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The modern control technique is generally based on the methods, which allow appreciating the quality of materials and components without damaging them, in order to produce the needed test-bars for tests. The tests are based on the principle of recording the differences that can appear between different types of energies induced in material and the level of energy that goes out from the tested material. Nowadays the methods that are largely used in industry use the energy of penetrating X and rays, ultrasonic waves and magnetic field.

I. Theoretical principles
1. Checking with penetrating radiation The industrial radiography allows obtaining information regarding to the quality of internal structure and defects that may appear in a component. In industry are mainly used electromagnetic penetrating X and rays, radiation which are characterized by their nature, value of waves lengths and energy. The X-rays are produced in Roentgen tubes by sudden braking on a target of a fascicle of electrons, which are emitted by a heated filament and then accelerated by an electric field. The emitted photons have different waves lengths in function of the accelerating potential. Gamma radiations appear as a result of disintegrated processes, which take place in the elements nucleus or in the radioactive isotopes. Their energy depends on the nature of the sources. The gamma-ray sources used are the isotopes of Co-60. The attenuation law for penetrating electromagnetic radiations is

I x = I 0 * e x where I x = int ensity of emerging fascicle I 0 = int ensity of incidentting fascicle X = thickness of component = coeficient of attenuation


attenuation curve,



following on

an the




penetrating substances nature, thickness and the energy of the emitted photons.

In the case of non-homogeneity of examined material the radiographycal methods are based on the phenomenon of differentiated attenuation of an incident fascicle of radiations. The radiant image carried by the emergent flux can be transformed in an optical-radiographic image. The radiofilm is placed on the object that is examined. To determine the length of exposure there have to be known: the radiofilm sensitivity curve, the attenuating radiation curve in the material, the intensity of the source and the distance radiofilm-source. In fact there are used exposure monographs specific to the apparatus and sources. For a component with a thickness up to 100 150 mm, checking with X-rays is the best choice. For components with a thickness up to 200 300 mm, gamma checking is used.

The uses of gamma rays asks for higher protective measures than X-rays, but the sources are cheaper and can be used in a dirty environment. 2. Checking with ultrasonic waves

The ultrasonic waves are acoustic vibrations with a frequency of 105-109 Hz, which are spread as elastic waves. They are characterized by spreading velocity, intensity, reflexion and attenuation. Checking with ultrasonic waves is based on the phenomenon of ultrasonic waves reflexion, when they meet a delimitation surface between two surroundings of different densities. The methods used in practice are the shadow and echo methods.

The echo method uses piezo-electric gauges of transmitter-receiver with the frequency above 1 Hz. The examination technique for this method is shown in the next figure. 1-gauge; 2-component;3-oscillogram 4-defect; A-transmitter; B-bottom; C-defect echo The shadow method uses impulses as well, but it works only with one transmitter gauge and one receiver gauge, and has a smaller sensitivity than echo method.

The checking with ultrasonic waves has a very high sensitivity and it can be used for materials having a thickness up to 5 10 m.

3. Magnetic checking The magnetic tests can be applied only to ferromagnetic components. The homogenous magnetic field is characterized by, straight lines of strength, parallel and equal distances. Magnetic induction B, magnetic excitation H and magnetic permeability characterize the magnetic field :

B = *H .

Putting a ferromagnetic material in a magnetic field there will show up a supplementary induction. The magnetization of a ferromagnetic material creates a homogenous field within it only if the material is homogenous as well. When non-homogenous parts appear, when the magnetic permeability is different within it, the field is not homogenous. The strength lines will be deviated and close to the resistant area from the bodys surface appears a local thickening, which leads to a intensity rise, creation of a dispersion field and retaining the powder strewed on the component. The intensity of magnetic field of dispersion can be influenced by: defect position, its orientation, depth to which it can be found, shape of defect, magnetic permeability and the size of magnetic excitation applied.

Methods of magnetization used in magnetic checking are: linear magnetization, circular and mix magnetization.

The dispersion fields can be determined using magnetic powder or magnetic tape. Bellow is shown the block schematic for magnetic checking equipment. Its main components are: 1-control board; 2-voltage source for magnetization; 3-stands for transversal magnetization; 4electromagnet; 5-rezervoir; 6-pump; 7-can; 8-electric motor.

II. Procedure
- For checking with penetrating radiations will be presented the apparatus, some components having defects, their radiographs and the interpretation. - For checking with ultrasonic waves there will be determined the position of defects in a component using the echo method. - For magnetic checking there will be done the longitudinal and transversal magnetization of components and will be shown the areas with defects.