the world. This condition is called green house effect or global warning. (ii) Acid rain : In presence of moisture, sulphur dioxide and some other pollutants in the atmosphere form weak acid. These acids are brought down by rain water. Such rain is called acid rain. It causes great harm to building, historical monuments etc. The main constituents of acid rain is sulphuric acid which is formed by dissolving sulphur dioxide in water. Some times nitric acid is also formed from oxides of nitrogen. Q. What is "Greenhouse Effect"? How has human activities contributed to the enhancing of the effect? 2+3=5 [H.S. 1st Yr. '02J Ans: Greenhouse Effect : (Refer to previous answer ) Human activities enhancing Greenhouse Effect : (i) Use of automobiles such as cars, scooters, etc. (ii) Continuous burning of fossil fuel in factories like paper mills, cement factories, petroleum refineries, cotton mills, rubber factories, plastic factories, brick-clin etc. (iii) Domestic burning of coal, burning of coal in thermal plant. Q. Give two examples of secondary air pollutants mentioning their origin. (AMET 2000J Ans: Two examples of secondary air 'pollutants are-

1. Sulphuric acid: It originates from sulphur dioxide (S02) in air, which is emitted from the combustion of coal and petroleum products. S02 does not remain in gaseous form. It soon reacts with moisture content of air to form sulphuric acid (~S04)' 2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) : It is originated from nitrogen dioxide (N02). Sometimes in the presence of sunlight, atomic oxygen from the photochemical reduction of N02 also reacts with a number of reactive hydrocarbons (such as methane, ethane etc. which originate from burning of fossil fuels or directly from plants) to form reactive intermediate called radicals. These radicals then take part is a series of reactions to form still more radicals that combine with oxygen, hydrocarbons and N02 As a result, peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN is generated. Q. What do you mean by water pollution what are the sources of water pollution? State some methods to control water pollution? Ans: Definition: Water pollution is the phenomenon by which water is rendered unsuitable for consumption by man and other animals or habitation of aquatic plants and animals due to mixing of any poisonous material or pollutes it. Origin or causes of water pollution: [1] Industries: Generally the factories and industries are situated near the rivers and the sea and the industrial wastes are discharged into the river and sea water Most of these waste products e.g. chlorine, phenol, ammonia; cyanides, heavy metals ljke mercury, lead, chromium etc. are toxic for man and animals. In addition to the chemical wastes, many factories discharge hot water into the lakes and streams which causes a thermal pollution and endangers the life of aquatic animals and plants. [2] Sewerage system: The water of rivers and ponds is largely polluted by the sewerage system of the cities which carries the domestic wastes comprising of fecal matter, urine, sewage, bathroom-and kitchen-washings etc. [3] Misuse of water reservoirs: Water reservoirs ponds, lakes and rivers are also polluted by their improper use such as defecation, bathing of man and animals and washing of cloths etc [4] Pesticides: Pesticides and allied chemicals (e.g. insecticides, herbicides etc.) are used in agriculture; mosquito control etc. These chemicals are washed away by rain water and carried to tanks, ponds, rivers to pollute them. Harmful effects of water pollution: Water pollution affects us directly as well as indirectly. [1] Direct effects: Polluted water may cause various diseases depending upon the nature of pollutant present in it. (i) Intake of water containing bacteria and virus may cause water borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, jaundice, hepatitis, amoebiasis, gastro-enteritis etc. (ii) Pollutants like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, insecticides, radioactive materials etc. are absorbed by the blood and produce various types of toxic effects. (iii) Bathing in polluted water may result in infections of skin, eye and ear. [2] Indirect effects: Water pollution endangers the life of aquatic animals and plants. Mixing of industrial effluents and other toxic materials may kill the fishes present in the polluted water. Presence of sewage or decaying organic matters (e.g. leaves of plants, dead animals etc.) stimulate the growth of microbes in the polluted water reservoirs which increases the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the water. This in turn reduces the

amount of oxygen dissolved in the water which is available for the fishes and other aquatic animals. Deficiency of oxygen in a water reservoir may also kill the fishes present in it. Death of fish indirectly affects the mankind economically. Pollution of water is unfavourable for agriculture which is also undesirable for us. Prevention and control of water pollution: Following steps should be taken to get rid of water pollution and its harmful effects. The followings are the preventive measures of water pollution (a) Proper sewage disposal: Proper disposal of sewage so that it does not find its way into water bodies should be made available in the houses. (b) Treatment of Industrial Effluents: Discharge of effluents into rivers, lakes and sea should be strictly prohibited without treatment. (c) Judicious use of Fertilizers and Pesticides: Use of fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, fungicide should be minimum and judicious. These chemicals should be replaced by biofertilizers. (d) Maintaining clean water bodies: River and lakes should not be used for bathing or washing as it pollutes water. (e) Recycling of Pollutants: Various solid pollutants can be recycled whenever possible before they are released into the water bodies.