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01.

NATURE OF MATTER

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. For example- air, water, wood, are all matter. There are two ways of classifying matter. a. On the basis of physical forms under different conditions b. On the basis of intermolecular forces. The main identifying characteristic of solid is its rigidity. It means solids have the tendency to maintain their shapes when subjected to outside forces. Liquids and gas are however fluid. In what way then the gas differs from liquid? It is compressibility. A gas can be compressed easily, whereas liquid cannot. Due to this property we can fill more and more gas into the tyres, which increases only slightly in volume. Matter is made up of particles .In physics chemistry and biology the stable neighbouring particles (atoms, molecules or ions) attract each other by a force termed as intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are weaker than ionic and covalent forces they are also called Vander walls forces. In case of solids these forces are strong enough to keep the particles together and therefore solids have a particular shape. On these basis, five different forms or states of matter can be identified .These are SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA and BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATE. 1. a. b. c. d.

SOLIDRetains its own shape and volume (it is rigid). It is virtually incompressible. The intermolecular forces are very strong and prevent them from moving.(it makes the solid non fluid) They are crystalline It means solids are highly ordered structures where the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) are arranged in an ordered geometrical pattern in three dimensional space called lattice, seen only through the microscope.

Common crystals are igneous rock, diamond and table salt. Crystal Structure
The scientific definition of crystal is based on microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it. A crystal is a solid where atoms form a periodic arrangement. Exceptions are quasicrystal.

are atoms, molecule and ions are arranged in a definite geometrical shape ( a triangle, pentagon triangle, octahedral) in regularly repeating and ordered pattern. But quasicrystals are the crystals in which molecule have an orderly pattern that include pentagons (5 fold shapes) but unlike crystals the pattern never repeat exactly . Since pentagon shaped, molecules cannot fit into each other nature has added other atomic shape into the gap. They are first discovered by an Israeli scientist Daniel Shectman who won the chemistry Nobel Prize in 2011.

Q What are quasicrystals? Answer- As explained above, in crystals particles whose constituents

Uses of quasicrystal
a. b.

They are thermally stable, hence used in non-stick cookware. They have potential application in nano technology.

2. a. b. c. d.

Liquid assumed the shape of the container. It is incompressible. It is fluid and flows freely. It diffuses slowly.

LIQUID

3. GAS

a. b. c. d.

It assumes volume and shape of container. It is compressible. The diffusion of gas occurs rapidly (diffusion is the property of molecules to spread simply from higher concentration to lower concentration. For example when perfume is sprayed in one corner, it spreads rapidly). It flows readily.

4. Plasma

Plasma is the ionic state of gas in which electrons are removed away from their shell by applying high temperature or high voltage difference. Like a gas plasma does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gas, plasma are electrically conductive and produce electric current. 1. Lightning, 2. Electric sparks 3. Fluorescent Lamp 4. Sun All are examples of plasma state of gases. In 1924, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose predicted the "BoseEinstein condensate" (BEC), sometimes referred to as the fifth state of matter. In a BEC, matter stops behaving as independent particles, and collapses into a single quantum state that can be described with a single, uniform wave function. A BoseEinstein condensate is "colder" than a solid. It may occur when atoms have very similar (or the same) quantum levels, at temperatures very close to absolute zero (273.15 C). 1. 2. Glass glass is a non crystalline or amorphous solid that exhibits the solid transition toward liquid state. Liquid crystal- liquid crystals exhibit properties intermediate between mobile liquids and ordered solids. They are used in making liquid crystals screens.

Examples of plasmas are-

5. BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

Non classical states of matter are

Is Matter pure?

For a common person pure means having no adulteration. But, for a scientist all these things are actually mixtures of different substances and hence not pure. For example, Milk is actually a mixture of water, fat, proteins etc. When a scientist says that Something is pure, it means that all the constituent particles of that substance are the same in their chemical nature. A pure substance consists of a single type of Particles. Only elements are pure while compounds, mixture (solution and colloids) and alloys of metal are impure (it means it contains more than one type of particles).

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures 1. Element


a)

Element is the basic form of matter which cannot be broken into simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means. b) They serve as building blocks for other substances such as compounds and mixtures. c) An element consists of only one kind of atoms. Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Iron, Gold are examples of elements. d) There are total 118 elements out of which 92 are found in nature 11 are gases and 2 are liquid at room temperature. These are mercury and boron. e) All the elements are represented in the periodic table. 2. Compounds are substances in which two or more elements combine with one another in definite proportion by mass. For Example- Water is composed two elements hydrogen and oxygen in fixed proportion of 1:8. 3. Mixture contains two or more elements/compounds that can be physically separated from each other. For example air is the mixture of gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon etc.

What is a Solution?

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Lemonade, soda water etc. are all examples of solutions. Solution can be of a solid, liquid or a gas. In a solution there is homogeneity at the particle level . For example, lemonade tastes the same throughout. This shows that particles of sugar or salt are evenly distributed in the solution.

A colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture, for example, milk. Because of the small size of colloidal particles,(However colloidal particles are larger than solute particles) we cannot see them with naked eyes. But, these particles can easily scatter a beam of visible light. This scattering of a beam of light is called the Tyndall effect after the name of the scientist who discovered this effect.

WHAT IS A COLLOIDAL SOLUTION?

Common examples of colloids Fog, Clouds, Mist, Face Cream, Mud, Jelly, Cheese, Butter

02. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS & PRACTICAL USES OF IMPORTANT ELEMENT


The properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic number i.e., number of protons or the number of electrons in the neutral atom of the element. The modern periodic table attempts to arrange all 118 elements in order of increasing atomic number. The overall result of periodic table is that 1. Group shows similar properties because of similar outer electronic configuration. 2. A gradation of properties owing to gradually varying attraction between the nucleus and outer valence electrons as we go down the group.

1. 2.

The periodic table is a tabular display of elements on the basis of their atomic number (the number of protons in nucleus) and ( which we will discuss in next chapter). Hydrogen (1st element) is the lightest element while ununoctium (118th element) is the heaviest element. The elements from 1 to 98 (californium) occur naturally, the elements after 98 are synthesised in laboratories.

A period is a horizontal row in periodic table. There are seven periods. The first period consist of two elements hydrogen and helium. Lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon constitute the second period. The elements of first period have only 1 shell the K shell. The elements of second and third periods have respectively 2 ( K and L) and 3 ( K, L and M) shells and so on.

a. Periods

b. Groups-

Groups are the verticals column in periodic table. There are 18 columns. Elements in a group have same number of valence electrons .The chemical properties of an atom are largely determined by its valence electrons. This is

why elements in any given group have similar properties. For example let us consider elements of groups 1,2 17 and 18 and their respective electronic configurations. Elements of group 1 contain 1 electron in their outermost shell. This single valence electron is easily lost when requisite amount of energy is supplied to form a positively charged ion such as H+, Na +, K+. Similarly elements of group 2 which have 2 electrons in the outermost shell can lose both the valence electrons to form dipositive ions Mg2+, Ca 2+. At the other end of the table is group 17 elements which contains 7 electrons, n the outermost shell, i.e. 1 electron less than the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the outermost shell. Therefore it is easier for these elements to gain electron rather than lose 7 electrons. This transforms the atoms into ions with a single negative charge such as F, Cl, Br, I. The negatively charged ions are called anions. Group 18 elements have their outermost shell completely filled and the atoms of these elements have no tendency to gain or lose elements. Thus the element of this group are zerovalent and almost nonreactive or inert. Hence the gases of group 18 such as helium, neon and argon are called inert gases. Group 1 contains hydrogen and Alkali metals (Sodium, Potassium, rubidium, caesium) Group 2 contains Alkaline earth metals. It includes elements like Beryllium, Magnesium, and Calcium. Group 3 to Group 12 belongs to Transition metal. For example- Scandium, Titanium, Chromium, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Mercury.

Elements of group 1.

c. Blocks S blocks

The periodic table is divided into four blocks based on electronic configuration. S block comprises first and second group (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals). It contain highly electron positively metals.

P Block

P block comprises last six groups (group 13-18) and contains non metals such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, halogen (such as fluorine, chlorine, iodine) and noble gases. P block also includes semiconductors such as silicon, germanium, antimony, bismuth.

D block

F Block

D block contains elements of group 3 to group 12. It contains transition metals.

F block is set below the rest of the periodic table. It contains lanthanides and actinides. Lanthanides are popularly called as rare earth metals.

Practical uses of elements Uses of S Block elements Group 11. HYDROGEN (Atomic Number-1) a. rocket fuel b. Hydrogenation of saturated fat into Vanaspati ghee. 2. LITHIUM- (Atomic Number-3)
a. b. c.

3. SODIUM- (Atomic Number-11) a. Sodium vapour lamp. b. Sodium compounds including "common salt" (sodium chloride, NaCl), "soda ash" (sodium carbonate,

Batteries Alloy with aluminium, copper to make aircraft bodies. Lithium Carbonate is used as drug to treat manic-depressive disorder.

Na2CO3), "baking soda" (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, "bicarb"), and "caustic soda" (sodium hydroxide, NaOH), are important to the glass, soap, chemical, and metal industries.

4. POTASSIUM (Atomic Number-19) a. Fertilizer b. Potassium Nitrate used in gunpowder, fireworks. c. Potassium permanganate- mild antiseptic. d. Potassium hydroxide- Liquid detergent. e. Potassium bromide- Photography Group 25. BERYLLIUM (Atomic Number-4) 6. MAGNESSIUM (Atomic Number-12)
a. b. a. b. a. b.

Moderator in nuclear reactor. Alloy with copper very light- used in watch spring, computer parts.

7. CALCIUM (Atomic Number-20)

It is lighter than aluminium- used in aircraft, car engine, and missile construction. The magnesium hydroxide, ( milk of magnesia), magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) - used in medicine. Quick lime (Calcium oxide)- used in making washing powder. Calcium from limestone is a component of cement.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

8. STRONTIUM (Atomic Number-38)


a. b. c. a.

Calcium bicarbonate in water causes temporary hardness in water- It can be corrected by boiling the water. Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling. Calcium and magnesium sulphate in water causes permanent hardness. It cannot be removed by boiling. EFFECT OF HARD WATER -Hard water destroys the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum) or calcium soap. In swimming pools, hard water is manifested by a turbid, or cloudy (milky), appearance to the water. Softening-Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by monocations such as sodium or potassium ions.

c. Hardness of water

9. BARIUM (Atomic Number-56) b.


Barium sulphate used in X rays. Making rat poison.

Buoys- Is a floating device used for ocean studies- Tsunami warning system, temperature, Exploration Studies, Detecting Submarine by Sonar. Strontium Isotope- Treatment of Bone cancer. Rubidium strontium is used in dating fossils.

Titanium is a light weight metal- alloys with aluminium is used in making aircraft industries, also used in making artificial joints.

TRANSITION METALS or D Block Elements 10. TITANIUM (Atomic Number 22) 11. VANADIUM (Atomic Number-23) 12. CHROMIUM
a. b. c. d. a. Making superconductors.

Making stainless steel. Lead chromium is used in paints. Tanning lather Chromium plating on cars produces silver finish that is highly resistance to corrosion.

Harmful Effect-

13. MANGANESE (Atomic number-25) Harmful Effect

It is carcinogenic.

a. Manganese is a pinkish grey metal. b. Manganese is present in chlorophyll responsible for photosynthesis. Excess manganese, particularly inhalation of the powder/dust, is toxic. Exposure to manganese or manganese oxide(s) dust can result in a medical condition called manganism; symptoms resemble those of Parkinsons disease. Miners and welders are at greater risk of exposure. a. Making Steel b. Vital in the functioning of living organisms, transporting oxygen in blood via haemoglobin molecule. Cobalt is a bluish-white, lustrous, hard, brittle metal. It is magnetic. Cobalt is used in-alloys for aircraft engine parts. Batteries. Blue and green colors in glass and ceramics. Radioactive 60Co is used in the treatment of cancer. Component of vitamin B12.

14. Iron (Atomic Number-26)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

15. Cobalt (Atomic Number-27)

16. COPPER (Atomic Number-29)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Harmful effects:

Copper is a reddish soft metal. As a result of its excellent electrical conductivity, coppers most common use is in electrical equipment such as wiring and motors. Because it corrodes slowly, copper is used in roofing, guttering, and as rainspouts on buildings. Making alloys such as brass and bronze. Gun metals and American coins are copper alloys. Copper sulphate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers. Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity. Copper cookware should be lined to prevent ingestion of toxic verdigris (compounds formed when copper corrodes). a. b. c. d. To Galvanize iron to inhibit corrosion. Making Alloys such as German silver. Zinc-carbon batteries. Sun block, make-up and in ointments such as calamine lotion.

17. ZINC (Atomic Number-30)

18. Yttrium (Atomic Number-29)

19. ZIRCONIUM (Atomic Number-40)


a. b. c. d.

a. Alloys b. Yttrium-90, a radioactive isotope, is used in treatments for various cancers. c. Yttrium mixed with europium is used to produce phosphors, which provide the red color in color television tubes. Zirconium is very poor at absorbing neutrons. Useful in the cladding (outer layer) of Uranium fuel rods through which neutrons can travel easily. Superconductive magnets. Zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4) is a natural gemstone. Lithium zirconate can be used to absorb carbon dioxide. It can be used for carbon sequestration. Rechargeable Nickel cadmium batteries. In Making colour Television tubes. In paints, fabric dyes. Cadmium red gives red pigments. Cadmium chloride- Fungicide Plastic

20. CADMIUM (Atomic Number-48)


a. b. c. d. e.

Harmful Effect

21. Mercury (Atomic Number-80)


a. b. c. d. e.

a. Cadmium is highly toxic. b. It can cause kidney, lung intestine damage. Used in barometers, thermometers. Amalgamating with metals, it is used by unorganised sector to extracts gold in unhealthy conditions. In making advertising signs, mercury vapour lamp. Compounds of mercury are used in cosmetic (mascara). In agriculture to make PESTISIDES.

Harmful effect of mercury

a. It is highly toxic. b. It accumulates in organism such as fish, snakes and its concentration increases up the food chain. This phenomenon is called BIOMAGNIFICATION. c. It causes brain, kidney, and lung damage. d. It causes diseases. e. Minamata- It is a neurological disease. Symptoms are f. Crippling of hand and feet. g. Damage to hearing and speech. h. In extreme cases paralysis, death.

Important P Block Elements

Group 13 22. BORON (Atomic Number-26)


1. 2. 3. 4.

P block elements include non metals and metalloid/ semiconductors (they are intermediate between metals and non metals)

23. Aluminium (Atomic Number-13)

Boron is a metalloid. It is used to dope silicon semiconductors. Boric Acid-mild antiseptic. Borax-insecticide Boron nitride nano tube act as electrical insulator. They are the hardest materials in the earth.

It is most abundant element of earth crust. Its primary ore is bauxite. 1. Kitchen utensils 2. Aircraft and rocket bodies (because it is light in weight) 3. Glass making

Harmful effect of Aluminium

Group 14 of the periodic table 24. CARBON (Atomic Number-6)

Ingestion may cause alzheimers disease

Most abundant element of organic life. It has three physical forms. 1. Graphite- excellent conductors of heat and electricity. It is used ina. Pencil lead/tips. b. Dry cell c. Lubricant 2. Diamond- It is one of the hardest common material. It is used in a. Jewellery b. In cutting, dealing and grinding. 3. Graphene- it is the thinnest and strongest material ever known. It is made up of carbon nanotubes to form two/three dimensional structure. 4. Carbon alloy with iron to form carbon steel

5.

Carbon form a vast number of organic compounds with hydrogen and nitrogen.

25. Silicon (Atomic Number-14) Second most abundant element in earth crust. It is the metalloid .
1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. Semiconductor Industry Doped with boron arsenic is used to produce transistors, solar cell. Silicon oxide crystal is piezoelectric, computer chips. Silica as sand is principal ingredient of glass.

26. Germanium (Atomic Number-32) 3. 27. Lead (Atomic Number-82)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Semiconductors Used in transistor and computer chip. Infrared detectors.

Long term exposure result in 1. Kidney damage. 2. Brain damage, memory loss, learning disability in children.

Harmful effect

Lead batteries. Shielding form radiations. Anti knock agent in petrol. Environment concern with lead poisoning. Making PBC plastic. Making bullets. Lead paints

28. Arsenic (Atomic Number-33)

Uses of Lanthanides and Actinides


a. b.

Used in laser diodes and light emitting diode. It is harmful resulting in kidney, brain damage and skin lesions.

c. d.

Rare Earth elements are

The important uses of lanthanides are given below. Their oxides are used in the glass industry for polishing glass and making colored glass for goggles and television screens. Mixed oxides of lanthanides are used in petroleum cracking. Due to their paramagnetic and ferromagnetic nature, they are used in magnetic and electronic devices.

Rare earth elements are a set of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table specially 15 lanthanides + scandium and yttrium. These elements are called rare earth because of the scarcity of these minerals. The common uses of rare elements are shown in the following table.

Atomic Symbol no.


21 39 57 58 59 60 61 Sc Y La Ce Pr Nd Pm

Name
Scandium Yttrium Lanthanum Cerium

Selected applications
Light aluminium-scandium alloy for aerospace components. Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser, microwave filters, energy-efficient light bulbs. battery-electrodes, camera lenses, studio lighting, camera projection. Refining crude oil. Powerful magnets used in green technology (hybrid car, wind turbine), lasers made of it are used in medical surgeries. Nuclear batteries

Praseodymium strong metals for use in aircraft engines, lasers. Neodymium Promethium

Atomic Symbol no.


62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb

Name
Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Portable X-ray machines Infrared lasers. Rare-earth magnets, lasers Lasers lasers.

Selected applications

Lu Lutetium Thus rare earth element are used in wide variety of fields such as making magnets for electrical equipments, lasers for optical fibre communications, screens of television, computer, mobile phones. They are also used in medical diagnostics such as MRI, CT scan, PET scan and in green technology such as batteries for electric car.

Rare Earth Element Geological Distribution

Because of their scarce availability and diversified uses rare earth are called as the next oil. 1. China mines 95 % of the world rare earth supply mostly in Inner Mongolia. 2. Other significant producers are USA, India, Jamaica, Australia (mount Weld), central Africa, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan and Angola. 3. In India atomic mineral directorate for exploration and research in Hyderabad is the survey agency which has found huge deposit of rare earth in Puri and Ganjam districts in Odisha.

Indian rare earth limited is in ISO certified company of department of atomic energy (DAE), whose major activity is mining of heavy minerals like Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimanite and Monazite Sand. The heavy minerals are used in 1. Ceramics 2. TV Tubes 3. Thorium is used- fuel in stage three nuclear programme of India. Ilmenite: It is a source mineral for titanium. It is used in nuclear reactor and titanium metal. Rutile: welding. Zircon: Zircalloys as cladding material for nuclear fuel, pigments for ceramics. Monazite: source for thorium, rare earth elements. It is used in 3 rd stage nuclear programme of india. Garnet: Abrasives Sillimanite: glass making.

Heavy minerals

Uses of Actinides
1. 2. 3.

The most useful actinides are thorium, uranium and plutonium. Thorium is used in the atomic reactors and in the treatment of cancer. Their salts are used in making incandescent gas mantles. Uranium is used as nuclear fuel. Their salts are used in the glass industry for imparting green color, ceramic industry, textile industry and in medicines too. Plutonium is also used as nuclear fuel and for making atomic bombs.

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1. Matter is electrical in nature. 2. Atoms are made up of three fundamental particles Electrons, Protons and Neutrons. 3. Protons and neutrons are present in a very small nucleus at the centre of the atom .Almost the entire mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. 4. Protons are positively charged and are present in nucleus. Its mass is 1836 times that of electrons. 5. Electrons which have negligible mass are present around the nucleus. 6. Atom contains equal number of protons and electrons and is electrically neutral. 7. Electrons are negatively charged. 8. The electron in an atom revolves around the nucleus in definite energy levels or shell. 9. Neutron is a sub atomic particle which has no electric charge and mass slightly larger than proton. Its mass is 1839 times the mass of electron. Electrons are arranged around the nucleus in an atom. The electrons are arranged according to their energy. These energy level are described by number 1,2,3,4 or by letters K,L,M,N etc. referred to as shells. Smaller values of the principal quantum number indicate that the electrons are in a low energy level. The n=1 energy level is lowest energy level. This corresponds to K-shell. Similarly, the successive higher energy level n=2,n=3 and so on correspond to L,M, shell, etc. The first or the inner most shell (n=1) can take only two elements. The second shell (n=2) can take up to 8 electrons. The next shell (n=3) can take maximum 18 electrons, but if it is the outermost, then it can take 8 electrons only. Atomic Number is equal to number of proton/electron. For example the number of proton/electron in hydrogen is 1. So the atomic number of hydrogen is 1. Similarly the number of protons of helium is 2 so atomic number of helium is 2.

Structure of Atom

Atom is the smallest particle of matter. Maharishi Kanad postulated that if we go on dividing the matter we get smallest particle called Parmanu/Atom. Atoms cannot seen with naked eyes. They can be observed with special instrument such as scanning tunnelling microscope.

Atom

03. ATOM, MOLECULE AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Atomic Number

Number of proton =atomic number Atomic Mass

Number of protons + Number of electron = Atomic mass

The number of protons/electrons and number of neutrons is equal to atomic mass. For example in hydrogen there is 1 proton/electron but no neutron so the atomic mass of hydrogen is 1. Similarly in helium there are two protons and two neutrons so the atomic mass of helium is 4. Hydrogen with atomic mass 1 is the lightest element. The atomic number, mass number and the symbol of element is represented as follows

Valence Electrons

1. Hydrogen 2. Oxygen

The electrons present in outer most shell are known as valence electrons and they are responsible for chemical properties of atoms. Also they ate mainly responsible for emission spectra of an element. Example-

In hydrogen there is just one electron and the chemical activity is dependent on this electrons.

Oxygen has 2 electrons in first shell and 6 electrons is second shell. The total number of electron in second shell can be 8. In forming compound oxygen atom can receive two electrons to completely fill it second shell. Therefore 1 atom of oxygen combines with 2 atoms of hydrogen to form a water molecule. 3. Noble Elements- the Atoms of noble element have complete outer shell such as helium (2 electrons in 1st shell) and neon (8 electrons in 2nd shell) so they are

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Carbon-11, Carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. The atomic number in all isotopes remains same (6), however the number of neutrons in the isotopes are 6,7 and 8 respectively. 12 C, 13C, 14C Uses of Carbon Isotopesa. Carbon 11 is used in positron emission tomography scanning or PET scan. b. Carbon 14 is used in dating fossil. The relative concentration of isotope variants of carbon is nearly constant in living organism. However when the dead organism decay, the carbon 14 radioactive isotopes start disintegrating this phenomena can be used in dating fossils. Protium, Deuterium and tritium are the three isotopes of hydrogen. A. Deuterium is also known as heavy water and is used in coolant in nuclear reactors. B. While Protium is the fuel for nuclear fusion in sun cycle. C. Tritiuma. It is a important component of nuclear weapon. b. In making self power lighting devices called beta lights. Which are used in night vision goggles and watches. This takes the place of radium which can cause bone cancer.

1. Isotopes of Carbon

Some elements have more than one atomic mass but have same electrical charge on their nucleus and same chemical properties. Such element variants are called isotopes. Example of isotopes are-

Isotopes

chemically non reactive.

2. Isotopes of hydrogen

3. Isotopes of Uranium

4. Isotopes of Cobalt are

Uranium 238 is abundant in nature and does not show fission properties. On the other hand uranium 239 is radioactive and is used as a fuel in first stage nuclear programme. Similarly uranium 233 radioactive isotope is used with thorium in the third stage nuclear programme of India.

5. Isotopes of Holmium are 6. Isotopes of Samarium 7. Isotopes of Cesium

Cobalt 59 and Cobalt 60. Cobalt 60 is radioactive it convert into cobalt 59 (normal isotope) by emitting gamma rays. The gamma rays are very energetic and is used to kill microorganism and cancerous cell. Uses of cobalt 60 1. Food processing- in India radiation processing unit KRUSHK has been setup by BARC for radiation processing for food preservation. Holmium 164 and Holmium 166 Holmium 166 is used for treatment of arthritis. Samarium 150 and Samarium 153C Radioactive Samarium 150 is used for treatment of arthritis.

8. Isotopes of Iodine

Cesium 132 and Cesium 137 Cesium 132 is used in brachytraphy (Radiotherapy in which the source of irradiation is placed close to the surface of the body or within a body cavity). Iodine 126, Iodine 125 and Iodine 131 Iodine used in nuclear imaging of thyroid gland. Iodine 131 is used in treatment of hyperthyroidism (Gravess diseases).

ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

1. FERMIONS 2. BOSONS FERMIONS

Elementary particles are particles which are not fundamentally divided into further smaller particles. Elementary particles of matter interact with one another through four different types of forces: gravitation, electromagnetism, the forces of strong interactions and the forces of weak interactions. 2 fundamental classes of particles are

Fermions are one of the two fundamental classes of particles. They include QUARKS and LEPTONES.

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Quarks are the fundamental constituents of HADRONS ( which make up protons and neutrons).Quarks combine in group of three(baryons) or group of two with antiquark (mesons).There are six quarks, three positively charged (up quarks) and three negatively charged (down quark). 3 up type quarks are a) up b) top c) strange 3 down type quarks are a ) down b) bottom, c) charm. Like social elephants, quarks only exist in groups with other quarks and are never found alone. Composite particles made of quarks are called Although individual quarks have fractional electrical charges, they combine such that hadrons have a net integer electric charge. There are two classes of hadrons

QUARKS

Baryons are any hadron which is made of three quarks (qqq).

A meson is a fundamental particle which is 275 times heavier than electron. It is present in the nucleus, oscillating with the velocity of light and responsible for attraction between proton and neutron in the nucleus. Mesons contain one quark (q) and one antiquark ( ).

Because they are made of two up quarks and one down quark. Protons and neutrons are baryons. It is strange that a very-very small part of mass of a hadron is due to quarks in it.

One example of a meson is a pion ( +), which is made of an up quark and a down anti quark. The antiparticle of a meson is antipion ( )

LEPTONS

Leptons interact via weak interactions. There are total six leptons.

Three charged leptons are called electron like leptons, while the three neutral leptons are called neutrinos. Neutrino A Neutrino is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle[. The neutrino is denoted by the Greek letter (nu). Neutrinos have mass but it is so less that it is unmeasureable.. Neutrinos do not carry electric charge, which means that they are not affected by the electromagnetic forces that act on charged particles such as electrons and protons. Neutrinos are affected only by the weak sub-atomic force, of much shorter range than electromagnetism, and gravity, therefore a typical neutrino passes through normal matter unimpeded. Neutrinos are created as a result of certain types of radioactive decay, or nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the Sun, in nuclear reactors, or when cosmic rays hit atoms. There are three types of neutrinos: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos Most neutrinos passing through the Earth emanate from the Sun. About 65 billion solar neutrinos per second pass through every square centimetre perpendicular to the direction of the Sun in the region of the Earth. NEUTRINO DETECTIONt Neutrinos cannot be detected directly, because they do not ionize the materials they are passing through It requires a very large detector in order to detect a significant number of neutrinos.. Neutrino detectors are often built underground in order to isolate the detector from cosmic rays and other background radiation. Various neutrino detector observatories 1Super Kamiokande detector of Japan uses a large volume of water surrounded by photomultiplier tubes that watch for the Cherenkov radiation emitted when an incoming neutrino creates an electron or muon in the water. 2The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is similar, but uses heavy water as the detecting medium.

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3 India-based Neutrino Observatory is a proposed particle physics research project to primarily study atmospheric neutrinos in a 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) deep cave under near Bodhi hills Theni, Tamil Nadu, India. The project is a multi-institute collaboration and one of the biggest experimental particle physics projects undertaken in India.

BOSONS Photon

Bosons are one of the two classes of fundamental particles. Bosons may be either elementary, like photons and gluons, or composite, like mesons. Photon is a discrete bundle (or quantum) of electromagnetic (or light) .in vacuum the speed of light is c = 3 x 108 m/s.

Basic Properties of Photons

1. Photon has no mass. 2. Photon has the property of both wave and particle all the time. 3. Photon cannot decay on its own, although the energy of the photon can transfer (or be created) upon interaction with other particles such as electrons. 4. Wave properties of light is explained by the fact that photons have frequency, amplitude and wavelength. 5. Particle properties of photon is explained by photoelectric effect 6. Photoelectric effect 7. The photoelectric effect posed a significant challenge to the study of optics in the latter portion of the 1800s. It challenged the classical wave theory of light. It was documented by Heinrich Hertz (originally called hertz effect) 8. As shown in the diagram above when a light source is incident upon a metallic surface, the surface can emit electrons. Electrons emitted in this fashion are called photoelectrons (although they are still just electrons). It thus explains that photon act as particles and hit the metal surface of electrons. 9. Photons are electrically neutral and are one of the rare particles that are identical to their antiparticle, the antiphoton.

Einstein proposed that light consisted of quanta, which we call photons. He suggested that the energy in each quantum of light was equal to the frequency multiplied by a constant (Planck's constant) and that a photon with a frequency over a certain threshold would have sufficient energy to eject a single electron, producing the photoelectric effect. It turns out that light does not need to be quantized in order to explain the photoelectric effect, but some textbooks persist in saying that the photoelectric effect demonstrates the particle nature of light.

Einstein and photoelectric effect

Gluons

Gluons are force-mediating particles that exist in every atomic nucleus, holding it together. They mediate the strong nuclear force, which is the strongest of nature's four forces, 137 times stronger than electromagnetism and about 1.6 x 1039 times stronger than gravity, the weakest force. Its limitation is that it only operates on extremely small distances, the scale of the atomic nucleus. The strong force holds together all known matter in the universe except for dark matter. So the atomic nucleus consists of a combination of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and gluons. Like a photon (light), a gluon has no mass. It just represents a packet of force. Unlike photons however, gluons have their own charge which means they interact with themselves.

Higgs boson

Named after Peter Higgs, and coined by Nobel prizewinning physicist Leon Lederman, the Higgs boson is crucial to understanding the origin of mass. After BIG BANG, it is believed that mass less particles were formed that had no mass, but became heavy because of the Higgs field. Any particles that interact with this field acquired mass, slowed down and began to bunch up to form composite particles and atoms.

HIGGS FIELD

HIGGS FIELD is the theoretical invisible energy that stretches throughout universe. Particles other than photon are dragged in it and acquire mass.

Standard Model of physics envisages that the universe is made from 12 basic building blocks called fundamental particles these are 6 quarks and 6 leptons.6 quarks make up protons and neutrons while leptons include electrons and neutrinos. Standard model also acknowledges four fundamental forces. Gravity, electromagnetic, strong and weak forces.

Standard Model of physics

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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the worlds largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It first started up on 10 September 2008 at CERN. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in vacuum. They are guided around the accelerator ring by a strong magnetic field maintained by superconducting electromagnets. This requires chilling the magnets to 271.3C a temperature colder than outer space. The beams inside the LHC are made to collide at four locations, corresponding to the positions of four particle detectors ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb.

Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Colliders seven particle detector experiments

ATLAS A toroidal LHC Apparatus is one of the seven particle detector experiments, constructed at the Large Hadron Collider , a particle accelerator at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland. It is headed by Fabiola Gianotti. It was one of the two LHC involved in the discovery of the elementary particle Higgs Boson in July 2012. CMS Compact Muon Solenoid is one of particle accelerator made up of superconductors. Its achievement include discovery of Higgs boson particle.Its other work include study of dark matter. LHCb is a specialised experiment which is studying the interactions of b-hadrons(heavy particles containing bottom quark). Such studies can help to explore the matter antimatter asymmetry in the universe. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment studies heavy ion collision through lead-lead nuclei collision. The heavy resulting temperature and energy generates quark- gluon plasma( It is a soup of free quarks and gluons which are several of the basic building block of matter). LHCf The LHCf intends to measure energy and numbers of mesons produced by the collider. This is meant to explain ultra high energy cosmic waves.

Antimatter is matter composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but have opposite charge and quantum spin. For example, a positron is the antiparticle of the electron, with symbol e+ and an antiproton is the antiparticle of proton symbol p. Together positron and antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom. Furthermore, mixing matter and antimatter can lead to the annihilation of both, thus giving rise to high-energy photons (gamma rays) and release of energy proportional to the mass as the mass-energy equivalence equation, E=mc2 shows. Antiparticles are created everywhere in the universe where high energy particle collisions takes place. High energy cosmic rays and centre of galaxies are believed to form antiparticles and antimatter. The apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. The process by which this asymmetry between particles and antiparticles developed is called baryogenesis.

WAHT IS ANTIMATTER? Antimatter

Uses of Antimatter 1. MedicalPositron emission tomography / PET scan.

How a PET scan works? During a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, a substance known as a radiotracer is passed into your body. A radiotracer is a radioactive chemical that releases tiny particles called positrons. There are several ways that a radiotracer can be introduced into the body. It can be injected into one of your blood vessels, it can be inhaled as a gas or it can be swallowed in the form of a tablet or capsule.

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2. Fuel

Most PET scanners use a radiotracer called fludeoxyglucose (FDG), which is similar to naturally occurring glucose except that it is radioactive. The advantage of using FDG is that your body will treat it in a similar way to normal glucose. Studying how different parts of the body respond to glucose provides a great deal of information about the processes of the body. For example, cancerous tissue processes glucose in a different way from normal body tissue, so using FDG is an effective way of detecting cancers. As FDG moves through your body, it will release a stream of positrons. The positrons quickly break down, releasing energy waves known as gamma waves. The PET scanner is designed to detect gamma waves, which show up as a three-dimensional image on a computer screen. The image The image produced during a PET scan highlights how certain parts of your body break down the radiotracer. Antimatter when collide with matter produces enormous energy. This energy can be used to propel interplanetary travel.

The motion of stars are the result of the gravitational force from all other matter in the galaxy. But in 1970s, an astronomer Vera Rubin who was measuring the velocities of stars in other galaxies noticed something strange: the stars at the galaxies' edges moved faster than had been predicted. In other words, all the matter we can see is not enough to produce the gravity that is pulling things around. In all cases, there must be something else there, something we can't see, something dark. The name scientists have given to the missing material is "dark matter." We can see the bright matter. Dark matter is the matter which is not seen by our eyes and through telescope as it neither emits nor reflects nor transmits the lights. It is believed that there is more than 50 times more dark matter than bright matter in the universe. The dark matter is believed to be made up of 1. Normal matter which has so far remained out of our sight. It includes 1. Black holes. 2. Dark galaxies. Massive standard model neutrinos. This includes

Dark Matter

1. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPS)

2. Charged massive particles (CHAMPS).


How stars born and die?

WIMPS are the hypothetical particles to form dark matter. These particles interact through the weak force and gravity. Because they dont interact through electromagnetism they cannot be seen directly. WIMPs are like neutrinos except for being massive and slow.

A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on the planet.. For a major part of life, a star acts like a nuclear bomb and shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that radiates into outer space. Activities occurring in stars before death. The total mass of a star is the principal determinant in its evolution and eventual fate. Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is exhausted A star with at least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun] expands to become a red giant. As stars of at least 0.4 solar masses exhaust their supply of hydrogen at their core, their outer layers expand greatly and cool to form a red giant. In about 5 billion years, when the Sun enters this phase, it will expand to a maximum radius of roughly 1 astronomical unit (150 million kilometres), 250 times its present size. Very high mass stars with more than nine solar masses expand to form red supergiants. Once this fuel is exhausted at the core, they continue to fuse elements heavier than helium.

The collapse of star As a star's core shrinks, the intensity of radiation from that surface increases, creating such radiation pressure on the outer shell of gas that it will push those layers away, forming a planetary nebula. If what remains after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1.4 solar masses, it shrinks to a relatively tiny object about the size of Earth, known as a white dwarf. It is not massive enough for further compression to take place.The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer a plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma. White dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs over a very long stretch of time. In larger stars, fusion continues until the iron core becomes so dense that it can no longer support its own mass. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons, neutrinos and gamma rays in a burst of electron capture and inverse beta decay. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy.

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Most of the matter in the star is blown away by the supernova explosion and what remains will be a neutron star In case of the largest stars , a black hole is formed For Universe please refer last Parakram.

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04. ELECTRICITY HEATING CHEMICLE EFFECT


Electricity has an important place in modern society. Among all energies, it is the most convenient energy.

Electric Charge

Electric charge is an example of static electricity. In certain substances electrons are bounded loosely. If some of them are removed the substances become positively charged while the body which gains electrons become negatively charged. This physical phenomenon occurs when two substance are rubbed against each other. An Atom is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons form the mass of the nucleus, while electrons rotate in well defined orbits or shell. Conductors are substances in which electricity can flow freely. Examples:Metals are elements which show four important properties. Metals show metallic lustre.(except sodium and potassium). Metals are hard .They cannot be cut with a knife (exceptions are sodium and potassium). Metals are malleable which means metals can be beaten into thin sheets. Metals are ductile which means metals can be drawn into wires. Metals are good conductor of heat. Metals are good conductor of electricity. Metals are hard and can be cut with a knife. Silver is the best known conductor in metals others are copper, gold, tungsten, nickel, lead, zinc, platinum. Therefore Tungsten is used in filaments of bulb and tube lights. of alloys are a. Constantan is made up of copper and nickel. b. Magnanin is made up of Iron, Manganese, Copper and Nickel. c. Nichrome is made up of Nickel, Chromium, Iron and Manganese. Alloys are having lower conductivity compared to metal. Hence they are used in making appliances like toasters and base of electric iron.

Conductors:-

1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

2. Alloys (Alloys are mixtures formed when a metal combines with another metal or non metal). Some common examples

3. Non Metals or Insulator:-

Non metals or insulator are generally poor conductors of electricity. Exceptions are Graphite and Graphene (Both along with diamond are the three physical forms are carbon. The first cell to generate electricity was invented by A. Volta. He used the chemical energy of copper sulphate and conductors to generate electricity.

1.

At the cathode end, a copper conductor is placed in a beaker with copper sulphate as the solution. The copper of the conductor reacts with the copper sulphate solution, resulting into the formation of copper ions and electrons. This end where excess electrons are formed. The electrons run in the copper wire and produce electricity. The end at which electrons are generated is called positive end or cathode. The other end which receives electrons is called negative end or anode.

Functioning of voltaic cell:-

Potential Difference (PD)

PD is the difference of electric pressure between electron excess and electron deficient ends. When the ends are joined with the wire, current flows. Thus PD can be considered equal to potential energy and current equal to kinetic energy. The symbol of PD is V, its SI unit is Volt and it is calculated by an instrument called Voltmeter.

Its symbol is I, the SI unit is Ampere and it is measured by an instrument called ammeter.

CURRENT Flow of electrons is current.

OHM, S LAW states-

Current passing through a metallic wire is directly proportional to the potential difference across the wire which means - I is directly proportional to V or

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IR = V where R is a constant and is the resistance of the wire or an electrical equipment. Resistance is the property of the wire that affects the flow of current. Like friction it is the resisting force and is present in all substances. R is a constant for the given metallic wire at a given temperature and is called its resistance. It is the property of a conductor to resist the flow of charges Its SI unit is ohm, represented by the Greek letter .

Resistance

the source. What current will the heater draw if the potential difference is increased to 120 V? Solution We are given, potential difference V = 60 V, current I = 4 A. According to Ohms law, R=V/I = 60/4 = 15 ohms When the potential difference is increased to 120 V the current is given by current=120 V/15 ohms=8A The current through the heater becomes 8 A.

Example 1 Question The potential difference between the terminals of an electric heater is 60 V when it draws a current of 4 A from

PT Facts for resistance1)Larger the wire larger the resistance. E.g. if a wire is beaten to twice the length, the resistance increases two times.

Similarly if a wire is cut in 4 parts the resistance decreases to one by four. 2) Larger the area smaller the resistance 3) R is directly proportional to Length of the wire and inversely proportional to area of the wire.

RESISTANCE OF A SYSTEM OF RESISTORS

Till now we have learnt about some simple electric circuits. However in various electrical gadgets, we often use resistors in various combinations. We now see how Ohms law can be applied to combinations of resistors. There are two methods of joining the resistors together. Resistors in series Resistors in parallel

Resistors in series:1. 2. 3. In series resistor are joined end to end. Current in series- Current remains same in every part of the resistors that is same I is recorded in R1 R2 and R3. PD- PD or voltage drops. Total voltage across the combination is equal to sum of voltage drop across separate resistors. It means voltage V1 across R1 is = IR1, V2 = IR2 and V3 = IR3 and V=total voltage =V1+V2+V3 Most of the house electrical appliances are connected in parallel. This is done to maintain same voltage in them as in parallel circuitThe voltage remains same across all resistances. i.e, V is same in R1,R2 and R3 The current is divided in various resisters and is inversely proportional to the resistance I =I1+I2+I3 and I1= V/R1, I2=V/I2 and I3=V/I3 The rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an electric circuit. Is termed as electric power. The power P is given by P = VI The SI unit of electric power is watt (W). It is the power consumed by a device that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V. Thus, 1 W = 1 volt 1 ampere = 1 V A The unit watt is very small. Therefore, in actual practice we use a much

Resisters in Parallel:

1. 2.

Figure 3 Resisters in Parallel

Electric Power

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larger unit called kilowatt. It is equal to 1000 watts. Since electrical energy is the product of power and time, the unit of electric energy is, therefore, watt hour (W h). One watt hour is the energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1 hour. The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt hour (kW h), commonly known as unit. 1 kW h = 1000 watt 3600 second = 3.6 106 watt second = 3.6 106 joule (J)

applications. The electric laundry iron, electric toaster, electric oven, electric kettle and electric heater are the devices which are based upon Joules heating effect. 2. The electric heating is also used to produce light, as in an electric bulb. Here, the filament must retain as much of the heat generated as is possible, so that it gets very hot and emits light. It must not melt at such high temperature. A strong metal with high melting point such as tungsten (melting point 3380C) is used for making bulb filaments. The filament should be thermally isolated as much as possible, using insulating support, etc. The bulbs are usually filled with chemically inactive nitrogen and argon gases to prolong the life of filament. 3rd common application of Joules heating is the fuse used in electric circuits. It protects circuits and appliances by stopping the flow of any unduly high electric current. The fuse is placed in series with the device. It consists of a piece of wire made of a metal or an alloy of appropriate melting point, for example aluminium, iron, lead etc. If a current larger than the specified value flows through the circuit, the temperature of the fuse wire increases. This melts the fuse wire and breaks the circuit.

1. As a result of electric current heat is generated in a conductor heating effect of electric current has many useful

Practical Applications of Heating Effect of Electric Current

Domestic Circuit:- consist of 3 important wires- Live wire, Neutral wire and earth wire. Their roles are following.
The Live wire is connected directly to the electricity supply. It carries 230 Volts. The Neutral wire receives the electric current from the live wire by completing the circuit. The Neutral wire is at zero volts. The Earth wire usually carries no electricity, it is a safety device. If something in the appliance goes wrong, or it is wired incorrectly, then the Earth wire may be carrying the same electricity as the Live wire. Thus it discharges all faulty current underground.

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05. MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT


In the previous Chapter on Electricity we learnt about the heating effects of electric current. What could be the other effects of electric current? It is the magnetic effect of electric current. An electric current-carrying wire behaves like a magnet. H.C Oersted, one of the leading scientists of the 19 th century, played a crucial role in understanding electromagnetism. In 1820 he accidentally discovered that a compass needle got deflected when an electric current passed through a metallic wire placed nearby. This happens only when the magnetic compass is placed in a magnetic field.

The Direction of magnetic field around an electrical conductor

Electro Magnetism It implies that a magnetic field is formed around a changing electrical current and reverse i.e changing magnetic field produces an electric current. The unit of magnetic field strength is Oersted. Magnetic field is a quantity that has both direction and magnitude. A convenient way of finding the direction of magnetic field associated with a current-carrying conductor is right hand thumb rule Supposed that we are holding a current-carrying straight conductor in our right hand such that the thumb points towards the direction of current. Then your fingers will wrap around the conductor in the direction of the field lines of the magnetic field, as shown in Fig. 4. This is known as the right-hand thumb rule*.

Applications of electro magnetism 1. Electric Motors (EM) EM are the devices which convert electrical energy into
mechanical energy the magnetic effect created around the electric wire causes the deflection around the conductor wire which then moves and run the appliances. Example are electric fan, washing machine, electric car etc.

2. Electric Generator is the device which converts the kinetic energy of water / wind into electrical energy. How it works?

3. 4. 5.

The kinetic energy of the moving water or wind moves the turbine. The turbine contain strong magnet. The movement of magnet produces electric current through the wire passing through it (As a result of electromagnetic effect) resulting in the production of electricity. The electricity produced in the form of alternating (AC) current. In which the current changes its direction with every half rotation of the conductor. In India Most power station produce AC. The frequency of AC in India is 50hertz it means current is changing direction in the conductors every 1/100 th of a second. Advantage of AC current is that current can be transmitted over long distances without much loses. Direct Current (DC):AC can be converted into DC. MRI machine and magnetic trains also uses phenomenon of electromagnetism Propulsion system in rocket Superconducting accelerators produced by very strong electromagnet are used in large hadron colliders experiment to find higgs boson or the gods particle.

Super Conductors:-

1. 2. 3.

It was observed by a dutch physicist H.K. Onnes that the electrical conductivity of metals increases with lowering of temperature. This phenomena is termed as super conductivity or the maximum conductivity. The temperature at which a metal obtains super conductivity is called as critical temperature. The reason for super conductivity at low temperature In metal, electron is responsible as the charge carrier. A systematic flow of electronsin one direction is responsible for flow of electricity. An increase in temperature will cause the electrons to get excited and this causes them to move in not so orderl y manner. However at low temperature the electrons excitation decreases and electrons flow in a single direction at super conducting speed. However opposite happens in electrolyte (Electrolyte are the acid, base or salt in ionic state).

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4. a. b.

In electrolyte, it is the ions (both positive and negative) that is responsible as the charge carrier. An increase in temperature will increase the energy of the ions and they will move faster. Hence its efficiency as charge carrier increases and this will cause the conductivity to increase. Practical uses of super conductors SQUIDS (Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device) are the super conducting magnet which are used to detect very small changes in magnetic field. SQUIDS are used in- 1. Magnetic Sensors in super market 2.Making integrated circuit (ICs) computers. Super conducting magnetic trains or maglevs trains. Maglev trains do not have an engine. Instead of using fossil fuels, the magnetic field created by the electrified coils in the guideway walls and the track combine to propel the train. As we know electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental forces of attraction, the other three are- 1. Strong intermolecular force 2. Weak intermolecular force 3. Gravitational force.

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06. ELECTRONIC
Electronic are the devices which use electric current to carry information. The current carrying information is called signals. The signal can be- 1. Light 2. Sound 3. Picture 4. Numbers 5. Information 1. 2. 3.

Signals are two type Ana log These signals can have any value. Light photons, sound and electons can be used to create such signals. Digital- These signals carry information like electric switches 1, 0. These signals expressed in bits.
The signals are generated controlled and amplified with the help of electronic devices made of semi conductors.

4. Semi Conductors -

5. 6.

Semi conductors are naturally occurring elements like silicon, germanium, antimony, bismuth etc. Which act as resistors at room temperature but conduct electrons in a regulators manner when tiny impurities are added by the process of doping. Doping with phosphorus increases the numbers of negatives electrons and semi conductors becomes n type. Doping with boron result in the formation of holes of semi conductors in which electrons jump. This semi conductor is known as p type.

a.

three pins to connect to the externals circuit. It is the fundamental brick of electronic devices. eg. Video, Computer, Calculator. As a switch transistor are used in making logic gates and integrated circuit IC. As an amplifier the transistor are used in mobiles phones, televisions to amplify the sound, light or radio signals.

Electronic Components are of Three Main Type Transistor- Transistor is a semi conductor device use to amplify and switch electronic signals. It has

b.

Diode- Diode is a two terminals electronic device made up of p and n type of semi conductors (explained below) joined at p-n junction. The diode show asymmetrical flow of current that is high conductivity from n to p direction while high resistivity from p to n direction. Uses of Diode1. They are used in making logic gates (AND and OR) 2. Rectifier made up of diode is used to convert AC current to DC current 3. Diode are very sensitive to radiations like cosmic rays, gamma rays hence diode are being used to detect the radiations leakage in nuclear reactor and detecting cosmic rays from dark matters and distant galaxies. 4. Light emitting diodes (LED) made up of Gallium emit light in visible range. LED are used in diverse applications like advertisement lights, automobile lights, Aviation lights, Traffic signals, Sensors, touch screens, LED Lamps, Video Displays like LED television. LED Lights consume less power, do not contain mercury and has longer life time because of less wear and tear and generate high intensity white light. Hence LED light is better than CFL lights. 5. Photo Electric Devices are the semi conductor diode which emit electrons and conduct electricity when photon (Particles of light) fall on them. Uses of photoelectric devicesPhoto electric device capturing light and conducting electricity.

1. Photo voltaic cell or solar cell which captures sun light and convert into electricity. 2. Charged couple devices (CCD) used in digital cameras and telescopes are a form of photoelectric device. c. Integrated Circuit- IC contains nano sized transistors formed by nano technology. They are used in making compact laptops, cameras and super computers. Consumer Electronic Microwave uses microwaves radiation to heat the food. Microwaves are released when electric current is passed which passes through the food. The radiation changes polarity several billion times a second. Water which is also charged molecule changes polarity in microwave field. As water molecule rub against each other friction is produce which causes the food to heat up. It means only food containing water and water itself gets heated in a microwave while paper wood etc does not heat b ecause they do not contain water. Photocopier- Photocopier is a electromagnetic device. It contain photo conductor cylindrical drum. The paper is placed on a glass plate. The drum is heated to 230 to 320 degree Celsius. The image is reflected by the mirror on to the drum. Depending on the intensity of light receive. The photo conducting material loses its resistance. This results in a charged image

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1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

1.

on this cylinder. After this toner (negatively charged is pump to the drum. Based on charged map toner gets de posited and form a toner image on the drum which then translated onto the paper. Refrigerator- Refrigerator uses compressed gas made up of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), fluoro carbons Freon at high pressure. The pressurised gas is made to run through coiled tubes. As gas expands it loses temperature. This lowers the temperature of the refrigerator which cools the items in the fridge. Uses of CFCs- It is one of the six green house gases. Six Green house gases are Refrigerator 1. Methane Air conditioner 2. Carbon dioxide Propellants for aerosols 3. Ozone For generating foamed plastics like expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam 4. Nitrous oxide As solvents for dry cleaning and degreasing purposes. 5. Water vapour Side effect of CFCsCFCs damages Ozone layer in stratosphere. It reacts with ozone by forming oxygen radical 6. CFCs and destroys it in the chain reaction. Other planets containing Chemical reaction of CFC green house gases CFC+O3 (Ozone) Chlorine radical + Oxygen radical + O2 (Oxygen molecule) 1. Venus Radical- radical are atom molecule or ion that has unpaired electron in outer shell which 2. Mars makes them highly chemically reacting. They are symbolised by a dot. Example Cl. Is the 3. Titan (Saturn chlorine radical. satellite )

1. 2.

Treaties to protect ozone layer

Because at low temperature in the presence of sun light the reaction proceeds faster.

Why the damage of ozone is more at poles?

Vienna convention for protection of ozone layer is a nonbinding frame work to protect the ozone layer. It is ratified by 196 states. Montreal protocol on substances that deplete ozone layer is a legally binding set of rule for signatory countries for phasing out ozone depleting substances in a time bound plan. Example- Hydrofluorocarbons are set to be phase out by 2013. 197 countries has ratified the protocol.

AC and refrigerator work the same way. AC uses gases which can convert easily from liquid to gas and back again. The machine has 3 main part- compressor, expansion valve and condenser. The compressor compresses the gas. The compressed gas contain molecule closer to each other resulting in higher temperature. The hot high pressure gas leaves the compressor and flows in the condenser when it flows the hot high pressure liquid gas begins to evaporate. As it evaporates it extracts heat from the air around it and throws it out side. The used gas reaches compressor the whole cycle repeat again.

How Air Conditioner Works?

LIGHTCompact Florescent Lamp (CFL) florescent lamp is a gas discharge tube that uses electricity to excite mercury
vapour in the tube. The excited mercury atoms produce ultra violate light that causes phosphor (phosphor are rare earth compounds that emit light when high energy radiations fall on them.) to produce visible light. Thus florescent lamp converts electric power into white light.

1. Energy efficient than incandescent Lamp. 2. It has a longer light than incandescent lamp. 1. 2. If a florescent lamp is broken mercury pollutions occurs. Florescent lamp requires a ballast to stabilize the current and to provide initial striking voltage which increases the cost of lamp.

Advantage

Disadvantage

Use of Choke in Tube Light-

Tube light discharges current in the tube. To initiate a discharge it require higher voltage (1000 volt) , to sustains it require only hundred volts. The choke works like a switch that takes half of the voltage.

Use of starter in tube light-

When the switch is pressed current cannot passed through the tube because the gas inside it is not ionised ( Ionisation is the process of converting the atom or molecule of solid, liquid or gas into electron and positive ion.) and the tube circuit does not become a close circuit. In order to ionise the gas an initial high electric current is required for a short period. The starter provides a path to complete the circuit and once tube light start the current flows through ionised the gas in the tube.

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1. 2. 3. 1.

It denotes that the light distribution that lamp is equal to the black body at 6500 Kelvin. Washing Machine- Washing machine works by converting electrical energy into centrifugal force which is used for both washing and drying. Spin Drying and tumble drying- In spin drying the cloth are rotated at a speed of 500 revolutions per minute. This squeezes the majority of water from the cloths. Tumble Drying- In tumble drying heat is used to dry the cloths. It uses 2400 watt compared to a spin dryer that uses 400 watt of power. Television- invented by Philo Farnsworth, television is one of the most important inventions of 2oth century. Television works by sending and receiving electronic signal. There are three equipments used in television signalling TV camera- it is a photo sensitive device that captures images and videos and convert light signal into analog/digital signal. TV Transmitter sends signal electromagnetic or longer radio wave signals to the communication satellite. Transmitter are necessary component of many other electronic devices like radio, cell phone, wireless computer network, Bluetooth enable services, spacecraft and garage door opener. TV receiver it capture the signal and convert into light and sound. It can be an antenna or a cable dish. Different types of television of cathode ray tube television are Cathode Ray Television (CRT)- Cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing electron gun (a source of electrons). The CRT tube receive the electronic signal and deflect into audio and radio signals which reaches the screen to create images or loudspeaker to produce sound. CRT was used in older television the newer form of television are LCD, Plasma Display and OLED. LCD- LCD or liquid crystal display is a flat electronic visual display that uses light modulating properties of liquid crystal sandwiched between two transparent electrodes (made up of Indium Tin Oxide Liquid crystal are specialized molecules that behave both like liquid and solid. Like liquid they flow while like solid they polarise light. Polarisation- polarisation is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Example- Electromagnetic wave such as light. Polarise light is more shining as the light changes angle before reaching our eyes. LCD consist of a layer of liquid crystal between two transparent electrode When electric signals fall on the LCD screen they polarise the liquid crystal. The crystal line up in such way that different coloured images are formed. LCD is inferior to CRT images in image sharpness and viewing angle is poor. LED- Light emitting diode television uses LED as a back lighting to glow its LCD screen. LED consists of small semiconductor which glows during exposure to electric current. The current flows between LED anode and cathode. LED TV is more advanced version of LCD TV. It is slimmer and brighter than LCD TV. It also consumes 20 to 30 % less energy compared to LCD. Plasma TV- Plasma TV are a type of flat panel display the screen of which made up of cells containing ionized gases or microscopic fluorescent lamps. Advantages- The plasma TV display have a brighter images than LCD screen. Wider viewing angle than LCD

What does 6500K on the tube light means?

DisadvantagesHD TV-

Uses more electrical power Like fluorescent lamp, the phosphor of the plasma cell decreases its brightness over time.

High definition TV produces high definition pictures. The resolution of the picture depends on number of pixels squeezed into a given area. The standard definition delivers the resolution of 720 pixel across 480 scanning lines. The HDTV and Ultra HDTV standards are laid by international telecommunication union (ITU) The HDTV resolution is 1280 pixel across 720 scanning line. It is read like 1280X720 Pixel. The first level UHDTV picture size is of the order of 8mega pixel or 3840x2160 pixels. It is also called 4K UHDTV system. The second level UHDTV picture size is of the order of 32mega pixels or 7680x4320 pixels. It is also called 8K UHDTV system.

Our brain generates 3D picture largely with two eyes spaced short distance apart. Human do not have 3D vision. We have two eyes both have which see a 2D image. The combination of two lenses gives us an illusion of 3D vision. Human see three separate dimensions length, width and depth.

3D Television-

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1. Displaying Technology-

Depth perception occurs at six month of age. For 3D viewing both eyes see light rays with the different polarisation. When light bends from same distant object by one eye, it gives the feeling of a 3D view or spectroscopic vie w. In 3D television a special polarized 3D system is placed behind the screen. There are several techniques to produce 3D picture. It commonly uses passive colour filters or polarization filters.

a.

b.

Polarization Filters- In this method viewer wears low cost eye glasses which contains pair of polarising filters oriented differently (for example at an angle of 90 degree to each other.)Normally light waves From an object vibrate in different direction But polarised filters put on the screen filters the wave in one direction. This gives the perception of depth. Active shutter 3D system- it uses liquid crystal shutter glasses just like in LCD. It works by openly presenting the image to the left eyes while blocking the right eyes view, then presenting the right eye image while blocking the left eye and repeating it rapidly that it do not interfere with the fusion of two images into a 3D image.

A linear polarizer converts an unpolarized beam into one with a single linear polarization. The vertical components of all waves are transmitted, while the horizontal components are absorbed and reflected.

1.

3D system reduces brightness considerably because of the changing reflection of light from the object (the brightness is measured in candela per square meter. 4D- 4D is an example of entertainment technology which combines 3D films with physical effect that occurs in theatre like simulation of rain, wind, vibration, movement of animals, smoke, smell etc. The first 4D film show cased was The Sensorium in 1984. Other films released in 4D are Shrek 4D and Ice Age Dawn of the Dina sour. Certain biological material (bone, DNA, protein) and ceramics produce a unique property of producing electric charge on mechanical pressure. Piezo electronics finds various beneficial practical applications like Cigarette Lighter uses a piezoelectric crystal. When we press the button the crystal produces sufficient high voltage electric current which ignite the inflammable gas to produce the flame. Energy harvesting. The USA army have attempted to power battle field equipment by inserting piezoelectric generator in soldiers boots. Upon walking the pressure energy gets converted into electrical energy. Piezoelectric Sensor- Piezoelectric sensor use to determine pressure changes in the environment generally sound waves are sensed in micro phone and electric guitar. Actuator in Robot- Actuator is a type of motor to control motion. It converts energy in to motion and vice versa. Piezoelectric actuator produces motion when high electric fields are applied. Microwaves electronics uses for sending or receiving signals. They are mostly use in microwave oven and defence electronic. Microwave is within 3GHz to 300GHz, because of high frequency spectrum, microwaves can carry large number of signals. Masers Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation are used for amplifying microwaves in signals from satellite, space craft and radio.

Disadvantage of 3D-

What are Piezoelectronics?

1. 2.

Microwaves electronics-

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073. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Computers Computers are the electronic devices which receive a set of instructions and carry out tasks like calculations, problems solving, internet, internet telephony etc. Computers are made up of two main parts Hardware- hardware is the physical part of computer. It is made up of 1. Input devices likeA. Keyboard and mouse-they uses infrared or radio waves to send the information. B. Electronic pen- the electrons are used to send the informations. C. Scanner- Scanner contain optical character recognition software which translate the image into a digital text. Common uses of scanner are bar codes at the counter in store, biometric scanning including fingerprint and iris scanning . D. Storage devices- storage devices made up of chips are internal example memory devices or external example CD, DVD, Floppy Discs and Hard Discs. These devices store data on a magnetically sensitive medium or discs made up of metal.
Hard discs stores digital data on rotating plates of magnetic material. The discs can store hundreds gigabits of information. b. CD- CD - stores the data using laser technique. Data is written by burning microscopic holes on the discs surface by powerful laser. The data is decoded by using scattering properties of light. The holes scatter the light while land portions of the discs reflect the laser light to the photo detectors. The photo detectors convert the light and darks spots into electrical impulses in the form of the bits. It can store data upto .7 Gigabyts. c. DVD- Digital video discs contain 15 time more storage capacity because of closed data packaging i.e 4.7 Gigabytes. d. Blue Ray Discs- BD is the next generations optical discs developed by a consortium of electronic makers like Sony Dell Apple. The format can hold data upuo 25 Gigabytes. What are Bits and Bytes?
Bits and Bytes both measure amounts of data but in two different contexts. Bits, are used to data transfer speeds. This refers to how fast a file is downloaded, or how fast the internet connection is. For example, if we are downloading a file on cable modem, the download speed is 240Kbps. It is abbreviated as b Bytes, on the other hand, are used to measure data storage. For example, a CD holding 700MB (megabytes) of data means its store 700 megabytes of information. It is abbreviated as B 1byte contains 8 bits of data i.e 1Byte of data per sec=8bits of data per sec Therefore, a 240Kbps download is only transferring 30KB of data per second.

a.

1 bit (binary digit*) = the value of 0 or 1 8 bits = 1 byte 1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte 1024 kilobytes = 1 megabyte 1024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte 1024 gigabytes = 1 terabyte 1024 terabytes = 1 petabyte for computers, technically 1kb is 1024 bytes due to the binary math (1x2=2, 2x2=4, 4x2=8, 8x2=16 .... .... 512x2=1024) fibreoptic cable containing signal either analog (analog computer) or digital (digital computer) 1. Output devices comprise of video display, audio display, and documented data. a. Printer- Printer puts the computer generated image or text on paper. b. Video Display Unit (VDU) c. Speaker 2.

Main memory- The memory of the computer is a physical device that stores information. It features three types of information storage. Random access memory (RAM) they act as temporary storage device for programmes and data currently running on computer. Read only memory (ROM) contains informations which is permanently fixed in the chips by chip maker. It contain the information for the programme run on the computers and cannot be erased on it.

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Data storage memory - the data storage memory is the memory fixed in the discs, pen drive which act additional of the computer.

4. Central Processing Unit (CPU)-It carries out the instruction of the computers programme by performing basic

arithmetic, logical, input-output operations of the system. The older computer contained larger CPU but with the development of Micro Processor, a CPU is now mounted in a single silicon chip. Containing large integrated circuit with millions of nano sized transistor on a single chip. The modern personal computer contain microprocessor. Two classical component of CPU 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)- It performs arithmetic and logical operations. 2. Control Unit- It draws the instruction in the memory decoded and translated into activities. It also indicates the order and time in which individual operations use the CPU. Software is a computer programme that encodes instruction for the hardware to do work. The programme is developed in a special computer language called computer language. The computer understand language expressed in binary form that is bits of 1or 0. There are two main categories of software1. Operating system or System Software- It controls the execution of instruction in the CPU of the computers. They perform general tasks. The Software are formed in some machine language. Important computer language and their uses are giving below. a. ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) b. BASIC (Beginner all purpose symbolic instruction code) it is easy to use c. Linux (Personal computer) d. OS X (apple computers) f. C, C++, Java (micro soft computers) g. Android (Used in Tablet and Mobile Phone)

Software-

They addresses useful task beyond the running the computer itself like word processing, internet browsing. Important application software are Word processing Programme (Microsoft word) enable people to type words into a computer to write articl e, books, reports, letter, and documents. The user can insert, change, move or delete letters, words entire sections of a document. Computer added design programme allows professional in engineering, architecture, aviation and textile industries to produce paperless designs using powerful mathematic software. Open source Software or cloud computing Is computer software that has source code made available by developer to the user. The developer has the copyright to sell, distribute the software to anyone for any purpose. Here user are treated as co developer and shearing of software occur to economy of scale and to improve business climate. It operate in various model like infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and software as a service (SaaS)

2. Application software-

Computer network- Computer is a discrete machine containing individual data. However data can be shared between

two and more computers using data cables (made up of fibre optic or copper wire) this inter connectivity can be achieved through computer networking. The transmitted information is coded in bits form into data cable. The information reaches the receiving computer where its CPU decode the information. Computer networking had started through local area network where computer are connected at local level. Example Ethernet, which gave to wide area network and finally internet.

Internet is a network based on common address system and guidelines termed as communication protocol. Internet origin can be traced to 1983 when US department of defence started ARPANET (Advance researched project agency network) Internet allows transfer of mails. Messages, pictures, news, text, document etc. The data is transmitted of data package. Cell phone and PCs can also access the internet through wireless telephone network. Examples- WiFi and Wi-max. Internet protocol regulates how data packets are formed and processed.

Internet-

The data movement on the Internet

Even though the Internet is still a young technology, but today it has become indispensible part of our life. This network of networks criss crosses the globe and even extends into space. To understand the Internet, we have to look at it as a system with two main components. The first of those components is hardware. That includes cables which carry terabits of information every second to your computer. Other types of hardware that support the Internet includes routers, servers, cell phone towers, satellites, radios, smartphones and other devices. The computer, smartphone or other device are called as end points clients. Machines that store the information (we seek on the Internet) are servers. Other elements are nodes which serve as a connecting point along a route of traffic. Fourth are the transmission lines which can be physical, like cables and fibre optics, or they can be signals from satellites, cell phone or 4G towers, or radios.

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All this hardware requires a second important component of the Internet: the protocols. Protocols are sets of rules that machines follow to complete tasks. Without a common set of protocols, a seamless communication between devices couldn't happen. The protocols provide both the method and a common language for machines to use to transmit data.

IP (short for Internet Protocol) specifies the technical format of data packets and the addressing scheme for computers to communicate over a network. IP can be compared to something like the postal system. It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there's no direct link between you and the recipient. There are currently two version of Internet Protocol (IP): IPv4 (First and the dominant version) and a new version called IPv6. IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade to the Internet Protocol. IPv6 will coexist with the older IPv4 for some time. IPv4 uses a 32bit address scheme allowing for a total of 232 addresses (because of the binary data transmission) which means 4 billion addresses. With the growth of the Internet it is expected that the number of unused IPv4 addresses will eventually run out because every device -- including computers, smartphones and game consoles -- that connects to the Internet requires an address.

Internet Protocol - IP?

Different Between IPv4 and IPv6Addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) in length. It can support 4 Billion Addresses.

Addresses are 128 bits (16 bytes) in length It can support 3x1039 or limitless Addresses.

Hardware devices that connect networks in the internet called IP routers. A Routers either deliver the package to a computer in LAN or to other router which finally delivers data to the computer. Router can deliver packets even across wireless LAN called Wi-Fi in faster mode than wire based LAN. Cell Phones access the internet through wireless cellular telephone network, however the access is slower than the broadband access.
The unique characteristics of the Internet are openness, global interconnectedness, its decentralized nature. Internet governance is a sensitive issue because the Internet works around and beyond political boundaries. The Arab spring has shown that internet has become a great tool in the hands of common people to overcome repressive regime. However government is not always wrong and it needs content regulation for security, safety, maintaining law and order and prevent misuse of internet crime like piracy, child abuse etc.

Routers

Internet Governance

The efforts for internet governance took concrete shape in the form of United Nation led World Summit on the information society (WSIS) held in two stages in 2003 and 2005. Its major outcome was the formation of Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in 2006 made up of 50 members, is a multi stake holder origination (with representatives from government, Private sector civil society and NGOs). The four major areas of discussion of IGF are 1. Openness (free expression) 2. Security (protection of users and network including cyber security, cyber terrorism) 3. Diversity (Cultural and linguistic) 4. Access (specially in developing country. In this direction laptop were given freely under open source software agreement The seventh IGF meeting was held in Baku, Azerbaijan from 6 to 9 November 2012. Its main theme was Internet Governance for sustainable human economic and social development. Key Points of Baku declaration 1.Internet and information communication technologies (ICTs) High-speed internet connectivity, broadband services and applications are essential for modern society as they offer economic growth and social benefits. 2. It can significantly improve the public service system such as: education system, financial services and healthcare as well a s empowering women and improving the quality of life especially in developing countries. 3. It recognises cyber crime is a real issue and calls for International cooperation in child protection and global cyber security. 4. It favours freedom of expression online because the world is becoming hyper connected and more and more people are using internet for availing services. 5. It makes sure that in order to protect universal human rights, governments should take necessary step to protect the free flo w of information. Other International organisations for internet administration areInternet telecommunication Union (ITU). It had set international telecommunication regulation (ITR) 1988 as a binding global treaty to facilitate international connectivity of ICT services. Recent World Conference on international telecommunication (WCIT-12) was held in Dubai did not make the change in ITR and late the foundation for innovation and market growth.

Internet Administration

1.

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2.

ICANN -Internet corporation for assigned names and numbers is a US non profit organisation, administer allocation of
domain name and IP addresses.

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08. SUPER COMPUTERS


Super computers are the fastest type of computers which are design not for general purposes but for complex applications like high speed calculation seismology, studying weather phenomenon and artificial intelligence.

Difference between Computer and super computer


These are the machine for general purpose. Their processing capacity is very low compare to super computer They made up of few micro processor. They are not much costly. A typical computer can use 15 to 200 kw energy. Operating System- The operating system in simple computer ranges from Linux to Cobol Algol etc. Unit of measurement of performance In simple computer it is bits per second. First mechanical computer was invented by Charles Babbage in 1822 First Digital computer was Atanasoff berry computer or ABC developed in 1937

Computer

Super Computer

These computer perform a particular task which is complex in nature. They have very high processing capacity. They are made up of thousand of micro processors. They are highly costly thus their shared recourses. A super computer uses 4 megawatt electricity. Heat management is a complex issue. The operating system of super computers is custom tailored and is adaptation of generic software such as Linux. In super computer the unit of measurement of operations is floating point of operation per second or flops. First super computer was CDC 1604 developed by Seymour Cray in 1964. Other example of super computer are 1. Deep Blue- It defeated chess Player Garry Kasprove 2.Blue Gene Peak speed 280 teraflops (10 12 ) FLOPS developed by IBM. It was use by Veselin Topalove world chess player for prepration. 3. Cray1 is used for weather forecasting in arrow dynamic research. 4. Tiahne-1A (speed 2.5 Peta FLOPS, 1 P FLOPS =1015 FLOPS) developed by china in 2010 for studying molecular dynamic. 5. IBM Sequoia- peaks speed 16P FLOPS in 2012. 6. Cray Titan- world fastest super computer till date Super computer performs function like complex weather forecasting, oil and gas exploration, climate research, molecular modelling (computing the structure and properties of chemical compound and simulation test (simulation of nuclear weapon and research into nuclear fusion)

Some of the uses of computers. Simple computer performs function like Algorithm, Logical Reasoning, calculation and internet connectivity.

1.

3.

2.

India supercomputing research gain prominence in late 1980 when Cray super computer was denied to India in the wake of Indias voluntary nuclear weapon testing and the denial of dual use technology by NSG. Indias first super computer was PARAM 800 developed by Centre for development of advance computing (CDAC) Other notable supercomputers of India are PARAM YUVA II unveiled in 2013 by CDAC has a peak speed of .5 PFLOPS. It is an energy efficient supercomputer and ranked 33 in top green 500 supercomputer of the world. SAGA 220 developed by ISRO has a peak speed 220 Terra FLOPS is used to study complex aeronautical. EKA- Meaning number one in Sanskrit is build by computational research laboratory technical assistance by Hewlett Packard.

Supercomputing in India-

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4. ANUPAM- A fifteen GFLOPS supercomputer developed by BARC. It finds application in crystal structure analysis and gamma rays simulation. 5. VIRGO- 97 TeraFLOPS was developed by Indian institute of technology (IIT) Madras
PACE / ANURAG Processor for aerodynamics computation and evaluation is a supercomputer developed by ANURAG (Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group) a laboratory of DRDO. It is used in a) Aircraft and Automobile Designing b) Weather Forecasting c) Molecular Biology 6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science which deals with computers emulating human mental processes. So far no machine can been considered as intelligent as human. Alan Turing was the first person to talk of artificial intelligence. Intelligence includes components like reasoning, adapting to new situations, analysing, problems solving and learning new skills. Computer however are machines made to follow a strict set of instructions. The research in artificial intelligence emphasises upon increasing the problem solving knowledge of computers. It involves making specialized computers which perform complex task. We call such computers as experts system. Medical diagnosis, For instance is today done by computers other than doctors. For this a computer must know thousands of symptoms to understand hundred of diseases. By making software for complex computing and problem solving expert system for medical diagnostics. Other uses of AI are Games Making military robots. Weather studies Tackling dangerous task such as mining fire fighting and handling radioactive waste. Making Robot to reduce air and water pollution. Pushing the space exploration. Land rover sent over mars by messenger space craft is a n example of artificially intelligent robot. In medicine AI find use in medical diagnostic and robotic surgery.

Robots And Artificial Intelligence-

Robots-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. b. 1. 2. 3. 6.

1. 2.

Robot body is made to simulate human body. Human body made up of five main components. Body structure Muscles to move the body Power source to activate muscles and sensor Sensory system to receive information from outside environment Brain to coordinate muscles and sensor Robot is made up of same components but non living in nature. Robot has a movable body structure. Power It is generally the electrical energy which is converted into kinetic energy of the robotic arms and legs The brain is generally made up of centre processing of computer. Robotic muscles are made up of special material called Piezo ceramics and special plastic. Actuator is defined as a device that converts electrical energy into physical motion. The vast majority of actuators produce either rotational or linear motion. Rotational Actuator- They transform electrical energy into rotational motion. Example DC motors, AC motors (rarely use), Stepper motor. Linear Actuator- They convert electrical energy into linear motor. Example of linear motors are DC Linear Actuator In this actuator is connected to a led screw. A traveller on the led screw is force to move towards or away from the motors. Solenoid- Solenoid is a coil of wire wound around a moving core. When electric current is passed through the wire it produces magnetic field (because of the phenomenon of electromagnetism) which moves the core either forward or backward. Pneumatic and Hydraulic Actuator use air and liquid respectively to produce linear motion. Sensors- Sensor translates between physical environment and abstract world of micro controller. It helps robot sense physical environment like a human being and makes than intelligent by responding according to the situation. In robot verity of sensor of use Analog Sensor use to measure light intensity. Made up of cadmium sulphide the sensor is made to respond to a voltage change of 0 to 5 volts when light fall on them. Thermal sensor helps in detecting the temperature changes in the surrounding.

How Robot works?

Robots are machine which involves disciplines like mechanical engineering and computers.

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3. 4. 5. 6.
1.

Ranging sensor- they allow a robot to see a obstacle without having to come in contact with it. They are either made up of infrared emitter / detector or sonar (Sound navigation and detection ranging). The ranging sensor emit light rays (laser) infrared or sound waves which strikes an obstacle and return back to be received by the micro controller detector. It helps t he robot to avoid the obstacle and perform difficult task. Colour sensor- It helps in perception in colour. Vision Sensor- It uses digital video camera with high speed processing to protect real world. Digital compass- It detects earth magnetic field.

In mining and manufacturing industries to perform difficult and hazardous tasks. Example- High volume assembling of discrete component in auto mobile, television, aircraft industry. It also performs multiple tasks in plastic garment and other industry. 2. Nuclear Applications- Robotics is one of the thrust areas of R&D programme at BARC and IGCAR. A five-degree-offreedom robot (Movement possible in five direction and six-degree-of-freedom robot (movement possible in three dimensional space i.e, up/down, forward/backward, left/right and rotation) are used for handling radioactive chemical at BARC. At IGCAR robots like mobile scanner (MOBSCAN) and ROPMAN are used for automated evaluation. 3. A DRDO venture, the centre for artificial intelligence for robotic has developed some useful robot these are a) DAKSH is an electrically powered for locating, handling and destroying hazardous objects like radioactive waste and nuclear weapon safely. b) CHATUROBOT c) NIPUNA 4. Humanoid robot- they look like human being and use to perform house hold task. The first robot to walk on two legs was ASIMO. 5. Human Machine interface One of the important discoveries of 2012, human machine interface is an attempt to increase innovative capabilities of robot by combing robot dynamics or movement with brain signals. In this electrodes are placed inside the mind of a paralysed human patient which capture thought signals and translate it into robot action. One such machine has been made which is a wearable robot- The EKSO.

Uses of Robots-

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09. SPACE

Space Technology- Space in second half 20th century has transformed from mere a physical bridge between earth and
universe to a platform useful for mankind. Sputnik 1 became the first artificial satellite by erstwhile USSR to orbit the earth in 1957. Launching vehicle is the vehicle to send satellite and other space craft into space. It is not easy because every object is bound to earth by the strong gravitational force of earth called gravity. To escape the gravitational pull of the earth, a rocket must obtain an escape velocity. To reach the escape velocity rockets are divided into stages put one upon each other. Every stage uses strong fuels which burn to generate heat which lift against rockets. First stage is a more powerful stage because it has to lift the whole launch vehicle. Sometimes for example in PSLV special booster are required to give extra thrust. Second stage- the second stage carries less weight because the first stage has dropped off the rocket. In second stage the vehicle attains much higher speed. Third stage- A third stage puts the space craft into the orbits. (For a mission designed to orbit the earth) or for deep space mission. The third stage allows the space craft to reach escape velocity.

Launching vehicle and technology

Solid Fuel propellant - These are composite fuel that are made up of synthetic rubber like butyl and plastic and

Rocket uses chemical fuel in solid, liquid or cryogenic form and an oxidizer that contains the oxygen needed to burn the fuel. Together fuel and oxidizer are called propellant. Today rocket use both solid and liquid fuel are used in combination.

Propulsion Method for launch vehicle

powder aluminium nitric acid etc. along with additives that bind the fuel together. Solid Oxidizer is ferric oxide or rust. These composite fuels burn faster, thus more thrust is produce in short period of time. Hence solid fuel forms the first stage of rocket when higher thrust is required. Booster rocket that produces larger thrust uses extra chemicals to increase the burning rate. Liquid Fuel - Liquid fuel commonly used is liquid nitrogen, liquid hydrogen, alcohol, hydrazine and kerosene and liquid oxygen as oxidizer.

Liquid fuel provides greater impulse (mass into velocity) because liquid fuels are denser and burn for a longer period of time. The combustion rate can be controlled in liquid fuel rocket, thus it helps in stopping, restarting and steering the course of rocket. The raw material like hydrogen and oxygen are abundantly available, hence easy to manufacture. Disadvantage Liquid fuel is very difficult to handle. Hence required complex containers. It requires highly precise oxygen and liquid fuel injection metering. Cryogenic Fuel- Cryogenic rocket uses cryogenic fuel. Cryogenic fuel are fuels that require extremely low temperature to maintain them in liquid state. These fuel are used in rocket bound to space because ordinary fuel cannot be used there due to absence of oxygen that support combustion. Most common cryogenic fuel used is liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen is a gas in normal state. However it requires temperature of -252 degree Celsius or 21 Kelvin to cross the critical point of conversion from gas to liquid. At such low temperature the molecules of hydrogen become closely packed and concentrated into a useable form. Once liquefied, it can be maintained as a liquid in pressurised and thermally insulated containers. The cryogenic fuel uses liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Cryogenics is the study of production of very low temperature and the behaviour of material of such low temperature. In India cryogenic technology is in development stage in Mahendergiri in Tamilnadu and Liquid propulsion centre Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. India launched GSAT-4 by GSLV powered by indigenous cryogenic engine, which however failed to ignite.

Advantages

Indias Launch Vehicle ASLV

Launch Vehicle is used to transport satellite into space. Indias first experimental satellite launch vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in 1983. ASLV was derived by adding two booster to SLV-3 and was successful in 1992. It is first operational launch vehicle of ISRO. It is capable to launch 1600 kg satellite in sun synchronous orbit and 50 kg satellite in GEO orbit. It first successful flight was in October 1994. It is a four stage launch vehicle which uses solid and liquid fuel alternately. Its second stage is powered by Vikas engine.

PSLV

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GSLV

PSLV XL was used in Chandrayan -1 mission. PSLVXL is made more powerful by using large strap on motors.

GSLV is made to launch INSAT-II class of satellite (2000-2500kg) in to Geo synchronous orbit. It is a three stage vehicle. The third stage is cryogenic stage. Out of seven launches since its first launch 2001, two launches have been successful. 1. 2. 3. GSLV Mk-I uses foreign cryogenic engine. GSLV Mk-II uses indigenous cryogenic engine. It is capable to launch 2500 kg satellite. GSLV Mk-III is envisaged to launch 4 tonns satellite in GTO. It first stage is liquid, second solid and third stage is cryogenic. It will have a lift of 629 tonns. Space Recovery Experiment- SRE is a Indian experimental space craft launched in 2007 by PSLVC7. SRE -1 was designed to recover orbiting space capsule and performing experiment in microgravity, navigation, management of communication blackout etc. The SRE-1 contains equipment and devices to power re-entry. These include parachute, telemetry and tracking system and sensor. It was made up of cone shaped heat tolerant silica tiles to withstand the heat generated due to friction while coming down. On January 2007 the capsule was reoriented for re-entry in the dense atmosphere at the height of hundred kilometres with the speed of 8km/s. Orbits of satellite- orbit are the path taken by satellite as it travels around earth. The orbit shape can be a circle or ellipse. The artificial satellite in the circular orbit travels at a constant speed. For example a satellite in geostationary orbit rotates round the earth at a constant speed. The satellite in elliptical orbit travels at different speed. The speed is greatest at perigee (minimum altitude) and least a t apogee (maximum altitude). Example is satellites launched in polar orbit. Low earth orbit- low earth orbit is at a height of 500 and 1500 kilometre. LEO is a circular orbit. The orbit is nearest among all orbits and because of greater gravity the satellite in low earth orbit requires higher speed to avoid gravitational pull. At LEO a satellite completes the orbit one and half hours. Satellites for environment monitoring and remote sensing are launched in LEO. The international space station is also placed in LEO (340 km). It makes 17 orbits per day. Medium Earth orbit is at a height of 5000 to 10000 km. MEO is an elliptical orbit. Satellite for navigation (For example GPS of USA, GLONASS of Russia and CNS/ATM of India) are launched in MEO. Geo stationary orbit is a circular orbit approximately at 36000 km above earth equator. The Geo stationary orbit is for away from the earth. The Geo stationary satellite completes one rotation in 24 hours over equator. Hence it remains fixed with respect to an observer/user on the equator. The satellites for communication are launched in GEO. As the satellite are farthest from earth, the satellite rotate at slow velocity result in longer life span. Polar earth orbit PEO. PEO is an elliptical orbit that passes through both North Pole and South Pole (the axis of rotation of the earth). Satellites for earth mapping, earth observation, weather monitoring are launched in PEO, because they observe the earth from pole to pole in 24 hours. Sun synchronous orbit is an orbit which combines height and inclination in such way that the satellite in the orbit complete means solar time. Since earth is a bulging geoid with low gravity at equator and high at poles, this asymmetry acts to slowly rotate the plane of orbit about the axis of earth. When the inclination is chosen as 8 degree off the polar orbit the motion of satellite matches the motion of sun. The one full rotation is covered in one year around the earth. Generally weather and spy satellites and remote sensing instruments that require sun light (ocean and atmospheric monitoring) are launched in sun synchronous orbit. GEO transfer orbit (GTO)- GTO acts as an intermediate orbit to launch communication satellite from LEO to GEO. It is an orbit where apogee (farthest point) of LEO intersects with perigee (nearest point) of GEO. The launch vehicle can move from LEO to GTO by firing a rocket at a tangent to LEO to increase velocity. A telecommunication satellite is a satellite launched in a GEO stationary orbit. It is made up of cluster of radio transmitter called transponder, antenna and sensor or receiver. The basic work of the GEO communication satellite is to receive the data signals from a ground station and send it to the receiver (antennas and dish). The signals are sent by earth station in the form of micro waves or radio waves in high frequency (Gigahertz range) to satellite. The three most commonly used satellite frequency bands are C-band, Ku-band and Ka-band. C-band satellite operate the signals in 4 to 8 Ghz frequency range. The frequency and wave length shows inverse relation to each other. When frequency increases wave length decreases. As wave length increases larger antenna are needed to gather the signals. As C-band operate in low frequency larger satellite antenna is require to gather low signals. Ku-band satellite receives signals in 11 to 20 Ghz frequency. The relatively high frequency corresponds to smaller antennas to receive the signals. Most of the digital dish antennas operate in Ku-band. Ka-band transmission occupies 20 to 30 Ghz frequency range. At such high frequency the signal weakens as it reaches the satellite at higher altitude. Because of higher competition must of the direct to home (DTH) systems use Ku-band transmission. The GEO satellite also contain power amplifier to amplify the signals as the signals weakens when it is reaches the satellite. After travelling to ground based antenna or dish the signals again weakens. Hence a low noise block amplifier the signals and convert them into lower frequency.

Variants of GSLV

How communication satellite works?

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a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Navigation system- satellite based navigation; timing and positioning service has become increasingly important for in present day world. A satellite navigation system is a system of satellite that determines the locations and time i nformation in all-weather conditions on or near the earth. It is useful for both military and civilian purposes. Its application include i.e Mobile navigation Air traffic management, rail navigation (Indian railway GPS name is kavatch). Oil and gas exploration Precision agriculture and fisheries Entertainment like navigation games Important global positioning systems (GPS) are CNS/ATM Communication navigation and surveillance (CNS)/Air Traffic Management (ATM) system has been adopted by international civil aviation organisation (ICAO) for world wide air traffic management. GPS- global positioning system created by US department of defence is made up of 24 satellite and operational since 1994. GLONASS is a Russian global navigation satellite system made up of 21 satellites operational since 1995. Galileo is a navigation system of European Union. Compass is Chinese navigation system. IRNSS- Indian regional navigation satellite system develop by Indian space research organisation (ISRO). IRNSS-1 is one of the 7 satellite constellation launched by PSLVC22 in 2012 in GEO stationary orbit. It contains the navigation payload which generates navigation signals in L5 and S-band. GAGAN- GPS aided Geo augmented navigation system is implemented by airport authority of India with the help of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to improve satellite base navigation, communication, air traffic management. The project involve 3 Indian navigation uplink stations, GAGAN payload on GSAT-8 and GSAT-10 communication satellite and 3 mission control centres. One essential component of GAGAN project is the study of ionosphere behaviour over the Indian region.
Tele-education- the network of IGNOU, UGC and NCERT have been setup under telecommunication satellite system. Gyandarsan and Gyanvani and various programmes for university students are prepared by education media research centres and broadcasted through Indian national satellite system or INSAT system. Today there are over 9000 edusat classroom operational in the country. Edusat Edusat or GSAT-3 is a communication satellite launched in 2004 to meet the demand of interactive satellite based distance system. It is launch in GEO stationary orbit. Victers (Virtual class technology on edusat for rural school) is Indias first broadband network on Edusat for schools to provide web based training to teachers and virtual education for students in interactive mode using Eduset satellite.

a.

Other uses of communication satellites

b. Tele-health

Is the delivery of health related services to remote, rural and inhospitable areas via telecommunication satellite.

c. Pan e African Network-

d. Village Resource Centre1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

It is a ICT project between Indian and African union that seeks to connect 53 African countries through satellite and fibre optic network. The enetwork is made up of undersea cable and satellite connectivity through C-band transponder of INTELSAT 904 and RASCOM (regional African satellite communication organisation provides TV broadcast and internet access in rural areas in Africa. The project links premier Indian and African universities and super speciality hospital and 53 tele-medicine and tele-education centre in Africa. The project aims to enhance the skill of African doctors and nurses. The project won the Hermes prize for innovation by European institute of innovation and creative strategies in 2010. Initiated in 10th plan VRC act as terminal hub of space based services such asTele- medicine Tele-education Agricultural advisories Weather advisories National resource and data management system Adult and computer literacy Livelihood related vocational training. Agro marketing Micro credit facilities

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e.

Radio Networking through INSAT makes available reliable, quality 10/15 Khz channels for national and regional networking. For this C and S band transponders are used.
Remote sensing is a technique used to gather information about natural resources and weather phenomenon on earth without directly coming in contact with it. It uses special devices for data collection, processing and sending it to remote sensing data centres. The instruments can be broadly divided into two main types Passive RS instrument detects light reflected naturally from earth object. Some of the passive instrument are Spectrometer- It captures the specific portion of electromagnetic spectrum emitted by different materials. Every substance releases different light frequencies which are light their fingerprint. The spectrometer on board remote sensing satellite de tects measure and analyse the spectral content of material lying on earth or on oceans. Electromagnetic spectrum of an object is the range of electromagnetic radiation combination emitted by that particular object. It extends from low frequency radio wave to high frequency gamma rays.

Remote Sensing

1.

a.

FrequencyWave length

Radio meter measures the wavelength of longer electromagnetic wave for example microwave and radio wave produced by various objects on earth. Active instruments do not use sun energy but send directed wave of electromagnetic spectrum on to the earth object and detect and analyse the reflected radiation. Some of the active instrument used are A radar sends a directed radio or microwave frequency which hit various object on earth the object reflect a part of frequency which are detected and analysed by radar. The lidar uses laser to send high energy, directional light pulses on to the objects on earth and like radar, lidar a lso detects and analyse back scattered or reflected light.

Radio meter-

10000 hertz 1010 hz 10m to 50cm 1cm-1mm

1014 hz .01mm

1015 hz 1016 hz .4-.7mu 10nm

1016 hz 1nm

1019 hz .01nm

Active instruments-

1. Radar Radio detection and ranging 2. Lidar- Light detection and ranging

India endeavour into space started with the setting up of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) stabilised in 1969. Eventually department of space was setup 1972. Indias space programme is executed by ISRO and 4 research facilities.

INDIAS SPACE ORGANISATION

A. RESEARCH FACILITIES OF ISRO1. National remote sensing agency Hyderabad is devoted to acquisition, processing and dissemination of remote
2. 3. 4.

sensing data. Data is acquired via India on satellite like IRS 1-A and 1-B and satellite of other countries such as USAs LANDSAT. It also provide training to decision makers and scientist through it Indian institute of remote sensing of Dehradun. Physical research laboratory- Ahmedabad is a national research institute which carry research on 1. Astronomy (studies star information) planetary science, earth science (studies include glacial and Ocean studies. North eastern space application centre, Shillong provides development support to north east by using remote sensing. National atmospheric research laboratory, Chittoor is a autonomous institute funded by department of space. It is engaged in fundamental and applied research in atmospheric science.

B. Test facilities of ISRO1. 2. 3.

Liquid propulsion system centre located three places Valiyamala Thiruvananthapuram district Kerala. Mahendragiri in Kanyakumari District TN Bangaluru, Karnatka LPS is engaged in development of liquid and cryogenic fuel.

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C. CONSTRUCTION LAUNCH FACILITIES OF ISRO1. 2.

Satish Dhavan space centre Shriharikota is a launch centre for PSLV and ASLV. It is home to Indias largest solid propellant booster plant. Vikramsarabhai space centre Thiruvananthapuram is venue for development of PSLV, ASLV series. These facilities also developing GSLV series. It experimental plant at Aluva produces Ammonium per chlorate solid propellant. VSSE is involved in the development of space recovery experiment module and development of modified version of PSLV, PSLVC11 which was used for launching for Chandrayan 1.

D. TRACKING FACILITIES OF ISRO


1.

2.

ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and command centre, (ISTRAC) Bangaluru provides tracking and command support to satellite and launched mission. The tracking station are located through out the country and all over the world in Port Louis (Mauritius), Bearslake (Russia). Master control facility Hassan karnatka is responsible for monitoring and controlling the satellite launched by ISRO. Currently MCF control 10 communication satellites such as INSAT 4A, GSAT-8 and GSAT-12

1. 2.

INSAT is a multipurpose satellite system for Television and Radio broadcasting Meteorological observation It is a joint venture of department of space (DoS), department of telecommunication (DoT), Indian meteorological department (ImD), All India radio and Doordarshan Established in 1983 in such system in one of the largest communication satellite system in Asia Pacific. In consist 10 operational satellites INSAT series, KALPANA- 1, EDUSAT and GSAT-2, GSAT-8, GSAT-12 and GSAT-10. GSAT-10 is recently launched and fields C, Ku-band transponder. IRS system is world largest constellation of RS satellite. Important RS satellite operations are IRS-1C and IRS-1D Ocean SAT-1, it is meant to study oceans physical and biological aspects. It uses payloads like ocean colour monitor and microwave monitor. Resource SAT-1 launched in 2003 by PSLV-C5. CARTOSAT-1 launched in 2005 by PSLV-C6. It is an advance remote sensing satellite which contains 2 panchromatic cameras with the resolution of 2.5 Cm than CARTOSAT-2 is the advance version of CARTOSAT-1. It contains single panchromatic camera with resolution of 1cm. RISAT-2 is a radar imaging satellite launched in 2009 by PSLV-12. It monitor Indias border as a part of anti terrorist and anti infiltration operation. MEGHA TROPIQUES is launched in 2011 by PSLV-C18, jointly developed by Indian-France to study Indian Monsoon. RISAT-1 2012 by PSLV-C19. RISAT-1 is a first indigenous all weather radar imaging satellite. Its images are to facilitate agriculture and disaster management. SARAL launched in February 2013 by PSLV-C20 is a joint Indo-France satellite for oceanographic studies.

INSAT SYSTEM

IRS SYSTEM

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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10. DEFENCE
The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Indian Coast Guard, supported by Paramilitary forces (Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force) and various inter-service institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Armed Forces are under the management of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) , which is led by the Union Cabinet Minister of Defence. The Indian Army is the land based branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), a General, is a four star commander and commands the army. Its primary mission is to ensure the national security and defence of the Republic of India from external aggression and threats, and maintaining peace and security within its borders. It also conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances.

Indian Armed Forces

Indian Army

Major Exercises 1. Ashwamedha

Indian Army tested its network centric warfare capabilities in the exercise Ashwamedha. The exercise was held in the Thar desert, in which over 300,000 troops participated. Asymmetric warfare capability was also tested by the Indian Army during the exercise.

2.Exercise Yuddh Abhyas

3.Yuddh Abhyas

Exercise Yuddh Abhyas is part of an ongoing series of joint exercises between the Indian and United States Armies since 2005, agreed upon under the New Framework of India-US Defence Relationship.

Indian Army launched a massive summer exercise in the Rajasthan desert as part of its efforts to shore up its battle worthiness on the western front with Pakistan. The exercise, code-named "Shoorveer", is being conducted by the Jaipur-based South Western Command.

4.Exercises Shoorveer

5.Exercise Rudra Akrosh

Western Army Command conducted its summer training exercises in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. "Codenamed Exercise Rudra Akrosh, the war games are aimed to validate the operational and transformational effectiveness of various formations under the Western Army Command. A new launch facility has come up at Machlipatnam in Krishnapatnam district Andrapradesh

Indian Navy

The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander -in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), usually a four-star officer in the rank of admiral, commands the navy . The Indian Navy operates three Commands. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the rank of Vice Admiral. The Andaman and Nicobar Command at Port Blair under is a joint Tri-services Command reporting to the Chief of Integrated Service Command (CISC) in New Delhi. The Andaman and Nicobar Command, a joint Indian Navy, Indian Army and Indian Air Force Command was set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 2001.

Commands

Western Naval Command Eastern Naval Command Southern Naval Command

Mumbai Visakhapatnam Kochi

HQ Location

In 2005, the Indian Navy commissioned the base, INS Kadamba at Karwar, 100 km from Goa. This is the third operational naval base after Mumbai and Vishakapatnam and the first to be controlled exclusively by the Navy. (The other bases share port facilities with civilian shipping, but this one is for purely naval use.) Built under Phase I of the multi -billion dollar Project Seabird, it is the largest naval base in the region. Asia's largest Naval academy INS Zamorin, is at Ezhimala (set up in 2009). Another naval base is being planned for the eastern shores, near Vishakapatnam in Rambilli Mandal. It will have comprehensive anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and amphibious capability. This east coast base expansion program is in direct response to Chinese PLA Navy activities in the region.

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The Indian Navy is setting up a naval station in Madagascar, to monitor and patrol the coast of Mozambique as well as the southern Indian Ocean.

In service Ships

The names of all in service ships (and Naval Bases) of the Indian Navy are prefixed with the letters INS, designating Indian Naval Ship.

1Indian Aircraft Carrier INS Viraat- The carrier is planned for decommissioning after the induction of the first domestically built Vikrant INS Vikrant class aircraft carrier is being built under project 71 at Cochin shipyard Limited, Kochi as the first
indigenous aircraft carrier. INS Vikramaditya or Admiral Gorshkov is the aircraft carrier bought from Russia. It is expected to join active service by December 2013. The Indian Navy has an amphibious transport dock of the Austin class, re -christened as INS Jalashwa in Indian service. Besides, it also maintains a fleet of landing ship tanks. It is expected that four LPD amphibious assault ships are to be constructed in the future. class aircraft carrier.

2.Guided Missile Destroyer (Designed to launch guided missile) List of Guided missile destroyer of Indian Navy
Kolkata Class- INS Kolkata, INS Chennai, INS Kochi, Kolkata class destroys are going to replace Delhi and Rajput class. Delhi class- INS Delhi, INS Mumbai Rajput Class- INS Rajput, INS Ranveer 3.Frigates Shivalik class- Shivalik class are being built under project 17A at Mazagon dock Limited Mumbai and GRSE, kolkata Talwar class Corvette- Corvette are small, manoeuvrable warship smaller than a frigate and larger than fast attack craft. Indian navy operate Kora, Khukri, Veer and Abhay class corvettes. The next generation Kamorta class is under development. Indian navy operates Sindhughosh (Diesel, electric) and Shishumar class submarines and has started construction of six scorpene submarine. India has developed first indigenously developed submarine INS Arihant which was launch 2009 in Vishakhapatnam.

Submarines-

DRDO

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, responsible for the development of technology for use by the military, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation. DRDO has a network of 52 laboratories which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronic and computer sciences, human resource development, life sciences, materials, missiles, combat vehicles development and naval research and development.

Achievements of DRDO A. Missile System

A missile is a self-propelled guided weapon system. Missiles have four system components: targeting and/or guidance, flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface, surface-to-air missiles (anti-aircraft), air-to-air missiles, and anti-satellite missiles. Missile propelles by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are generally referred to as shells and usually have a shorter range than missiles.

The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence program for the research and development of a comprehensive range of missiles. The program was managed by the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Ordnance Factories Board in partnership with other Indian government research organisations. The project started in early 1980s and ended in 2008. The last major missile developed under the program was the Agni 3 intermediate-range ballistic missile.

Integrated Guided Missile Development Program

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1. Prithvi missile system


The Prithvi missile (from Sanskrit pthv "Earth") is a family of tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM ) and is India's first indigenously developed ballistic missile.

Missile Prithvi-I Prithvi-II Prithvi-III


1. 2.

Type Tactical Tactical Tactical

Warhead Nuclear, submunitions, chemical Nuclear, submunitions, chemical Nuclear, submunitions, chemical

Payload (kg) 1,000 350750 5001,000

Range (km) 150 350 350600

User: Army Naval variant of Prithvi I and Prithvi II class missiles are codenamed Dhanush (meaning Bow).

Ballistic Missiles

A ballistics is the science of projectiles such as bullets, gravity bombs and rocket. Ballistic missile is a missile that follows a ballistic flight path with the objective of delivering warheads to a predetermined target. 1. Tactical ballistic missile: Range between about 150 km and 300 km (Designed for short range battle field use. They are mobile for quick deployment ) e.g. Prithvi 2. Theatre ballistic missile (TBM): Range between 300 km and 3,500 km e.g. Shahab 3, Sejjil Iran, Gauri Pakistan. 3. Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) or long-range ballistic missile (LRBM): Range between 3,500 km and 5,500 km e.g. Agni-IV, Agni III, Shahab 5, Shahab 6, Poseidon 4. Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM): Range greater than 5500 km e.g. Agni V, Agni VI (10000 Km under development), DF41 China, Jericho III Israel, Topol M Russia and Peacekeeper USA. Short- and medium-range missiles are often collectively referred to as theater or tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs). Long- and medium-range ballistic missiles are generally designed to deliver nuclear weapons because their payload is too limited for conventional explosives to be cost-effective (though the U.S. is evaluating the idea of a conventionally armed ICBM for near-instant global air strike capability despite the high costs). The flight phases are like those for ICBMs, except with no exoatmospheric phase for missiles with ranges less than about 350 km.

Types of ballistic Missiles

3. Agni
The Agni missile (Sanskrit: , Agn, root of English ignite) is a family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by DRDO of India and manufactured by Bharat Dynamics Limited. Missile Agni-I Agni-II AgniIII AgniIV Agni-V AgniVI

Type MRBM IRBM IRBM IRBM ICBM ICBM

Warhead Nuclear, munitions, Nuclear, munitions, Nuclear, munitions, Nuclear, munitions, Nuclear, munitions, Nuclear, munitions, subsubsubsubsubsub-

Payload (kg) 1,000 7501,000 2,0002,500 8001,000 1,500 (310 MIRV) 1,000 (10 MIRV)

Range (km) 7001,250 2,0003,500 3,5005,000 3,0004,000 50008000 8,000 10,000

User Army, force Army, force Army, force Army, force Army, force Army, force Air Air Air Air Air Air

4. Trishul missile system


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5. Akash missile system

Trishul (Sanskrit: , meaning trident) is the name of a short range surface-to-air missile developed by India as a part of the IGMDP. It has a range of 9 km and is fitted with a 5.5 kg warhead. Designed to be used against low-level (sea skimming) targets at short range, the system has been developed to defend naval vessels against missiles and also as a short range surface to air missile on land. India officially shut the down Trishul Missile project on 27 February 2008. The program, one of the five missiles being developed by Defense Research and Development Organization as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program, has been shelved. Defence Minister George Fernandes indicated this in Rajya Sabha (upper house of parliament), when he said the Trishul missile had been de-linked from user service, though it would be continued as a technology demonstrator. Akash (Sanskrit: meaning Sky) is a medium range surface-to-air missile developed as part of IGMDP to achieve self-sufficiency in the area of surface-to-air missiles. It has an intercept range of 30 km. It has a launch weight of 720 kg. Akash flies at supersonic speed, reaching around Mach 2.5. It can reach an altitude of 18 km. It is propelled by a solid fuelled booster stage. The Akash can attack multiple targets (up to 4 per Battery). The Akash missile's use of ramjet propulsion system allows it to maintain its speed without deceleration. unlike the Patriot missiles. The missile is supported by a multi-target and multi-function phased array fire control radar called the 'Rajendra' with a range of about 80 km in search, and 60 km in terms of engagement.

A ramjet, (sometimes referred to as a stovepipe jet), is a type of supersonic engine which gives the rocket the supersonic speed.
An object moving at high speed through air generates a high pressure region upstream. A ramjet uses this high pressure in front of the engine to force air through the tube, where it is heated by combusting some of it with fuel. It is then passed through a nozzle to accelerate it to supersonic speeds. This acceleration gives the ramjet forward thrust. A scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow
The Akash system meant for the Army uses the T-72.

Ramjet Engine

How ramjet engine works?

The Akash system can be deployed by rail, road or air.

6. Nag missile system

Nag is India's third generation " Fire-and-forget" anti-tank missile. It is an all weather, top attack missile with a range of 3 to 7 km. Nag uses Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) guidance with day and night capability. A helicopter launched version (On Dhruv) is called HELINA. The Army, the missiles will be carried by specialist carrier vehicles (NAMICA-Nag Missile Carrier) equipped with a thermal imager for target acquisition. For the Air Force, a nose-mounted thermal imaging system has been developed for guiding the missile's trajectory. Further versions of the missile uses an all-weather Milli Metric Wave (MMW) seeker technology.

7. Other Missiles 1. Tactical Missiles 1. Pinaka

The name pinaka means the divine bow wielded by lord Shiva. Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced in India and developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Army. The system has a maximum range of 3940 km and can fire a salvo of 12 rockets in 44 seconds, neutralizing a target area of 3.9 km2. The system is mounted on a Tatra truck for mobility. Pinaka missiles were used during Kargil War, where they were successful in neutralizing enemy positions on the mountain tops. The Pinaka will be operated in conjunction with indigenously developed BEL Weapon Locating Radar.
Prahaar (Sanskrit: , Strike) is a solid-fuelled Surface-to-surface guided short-range tactical ballistic missile that would be equipped with all directional warheads.

2. Prahar

3. Astra

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Astra is a 'Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile' (BVRAAM) being developed for the Indian Air Force.

Theatrical Ballistic Missile Hypersonic Missile


The Shaurya missile is a short-range theatrical surface-to-surface ballistic missile developed for use by the Indian Army. Capable of hypersonic speeds, it has a range of 600 km and is capable of carrying a payload of onetonne conventional or nuclear warhead. Supersonic is a missile that flies faster than the speed of sound. (mach 1 or greater) Mach 1 is defined as speed of sound i.e. 340 meter/sec or 760miles/hrs. Hypersonic Missile is a missile that uses scramjet engine to reach speeds of mach 5 and above. Mach 5 means 5 times the speed of sound (340X5=1700m/s).

a. Shaurya

K Missile family

The K family of missiles is a series of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) developed by India to boost its second-strike capabilities and thus the nuclear deterrence. "The classified 'K' missile family" is known as the "Black Project" which DRDO are faster, lighter and stealthier.

Missiles in the series


TYPE K-15/Sagarika K-4 Mark I K-4 Mark II Air Launched K-5
(SLBM Version of AGNI-VI)

RANGE 750 km1,500 km 3,500 km 5,000 km 200 km

Warhead 1 tonne 2.5 tonnes 1 tonne 500 kg

length 10 m 10 m 12 m 4m

Status Integrated with INS Arihant. (indigenous built nuclear submarine)Its land version is Shaurya . to be inducted in 2017. Under development Hypersonic missile project called Air launched article. It is designated to fit with Sukhoi Su-30MKI. Under Development by DRDO

6,000 km

1 tonne

A cruise missile is a guided missile the major portion of whose flight path to its target (a land-based or sea-based target) is guided. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy. Modern cruise missiles can travel at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and can fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low altitude trajectory. They are distinct from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in that they are used only as weapons and not for reconnaissance. In a cruise missile, the warhead is integrated into the vehicle and the vehicle is always sacrificed in the mission. Cruise missiles generally consist of a guidance system, payload, and propulsion system.

Cruise Missile

Guidance systems

Guidance systems use radars to calculate altitudes, pressure measuring barometers and satellite navigation and terrain contour matching (TERCOM). Use of an automatic target recognition (ATR) devices in the guidance system increases accuracy of the missile.

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1. Brahmos missile

Hypersonic Cruise missile


BrahMos) is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The name BrahMos is a combination word formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia. BrahMos has the capability of attacking surface targets by flying as low as 10 metres in altitude. It can gain a speed of Mach 2.8, and has a maximum range of 290 km.[1] The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fuelled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion gives the missile supersonic speed India's India/Russia BrahMos-II is a stealth hypersonic missile jointly under developed by India and Russia.

2.The Shaurya (missile) India is a hypersonic (Mach 7.5) surface-to-surface tactical missile developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) for use by the Indian Armed Forces. Shaurya is a ballistic missile that has a semi-cruise features because of its final path curvature. There are many ballistic missiles in the world that are hypersonic and with cruise features.

Subsonic Cruise Missile Medium range subsonic 1. Nirbhay

Nirbhay will be an all-weather low-cost medium-range cruise missile with stealth and high accuracy. The missile will have a range of 750 km. It will weigh about one tonne and will have a length of 6 metres. It will carry a ring laser gyroscope for high-accuracy navigation and a radio altimeter for the height determination. It will be capable of being launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air and shall be inducted into Indian Navy, Army.

Sudarshan It is Indias first laser guided bomb.

B. Indian Combat Vehicles


1. Arjun
The Arjun is a third generation main battle tank developed by India's DRDO, for the Indian Army. It can achieve a maximum speed of 70 km/h (43 mph). Its feature include 1. Automatic fire detection and suppression are included. 2. All-round anti-tank warhead protection by the newly developed Kanchan armour. Arjun is developed at Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) Ahmadnagar Maharastra. Arjun Mark II has a total of 93 upgrades, Such as missile-firing capability Night vision to engage targets effectively at night. Elbit, Israel is helping to enhance its firepower and battlefield survivability.

Arjun Mark II

2.T-72 Ajay

The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation tank. The T-72 was one of the most widely produced post-World War II tanks, and the basic design has also been further developed as the T-90. T72 is the Indian version T72 of tank containing Exclusive Reactive Armour (ERA), global engine test facility. The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72. The T-90M Bhishma is a customised, improved version of the T-90S, which India developed with assistance from Russia and France, with both of whom India has very close ties. (Bhishma was a near invincible warrior in the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata). The tanks are equipped with the French Thales built thermal sights and utilize Russian explosive reactive armoured plates.

3.T-90 Bhishma

4.Sarvatra Mobile bridge laying system

Sarvatra is a truck-mounted, mobile bridging system developed by Research and Development Establishment (R&DE) of Defence Research and Development

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Remotely Operated Vehicle

Organisation for the Indian army. Its nodal production agency is Bharat Earth Movers, Bangalore.

Daksh

Daksh is a remotely controlled robot used for locating, handling and destroying hazardous objects safely.

C. Aeronautics
1. Light Combat Aircraft HAL Tejas

Avionics

The HAL Tejas is a multirole light fighter developed by India. The programme began in the 1980s to replace India's ageing MiG-21 fighters. The Tejas has a pure delta wing configuration, with no tailplanes and a single dorsal fin. It integrates technologies such as fly-by-wire flight control system, multi-mode radar, integrated digital avionics system, composite material structures, and a flat rated engine. It is Designed by Aeronautical Development Agency and Manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The Tejas is the second supersonic fighter developed indigenously by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited after the HAL Marut. The LCA is constructed of aluminium-lithium alloys, carbon-fibre composites (C-FC), and titanium-alloy steels. developed indigenous head-up display (HUD). Three 5 in x 5 in multi-function displays, two Smart Standby Display Units (SSDU), and a "get-you-home" panel providing the pilot with essential flight information in case of an emergency. Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. Instrument Landing System (ILS) is used for landing in poor weather.

AvionicsThe Tejas has a night vision goggles (NVG)-compatible "glass cockpit" that is dominated by an CSIR-CSIO

What is Radar?
Radar is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It is used to detect aircraft, ships, guided missiles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves called radar signals which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter. A radar system has a transmitter that emits radio waves in predetermined directions. When these come into contact with an object they are usually reflected or scattered in many directions. Radar signals are reflected especially well by materials of considerable electrical conductivityespecially by most metals, by seawater and by wet lands. The radar signals that are reflected back towards the transmitter are the desirable ones that make radar work. If the object is moving either toward or away from the transmitter, there is a slight equivalent change in the frequency of the radio waves, caused by the Doppler Effect. Radar receivers are usually, but not always, in the same location as the transmitter. Although the reflected radar signals captured by the receiving antenna are usually very weak, they can be strengthened by electronic amplifiers.

Doppler Radar
Doppler Radar is a 4D radar system which detect the changing frequency coming from objects moving toward away from radar it is based on Doppler effect.

Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it is identical at the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession. The relative changes in frequency can be explained as follows. When the source of the waves is moving toward the observer, the time between the arrival of successive wave crests(peaks) at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. The waves sort of "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency, so the waves "spread out".

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Saras is the light trainer aircraft indigenously developed by National Airspace Laboratory Bangalore. It is civil aircraft to train pilot. Dhruv is the indigenously developed multirole helicopter for army, air force, navy, coast guard and civil operation, for both utility and attack roles by day and night. Its powerful engine is called Shakti. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Israel Aircraft Industries have an agreement to market the Dhruv helicopter worldwide.

Light Trainer Aircraft Saras

Advance light Helicopter Dhruv

Rudra Helicopter

Army version is fitted with Nag missile. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by computers in the vehicle, or under the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle. They are primarily deployed for military applications, but also used for civilian purposes such as policing, disaster management and surveillance of pipelines. UAVs are often preferred for missions that are "dangerous" for manned aircraft.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Examples of Indian UAVs 1. DRDO Lakshya

General characteristics

Lakshya is an Indian remotely piloted vehicle target drone system developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO. The variant Lakshya-1 is used to perform aerial reconnaissance of battlefield and target acquisition. The drone is remotely piloted by a ground control. Specifications (Lakshya PTA) Max takeoff weight: 705 kg Maximum speed: Mach 0.7 Range: 150 km Launch: Rocket Assisted Recovery: Two stage parachute

2. DRDO Nishant

The DRDO Nishant is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) developed by India's ADE (Aeronautical Development Establishment) a branch of DRDO for the Indian Armed Forces. The Nishant UAV is primarily tasked with intelligence gathering over enemy territory and also for reconnaissance, training and surveillance. The 380 kg Nishant UAV requires rail-launching from a hydro-pneumatic launcher and recovered by a Parachute System. Development The Nishant RPV made its first test flight in 1995. In July 1999, for the first time the Indian army deployed its new Nishant UAV system in the fight against guerilla forces backed by Pakistan in Kashmir.

a) b) c) d)

Day/night capability training vehicle All terrain mobility Target designation (using integral laser target designator) Endurance: 4 h 30 min

Features

3. DRDO Rustom
1. 2.

Rustom is a medium altitude long endurance UAV for all the three wings of Indian army forces. Its distinct features areDigital flight control and navigation system. Long endurance of 12 to 24 hours.

1.

4. DRDO AURA

It is a stealth UAV capable of releasing missiles, bombs and precision-guided munitions (PGM, smart weapon).

PGM is a guided munition (Munition is the collective term for all types of ammunition used in combat such as bombs, missiles and mines) to precisely hit a specific target and to minimize collateral damage (the civilian damage surrounding the intended target). Type of PGM are1. Radio control weapon 2. Radar, Infrared, guided weapon 3. Satellite guided weapon

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5. DRDO Abhyas 6. DRDO Fluffy (production discontinued) 7. DRDO Imperial Eagle 8. DRDO Netra

It is a light weight mini UAV weighing 2.5kg can carry day light and night vision camera. It is designed to be carried in soldiers back pack. Its primary uses are National Security Guard, Indian Army and Indian Air force.

D. Electronic and Computer System

It is a light weight UAV for surveillance and reconnaissance operation in low intensity conflict. The Netra is designed for anti terrorist and counter insurgency operations in forested areas. Its primary users are paramilitary forces such as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and Border Security Force (BSF). Electronic warfare refers to any action using electromagnetic spectrum of light to attack an enemy or to counter the enemy attack. Electronic warfare includes three major subdivisions: electronic attack (EA), electronic protection (EP), and electro nic warfare support (ES). Electronic attack involves the use of EM energy, directed energy, weapons to attack personnel, equipment with the intent of destroying enemy combat capability.

Electronic protection involves actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that destroy friendly combat capability. Electronic warfare support involves actions, to search for, or localize enemy EM sources. Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE), set up by the Defence Research and development Organisation (DRDO) in 2001 develops EW Systems in collaboration with private industry partners such as CMC and Tata Power, as also with select international companies. It has developed Static as well as mobile ESM system Divya Drishti (divine eye). A comprehensive EW system known as SAMYUKTA for the Army and SANGRAHA for navy. Advance ESM system VARUNA. Convoy protection jammer SAFARI and STRIDE. Radars Indian Dopplar radar INDRA. Multi function phased array radar Rajendra. Weapon locating radar.etc

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

E. Naval Research and Development


These include:

DRDO, BEL and the Indian Navy have developed a range of sonars and related systems for the Indian Navy's frontline combat ships. APSOH (Advanced Panoramic SOnar Hull mounted), HUMVAD (Hull Mounted Variable Depth sonar), HUMSA (the acronym HUMSA stands for Hull Mounted Sonar Array), Nagan (Towed Array Sonar), Panchendriya (Submarine sonar and fire control system). Other sonars such as the airborne sonar Mihir are in trials, whilst work is proceeding apace on a new generation of sonars. Sonars may be considered one of DRDO's most successful achievements as the Indian Navy's most powerful ships rely on DRDO made sonars. Torpedoes DRDO is currently engaged in developing multiple torpedo designs. Torpedos under development Advanced Light Torpedo Shyena is an advanced experimental torpedo developed by the Naval Scientific and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), a DRDO wing. Development was started in 1990.

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11. WAVE
Wave is a disturbance or oscillation that travels through space and matter accompanied by a transfer of energy. Wave motion transfers energy but not the particle of medium. For example when water wave are formed by throwing stone in still water, the water molecules oscillate up and down forming wave but water molecule remain at their original place. Waves are an example of periodic motion. Periodic motion means a motion that repeats regularly after a fixed period of time. Waves can be divided in two waves A. on the basis of medium B. on the basis of particle movement A. On the basis of medium waves are two main types 1. Mechanical or elastic waves they produce and propagate in material medium and the substance of this medium is deformed. Common example include water waves, sound waves, waves on stretched string of musical instruments and waves on coiled spring. 2. Electromagnetic waves do not require material medium or matter. They can travel through a vacuum and can have different wave length and frequencies. Examples include radio wave, micro wave, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, X-rays and gamma rays. B.On the basis of movement of particle of the medium waves are of two main type 1. Transverse wave is the one in which the particles of the medium move in perpendicular of the direction to the direction of wave propagation. Examplelight wave. In transverse wave the upward movement of particles is called crest and downward movement is called trough. E.g light waves. 2. Longitudinal Wave is the wave in which the particles of the medium move back and fourth in the form of compression and rarefaction Fig.7.1 A Transverse Wave 3. same as the direction of wave propagation. E.g. sound. Both Transverse and longitudinal wave are examples of simple harmonic motion because the individual particle motion is simple and harmonic. Compression Rarefaction Fig 7.2 A Longitudinal Wave

Characteristics of a harmonic wave 1. Amplitude

2. Wavelength Wavelength when a harmonic wave travel to a medium, particular pattern repeat itself after fixed distance called the
wavelength of a wave. It is usually represented by (Greek letter lambda). Its SI unit is meter. In figure 7.1 the distance between two consecutive crests or two consecutive troughs is equal to the wavelength. In figure 7.2 the distance between two consecutive compression or rarefaction is also called the wave length.

The amplitude of a wave is the magnitude of maximum displacement of the vibrating particle of the medium on either side of their mean.

3. Time period Time period-The time taken by the wave pattern to complete one wavelength is called the time period. It is represented by
T. Its SI unit is second.

4. FrequencyFrequency-Frequency of the wave is equal to the frequency of oscillation of the particle in one second. Thus the frequency
of the wave is equal to 1/T. Its SI unit is hertz (with unit symbol Hz).

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