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John Dalton

(06/09/1766 - 27/07/1844) Qumico y fsico britnico Naci el 6 de septiembre de 1766, en Eaglesfield, Cumberland (hoy Cumbria). Hijo de un pobre tejedor. Autodidacta, comenz a ensear a la edad de 12 aos en una escuela de su ciudad natal. En 1781 se radica en Kendal, donde dirige una escuela junto a su primo y su hermano mayor. Se traslada a Manchester en 1793 y all pasa el resto de su vida como profesor, primero en el New College y ms tarde como tutor privado. En 1787 inicia una serie de estudios meteorolgicos que continu durante 57 aos, acumulando unas 200.000 observaciones y medidas sobre el clima en el rea de Manchester. Fue el primero en probar la teora de que la lluvia se produce por una disminucin de la temperatura, y no por un cambio de presin atmosfrica. Su primera obra fue, Observaciones y ensayos meteorolgicos (1793). Un ao despus presenta en la Sociedad Filosfica y Literaria de Manchester un ensayo sobre el daltonismo, tanto l como su hermano padecan de una forma gentica de ceguera para los colores (acromatopsia), que no permite al paciente distinguir entre el rojo y el verde; el ensayo fue la primera descripcin de este fenmeno. Su contribucin ms importante a la ciencia fue su teora de que la materia est compuesta por tomos de diferentes masas que se combinan en proporciones sencillas para formar compuestos. Esta teora, que formul por primera vez en 1803, es la piedra angular de la ciencia fsica moderna. En 1808 se edit su obra Nuevo sistema de filosofa qumica, que inclua las masas atmicas de varios elementos conocidos en relacin con la masa del hidrgeno. Lleg a su teora atmica a travs del estudio de las propiedades fsicas del aire atmosfrico y de otros gases. Tambin, abarc la lingstica y compuso una gramtica inglesa. Es elegido miembro de la Sociedad Real de Londres en 1822. En 1826 recibi la medalla de oro de la Royal Society de Londres. Fue miembro de la Academia Francesa de las Ciencias y tambin uno de los fundadores de la Asociacin Britnica para el Avance de la Ciencia. Entre sus obras destacan "Extraordinary facts relatin to the vision of colours" (donde describe el daltonismo), y "New system of chemical philosophy" (1808-10). John Dalton muri el 27 de julio de 1844 en Londres.

John Dalton
(06/09/1766 - 27/07/1844) British chemist and physicist He was born on September 6, 1766, in Eaglesfield, Cumberland (now Cumbria). The son of a poor weaver. Self-taught, he began teaching at the age of 12 years at a school in his hometown. In 1781 he moved to Kendal, where he runs a school with his cousin and his older brother. He moved to Manchester in 1793 and there spends the rest of his life as a teacher, first at New College and later as a private tutor. In 1787 began a series of meteorological studies which continued for 57 years, accumulating 200,000 observations and climate action in the Manchester area. Was first to test the theory that the rain is produced by a decrease in temperature, and not by a change in atmospheric pressure. His first work was, meteorological observations and testing (1793). A year later presented in the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester an essay on blindness, both he and his brother suffered from a genetic form of color blindness (achromatopsia), which allows the patient to distinguish between red and green; the trial was the first description of this phenomenon. His most important contribution to science was his theory that matter is composed of atoms of different masses combined in simple ratios to form compounds. This theory, first formulated in 1803, is the cornerstone of modern physical science. In 1808 he published his work New System of Chemical Philosophy, which included the atomic masses of various elements known in relation to the mass of hydrogen. He came to his atomic theory through the study of the physical properties of atmospheric air and other gases. Also included linguistics and composed English grammar. Is elected to the Royal Society of London in 1822. In 1826 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of London. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and one of the founders of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Among his works are "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colors" (which describes color blindness) , and " New system of chemical philosophy" ( 1808-1810 ) . John Dalton died on July 27, 1844 in London.