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CONTENTS

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS PAGE

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2
1-ADJECTIVES ............................................................................................................... 2 1-1 ADJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 2 1-2 THE ORDER OF THE ADJECTIVES .................................................................. 4 1-3 PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES ................................ 5 2-ADVERBS ........................................................................................................................8 2-1 FORMING ADVERBS WITH -LY .................................................................... 9 2-2 USE OF ADVERBS ............................................................................................ 9 2-3 IRREGULAR ADVERBS .................................................................................. 10 2-4 POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE .................................................. 14 2-5 ADVERBS OF DEGREE ................................................................................... 14 2-6 SENTENCE ADVERBS .................................................................................... 22 2-7 FOCUSING ADVERBS ...................................................................................... 23 3-ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB STRUCTURES .............................................................. 24 3-1 TOO AND ENOUGH .......................................................................................... 24 3-2 SO ...... THAT/SUCH .... THAT .......................................................................... 25 3-3 COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ........................28 3-4 COMPARISON WITH AS .... AS/THE SAME .... AS/DIFFERENT FROM...... 35 3-5 SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ......................... 40 3-6 LIKE, AS, SUCH AS ............................................................................................ 43 EXAMPLES FROM YS/YDS ......................................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 1 .......................................................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 2 .......................................................................................................... TEST YOUR VOCABULARY ........................................................................................... 46 49 51 62

ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS


INTRODUCTION
Bir ismi tanmlayan szce sfat (adjective) denir: a pretty girl, rainy weather, hardworking students, a difficult question, etc. Zarf (adverB) ise ncelikle bir fiili tanmlayan szcktr: speak fluently, walk slowly, cook well, play badly, etc. Bir zarf bir sfat ya da baka bir zarf da niteleyebilir: very hot weather, an extremely difficult question, very fluently, unusually quickly, etc. Zarflar genellikle sfatn sonuna "-ly" ekinin getirilmesiyle oluur: serious/seriously, bad/badly, extreme/extremely, etc. Ancak, sfat ve zarf biimi ayn olan szckler de vardr: fast, hard, late, early, etc. Sonu "-ly" ile biten her szck zarf olmayabilir. Friendly, lovely, elderly gibi szckler, sonu "-ly" ile bittii halde sfattr: an elderly woman, a lovely day, a friendly voice, etc. Sfat ve zarfn cmle iindeki grevi, kullanmlar ve eitli sfat ve zarf yaplan, bu saymzn konusunu oluturmaktadr. imdi bunlar inceleyelim.

l-

ADJECTIVES

1-1 Sfat, bir sfat tamlamasnda (adjective + a noun), ismin nnde yer alr ve saylabilir tekil isimlerle tamlamann banda a/an kullanlr. Eer sfat saylamayan bir ismi (water, weather, work, etc.) ya da saylabilir oul bir ismi (days, girls, students, etc.) tanmlyorsa a/an kullanlmaz. He is a good cook. She has a round face. This is hard work. I don't like to swim in cold water. Those are nice shoes. Our neighbours are really friendly people. Sfatlar yaygn olarak be, become ve get fiilleri ile kullanlr. Seem, appear, look, feel, taste, smell ve sound gibi duyu fiilleriyle de sfat kullanlr. nk bu fiiller bir eylem bildirmezler. Bir nesnenin durumunu ifade etmemizi salarlar. be+adjective: She was rather plump last year, but now she is slim. The wages are rather low.

become/get+adjective: She got/became happy when she learnt that she had passed the exam. I'll get/become angry if she doesn't invite me. seem/appear/look+adjective: You look/seem/appear tired. Did you work hard in the office? She looks/seems/appears pale. Is something wrong with her? Seem ve appear'dan sonra to be + adjective de kullanabiliriz. Look'dan sonra to + infinitive gelmez. Don't try to speak to her. She seems/appears to be angry. He seemed/appeared to be ill. feel + adjective: I felt sad when I got the bad news. Do you still feel tired? (=Are you still tired?)

taste + adjective:

The dinner tasted delicious. (=The dinner was delicious.) This soup tastes awful. (=This soup is awful.) smell + adjective: The room smells awful. (= There is an awful smell in the room.) The rose smells nice. (= The rose has a nice smell.) sound + adjective: Grdmz bir durumu ifade ederken look/seem/appear kullanlr. Duyduumuz bir durumu ifade ederken ise sound kullanlr. The music sounds a bit loud. I talked to her on the phone. She sounded ill. The teacher in the next classroom sounds rather angry. Look, feel, taste, smell ve sound, "like" ile birlikte kullanlrsa, devamnda bir isim gelir. Look like + a noun (resemble), benzemek anlamndadr. She looks like (resembles) her mother. That man looks like a plainclothes detective. Feel like + a noun, " gibi hissetmek, gibi durmak" anlamn verir. She still feels like a child. (Kendini hala bir ocuk gibi hissediyor.) This material feels like wool. (Bu kuma yn gibi duruyor.) Taste like + a noun, "tad ya benziyor" anlamndadr. I didn't like the wine at the feast. It tasted like vinegar. This coffee tastes like hot water. Did you forget to put coffee in it? Smell like + a noun, " gibi kokuyor" anlamndadr. I didn't like the smell of the perfume. It smelt like soap. Sound like + a noun, "(kulaA) gibi geliyor" anlamn verir. We heard a loud noise in the middle of the night. It sounded like a car crash. Look, taste ve smell eylem bildiriyorsa zarf kullanlr. She looked angry. ("angry", "She"yi tanmlyor.) She looked at me angrily. ("angrily", "looked" fiilini tanmlyor.) The soup tasted delicious. ("delicious", "The soup" ismini tanmlyor.) She tasted the soup suspiciously. ("suspiciously", "taste" eyleminin nasl yapldn ifade ediyor.) The flowers smelt wonderful. ("wonderful", "the flowers" ismini tanmlyor.) She smelt the flowers happily, ("happily", "smell" eylemini tanmlyor.) Turn (turn out) ve grow fiillerinden sonra bir nesnenin durumundaki deiiklii ifade etmek iin sfat kullanabiliriz. Her hair has turned grey now. (has become grey) The day started sunny, but later it turned out wet. Everybody had considered her to be guilty, but she turned out (to be) innocent. (proved innocent) We began to walk home when it grew dark. (became/got dark) My father grows angry if I go home late. (gets/becomes angry) Turn ve grow fiilleri eylem bildiriyorsa, zarf kullanlr. Children grow quickly. The car turned round the corner fast. She turned the pages of the book quickly, looking for some information.

Keep ve remain fiilleri de, bir nesnenin durumunu ifade ederken sfatlarla kullanlabilen fiillerdir. Although I shouted at her, she remained silent. Nothing remains unchanged. Although things were going badly, he kept calm. Keep quiet, please. I can't concentrate on my work.

1-2 THE ORDER OF THE ADJECTIVES


Bazen bir ismi birden fazla sfatla tanmlayabiliriz. Bu durumda sfatlan belli bir dzene gre sralamamz gerekir. Bu konuda eitli kullanmlar bulunmasna ramen, dilde yerlemi biimiyle en yaygn kullanlan dizim yledir: A) size (big, large, small, tall, short, long, etc.) B) age (young, old, etc.) C) shape (round, square, fat, slim, etc.) D) colour (white, black, green, etc.) E) material (plastic, cotton, wooden, woollen, etc.) f) origin (French, Russian, Turkish, etc.) a small round table a new woollen sweater an old wooden house an expensive Swiss watch a tall thin man a tall young man Eer bu sfatlarn dnda, beautiful, nice, lovely, fine gibi duygulanrm ifade eden sfatlar varsa, bunlar sralamann en banda yer alr. a lovely small wooden house a nice old Turkish song a clever little boy an intelligent young Russian scientist Pretty, bir baka sfatn nnde yer alyorsa ve aralarnda virgl yoksa. "ok, olduka" (quite, very) anlamna gelir. Their daughter is a pretty tall girl, (quite/very tall girl) Eer pretty "ho, gzel" anlamndaysa iki sfat arasnda virgl kullanlr. Their daughter is a pretty, tall girl/a tall, pretty girl. Sfatlarn bu dizimi, bir sfat tamlamas ierisinde nemlidir. Eer sfatlan, tanmladklar isimden sonra kullanyorsak, bu sra o kadar nemli deildir ve iki sfat arasnda "and" kullanmak gerekir. stanbul is big and noisy. stanbul is big, noisy and crowded. She is tall and thin. Their son is clever and obedient. Eer bu sfatlar, ayn nesnenin birbiriyle elien ynlerini tanmlyorlarsa, arada "but" kullanmamz gerekir. stanbul is nice but polluted. Their son is clever but disobedient. She is very pretty but a little short.

1-3 PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES


Present ve past participle, bir fiil kknden treyip cmle iinde sfat grevinde bulunan szcklerdir: running water, an exciting story, stolen money, baked potato, etc. Present participle, fiil kkne "-ing" taksnn eklenmesiyle oluturulur: developing countries, an increasing demand, a tiring job, a moving car, etc. Past participle, dzenli fiillere "-ed" eklenerek, dzensiz fiillerin ise nc halini kullanarak eide edilir: a damaged car, excited children, grilled chops, an unseen hand, a half-eaten

apple, the recently found solution, etc. A) Bir ismin "-ing" li bir sfatla m yoksa "-ed" li bir sfatla m tanmlanaca ncelikle o ismin etkileyen (activE) ya da etkilenen (passivE) taraf olmasna baldr. Eer tanmladmz isim, o eylemin olmasna neden oluyorsa yani etkiliyorsa, o ismi "- ing" li bir sfatla tanmlayabiliriz. Eer tanmladmz isim o eylemden etkileniyorsa, onu "-ed" li bir sfatla tanmlayabiliriz. His job bores him. ("bore" cmlenin yklemidir.) His job is boring. ("skma" eylemine neden olan, yani etkileyen taraf "his job"dur.) Onun ii skcdr. He is bored with his job. ("bored" "he" yi yani "skma" eyleminden etkilenen taraf tanmlyor.) O iinden sklyor. Science-fiction films interest her a lot. She finds science-fiction films interesting. She is interested in science-fiction films. The explanation confused her. The explanation was confusing. She was confused by the explanation. Her attitude astonished us. Her attitude was astonishing. We were astonished by her attitude. Bu ekilde yaygn olarak kullanlan sfatlar unlardr: Verb admire amaze amuse annoy astonish bewilder bore charm confuse depress disappoint discourage disgust embarrass encourage excite exhaust fascinate frighten frustrate horrify interest irritate please satisfy shock startle stimulate surprise terrify tire (out) thrill worry Present Participle admiring amazing amusing annoying astonishing bewildering boring charming confusing depressing disappointing discouraging disgusting embarrassing encouraging exciting exhausting fascinating frightening frustrating horrifying interesting irritating pleasing satisfying shocking startling stimulating surprising terrifying tiring thrilling worrying Past Participle admired amazed amused annoyed astonished bewildered bored charmed confused depressed disappointed discouraged disgusted embarrassed encouraged excited exhausted fascinated frightened frustrated horrified interested irritated pleased satisfied shocked startled stimulated surprised terrified tired thrilled worried

B) Bir ismin, "-ing" li ya da "-ed" li bir sfatla tanmlanmas eylemin, devam etmekte olan bir eylem mi yoksa tamamlanm bir eylem mi olduuna da baldr. Turkey is among the developing countries. ("develop" eylemi devam ediyor.) Trkiye gelimekte olan lkeler arasndadr. The U.S.A. England and Germany are among the developed countries. Amerika, ngiltere ve Almanya gelimi lkeler arasndadr. I need some boiled water to make coffee. Kahve yapmak iin kaynam suya ihtiyacm var. You should put macaroni into boiling water. Makarnay kaynayan (kaynamakta olan) suya atmalsn. The plumber will come tomorrow to repair the leaking pipe. He will also repair the dripping tap in the kitchen. (sznt yapan boru, damlatan musluk) You should rinse the dishes thoroughly in running water. (...akan su) My cousin played for the winning team. (.... kazanan takm) "-ing" li ve "-ed" 1i sfatlarn en yaygn kullanm active-passive noktasnda younlar. The hurricane damaged a large area. Because of the damaging hurricane, a lot of people are homeless now. (hasara neden olan "hurricane", active) Many people will have to live in tents until the damaged houses are repaired. (hasar gren "the houses", passivE) They stole a large sum of money from the bank last week, and the stolen money hasn't been found yet (alnan para...) She broke her leg in the accident, and the broken leg is in plaster now. (krk bacak...) Last night, the storm blew down several trees, and the road is blocked now by the fallen trees. (yklm aalar.) I very much like to watch the falling snowflakes. (den kar taneleri)

EXERCISE l

Choose the correct one.

1- Although her elbow has healed completely, she still finds the result of this injury quite ............... as she can't move her arm to reach things. A) irritating B) irritated 2- I think 'Silence of the Lambs' is the most ......... film I have ever seen. A) frightening B) frightened 3- In the burnt-out remains of the town, the soldier found a ......... little girl crouched in a doorway. A) frightening B) frightened 4- Everyone thinks that it is ......... that a bomb has exploded after all the peace talks and negotiations. A) shocking B) shocked 5- The offer of an extra ten percent commission on sales up to the end of the month is ......... for the staff. A) motivated B) motivating 6- We were already .......... but we had only reached the halfway point of the valley. A) exhausting B) exhausted 7- We thought a peaceful settlement had been reached and were ......... when we heard reports of new violence. A) shocked B) shocking 8- Even the Sales Director seemed ......... by the concert, which was performed by members of the staff.

A) amusing

B) amused

9- When she opened her present, she looked really ......... with it. A) pleasing B) pleased 10- Dr Finley's daughter really is a ......... girl, isn't she? A) charming B) charmed 11- The best tiling about Bill Bryson's books is that he looks at American life in such an ......... way. A) amused B) amusing 12- Corned beef and mashed potato makes quite a filling and ......... meal. A) satisfied B) satisfying 13- I had to take strategic marketing as part of my degree, but I found it an extremely ............ subject. A) boring B) bored 14- I'm glad that you woke me up. I was in the middle of a ......... nightmare. A) terrified B) terrifying. 15- Maria's presentations are usually both professional and ......... . A) stimulating B) stimulated 16- The food at the hotel was awful and the rooms were filthy. In fact, we were with the whole experience. A) disgusted B) disgusting 17- The result of the match was ......... for our team. A) disappointed B) disappointing 18- He looked ......... by the new surroundings of his foster home. A) bewildered B) bewildering 19- People who push into queues are very .......... A) annoying B) annoyed 20- She was ......... when someone pushed :n front of her in the queue. A) annoying B) annoyed

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ADVERBS

Genel olarak zarflar kendi aralarnda eitli gruplara ayrlrlar. Bu gruplar yle sralayabiliriz. A) Manner B) Place C) Time D) Frequency E) Sentence f) Degree g) Focusing : : : : : : : slowly, gently, carefully, frankly, bravely, etc. here, there, up, down, near, etc. now, yesterday, tomorrow, still, yet, etc. always, never, frequently, once, twice, etc. actually, really, evidently, obviously, definitely, etc. very, quite, rather, fairly, hardly, scarcely, etc. just, only, simply, even, also, etc.

Bu blmde daha ok zerinde duracamz zarflar, durum bildiren (adverbs of manner), derece bildiren (adverbs of degreE), cmleyi niteleyen (sentence adverbs) ve vurgulama yapan (focusing adverbs) zarflardr.

2-1

FORMING ADVERBS WITH - LY


cold - coldly quick - quickly wise - wisely whole - wholly true - truly full - fully heavy - heavily happy - happily shy - shyly

Pek ok durum ve derece zarf, sfatn sonuna "-ly" eklenmesiyle oluur.

I don't know why, but she spoke to me coldly. You should treat people gently. We had to eat our lunch quickly. This morning, I left home hurriedly. Baz sfatlarn sonu -ly ile biter: cowardly, friendly, likely, lovely, elderly, lively, lonely, silly, ugly. Bu szckleri tek bama zarf olarak kullanamayz. Eer, bunlardan birini zarf grevinde kullanmamz gerekiyorsa, in a lovely voice, in a friendly manner, in a cowardly way gibi bir phrase (szck grubu) kullanabiliriz. He is a cowardly person. (adjectivE) He acted in a cowardly way. (adverbial phrasE) kinci cmledeki "cowardly", "way" szcn tanmlad iin yine bir sfattr. Ancak " in a cowardly way" bir btn olarak "act" eylemini tanmlad iin bir zarftr. Our neighbours are very friendly people, (adjectivE) Our neighbours welcomed us in a friendly way. (adverbial phrasE) She has a lovely voice, (adjectivE) She spoke to me in a lovely voice. (adverbial phrasE)

2-2 USE OF ADVERBS


Zarflar, nceltkle, bir eylemin nasl yapldn ifade eden szcklerdir. Yani, ykleme "How?" sorusunu sorduumuzda yant alabileceimiz szcklerdir. He is a careful driver. (adjectivE) He drives the car carefully. ("How does he drive?" "Carefully.") Her action was deliberate. She acted deliberately. She is a successful singer. She sings successfully. Their visit was unexpected. They came unexpectedly.

Zarflar, bir sfatn ya da bir baka zarfn derecesini arttrmak ya da azaltmak iin de kullanlrlar. Adverb + adjective: It is cold today. It is extremely cold today. Her mother is ill. Her mother is seriously ill.

The street was quiet yesterday. The street was unusually quiet yesterday. Adverb + adverb: He drove the car carelessly. He drove the car unbelievably carelessly. She did her homework quickly. She did her homework incredibly quickly.

At the party last night, he behaved foolishly. At the party last night, he behaved terribly foolishly. Preposition + a noun yapsn kullanarak baz zarflarn tad anlam ifade edebiliriz. She left home in a hurry/hurriedly. He drove the car with great care/very carefully. 2-3 IRREGULAR ADVERBS A) Good / well: Good bir sfattr ve zarf biimi well dir. I broke your window by accident/accidentally. She looked at me with sorrow/sorrowfully.

My mother is a good cook. She cooks well. Her English is very good. She speaks English well. Well, birinin "sal iyi" anlamnda kullanlyorsa bir sfattr. "How are you?" sorusuna "I'm very good." biiminde yant veremeyiz. nk bu yant. "Ben ok iyi biriyim." anlamna gelir. Oysa "How .......?" sorusu, insanlara ilikin sorulduunda, kiinin sal hakknda bilgi ister. How are you today? - I'm very well, thanks. Eer bir insann nasl biri olduunu sormak istersek "What is he like?" sorusunu sorarz ve bu soruya yant verirken good szn kullanabiliriz. - What is your new boss like? - I think he is a good person. - What is your father like? - He is a good father. Bir nesnenin nasl olduunu sorarken "How is it?" ya da "What is it like?" sorularn kullanabiliriz. Ancak bu sorulara yant verirken "iyi" demek istiyorsak good szn kullanmalyz. (Well, sadece canllarn salk durumunu ifade ederken sfat olarak kullanlr.) - What is your new job like?/ How is your new job? - I'm not sure yet, but I think it is good. - How is your new house? - Oh, it is very good. Well, past participle ile ok sk kullanlan bir zarftr: well-known, well-organized, well-dressed, welleducated, etc. Everybody at the party last night was very well-dressed. Haven't you heard of him? He is quite a well-known author. Past participle ile badly'yi de kullanabiliriz. Everything went wrong on our holiday. It was badly-planned. The car was not worth repairing. It was badly-damaged. B) Fast, hard, late ve early, sfat ve zarf biimi ayn olan szcklerdir. He is a fast runner. (adj.) He runs fast. (adv.) She travels to work on an early train. (adj.) The train came early. (adv.) He is a hard worker, (adj.) He works hard. (adv.) I'll go on a late train (adj.) I arrived home late. (adv.)

"Ge" anlamndaki late ile lately birbirinden farkl szcklerdir. Lately, recently ile ayn anlamdadr ve "son zamanlarda, son gnlerde" demektir. - Have you been to the cinema lately / recently? - I haven't done any shopping lately /recently. Hard, "ok, youn" anlamndaysa sfat ve zarf biimi ayndr. Hard sfat olarak "zor" anlamnda da kullanlr. The exam was very hard. (=very difficult) This is hard work. I can't do it. (adj.) Although I worked hard, I couldn't finish the work. (adv.) C) Hardly: Hardly, "hard" n zarf biimi deildir. Baka bir anlama sahip bir zarftr. Hardly = almost not Hardly'nin bir anlam "hemen hemen hi, neredeyse hi" demektir. Olumlu cmle yapsyla kullanlr. Ancak anlam olumsuzdur. I can't tell you much about her, because I hardly know her. (= I almost don't know her. = I know her very little. = Onu neredeyse hi tanmyorum. = Onu ok az tanyorum.) I didn't feel good yesterday, so I hardly studied. (= I studied very little.)

Hardly = only with great difficulty Hardly'nin bir anlam da "glkle" demektir. Bu anlamda hardly, can ve could ile ok sk kullanlr. Her voice is very soft. I can hardly hear her. (I can hear her only with great difficulty = Onu glkle duyabiliyorum.) I had a terrible headache yesterday. I could hardly listen to the lesson. (I could only listen to the lesson with great difficulty = Dersi glkle dinleyebildim.) Hardly ever = almost never Hardly ever, sklk bildiren bir zarf olarak "hemen hemen hi, ok seyrek" anlamnda kullanlr. He doesn't like reading. He hardly ever / almost never reads a book. Hemen hemen hi kitap okumaz. I can hardly ever / almost never watch TV these days. Bugnlerde neredeyse hi televizyon izleyemiyorum. Hardly any = almost no, very little Hardly any, miktar belirtirken kullanlr. Bu anlamda hardly, cmle iinde iki yerde kullanlabilir. I hardly have any money./ I have hardly any money. (I have almost no money = Neredeyse hi param yok. / ok az param var.) She feels lonely. She hardly has any friends. /She has hardly any friends. (She has almost no / very few friends = Hemen hemen hi arkada yok.) Hardly'yi anyone, anything, anywhere gibi szcklerle de kullanabiliriz. I hardly bought anything. /I bought hardly anything. (I bought almost nothing.) I hardly knew anyone at the party. /I knew hardly anyone at the party. (I knew almost no one at the party.) I can hardly go anywhere these days. /I can go hardly anywhere these days. (I can go almost nowhere these days.)

EXERCISE 2
1-

Choose the correct answer in parentheses.

It was a (significant/significantly) breakthrough in scientific understanding, but the actual discovery was (accidental/accidentally). 2- When you're jogging, it helps to breath (deep/deeply) and (even/evenly). 3- We thought we were going to miss the meal (complete/completely), but we were just a few minutes (late/lately). 4- You have been looking very (worried/worriedly) (late/lately). Is everything all right? 5- It was so (late/lately) when we arrived that we (hard/hardly) saw any of the attractions. 6- (Normal/Normally) they charge 19.99 for these, but I bought them for 9.99, which I think is a very (reasonable/reasonably) price. 7- All our products are (meticulous/meticulously) checked by our quality control stall to ensure they meet all the (current/currently) standards. 8- I wait until I go to the open market to buy fish because you can buy it quite (cheap/cheaply) there. 9- Tell the doctor that he has to come (immediate/immediately) as the patient's condition is very (serious/seriously). 10- I don't think the special effects in 'Star Wars' are as (good/ well) as the ones in 'Star Trek'. 11- Jason communicates (good/well) with the customers, but he isn't very (good/well) at keeping records.

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12- I am going shopping with a (good/well) friend this afternoon, so I have (quick/quickly) dusted the house and will clean everywhere (proper/properly) tomorrow. 13- I find driving long distances (extreme/extremely) (tired/tiring). 14- I like our local dry-cleaner's because their service is (efficient/efficiently). Items are (normal/normally) ready for collection the following day. 15- I can ski (proficient /proficiently), but Jean is an (absolute/ absolutely) beginner. 16- We were so (confident/confidently) before the tournament that I was crushed when we lost the first game so (decisive/decisively), and the coach was (similar/similarly) disappointed. 17- We are (near/nearly) at Carlisle, so we will be crossing the Scottish border (short/ shortly). 18- We worked so (hard/hardly) picking strawberries that we couldn't stand up straight by the end of the day, but we (hard/hardly) earned any money at all. 19- Malcolm is a (high/highly) regarded member of the community who is (general/generally) considered honest and trustworthy. 20- The rate of inflation is too (high/highly) at the moment, which is (serious/seriously) affecting the stability of the economy. 21- We won't make (huge/hugely) profits this year. In fact, we will (scarce/scarcely) cover our costs. 22- It's been (incredible/incredibly)(quiet/quietly) in the shopping centre today, which was not (normal/normally), because it is (usual/usually) very (busy/busily) on Fridays. 23- The injection was (painful/painfully), but she recovered from it (quick/quickly). 24- Black cumin oil is a (traditional/ traditionally) remedy for both (serious/seriously) and minor illnesses. 25- The (terrible/terribly) behaviour of his elder brother had a (profound/profoundly) (bad/badly) influence on him. 26- Thomas is known to be (confident/confidently), but at the moment, he is waiting (anxious/anxiously) for an interview. 27- All of our products are (careful/carefully) constructed from (natural/naturally) materials. 28- She speaks French so (fluent/fluently) and (natural/naturally) that she could be mistaken for a French woman. 29- During the meeting, we kept (strict/strictly) to the schedule, so we finished (comfortable/comfortably) in the time available. 30- After suffering a (serious/seriously) illness, I had to go on a (special/specially) diet. 31- They achieved (good/well) results, especially considering that the project was (inadequate/inadequately) funded. 32- He was (extreme/extremely) (angry/angrily) because he felt that he had been (harsh/harshly) treated by the boss. 33- She (mistaken/mistakenly) thought she had won a valuable prize, but she had only won an (extreme/extremely) (cheap/cheaply) watch. 34- Unlike in England, the football season in Sweden takes place during the Summer and Autumn. In this way, the footballers don't have to play in the (extreme /extremely) temperatures of Scandinavian winters. 35- The dock workers in Glasgow at the turn of the last century lived in (atrocious/atrociously) conditions and were treated (bad/badly) by their bosses. 36- Simon behaved (atrocious/atrociously) at Katherine's business reception. He insulted several of the (important/importantly) guests. 37- I don't exercise (regular/regularly) any more, but (occasional/occasionally), we go for a (strenuous/strenuously) walk in the mountains. 38- He is an (international/internationally) renowned referee, but on this occasion, he made a (total/totally) (erroneous/erroneously) decision at a (critical/critically) point in the match. 39- If you can wind this bandage (tight/ tightly) around his leg to try and stop it bleeding so (quick/quickly). I'll run and get some help.

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40- I've put on a lot of weight and my jeans are too (tight/tightly) now, so I will have to either go on a (strict/strictly) diet or buy some (new/newly) trousers. 41- Bjm Borg's tennis game was suited to clay courts, but he was (surprising/surprisingly) (successful/successfully) in the competitions on grass courts. 42- One (surprising/surprisingly) result of the preliminary rounds was that the Slovenian team (successful/successfully) qualified to play in the tournament. 43- On the day he had a (nasty/nastily) argument with his boss, he walked out (angry/angrily) and never returned. 44- A few (violent/violently) people spoilt the enjoyment of the (good/well)-behaved majority. 45- When my neighbours replaced their living-room carpet, they (kind/kindly) offered to give me the old one, which was a really (nice/nicely) gesture.

2-4 POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE


Durum bildiren zarflar, yklemden sonra gelir. Eer yklemin nesnesi varsa, /,arl nesneden sonra yer alr. She spoke quietly. She read the book carefully. He waited hopefully. She left the country secretly. Verb + preposition + object durumunda zarf, iki yerde bulunabilir. She listened to me carefully./ She listened carefully to me. Eer nesne birden fazla szckten oluuyorsa, zarf preposition'dan nce ya da yklemden nce kullanlr. She listened carefully to the delegates from various countries. She carefully listened to the delegates from various countries. Yan cmlesi clan ya da gerund - infinitive bulunan cmlelerde, zarfn hangi eylemi nitelediine dikkat etmek gerekir. I tried hard to make her study. ("hard", "try" eylemini tanmlyor.) I tried to make her study hard. ("hard", "study"yi tanmlyor.) I know very well that she can knit. ("very well", "know" eylemini tanmlyor.) I know that she can knit very well. ("very well", "knit" eylemini tanmlyor.)

2-5 ADVERBS OF DEGREE


Derece bildiren zarflar, bir fiili, sfat ya da zarf tanmlayabilirler. Bu zarflarn grevi, tanmlad fiilin, sfatn ya da zarfn sahip olduu deeri azaltmak ya da oaltmaktr. I really enjoyed the meal. This book is rather boring. I find archeology quite interesting. He barely avoided hitting the child.

The questions on the test were extremely difficult. He was driving very fast. Commonly used Adverbs of Degree a) absolutely, completely, entirely, fully, thoroughly, perfectly, totally, decidedly, certainly, positively, really, deeply, enormously, greatly, highly, utterly, extremely, exceedingly, excessively, tremendously, increasingly, awfully, badly, terribly, pretty, bitterly, incredibly, unbelievably, surprisingly, intensely, strongly, extraordinarily, exceptionally, reasonably, remarkably, considerably, comparatively, relatively, seriously, slightly, significantly, unusually, etc b) too, enough, very, just, well indeed, for, much, a lot, lots, so, quite, rather, fairly, a bit, a little barely, hardly, little, scarcely almost, nearly, practically, virtually A) Sonu -ly ile biten pek ok zarf, derecelendirme yapmak iin kullanlabilir. He won the football pools again. He is incredibly lucky. Everything is surprisingly cheap at this market. I was deeply hurt by his remarks.

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Some of our traditions are utterly peculiar to foreigners. I greatly appreciate your helping me. I certainly don't want to come with you. The bike is becoming increasingly popular in Turkey. Everybody was very elegant at the party, but she was exceptionally elegant. The children are behaving unusually well today. The students are remarkably quiet today. I haven't fully understood what you meant. It's bitterly cold outside. Bu grupta awfully, terribly ve badly "very, very much" anlamnda kullanlr. I'm terribly sorry. (= very sorry) He was awfully/terribly upset by the news. Badly, want ve need fiilleriyle ok sk kullanlr. I badly need a holiday for a few days. She badly wants to have her own car. I need some money badly. (or I badly need some money.) Pretty, bu kullanmyla rather, almost ile ayn anlamdadr ve "olduka" demektir. We had a camping holiday, and it was pretty tiring. They are working pretty hard these days. B) Too, enough, very, very much and much Too, bir sfat ya da zarf niteleyebilir. It's too hot today. (too+adj.) You are eating too quickly. (too+adv.) Too bir fiili tek bana asla niteleyemez. Ancak too much biiminde kullanlrsa, fiili niteleyebiliriz. You are working too much. He smokes too much. Too bir ismi nitelerken, ismin saylabilir ya da saylamaz olduunu dikkate almalyz. Saylabilir oul isimlerle too many/too few, saylamaz isimlerle ise too much/too little kullanabiliriz. I can't talk to you now. I have too little time. I don't want to drive now. There is too much traffic at this hour. She has too few friends, so she feels lonely. Too, baka zarflarla nitelenebilir. Bu zarflar unlardr; far, rather, much, a bit, a little. This skirt is a little too big for me. This house is much too large for only two people. It's rather too dreary today to go out. There were far too many people at the party. Enough, bir sfat, zarf, fiili ve ismi niteleyebilir. Enough, sfat ve zarftan sonra, isimden nce gelir. This rope isn't strong enough. (adj + enough) I drove carefully enough. (adv. + enough) We can go out for dinner, I have enough money. (enough + uncountable noun) We cant invite so many people. We dont have enough chairs. (enough + countable plural noun) Stop working now. You have worked enough for today, (verb + enough) Very, bir sfat ya da zarf tanmlayabilir. Everything is very expensive these days. (very + adj.) Slow down, please. You are driving very fast. (very + adv.) Very bir fiili tanmlarken very much biiminde kullanlr. I like swimming very much./I very much like swimming.

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Much ve very much, appreciate, admire, regret, care, mind, enjoy, like, dislike, hope, fear gibi derecesini ifade edebileceimiz fiillerle kullanlr. Much daha ok olumsuz cmlece ve soruda kullanlr. Olumlu cmlede kullanm ok kstldr. I don't like football much. He used to drink a lot but he doesn't drink much nowadays. She doesn't much care to be in crowded places. I much regret my foolish remarks. I much appreciate what you have done. Very much daha ok olumlu cmlede kullanlr ve normalde yeri fiilden; varsa, nesneden sonradr. Ancak, fiilden nce de gelebilir. I very much enjoy being with friends./I enjoy being with friends very much. She very much wants to buy a car./She wants to buy a car very much. Very much olumsuz cmlede kullanldnda cmlenin sonunda yer almas tercih edilir. I don't like football very much. I don't approve of her course of conduct very much. Barely, hardly, little, scarcely Bu zarflar daima olumlu cmlede kullanlrlar ancak cmleye verdikleri anlam olumsuzdur. Most of the people at the reception were strangers to me. I barely/hardly/scarcely knew anybody there. (I knew very few people there.) Hemen hemen hi kimseyi/neredeyse hi kimseyi tanmyordum. He barely/hardly/scarcely avoided the accident. (but he did.) Kazay glkle/g bela nleyebildi. Little, think, imagine, expect, realise gibi dnmeye ilikin fiilleri niteleyebilir. I little know what he has been doing since he left. I little expect him to pass the exam. Almost, nearly, practically, virtually Bu zarflar, "hemen hemen, neredeyse" anlamndadr. Niteledikleri fiilin nnde yer alrlar. I almost/nearly /practically hit the child. (But I didn't.) ocua neredeyse arpyordum. She almost/nearly/practically dropped the tray. (But she didn't) Tepsiyi neredeyse dryordu. The questions on the test were really difficult. I almost/nearly/practically/virtually did nothing. (But I did something.) Neredeyse/hemen hemen hibir ey yapmadm. Virtually, dier nden daha gl bir anlama sahiptir ve "gerekten" anlamna da gelir. The defeat of our team was virtually a disaster. (But it wasn't a real disaster.) Bizim takmn yenilmesi gerekten bir felaketti. She spent a lot of money on decorating her house, but it looks like virtually nothing. Evi gerekten hibir eye benzemiyor. Barely/hardly ve scarcelynin cmleye verdii anlam ile almost/nearly ve practically'nin yerdii arlama dikkat ediniz. "I barely/hardly/scarcely passed the exam." cmlesi "Snav glkle/gbeia geebildim. Ancak bir geer not alabildim." anlamn verir. Ama glkle de olsa "pass" eylemi gereklemitir. Yani kii snav gemitir.

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"I almost/nearly/practically passed the exam." cmlesi ise "Snav neredeyse geiyordum. Gememe ramak kalmt." anlamn verir. Oysa "pass" eylemi gereklememitir. Yani kii snavdan kalmtr. Fairly, quite, rather Fairly, quite ve rather, bir sfat ya da zarf niteleyebilir. Rather, "considerably" ile ayn anlama sahiptir ve "olduka, bir hayli" demektir. Rather daha ok expensive, late, poor, ugly, sadly, unwisely, etc. gibi olumsuz bir zellii ifade eden sfat ya da zarflan nitelemek iin kullanlr. It's rather cold today. She behaved rather foolishly last night. She was rather tense, so I advised her to take a few days off. Fairly, daha ok olumlu bir zellik ifade eden sfat ya da zarflarla kullanlr. She is fairly tall. (not very tall, moderately) It's fairly warm today. (not hot, not colD) I'm fairly tolerant with my son. Quite, iki anlama sahip bir zarftr. Birinci anlam "fairly" ile ayndr ve "olduka" demektir. Quite da fairly gibi, daha ok olumlu bir zellik ifade eden sfat ya da zarflarla kullanlr. It's quite warm today. Let's have a walk. I try to be quite understanding to him. She managed to settle the row quite cleverly. Quite, "tamlk, btnlk" ifade eden empty, full, ready, sure, wrong, right, unique, alone, etc. gibi sfatlarla ya da incredible, unexpected, amazing, extraordinary, horrible, superb, marvellous, etc. gibi ok gl anlama sahip sfatlarla kullanldnda "completely" anlamna gelir. I'm not quite ready. (completely ready) The suitcase is quite empty. (completely empty) (Valiz tamamen bo.) You are quite right. (completely right) Quite, bir fiili de niteleyebilir. Eer niteledii fiil enjoy, like, want, wish gibi derecesini belirtebileceimiz bir fiil ise "quite" in anlam "olduka" dr. Ancak agree, think, understand gibi btnlk ifade eden bir fiil ise "quite" in buradaki anlam "completely"dir. I quite liked the film. (Filmi olduka beendim.) We quite enjoyed ourselves at the party. (Partide olduka elendik.) I don't quite understand his excuse. (Onun mazeretini tam olarak anlamadm.) We haven't quite finished the book. (Kitab tam olarak bitirmedik.) I quite agree with him. (Onunla tamamen ayn fikirdeyim.) Rather da like, enjoy, dislike, object gibi fiilleri nitelemek iin "olduka" anlamnda kullanlr. I rather object to elementary school students being given too much homework. She rather likes doing housework. Sfat tamlamalarnda a/an "fairly"den nce kullanlr. She is a fairly tall girl. It is a fairly interesting story. A/an, "rather'dan nce ya da sonra gelebilir. This is a rather difficult question/rather a difficult question. This is a rather noisy place/rather a noisy place. A/an, "quite" dan sonra gelir. It was quite a nice holiday. She was quite an understanding person. Our house is quite a long way from here. EXERCISE 3 : Choose the correct answer.

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1- If you are not ......... satisfied with the product, you can return it for a full, refund. A) extraordinarily B) slightly C) increasingly D) decidedly E) entirely 2- The problem of congestion is becoming ......... unbearable in Istanbul with each day. A) deeply B) fully C) bitterly D) unusually E) increasingly 3- He was ......... hurt by her spiteful remarks. A) favourably B) highly C) perfectly D) deeply E) fully 4- With his long and well-prepared speech he gave yesterday, our manager made our objectives for next year ......... clear. A) perfectly B) deeply C) enormously D) greatly E) bitterly 5- The politician made a stirring speech, but many people in the audience ......... doubted his sincerity. A) seriously B) practically C) exceptionally D) severely E) fatally 6- Once you have learnt one foreign language, learning a second is ......... easy. A) fully B) comparatively C) deeply D) excessively E) intensely 7- When we have examined the situation .......... we will issue a report. A) thoroughly B) decidedly C) tremendously D) increasingly E) relatively 8- She produces some ......... intelligent essays, but she needs to participate mere in class discussions. A) badly B) bitterly C) slightly D) certainly E) exceedingly 9- Several decisions by the referee during the game in favour of one team revealed him to be ......... biased. A) reasonably B) barely C) bitterly D) decidedly E) practically 10- I think Bamby is ......... talented and should be picked for the team. A) completely B) exceptionally C) fully D) badly E) barely EXERCISE 4 : A) Match each adverb on the left below with its synonym in the box. a) constantly b) fundamentally c) securely d) timidly e) extensively f) voluntarily g) adventurously h) exactly i) competently j) sufficiently

1- safely 6- incessantly 2- shyly 7- precisely 3- widely 8- adequately 4- essentially 9- daringly 5- skilfully 10- willingly b) Choose the correct answer. 1.

The flowers on top of the wedding cake were particularly ...........made. They looked almost real. A) incessantly B) skilfully C) essentially D) voluntarily E) shyly She doesn't get any extra wages, but she became the company's health and safety officer ......... because she thought the training useful to have. A) sufficiently B) widely C) voluntarily D) shyly E) precisely To be honest. I don't think my daughter is ......... talented to win the first prize in the art competition. A) shyly B) voluntarily C) adventurously D) sufficiently E) exactly While on holiday in America, he ......... travelled down the Colorado River in an inflatable raft. A) essentially B) widely C) incessantly D) adequately E) daringly His success as a speed skater is ......... due to his speed and stamina. A) fundamentally B) willingly C) daringly D) sufficiently E) timidly

2.

3.

4.

5.

EXERCISE 5 : A) Match each adjective on the left below with its opposite in the box. 1- identical 2- intentional 3- abrupte 4- temporary 5- broad

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6- sharp

a) shallow b) permanent c) narrow d) blunt e) gradual 9- deep 10- guilty

f) harsh g) different h) close i) accidental j) innocent

7- distant 8- tender 12345-

b) Choose the correct answer. Sending her to her room was ........ . After all, she had spilt the milk accidentally. A) gradual B) harsh C) guilty D) temporary E) blunt I'm sure I've seen a/an ......... vase to yours in the antique shop in town. A) identical B) innocent C) permanent D) tender E) abrupt I might have applied for the information officer's job at the hospital if it had been a/an ......... position, but it is only a twelve-month contract. A) deep B) broad C) permanent D) gradual E) identical The committee of the sports club has decided to advertise in the local newspaper as there has been a/an ......... decline in membership for the last few seasons. A) narrow B) accidental C) gradual D) distant E) identical Not giving the precise details of the President's tour in the article was a/an .........omission for security reasons. A) sharp B) accidental C) identical D) abrupt E) intentional

EXERCISE 6 : a) Match each adverb on the left below with its opposite in the box. 1- cheerfully 2- wisely 3- considerately 4- incorrectly 5- quickly 6- harshly 7- abundantly 8- casually 9- obscurely 10- indisputably 11- enthusiastically 12- publicly 13- smoothly 14- naturally 15- humorously

a) sparsely b) deniably c) seriously d) stupidly e) sorrowfully f) privately g) tenderly h) accurately

i) thoughtlessly j) formally k) artificially 1) plainly m) slowly n) half-heartedly o) roughly

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b) Choose the correct answer. 12345678910Jonathan acted ......... and left the room when he realised the argument was developing into a fight. A) wisely B) artificially C) roughly D) harshly E) deniably With his suit and tie, Mark was dressed rather ......... for a cricket match, but he explained that he had come directly from his office. A) sparsely B) privately C) obscurely D) formally E) casually We had better put the-milk back in the refrigerator as it will go sour ......... in this hot weather. A) seriously B) quickly C) obscurely D) harshly E) roughly Jamie ......... entered the obstacle race at his school's summer fair and he was confident that he would win. A) enthusiastically B) privately C) publicly D) smoothly E) tenderly The whole family gathered, in tears, and buried their pet dog in the garden of their home ....... . A) densely B) indisputably C) sorrowfully D) humorously E) roughly He didn't have much enthusiasm for the job and carried out his work ......... . A) publicly B) smoothly C) half-heartedly D) wisely E) meticulously None of the medical staff at the hospital had criticised the doctor in public, but .......... many had had their suspicions about him. A) deniably B) artificially C) plainly D) casually E) privately The company has had its problems in the past, but this is the first time that the board have ......... discussed closing the factory. A) accurately B) naturally C) roughly D) seriously E) smoothly Because of the favourable climate, vegetables grow ......... in the area, which provides plentiful food for the residents. A) smoothly B) abundantly C) considerately D) humorously E) sparsely The author includes his own life experiences in the town ......... and interweaves them with the plot. You cannot tell the factual sections from the fictional ones. A) artificially B) roughly C) deniably D) privately E) obscurely

EXERCISE 7:
123456789101112131415-

Choose the synonym for the word in bold type.

It's probable that the hospital will be extended next year. A) fortunate B) unusual C) definite D) certain E) likely I had difficulty understanding the man as he had a strange accent. A) relentless B) complicated C) plain D) peculiar E) ordinary I was a little concerned about Joe's failure to turn up punctually and rang his mother to make sure that everything was all right. A) sorrowful B) worried C) humble D) reluctant E) reliable He got involved in a fight at school, which was silly. A) aggressive B) foolish C) shameful D) wise E) considerate This month, as well as my wages, I received an extra one hundred pounds, which was a bonus for meeting the sales target. A) reserved B) inclusive C) exclusive D) undivided E) additional He won the competition and his performance was practically flawless. A) hopeless B) fruitless C) perfect D) faulty E) doubtful As soon as we saw the hurricane coming towards the farm, we run to the underground bunker, where we knew we would be secure. A) satisfactory B) injured C) lively D) careless E) safe It was obvious that the horse had been neglected by his owner. A) apparent B) insistent C) invalid D) obscure E) ignored It was very rude of us to leave the television on when Mrs Short visited us. A) fierce B) aggressive C) impolite D) modest E) impatient This Monday, customs officers seized 100,000 counterfeit Gucci watches from a cargo of fruit and vegetables arriving from Eastern Europe. A) genuine B) inestimable C) fake D) valuable E) worthless I'm envious of people who are really happy in the morning and sing as they get ready for work or school. A) alert B) wide-awake C) humorous D) cheerful E) sentimental Do you think it is credible that he had no knowledge of the drugs in his suitcase? A) believable B) knowledgeable C) casual D) extraordinary E) usual My son was surprisingly unwilling to come out with us last night, as I know he is very fond of going to the cinema. A) voluntary B) reluctant C) invalid D) cautious E) compulsory We thought it was needless to participate in the introduction section of the training, which was to waste our time. A) required B) useful C) reliable D) unnecessary E) reckless The collar of this shirt is so stiff that it's making my neck sore. A) smooth B) rough C) flat D) uneven E) rigid

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EXERCISE 8: Choose the opposite of the word in bold type. 123456789101112131415Melons are rather cheap at the moment, aren't they? A) ripe B) expensive C) raw D) tasteless E) priceless This play is so boring that I can't wait for the final scene. A) primitive B) motionless C) exciting D) graceful E) uncultivated It is unusual for him to display such aggressive behaviour under these circumstances. A) passive B) humorous C) wise D) serious E) conceited The problem with you is that you are always too optimistic and you don't understand thereality of the situation. A) sincere B) tactful C) systematic D) pessimistic E) silly The rest of the staff think that he is too proud for a sales manager, but I think that he has the ideal personality for the job. A) conceited B) selfish C) humble D) generous E) efficient He gave the beggar ten pence, which we thought was extremely miserly. A) forgetful B) generous C) thoughtful D) miserable E) cheerful The committee decided that the club had sufficient funds to replace the old carpet in the clubhouse. A) inestimable B) unbearable C) unnatural D) unavailable E) inadequate When we toured the property, we realised that features of the house were understated. A) exaggerated B) infamous C) unnecessary D) magnified E) underestimated You can see how much work he does if you look at his hands, which are covered in rough skin. A) calm B) coarse C) smooth D) raw E) shiny The South West is a particularly fertile area of the country. A) fruitful B) useful C) plentiful D) barren E) uncultivated. WalR to the end of this road, where you will see a broad path on your right, and that leads up to the castle. A) shallow B) deep C) uneven D) miserly E) narrow Margaret's halfpenny from the year 1934 is valuable, but she wants to keep it to give to her son when he's older. A) harmless B) cheap C) profitable D) priceless E) worthless I much prefer soft cheese on sandwiches. A) solid B) hard C) rough D) smooth E) spongy Because of their reputation, we were already expecting the reckless behaviour they displayed. A) responsible B) notorious C) proud D) vain E) famous Hiring the village hall for the wedding reception was resourceful. A) annoying B) creative C) unimaginative D) predictable E) unbearable

2-6 SENTENCE ADVERBS


Bu zarflar btn bir cmleyi niteler ve konumacnn yorumunu, dncesini ifade eder. a) Cmleyi niteleyen zarllann byk bir blm, olaslk derecesini ifade eder. Bunlardan yaygn olarak kullanlanlar unlardr: actually indeed really in fact surely certainly definitely clearly undoubtedly (doubtless) evidently obviously of course perhaps possibly probably presumably maybe

Bu zarflardan definitely, perhaps, maybe ve of course hari dierleri, cmlenin banda, ortasnda ya da sonunda yer alabilirler. Mid-position: Bu zarflar ortada kullanld zaman "be" fiilinden sonra gelir. He is obviously innocent. They are probably at home. Yardmc fiil yoksa, yardmc fiille asl fiil arasnda yer alrlar. He will probably come late tonight.

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He had obviously taken the money. Olumsuz cmlede "not'dan nce kullanlrlar. Ancak, zneden hemen sonra kullanlmas daha yaygndr. He will probably not come tomorrow./He probably won't come tomorrow. He certainly can't do the job. At the beginning or at the end of a sentence: Certainly he has been working very hard. He has been working very hard certainly. Obviously they will raise the prices again. They will raise the prices again obviously. Definitely'nin cmlenin banda kullanlmas ok enderdir. Daha ok cmlenin ortasnda kullanlr. He was definitely at home at that hour. He is trying to do his best definitely. Perhaps, of course ve maybe, cmlenin sonunda da kullanlabilmelerine ramen daha ok cmlenin banda kullanlrlar. Ancak, vurguyu arttrmak iin ortada kullanlmalar da mmkndr. Bu durumda iki virgl arasnda kullanlrlar. Perhaps he can lend us his car. He can lend us his car perhaps. Of course he is capable of doing that. He is capable of doing lhat of course. He is, of course, capable of doing that. Surely, daha ok cmlenin banda ya da sonunda kullanlr. Surely, he was at the demonstration! (I feel almost sure that he was.) b) Cmleyi niteleyebildi dier zarflar unlardr: admittedly, annoyingly, frankly, fortunately, unfortunately, luckily, unluckily, honestly, personally, naturally, surprisingly, understandably, seriously, rightly, wrongly, etc. Bu zarflar genelde cmlenin banda kullanlrlar. Ancak, cmlenin sonunda kullanlmalar da mmkndr. Genellikle bir virglle cmlenin devamndan ayrlrlar. Frankly, he doesn't work hard enough to succeed. Drst olmak gerekirse/Doruyu sylemek gerekirse, baaracak kadar ok almyor. Understandably, he doesn't want to join us. Anlald gibi/Anlald zere/Anlalan o ki bize katlmak istemiyor. Seriously, why don't your parents move to the country? The air is cleaner there. Cidden/gerekten, ailen neden taraya tanmyor? Rightly or wrongly, he decided to quit school and start to work. Doru ya da yanl, okulu brakp almaya karar verdi. Naturally, everybody wants to live in better conditions. Doal olarak herkes daha iyi koullarda yaamak ister.

2-7 FOCUSING ADVERBS


Bu zarflar, cmlenin bir esini vurgulamak iin kullanlr. Cmle iindeki yerleri genelde vurguladklar isimden hemen ncedir. Bu zarflan yle sralayabiliriz: only, just, merely, simply, purely, solely, exclusively, exactly, chiefly, mainly, primarily, mostly, especially, particularly, either, too, also, as well, even Merely, purely ve simply, hemen her zaman vurguladklar isimden nce gelirler. I merely/purely/simply wanted to warn you. I had no other intention. Seni sadece uyarmak istedim. Baka bir niyetim yoktu.

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Just, only ve even, vurguladklar isimden hemen nce gelebilirler. Ancak arada kullanlan zarflarn (mid-position) kullanld biimde de yer alabilirler. I just/only want to warn you. (fiili vurguladklar iin baka bir yerde kullanlamazlar.) (Seni sadece uyarmak istedim.) I bought only /just a sweater. / I only/just bought a sweater. Sadece bir kazak aldm. I had eaten only/just a sandwich. /I had only/just eaten a sandwich. Sadece bir sandvi yemitim. She did many things yesterday. She even did some shopping. (Alveri bile yapt.) He left without saying anything. He didn't even say goodbye. I bought many things. I even bought a pair of jeans. (Bir kot pantolon bile aldm.) Even ve only, zneyi vurguluyorsa, zneden nce kullanlr. Only Janette objected to my suggestion. The others accepted. Sadece Janette benim nerime kar kt. Even my father burst into tears when we got the news of his death. Onun lm haberini alnca, babam bile alad. Too, also, as well ve either, hepsi "de, da" anlamn verir. Either, daima cmle sonunda ve olumsuz cmlede kullanlr. Father didn't want to go to the cinema. He didn't want us to go either. Too ve as well olumlu cmlede ve genellikle cmle sonunda kullanlrlar. Ancak, too, zneyi vurgularken ortada da kullanlabilir. Everybody enjoyed the play. My parents enjoyed it too/as well. I, too, had expected him to pass. Ben de onun geeceini ummutum. Also, ortada kullanlan bir zarftr. Ancak, vurgulad szce bal olarak cmle iindeki yeri deiebilir. I met many old school friends at the party. I also met some of our teachers. . I also had expected him to pass. (Ben de .......) I had expected also him to pass. (Onun da ......) Vurgulama zarf olarak exactly, daha ok wh- soru szckleriyle kullanlr. What exactly do you mean? (Tam olarak ne demek istiyorsun?) How exactly did the accident happen? (Kaza tam olarak nasl oldu?) Examples with other focusing adverbs: I think you are wrong, especially on this occasion. Parents' duty is not exclusively to feed their children. We should deal primarily with the housing problem. I'm afraid I can't support you, particularly on this point. The people at the wedding were mainly/chiefly the bride's relatives. Knowing a foreign language is important mainly/chiefly in jobs doing business with foreigners. We should primarily focus on saving the company from bankruptcy in these economic conditions. Then we can consider expansion.

3- ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB STRUCTURES


3-1 TOO AND ENOUGH* Too + adjective/adverb + to infinitive Too olumlu cmlede kullanlr. Ancak cmlenin anlam olumsuzdur. I'm too tired. I can't go out tonight. I'm too tired to go out tonight. Bu aksam dan kamayacak kadar yorgunum.

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You are working too slowly. You can't finish the report by 5 o'clock. You are working too slowly to finish the report by 5 o'clock. This problem is too complicated. You can't solve it without help. This problem is too complicated for you to solve without help. Adjective/adverb + enough + to infinitive She is mature enough. She can decide for herself. She is mature enough to decide for herself. We are walking fast enough. We can catch the train. We are walking fast enough to catch the train. Trene yetiecek kadar hzl yryoruz.
* Too ve enough1 cmleler hakknda ayrntl bilgi iin bkz. Say:7 Blm: 2/9

She isn't reliable enough. You can't confide your secret in her. She isn't reliable enough for you to confide your secret in. Srrn ona aabilecein kadar gvenilir deil. Enough, sfat ve zanlardan sonra, isimlerden nce gelir. We don't have enough eggs to make an omelette. I don't think I'll have enough time tomorrow to visit them. Yarn onlan ziyaret edecek kadar vaktimin olacan sanmyorum. Enough ve too ile eanlaml cmleler retebiliriz. You are too tense to take a healthy decision. Salkl bir karar veremeyecek kadar gerginsin. You aren't calm enough to take a healthy decision. Salkl bir karar verecek kadar sakin deilsin. This dress is too expensive for me to buy. This dress isn't cheap enough for me to buy.

3-2
a)

SO ........ THAT, SUCH ........ THAT


So + adjective/adverb: so warm, so beautiful, so expensive, etc. so fast, so carefully, so quickly, etc. Such + a/an + adjective + a singular noun: such a pretty girl, such a lovely day, such an absurd case, etc. Such + adjective + plural noun: such pretty girls, such happy days, such expensive shoes. Such + adjective + uncountable noun: such awful weather, such difficult vocabulary, such strong coffee, etc.

So ve such niteledikleri sfatn anlamn kuvvetlendirir. Such, sfat tamlamalanyla kullanlr. So'dan sonra bir zarf da gelebilir. I liked the meal. It was so delicious. (It was really delicious.) I don't want to read this book. It's so boring. (t is really boring.) She is a good cook. She cooks such delicious meals. (really delicious meals) I like her very much. She is such a nice person. (a really nice person) Such'dan sonra direk bir isim de gelebilir. Bu durumda such "byle, yle" anlamna gelir. Some people like money a lot. Such people don't like to spend money even for their own needs. (Byle insanlar ..............) b) So ve such, sfatn ya da zarfn derecesinin umduumuzdan az ya da ok olduunu ifade ederken "bu kadar, o kadar" anlamnda da kullanlr. The play was excellent. I hadn't expected it to be so good. (Bu kadar iyi olacan ummamtm.)

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Don't work so hard. You'll lose your health. (Bu kadar ok alma.) The exam was really difficult. I hadn't expected it to be such a difficult exam. (Bu kadar zor bir snav olacan ummamtm.) Their house is very large. I didn't know they had such a large house. (Bu kadar byk bir evleri olduunu bilmiyordum.) c) So ve such, sre, mesafe ve miktar bildiren szcklerle u ekillerde kullanlr. So long=such a long time I didn't think the job would take so long/such a long time. in bu kadar uzun sreceini sanmyordum. So far=such a long way I didn't know your house was so far/such a long way from your work. Evinizin iinize bu kadar uzak olduunu bilmiyordum. Miktar bildiren szcklerle so da bir isimle birlikte kullanlr. With countable nouns: So many=such a lot of I have so many books/ such a lot of books that I don't know where to put them. (O kadar ok kitabm var ki ............... .) So few=such a few She has so few friends/such a few friends that she feels lonely. (O kadar az arkada var ki...) With uncountable nouns: So much=such a lot of They have so much furniture/such a lot of furniture at home. (Evlerinde o kadar ok mobilya var ki.) So little=such a little I can't do shopping with so little money/such a little money. (Bu kadar az parayla alveri yapamam.) d) So ve such neden-sonu ilikisi kurarak iki cmleyi balayabilir. Reason: I was very tired. Effect: I went to bed early. I was so tired that I went to bed early. (O kadar yorgundum ki erkenden yattm.) Reason: There were a lot of people in the queue. Effect: I decided not to see the film. There were so many people / such a lot of people in the queue that I decided not to see the film. It was a hard job. I felt exhausted afterwards. It was such a hard job that I felt exhausted afterwards. I have a lot of work to do tomorrow. I don't think I'll have time to call you. I have such a lot of work / so much work to do tomorrow that I don't think I'll have time to call you.

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Genelde, iki cmle arasnda tense uyumas vardr. Ancak, uygun bir gei salanyorsa, neden ve sonu farkl zamanlara ait tense'lerle ifade edilebilir. He is so weak that I don't think he can carry this bag. He was so weak that I didn't think he could carry the bag. (Bu rneklerde neden ve sonu ayn zamana aittir.) He got so annoyed with me that I didn't think he would forgive me. ("got annoyed" ve "didn't think", her ikisi de gemite gereklemi eylemler.) Bana o kadar kzmt ki beni affedeceini ummuyordum. He got so annoyed with me that I don't think he will forgive me. ("got annoyed" gemite gereklemi bir eylem. Ancak "don't think he will" present time'a ait.) Bana o kadar kzd ki beni affedeceini sanmyorum. ki cmle arasndaki "that"" kaldrlabilir. Anlam deimez. It's so humid today that I find it difficult to breathe. It's so humid today I find it difficult to breathe. It's such a lovely blouse that I'll certainly buy it. It's such a lovely blouse I'll certainly buy it.

EXERCISE 9:

Combine the two sentences using so ...... that or such ..... that.

1- He was condescending when he spoke to me. I had to try hard to keep my composure. He was ............................................................................................................... 2- Portions served in Dutch restaurants are huge. You might want to share a meal unless you're very hungry. Portions served in Dutch restaurants are ............................................................ 3- It was a boring game. He didn't stay until the end. It was ................................................................................................................. 4- He was carrying the tray of food carelessly. He dropped his glass of Coke and stained his new t-shirt. He was carrying the tray of food...................................................................................... 5- Grandma told the children an interesting story. They all listened to her attentively. Grandma told the children .................................................................................... 6- The company's level of service was low. He wrote a letter of complaint. The company's level of service was ...................................................................... . EXERCISE 10: a) Rewrite the sentences using such instead of so.

Example: The meal was so spicy that it gave me a stomach ache. It was such a spicu meal that it gave me a stomach ache. 1- He is so greedy that he never seems to stop eating. He is ................................................................................. 2- The coffee was so strong that I will probably be awake most of the night. It was ......................................................................................... 3- There are so many calories in Brek that if you eat a lot of it, you'll become overweight. There are ................................................................................................................ 4- The news was so distressing that he collapsed immediately. It was ..................................................................................................................... 5- The holiday resort was so wonderful that we have already booked to go there again next year.

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It was ..................................................................................................................... b) Rewrite the sentences using so instead of such. 1- He was such a coxvardly person that he didn't mention the problem to the manager. He was ................................................................................................................... 2- It took me such a long time to get served in the library that I was late back ;o my office. It took me ............................................................................................................. . 3- There were such a lot of defective products that we had to send the entire consignment back to Germany. There we're ............................................................................................................. 4- My neighbours are such helpful people that I settled down here quickly. My neighbours are ................................................................................................. 5- This is such a sharp knife that it can cut steak easily. This knife is ...........................................................................................................

3-3 COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


a) Regular Inflection of Adjectives and Adverbs Sfatlarn karlatrmal biimini elde etmek iin "-er" taks ya da "more" szc kullanlr. Genellikle bir heceli ya da baz iki heceli sfatlar sonuna -er taks alr. big-bigger thin-thinner easy-easier long-longer short-shorter slow-slower tidy-tidier happy-happier quick-quicker pretty-prettier dear-dearer early-earlier

Sonu -ing, -ed ve -s ile biten sfatlar, ksa heceli de olsa sonuna -er taks alamazlar. Bu sfatlarn bana "more" getirilir. tired-more tired tiring-more tiring bored-more bored boring-more boring serious-more serious tedious-more tedious

Baz iki heceli sfatlar her iki biimde de kullanlabilir. simple-simpler/more simple narrow-narrower/more narrow polite-politer/more polite common-commoner/more common friendly-friendlier/more friendly handsome-handsomer/more handsome

ou iki ve daha fazla heceli sfatlar bana "more" alr. modest-more modest hostile-more hostile certain-more certain content-more content slowly-more slowly easily-more easily fast-faster careful-more careful careless-more careless frequent-more frequent intelligent-more intelligent quickly-more quickly cleverly-more cleverly hard-harder comfortable-more comfortable beautiful-more beautiful practical-more practical efficient-more efficient carefully-more carefully comfortably-more comfortably late-later

Sonu -ly ile biten zarflar bana "more" alr.

Sonu -ly ile bitmeyen fast, hard, late zarflan sonuna -er taks alr.

Ancak often bu kuraln dndadr ve more often biiminde ekimlenir. Early ise sonu -ly ile bittii halde earlier biiminde ekimlenir.

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Karlatrma yapabilmek iin iki eye ihtiyacmz vardr. ki insan, iki nesneyi, iki yeri vs. birbiriyle karlatrabiliriz. Karlatrlan elerden ikincisine geerken arada "than" kullanlr. stanbul is bigger than Ankara. Aye is more beautiful than her sister. Your house is larger than ours. (our house) Her hair is longer than mine. (my hair) She is taller than me. He is driving more carefully than you. I find basketball more enjoyable than volleyball. Karlatrmay yaparken, her iki nesnenin de tekil ya da her ikisinin de oul olmas gerekmez. u rnei inceleyelim: stanbul is bigger than all the other cities in Turkey. Bu rnekte, stanbul'u Trkiye'nin dier btn ehirleriyle karlatrdmz iin, yine iki taraf vardr. Aye is more hardworking than all my other students. Aye dier btn rencilerimden daha alkandr. He drives more carefully than his brothers. Some people are luckier than others. Ayn nesnenin farkl zamanlardaki durumunu da karlatrabiliriz. It is warmer today than it was yesterday. Bugn hava dn olduundan (dnknden) daha scak. It was cooler yesterday than it is today. Dn hava bugnknden daha serindi. I could run longer distances when I was younger than I can now. She works harder this year than she did last year. Last night, they treated us more sincerely than I had expected. (Dn akam bize, umduumdan daha samimi davrandlar.) I used to go to the cinema more often when I was at university than I do now. Comparative yapy, belirtili bir nesne iin kullanyorsak, nne "the" gelir. - Which of those two is your English teacher? - The taller (of them) is my English teacher. - Of these two apples, can I take the bigger one? Aksi takdirde "the" kullanlmaz. My English teacher is taller than yours. This apple is bigger than that one. b) Irregular Inflection of Adjectives and Adverbs Baz sfat ve zarflarn ekimi, belirtilen kurallarn dndadr. good (adj.) / well (adv.) = better much = more bad (adj.) / badly (adv.) = worse many= more far = farther / further little = less She is a better driver than I thought. She drove the car better than I thought. He is better at mathematics than his sister, but he is worse at physics. He speaks English worse than anybody else in the classroom. Good, bad ve well szcklerim "feel" ve "get- fiilleriyle kullanrken belli kstlamalar vardr. "Well" in, salmza ilikin konuurken "iyi" anlamnda bir sfat olduunu grmtk. - How-are you today/How do you feel today? - I am well/I feel well, (not "good") OR

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Eer, hasta birine "yileinceye kadar yatmalsn." demek istiyorsak, well ya da onun comparative biimi better kullanabiliriz. (good kullanamayz.) You must stay in bed until you feel well/better. Eer hasta biri, "Bugn kendimi kt/daha kt hissediyorum." demek istiyorsa bunu yle ifade edebiliriz. I feel worse today. (not "bad") "Feel good/bad", kiinin ruh halini ifade etmek iin kullanlabilir. I feel good. (happy, pleased, etc.) I feel bad.(unhappy, displeased, etc.) Get fiilinden sonra good ve bad kullanlmaz. Bunlarn comparative biimi better ve worse kullanlr. "Get well" kullanm da mmkndr. She was very ill yesterday, but she is getting better. Your English is getting better. (ngilizcen dzeliyor.) The economic situation is getting worse. (Ekonomik durum ktleiyor.) I hope you'll get well soon. (Umarm yaknda iyileirsin.) Nicelik sfat olarak much ve many "more" biiminde ekimlenir. Little'n comparative biimi "less"dir. Few dzenlidir. "Fewer" biiminde ekimlenir. You have little money, but I have less. (I have less money than you.) I have few books, but you have fewer than me. There were fewer people at the demonstration yesterday than at the previous one. (Dnk gsteride ncekinden daha az kii vard.) I think you have more money than all of us. I guess more people will become unemployed in the days to come. (Sanrm nmzdeki gnlerde daha ok insan issiz kalacak.) Zarf olarak much ve littlen comparative biimi yine more ve less'dir. I drove the car more than you did. I used to read more than to do now. She thinks very little, but her sister thinks less. "More" gibi "less"de sfat ve zarflar nitelemek iin kullanlr. This bed is less comfortable than the one I slept in last night. (Bu yatak, dn akam yattm yataktan daha az rahat.) Bu cmleden kan sonu "yataklarn ikisi de rahat, ama bu daha az rahat"dr. Eer bu cmleyi "more uncomfortable" ile ifade edersek anlam biraz deiir: This bed is more uncomfortable than the one I slept in last night. (Bu yatak, dn akam yattm yataktan daha rahatsz.) Bu cmleden kan sonu ise "Yataklarn her ikisi de rahatsz ama bu daha rahatsz"dr. Both a Mercedes and a BMW are expensive cars, but a BMW is less expensive than a Mercedes. Far iki ekilde comparative yaplr: farther ya da further. Eer far, "uzak" anlamnda kullanlyorsa comparative biimi farther ya da further olabilir. Your house is farther/further from the city centre than ours. Further'n bir anlam da "more" demektir. Bu anlamda farther kullanlmaz. I'll let you know as soon as I get further information. (more information) OLDER AND ELDER ki kiinin ya da iki nesnenin yalarn karlatnyorsak "older" kullanlr. "Abla, aabey, byk amca vs." gibi aile bireylerinden, daha byk olann ifade ediyorsak "elder" kullanlr. "Than" kullanlan cmlelerde elder kullanlmaz; nk "than" karlatrma yapar. My elder sister lives in Germany. (Ablam Almanya'da oturuyor.) Her elder brother doesn't allow her to stay out late. (Aabeyi, onun ge vakte kadar darda kalmasna izin vermiyor.)

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I have two sisters. One is older than me, and one is younger. Are you older or younger than your brother? Older "daha eski" anlamnda da kullanlr. Our apartment building is older than all the others in our street. This car seems older than the one we tried out yesterday, and I'd prefer to buy the newer one. c) ki nesneyi karlatrrken baz zarflarla karlatrmann derecesini azaltabilir ya da oaltabiliriz. Karlatrmal bir sfat ya da zarf niteleyebilecek zarflar unlardr: far, much, a little, even, hardly, scarcely, almost, nearly, any, rather. (quite ve fairly, comparative yaplarla kullanlmaz.) Ankara is a big city, but Istanbul is much/a lot/far bigger than Ankara. (Istanbul Ankara'dan ok daha byk.) This exam is a bit/a little more difficult than the previous one. (Bu snav ncekinden biraz daha zor.) You said her handwriting was better than yours, but it isn't any better. (..... ama hi de daha iyi deil.) Last night, I went to bed rather earlier than usual. (Dn akam, her zamankinden olduka erken yattm.) d) Bir durumun srekli deitiini vurgulamak iin comparative adjective ya da adverb ift kullanlabilir: more and more, faster and faster, better and better, more and more expensive, etc. rneklerde grld gibi, -er taks olan sfatlarn kendisi ift sylenir. ok hecelilerde ise more yinelenir. Everything is getting more and more expensive. Her ey gittike pahallayor. It's becoming more and more important to know a foreign language. (=It's becoming increasingly important to....) Yabanc dil bilmek gittike daha ok nem kazanyor. More and more students are taking the university exam. Gittike daha ok renci niversite snavna giriyor. It's becoming harder and harder to find a job. They began to work more and more slowly. e) Karlatrmal yapy, iki durumun birbirine bal olarak deitiini ifade etmek iin de kullanabiliriz. The harder you work, the more successful you will be. Ne kadar ok alrsan o kadar baarl olursun. The less you eat, the more quickly you'll lose weight. Ne kadar az yersen o kadar abuk kilo verirsin. The more you earn, the more you can spend. Ne kadar ok kazanrsan o kadar ok harcayabilirsin. The harder the job became, the less interested I was. zorlatka ilgim azald. The more he talked, the more annoyed I became. O konutuka fkem artt. Bu cmlelerdeki anlam "as" kullanarak da verebiliriz. As I grew older, I became more interested in music. The older I grew, the more interested I became in music. Bydke mzie olan ilgim artt. As I waited there for him to come, I got more and more impatient. The longer I waited there for him to come, the more impatient I got. EXERCISE 11: Complete the sentences using the comparative forms of the adjectives or adverbs given in parentheses.

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1- Since they moved to their house on the banks of the river, where the surroundings are .......................... they haven't been on so many day trips. (pleasant) 2- After the survey, the doctors concluded that most Americans need to eat ........................ meat and ........................ fruit and vegetables. (little/much) 3- I tried to talk to her to calm her down, but she just got ........................ . (worried) 4- Some people can express themselves ........................ in written words than they can verbally. (good) 5- Whether they are a ........................ team than Bursa is debatable, but they won because they played a lot ........................ on the night. (good/well) 6- I wish you had told me ........................ that you were looking for a sofa as my mother gave away a nice one recently. (early) 7- She has been studying Chinese language and history ........................ since she visited the country last year. (passionately) 8- They are both legendary cricket players, but his father is ........................ than he is. (famous) 9- The medicine might have been ........................ if you had followed the directions properly, (effective) 10- Being ill while on holiday abroad can be ........................ than being ill at home, where you are surrounded by home comforts and family. (bad) 11- The children behaved ........................ at their grandparents' house than they normally do. (badly) 12- It was a difficult problem for them to face and I think you explained it ........................ than I could have done. (diplomatically) 13- Working as a salesman proved to be ........................ than he had ever imagined. (hard) 14- As he had said we would be going for a country walk. I expected to walk ........................ than to the end of the park. (far) 15- ........................ details regarding your accommodation and schedule will be sent to you later. (far) EXERCISE 12: Circle the correct one. 1- My sister is three years (older/elder) than me and my brother is four years (younger /young). 2- The doctor thought it would be a simple operation, but during the procedure, he found (farther/further) complications. 3- She is working (hard/ harder) in her own business than she did for the council, but she is (hardly /harder) covering her expenses at the moment. 4- Don't worry about us catching your cold. You are welcome to join us unless you think it might make your condition (worse/badly) than it is already. 5- His new car is capable of being driven (fast/foster) than his old one, but he drove (fast/faster) enough to break the speed limit in his old one. 6- We have changed our business account to a different bank as we can receive banking services (cheaper/more cheaply) from our new bank than from our old one. 7- His aunt wanted to leave her house to Simon when she died because his (elder/old) brother was not particularly trustworthy. 8- He played (good/better) last season than this, but he played (better/well) enough to be picked for the national team. 9- The craft workers copy Ottoman embroidery designs onto (elder/old] cloth. 10- Even your (elder/old) sister is too (young/younger) to stay out after ten, so you will have to think again about your plans. 11- Our advertising campaign would have been (more effective /so effectively) if we had selected the newspapers and magazines (more careful/more carefully). 12- I wish we didn't live so (far/farther) from the coast, but at least, we live (close/closely) to a lake. 13- Julia Rcberts's acting was (higher/highly) praised in the film, which was a (more serious/more serjously) production than she normally stars in. 14- Can you wait five minutes for rne as the drama I'm watching has (nearer/nearly) finished? 15- She is (better-known/well-known) for her film roles than theatre appearances, but she has received (more surprisingly/surprisingly) good reviews for this play.

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EXERCISE

13:

Complete the sentences using the "comparative + and + comparative" structure with the words in parentheses. The British economy is getting more and more dependent on service industries. (dependent)

Example: 123456789-

It is getting .............................. to find reasonably priced housing in London. (hard) It is getting .............................. to buy things using the Internet. (easy) I must go to the doctor as my foot is getting ............................... . (painfult The problem of water pollution is getting .............................. and now affects most countries in the world. (bad) He used to be shy, but since he joined the school basketball team, he has been getting .............................. . (confident) At first, a lot of people thought the South African cricket captain was innocent, but as the trial went on, it became .............................. that he was guilty. (clear) It is getting .............................. to use liquid petroleum gas fuel in passenger cars. (popular) As the big wheel at the fun fair span round and round, we became ......................... . (dizzy) Renting an apartment in Istanbul is getting ........................... . (expensive)

10- I must be putting on weight as my jeans are getting .............................. with every passing week. (tight)

EXERCISE 14: Example:

Rewrite the sentences using "The + comparative ...., the + comparative .,..." structure. As she became wealthier, she got greedier. The wealthier she became, the greedier she got

1- My brother gets more pessimistic as he gets older. ................................................................................................................................................... 2- How expensive a vase is depends on how intricate the design is. ................................................................................................................................................ ... 3- As the waves got bigger, we derived more pleasure from surfing. ........................................................................................................................................ ........... 4- As I walked farther, my feet became sorer. ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 5- If we make more money now, we'll be able to expand the business further next year. ............................................................................................................................................ .......

3-4 COMPARISON WITH AS .... AS/THE SAME .... AS/DIFFERENT FROM

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a) Sfat ve zarflarda karlatrma yapabileceimiz dier bir yap as .... as/so ..... as kalbdr. As ..... as kalb olumlu cmlede kullanldnda eitlik bildirir ve iki as arasnda sfatn ya da zarlin yaln hali kullanlr. as + adjective/adverb + as Ali is 16 years old. Aye is 16 years old too. Ali is as old as Aye. Ali is 1.65 m tall. Aye is 1.65 m tall too. Ali is as tall as Aye. Ali is 50 kg. Aye is 50 kg. Ali is as heavy as Aye. They are driving at 100 kph. We are driving at 100 kph. They are driving as fast as we are. (Bizim kadar hzl sryorlar.) He drives the car carefully. You drive re car carefully. He drives the car as carefully as you. (Arabay senin kadar dikkatli kullanyor.) Olumlu cmlede, karlatrlan eler yer deitirdiinde cmlenin anlam deimez. Your house is as large as ours. OR Our house is as Jarge as yours. Ali is as tall as Aye. OR Aye is as tall as Ali. As + adjective/adverb + as, olumsuz cmlede kullanldnda eitsizlik olduunu vurgular. Olumsuz cmlede so + adjective/adverb + as kalbn da kullanabiliriz. Our apartment building has three floors. Your apartment building has six floors. Our apartment building isn't as/so high as yours. Living in the country isn't as/so expensive as living in big cities. (Krsal kesimde yaamak byk ehirlerde yaamak kadar pahal deil.) He doesn't drive as/so carefully as you. (O senin kadar dikkatli srmyor.) Olumsuz cmlede karlatrlan eler yer deitirdiinde cmlenin anlam deiir. Bu nedenle, isimleri deitirdiimizde kullanlan sfat ya da zarf da deitirmemiz gerekir. This exam isn't as/so difficult as the previous one. (Bu snav nceki kadar zor deil.) The previous exam wasn't as/so easy as this one. (nceki snav bunun kadar kolay deildi.) As .... as ya da so .... as arasna sfat ya da zarftan baka szckler de girebilir. Karlatrlan elerden birincisine ait olan szckler ikinci as'a kadar yazlr. kinci as'den sonra yazlanlar ikinci eye aittir. It isn't as/so cold today as it was yesterday. I'm not as/so optimistic about the economic situation in Turkey as you are. (Trkiye'deki ekonomik durum konusunda senin kadar iyimser deilim.) She wasn't as/so self-confident before she found a decent job as she is now. (Saygn bir i bulmadan nce. imdi olduu kadar kendine gvenli deildi.) You don't seem as/so keen on playing football nowadays as you were before. Sfat tamlamalarnda so/as + adjective + a/an singular noun kalb kullanlabilir. Bu yap oul isimlerle ve saylamaz isimlerle kullanlmaz. Have you ever seen as keen a boy as him? Hi onun kadar hevesli bir ocuk grdn m? I want to buy just as big an apartment as yours. Ayn seninki kadar byk bir daire almak istiyorum. I hadn't expected our team to get as high a score as they did.

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So/as + adj + a singular noun kalb ok fazla kullanlmaz. Bunun yerine such ..... as kalb tercih edilir. Bu kalp tekil, oul ve saylamaz isimlerle kullanlabilir. I have never seen such a beautiful girl as her. Hi onun kadar gzel bir kz grmedim. I have never drunk such delicious coffee as this. Hi bunun kadar' lezzetli kahve imedim. I don't think you can find such cheap shoes as these. Bunlar kadar ucuz ayakkab bulabileceini sanmyorum. So + adjective/adverb + as to do ve such + adjective + noun + as to do kalplar "..... yapacak kadar" anlamn verir. I admit he is rather disrespectful but he is not so disrespectful as to shout at his mother. (Annesine baracak kadar saygsz deil.) He is not such a disrespectful boy as to shout at his mother. (Annesine baracak kadar saygsz bir ocuk deil.) She isn't so beautiful as to win the beauty contest. (Gzellik yarmasn kazanacak kadar gzel deil.) She isn't such a beautiful girl as to win the beauty contest. (Gzellik yarmasn kazanacak kadar gzel bir kz deil.) As ..... as kalbn, just, nearly, almost gibi zarflarla niteleyebiliriz. Her dog is nearly/almost as clever as humans. (Onun kpei neredeyse insanlar kadar akll.) I thought you were considerate but you are just as rude as the others. (Senin dnceli olduunu zannetmitim ama sen de ayn/tam dierleri kadar kabasn.) As/so ... as kalbn miktar sfatlar many, few, much ve little ile as/so + many/few/much/little + noun + as biiminde kullanabiliriz. I don't have as/so many books as you have. Benim, seninki kadar ok kitabm yok. We intend to invite as few people to the wedding as possible. Dne, mmkn olduu kadar az kii davet etmek niyetindeyiz. You won't need as much money in the mountains as that. Dada bu kadar ok paraya ihtiya duymazsn. For the trip, I'll take as little luggage as possible. Seyahat iin mmkn olduu kadar az eya alacam. As much as yapsn fiilleri tanmlarken de kullanabiliriz. You don't like swimming as much as I do. Sen yzmeyi benim kadar seviniyorsun. She doesn't smoke as much as she used to. Eskiden olduu kadar ok sigara imiyor.

Half as ..... as, twice as ..... as gibi yaplarla, karlatrdmz zelliin ka kat olduunu ifade edebiliriz. He eats very little. He doesn't eat even half as much as his sister. Kardeinin yediinin yarsn bile yemiyor. Her salary is twice as much as mine. Onun maa benimkinin iki katdr. Turkey is almost seven times as big as Bulgaria. Trkiye, Bulgaristan'n yaklak yedi kat byklndedir. b) The same ..... as

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The same ..... as, karlatrlan iki enin "ayn" olduunu ifade eden bir yapdr. Ancak the same ..... as, isimlerle kullanlr. Ali is as old as Aye. (as + adj + as) Ali is the same age as Aye. (the same + a noun + as) Ali Aye ile ayn yata. Ali is as heavy as Aye. Ali is the same weight as Aye. Your hair is as dark as mine. Your hair is the same colour as mine.

I usually arrive home at the same time as my father. The same as yan yana kullanlabilir. My needs are the same as yours. Her eye colour is the same as her mother's. Your English teacher is the same as ours. Eer karlatrlan iki eyi, cmlenin banda zne olarak kullanyorsak, as kullanlmaz. Last night. I arrived home at the same time as my father. Last night, my father and'I arrived home at the same time. She still lives at the same house as her parents. Her parents and she still live at the same house. c) Similar to/different from Your pronunciation is quite different from mine. Senin telaffuzun benimkinden ok farkl. The layout of your house is similar to ours, but yours is a bit larger. Sizin evin plan bizimkine benziyor. Benzeyen ya da farkl olan noktay in that + a sentence biiminde ifade edebiliriz. My job is similar to yours in that we meet a good many people throughout the day. (Benim iim, gn boyu pek ok insanla karlamak bakmndan seninkine benziyor.) My point of view is different from yours in that I'm more optimistic about the situation. (Benim grm, bu konuda daha iyimser olmam bakmndan seninkinden farkl.) d) Pronouns/nouns after "than" and "as" Than ve as den sonra fiil subject + verb biiminde kullanlr. Eer fiil kullanlmyorsa object pronoun/noun (me, him, you, Aye, etc.) kullanlr. You are taller than me./You are taller than I am. She can sing better than you./She can sing better han you can. I'm not as tall as him./I'm not as tall as he is. You can't sing as well as her./You can't sing as well as she can. Eer bataki zne iyelik bildiriyorsa than ve as den sonra possessive noun/pronoun kullanlr. Your parents aren't so strict as mine. (as my parents'/as my parents are) My hair is longer than hers. (than her hair/than her hair is) EXERCISE 15 : Rewrite the sentences using "as/so ..... as", or "such ..... as" where possible. The new shopping centre is larger than the old one. The old shopping centre is not as/so large as the new one.

Example:

1- This is certainly a much better house than the one we saw yesterday. The one we saw yesterday ................................................................................. .

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2- I had to stay in hospital fewer days than I had expected. I didn't ................................................................................................................ . 3- We now spend less on eating out than we used to. Now we ............................................................................................................. . 4- Backgammon is easier to play than chess. Chess ................................................................................................................ . 5- This is a very practical solution. I don't think I could have thought of that. I don't think I .................................................................................................. .

EXERCISE

16 : Complete the sentences using "half as ..... as, twice as ..... as, etc." pattern.

Example: The engine in his car is twice as big as the one in mine. The engine in my car is half as bid as the one in his. 1- To fly to Erzurum costs 60 million lira. To take the coach to Erzurum costs 15 million lira. To fly to Erzurum ............................................................................................. 2- The old stadium seated 30.000 spectators. The new stadium seats 60,000 spectators. The old stadium ........................................................................................ The new stadium .......................................................................................

3- Susan has been a doctor for 20 years. Jason has been a doctor for 2 years. Susan ................................................................................................................... . 4- Trainers off the market cost 10.00. Trainers from Mike's official shop cost. 50.00. Trainers from Mike's official shop ........................................................................... . 5- The sports ground at my school is one acre. The sports ground at your school is half an acre. The sports ground at my school ............................................................................ The sports ground at your school ...........................................................................

EXERCISE 17: Choose the correct one.


1- These curtains have (nearer/nearly) (the same/as) pattern (as/than) the ones in outliving room. 2- If she had to deal with (fewer/ so few) projects at work (that/than) she actually does. I'm sure she wouldn't feel (so/such) stressed. 3- We didn't get as (more/much) work done today (as/ that) we did yesterday because we started (later/lately). 4- He revises half (as/so) (more/much) (than/as) I do, but always gets a (more/much) (higher/highly) mark. 5- Jenny was (more/so) (tired/tiring) yesterday (than/that) she fell asleep during the lecture. 6- It is (practical/practically) (impossible/impossibly) to get an appointment with her because she has (so/such) a lot of work all the time. 7- The children were (so/as) (well-behaved/better-behaved) (as/that) even aunt Marie seemed to enjoy their company.

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8- He got (more/so) (angry/angrily) after losing the tennis match (than/that) he threw his racket and balls into his sports bag and marched (quickly/quicker) off the court. 9- Nobody is capable of playing tennis (as/such) (good/well) (as/that) Pete Sampras when he is playing at his best, but I've seen him play (good/better) (that/than) he did today. 10- The curtains you have made look just (as/so) nice (that/as) Mrs Smith's, but they cost half (as/so) (more/much) (as/that) hers. 11- I'm sure she'll be pleased because it is (so/such) a (wonderful/wonderfully) gift. 12- I couldn't believe that the director accepted (so/such) an (incredibly/incredible) (stupid/stupidly) idea. 13- He is a lot (busier/busily) since the new manager started. In fact, I've never seen him so (busy/busier). 14- Sonia thinks the guitarist is (better-looking/good-looking) (that/than) the lead singer, but Maria thinks they are all ugly and unable to sing very (well/good). 15- The production manager has (so/such) a (short/shortly) temper that his staff speak to him very (careful/carefully).

3-5 SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


a) Sfat ve zarflarda en stnlk derecesi "-est" taks ve "most" szcyle ifade edilir, "-est" ve "most" un kullanmyla ilgili kurallar "-er" ve "more" iin belirttiimiz kurallarla ayndr. pretty-prettier-prettiest big-bigger-biggest clever-cleverer-cleverest expensive-more expensive-most expensive frequent-more frequent-most frequent pleased-more pleased-most pleased

carefully-more carefully-most carefully easily-more easily-most easily significantly-more significantly-most significantly Sfat ve zarf biimi ayn olan szcklerin ekimi yledir: hard-harder-hardest fast-faster-fastest late-later-latest late-later-latest early-earlier-earliest late-latter-last

Late'in comparative ve superlative biimi iki ekildedir: "Ge-daha gec-en ge" anlamnda "late-later-latest" kullanlr. I usually get up late. My son gets up later than me and my husband gets up the latest. (adverb) He usually gets home on a late train. (adj.) Can we travel on a later train today? (adj.) The latest train we can get direct to Adapazar is the 10.30. (adj.) Latest, "son moda, en son" anlamnda "most recent, up-to-date" ile eanlaml olarak da kullanlr. Everybody at the party was dressed in the latest fashion. Partideki herkes son moda giyinmiti. Have you read his latest book? Onun en son kitabn okudun mu? Latter sadece sfat olarak kullanlr ve arka arkaya szedilen iki eyden "ikincisi, sonuncusu" anlamndadr, ki eyden "birincisi, nceki" anlamnda "former"* ile brarada sk kullanlr. - There are two films on at the same time. One is a detective and the other is a romantic film. - I'd prefer to watch the latter. I'd find the former too nerve-racking. Ben ikincisini izlemeyi tercih ederim. Birincisini fazla sinir bozucu buluyorum. Bu cmlede "latter" syleni srasna gre ikinci srada yer alan "romantic film" yerine, "former" ise birinci srada yer alan "detective" yerine kullanlmtr. (former=first, latter=second)

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Last, sfat ve zarf olarak kullanlr ve "first" ile zt anlamldr. I first went to Germany in 1973 and I last went there in 1986. (adv.) Almanya'ya ilk olarak 1973'te, en son (son olarak) 1936'da gittim. I will be the last person to leave the office. Who will be the first? (adj.) Brodan en son ayrlan kii ben olacam. Birinci/ilk ayrlan kim olacak? *"Former"n bir anlam da "eski" demektir: in former times (eski zamanlarda), our former teacher (eski retmenimiz/nceki retmenimiz). "Former" bir comparative deildir, "-er", szcn yapsnda vardr. "Formerly" bir zarftr ve "eskiden, nceleri" anlamndadr. "I formerly worked as a secretary." Dzensiz sfat ve zarflar ise su ekilde ekimlenir: good/well-better-best bad/badly-worse-worst far-farther/further-farthest/furthest much-more-most little-less-least few-fewer-fewest (dzenlidir)

b) Sfat ve zarflarn superlative biimi, bir kii ya da nesnenin, belirtilen zellie belli bir grubun ierisinde en st ya da en alt dzeyde sahip olduunu ifade eder. Superlative'in nnde "the" kullanlr. She is the most hardworking student in the classroom. Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey. Our apartment building is the tallest in our street. She has the most money among us. Aye has the least courage of all the others. She has the fewest friends in the class. This problem is the least important (one) of ail. He is the best player in the team. He drives the most carefully of all the drivers I know. She speaks English the best of the three. (nn iinde ngilizceyi en iyi o konuuyor.) c) Tanmladmz enin hangi ortamda en iyi, en kt vs. olduunu belirtirken, eer bu ortam bir yer ise in kullanlr: in the world, in Turkey, in our street, etc. Zaman ya da bir grup ifade eden szck ise of kullanlr: the happiest time of my life, the shortest month of the year, the most hardworking one of all my students, the most-intelligent of us all, the most famous of all the Turkish writers, etc. Grup ifade eden yaplarla among da kullanabiliriz: the cleverest among us, the laziest among my students, etc. Mount Everest is the highest in the world. February is the shortest month of the year. Hande is the tallest of all my students. Of all the contemporary writers, I like him best. d) Superlative kullanabilmemiz iin tanmlayacamz nesnenin ait olduu grubun en az eden olumas gerekir. Eer grup iki eden oluuyorsa comparative kullanlr. They have two daughters, and Aye is the cleverer of the two. They have three sons, and Ali is the most intelligent of the three. Baz durumlarda comparative ile superlative kullanmm ayrt etmek g olabilir. u iki rnei inceleyelim. She is more hardworking than all the other students in the classroom. O snftaki dier btn rencilerden daha alkandr. She is the most hardworking of all the students in the classroom . O snftaki btn rencilerin iinde en alkandr. Bu rneklerden birincisinde, "she", snftaki dier rencilerin dnda tutulmutur. Yani bir tarafta "she", bir tarafta "dier renciler" gz nne alndnda, iki eden oluan bir karlatrma yaplmtr. kinci rnekte ise "she" grubun bir yesidir ve o grubun iinde "en alkan" olduu ifade edilmitir. Istanbul is bigger than all the other cities in Turkey. Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey. I consider his latest book to be more successful than all his others. I consider his latest book to be the most successful of all his books.

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e) More, most ve least, fiilleri nitelemek iin de kullanlr. She most fears that she may lose her job some day. En ok bir gn iini kaybedeceinden korkuyor. I more want to have an early night. Erken yatmay daha ok istiyorum. She usually comes when I least need her and doesn't when I need her most. Genellikle ona en az ihtiya duyduum zamanlarda gelir, en ok ihtiya duyduumda ise gelmez. Like, enjoy gibi beeni ifade eden fiillerle "daha ok, en ok" anlamnda better ve best de kullanabiliriz. Of the two shirts, I liked the checked one better. (=more) ki gmlekten, kareli olann daha ok beendim. I like coffee better than tea. (=more than) Kahveyi aydan daha ok severim. Of all the Turkish pop singers, I like Sezen Aksu best. (=most) Trk pop sanatlar iinde en ok Sezen Aksu'yu severim. Hate, dread gibi olumsuz anlam tayan fiillerle better ve best kullanamayz. Bu tr fiillerle more ve most kullanabiliriz. Among the martial arts I hate karate most. "Do" sporlar iinde en ok karateden nefret ederim. f) Bir superlative'in nnde, normalde "the" kullanldn grmtk. Ancak, "his, my, this, that" gibi baka bir szck kullanlyorsa "the" kalkar. His best book is his latest. She is one of my most hardworking students. g) Oldest-eldest Oldest ve eldest arasndaki fark, older ve elder arasndaki fark ile ayndr. Eer bir kii ya da nesnenin yaa en byk olduunu ifade ediyorsak oldest, aile bireylerinden en byk olann ifade ediyorsak eldest kullanlr. Who is the oldest student in this classroom? The oldest representative came from China. My eldest uncle is a lawyer. My eldest brother is getting married next week. h) Most + adjective nnde "the" olmadan kullanld zaman "very" anlamn verir. A most strange thing happened the other day. (a very strange thing) Geen gn ok garip bir ey oldu. You shouldn't miss that film. It's most interesting. (very interesting)

EXERCISE 18: Choose the correct one. 1- The power station was built using the (latest/last) technology. 2- I don't know why we have to study Heidegger because, of all the German philosophers, he seems to be the (less/least) significant. 3- She always looks (smarter/the smartest) than the other students in her class.

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4- You should have attended this Friday's lecture. It was the (more interesting/most interesting) one Professor Schmitz has given this term. 5- They sell school uniforms in Marks and Spencer and in C & A, but I think you'll find a (better/best) selection in the (later/latter). 6- There are several ways to Maltepe from here, so I'll tell you (the least/fewer) complicated. 7- The (latest/last) one to leave the house in the morning should turn off the gas. 8- He plays (more confidently/most confidently) than he did before he won the competition, don't you think? 9- Jeremy is (as/so) happy (that/as) the other children even though he's got (fewer/less) toys. 10- He was a good player, but nobody imagined he would make (so/such) a brilliant manager (that/as) he showed himself to be this season. 11- I've just seen the sequel to the film 'Grease' and I think it's the (worst/badly) film I've ever seen. 12- Nowadays, it is (easy/easier) to keep in touch with family and friends than ever before. 13- I enjoyed John Grisham's book 'A Time to Kill' (so/as) much (that/as) the film version, but I think the former is (more/the most) powerful than the (later/latter). 14- Despite being (the oldest/the older) in his class, he is (less/the least) mature. 15- They have three daughters. Sharon is their (older/eldest) daughter and also their (cleverer/cleverest). 16- I remember when he used to be (so/such) a delicate child, but now he is (stronger/the strongest) than his father. 17- I was (so/more) (angry/angrier) at my manager (than/that) I (nearly/nearer) walked out of my job on the spot. 18- His goal was (the most/more) (spectacular/spectacularly) of the entire tournament. 19- (Less/Fewer) time was given for the essay (than/that) we had anticipated. 20- Of my two aunts, the (elder/eldest) is the (most/more) helpful.

3-6

LIKE, AS, SUCH AS

a) Like, "similar to, for example, the same as" anlamn veren bir preposition'dr. Bu nedenle kendinden sonra bir isim, zamir ya da gerund gelebilir. She is very beautiful indeed, like an angel. (melek gibi) Work hard like your father. (Baban gibi) This bed is too tough. Sleeping in it is like sleeping on the floor. (Bu yatakta yatmak verde vatmak gibi.) Do you have any other books like this? (Bunun gibi baka kitaplarn var m?) My son wants to be a teacher like me. (Benim gibi) Like'dan sonra gerund', like someone /something doing biiminde de kullanabiliriz. We heard a loud noise last night. It sounded like a bomb exploding. (Bomba patlamas gibi geldi.) - Do you hear a noise in the kitchen? - Yes, it sounds like the tap dripping. Like'n bu "gibi" anlamn as ile de verebiliriz. Ancak as'den sonra subject + verb kullanlr. Work hard like your father. (baban gibi...) Work hard as your father does. (babann yapt gibi...) My son wants to be a teacher like me/as I am. Try to do it like this/as I show you. b) As + subject + verb kalb farkl anlamlarda da kullanlabilir. She passed the exam with a high grade, as we expected. (We were expecting this already.) As we all know, we'll face terrible conditions on this expedition.

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(Hepimizin bildii gibi,...) She did exactly as she was told. (She did what she was told.) Aynen kendisine sylendii gibi yapt. As I said before (daha nce sylediim gibi), as we stated before (daha nce belirttiimiz gibi), as it is known (bilindii gibi), as it is expected (beklenildii gibi), etc. bu ekilde yaygn olarak kullanlan ifadelerdir. Passive ifadeleri ksaltarak as + past participle biiminde kullanabiliriz. As it is known very well = As known very well (ok iyi bilindii gibi) As it was mentioned before = as mentioned before (daha nce deinildii gibi) As it has been illustrated above = As illustrated above (yukardaki rnekte grld gibi) c) As den sonra bir isim kullanlabilir: as an accountant, as a study, as a hospital, etc. Bu kullanmyla as "..... olarak" anlamna gelir ve bir benzetme yapmaz, gerek durumu yanstr. He works as an accountant in a big firm. Byk bir irkette muhasebeci olarak alyor. She has been working as a teacher for nearly ten years. The news that she had passed the exam came as a great surprise to me. (It really was a surprise.) I've always regarded you as my closest friend. (Seni her zaman en yakn arkadam olarak grmmdr.) Like + a noun ile as + a noun arasndaki fark u rneklerde inceleyelim: As your mother, I want you to be successful. Like your mother, I want you to be successful. Bu cmlelerden birincisinde "as your mother", "Ben senin annenim ve annen olarak ....." anlamna gelmektedir. kincisinde ise "like your mother.....", "Annen senin baarl olman istiyor. Annen gibi, ben de senin baarl olman istiyorum." anlamn verir. Yesterday, my son invited his classmates to us to study together, and our living room was like a classroom. (Oturma odas aslnda snf olmad. Sadece snfa benzedi.) When there were more students than they had expected, they used the teachers room as a classroom. (retmenler odas snfa dntrld ve gerekten snf amacyla kullanld.) d) Such as + noun, "for example" anlamnda kullanlr. Bu anlamda like da kullanabiliriz. I like summer fruits, such as peaches, melon and water melon. ,like peaches, melon and water melon. Ben, eftali, kavun, karpuz gibi yaz meyvelerini severim. Such as ve like bu anlamyla, kullanlan genel bir ifadeyi rneklendirir. (Yaz meyvelerinin rneklendirilmesi gibi.] Vereceimiz rnek bir tane ya da birden fazla olabilir. Such ..... as, birbirinden ayrlabilir ve araya genellediimiz isim girebilir. u rnekleri inceleyelim: Some countries, such as Turkey, are still dependent on agriculture economically. Countries such as Turkey are still dependent on agriculture economically. Such countries as Turkey are still dependent on agriculture economically. I like to give presents such as books and records. I like to give such presents as books and records. I find some sports, such as car-racing and climbing, really dangerous. I find sports such as car-racing and climbing really dangerous. I find such sports as car-racing and climbing really dangerous. EXERCISE 19: Complete the sentences with like, as or such as.

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1- We are not going to exhibit at the show ................ mentioned earlier. 2- This sand is so hot that walking on it is ................ walking over hot coals. 3- ................ arranged with your purchasing department, we will deliver your order on Friday. 4- Emma wants a puppet ................ the main one on Sesame Street. 56Apparently he is a marine biologist, but he looks more ................ a boxer. Certain wines, ................ Shiraz, can be kept for up to eight years.

7- During the European Cup, the Belgium Police used a sports hall ................ a temporary prison. 8- I shouldn't go into the kitchen. Mum is boiling cabbage and it's ................ a sauna in there at the moment. 9- I think our literature teacher should give us written assignments to write over the weekend ................ our history teacher does. 10- Some sports. ................ horse racing and gymnastics, are more suitable for people with small frames.

EXAMPLES FROM YS/YDS


1- Professor Turner's excellent book will give you a lot of .......... information on the subject. A) dangerous C) unnecessary E) limited B) useless D) valuable (YS 1988) 5- Before the meeting began (I) he assured me that (II) the report (III) would be (IV) ready by the end of the month (V). cmlesinde numaralanm yerlerden hangisine "absolutely" szc getirilebilir? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V (YS 1989) 6- I have such a lot of work to do that it is ........ to try to finish it today. A) useless C) eager E) illegal B) sensitive D) exaggerated (YS 1990) 7- They looked as if they were climbing fast ........ to reach the top before dark. A) owing C) quite E) nearly B) already D)enough

2- Peter thought it wasn't warm .......... to go swimming. A) for C) too E) just B) enough D) still (YS 1988)

3- The teacher's question (I) was (II) difficult, so only one of the (III) students was able (IV) to answer it (V). cmlesinde numaralanm yerlerden hangisine "extremely" szc getirilebilir? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V (YS 1988) 4- A washing machine costs ..... the same as as a television set. A) approximately B) perfectly C) suddenly D) unexpectedly E) extremely (YS 1989)

(YS 1990) 8- The weather was so cold.......... . A) since I came to live in this town B) when the wind blows hard C) because it has been snowing heavily D) that I decided not to walk to school E) until the spring comes (YS 1990)

40

9- (I) He was sitting (II) in an armchair and (III) reading (IV) a (V) newspaper. cmlesinde numaralanm yerlerden hangisine "comfortably" szc getirilebilir? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V (YS 1990) 10- The tourists were ............... by the poverty they observed in some African countries. A) upset C) contented E) included B) damaged D) involved (YS 1991)

17- The use of food addtitives has grown ....... in recent years; in fact, it has increased tenfold in the last three decades. A) deliberately B) closely C) rapidly D) precisely E) considerately (YS 1993) 18- The diagram shows it is ......... in summer than in winter in the northern hemisphere. A) so hot C) hot E) hotter B) hottest D) the hottest (YS 1993)

11- Determined to get into shape for the coming swimming season, Clara exercises ........ every morning. A) clumsily B) reluctantly C) vigorously D) mournfully E) tolerantly (YS 1991) 12- Why don't you stay in bed and rest .......... until you feel ......? A) better C) bad E) best B) good D) worse (YS 1991) 13- Measles is not .... a children's disease. A) seriously B) occasionally C) nearly D) reluctantly E) exclusively (YS 1992) 14- There is nothing ........ being interrupted all the time. A) annoying enough B) as annoyed as C) so annoying that D) more annoying than E) the most annoying

19- In some parts of the world they are ......... short of food .......... people are dying of hunger. A) too/that C) as/as E) that/if B) more/than D) so/that (YS 1993) 20- Jane has lost the gold brooch her mother gave her ............... a wedding present. A) as C) despite E) rather B) such as D) like (YS 1994) 21- He performed ............... the audience applauded him for ten minutes. A) more skilful than B) as skilful as C) skilfully that D) skilful enough E) the most skilful (YS 1994) 22- I can't tell you the exact amount, but I can give you a ........ estimate.

(YS 1992)

A) smooth C) cruel E) similar

B) rough D) tidy (YS 1994)

15- The better I get to know him ...... . A) more the outcome had seemed unpredictable B) I'm afraid I really can't stand him C) I realized to what extent they had been involved. D) the less I like him E) the more reliable were the data (YS 1992) 16- My .... sport is tennis. What is yours? A) wonderful B) favourite C) fine D) miserable E) enormous (YS 1993)

23- Hong Kong is one of the most .......... populated areas in the world. A) consequently C) perfectly E) densely B) wastefully D) completely (YS 1994)

24- Soil is ......... being eroded by the action of running water and wind. A) constantly C) bitterly E) urgently B) suitably D) exactly (YS 1994)

25- The earthquake caused ......... damage but not as much as expected.

41

A) competent B) sensible C) rapid D) faithful E) considerable (YS 1995) 26- Unless you take your medicine ......... that cough of yours will never go. A) decisively B) regularly C) reluctantly D) specially E) elaborately (YS 1995) 27- A lot of the pictures were really very good, but Mary's was certainly ........ of all. A) well C) as good E) the best B) better D) as well (YS 1995)

(YS 1997) 34- Parents who understand child behaviour are more ......... about their ability to handle difficult situations. A) familiar B) watchful C) confident D) virtuous E) forgiving (YS 1998) 35- Foods that were ........ seasonal may now be found throughout the year. A) properly B) satisfactorily C) previously D) rapidly E) seriously (YS 1998) 36- I can't imagine how anyone .... clever as he is could make ...... a terrible mistake. A) even/rather C) enough/as well E) as/such B) so/as D) quite/just (YS 1998)

28- I don't think Frank is old ...... to stay at home alone. A) so C) enough E) rather B) too D) even (YS 1995)

29- You've kept us waiting here for two hours. Next time make sure you are ...... . A) suitable C) punctual E) detailed B) influential D) variable (YS 1996) 30- This report seems interesting in parts, but the last section is ........ unrealistic. A) completely C) consequently E) reliably B) sensibly D) nervously (YS 1996) 31- Since he was too lazy to read the novel .......... he has misunderstood the motives of the main character. A) generously B) unusually C) properly D) lively E) inevitably (YS 1997) 32- Do you think we can trust him to find a ......... place for us to stay in London? A) thorough C) sufficient E) steady B) considerate D) suitable (YS 1997) 33- The view from this window is one of ....... I have ever seen. A) the finest C) the finer E) fine B) finest D) finer

37- Although he is an engineer, he is as ...... as any carpenter at making kitchen furniture. A) forceful C) skilful E) current B) genuine D) extravagant (YDS 1999)

38- The chief of police finally agreed to release news of the accident, but he did so ........ . A) regularly B) extremely C) terribly D) reasonably E) reluctantly (YDS 1999) 39- His lecture was attended by........people ....... the hall was completely full. A) so much/as B) so many/that C) as many/as D) more/than E) many /just as (YDS 1999) 40- As she grew older, it became ....... difficult for her to do the shopping. A) eventually B) increasingly C) doubtfully D) adequately E) reluctantly (YDS 2000) 41- I enjoyed this book so much; I want to read another by ....... author. A) such C) same E) the same B) similar D) a certain (YDS 2000)

42- You can look at this plan for the new

42

sports centre ..... closely ...... you like but I don't think you will be able to understand it. A) as/as C) such/that E) just/as B) so/that D) more/than (YDS 2000)

A) such/that C) as/as E) so/that

B) that/as D) mor e/than (YDS 2001)

44- I'm afraid I can't afford to pay ...... that for a pair of shoes. A) too much B) as much as C) so much D) as many as E) much more (YDS 2001)

43- When the class laughed, the poor boy felt ..... uncomfortable ..... he didn't know whether to keep his cap in his hand or not.

TEST YOURSELF 1
1- I've had a full day's rest now and I feel much ........; at least ........ enough to be able to get out of bed. A) the worst/worse B) better/well C) best/better D) good/so well E) worse/as good 2- There is nothing ......... a slight breeze on a hot, sunny day. A) refreshing enough B) as refreshed as C) more refreshing than D) so refreshing that E) the most refreshed 3- The survey confirmed that house prices are ......... higher in the South than in the North. A) so C) most E) much 4- There is ......... a shortage of qualified teachers in England ......... the government is paying students to train in teaching. A) such/that C) more/than E) as/that B) so/as D) too/than B) more D) as C) such as E) too D) so

6- Some of the delegates were ........... with the Chairman's speech ................. they walked out. A) too disappointed/that B) more disappointing/than C) so disappointed/that D) so disappointing/than E) as disappointed/as 7- Without the heavy make-up she wears, she looks ......... in real life ......... she does on television. A) young/so B) as young/that C) younger/than D) the youngest/as E) so young/that 8- He wasn't ....... studious student in the class, but he worked ........ to pass his final examinations. A) the most/hard enough B) such/harder than C) more/so hard that D) as much as/hardly E) too much/too hard 9- After we had been shopping, Alice and May went bowling, but I was ........ to join them. A) so tiring that B) the most tired C) so tired as D) too tired E) as tiring as 10- The spot where Vicki's new house is located is ......... one that all her friends

5- My father treasures the gold watch that he was given ......... a retirement present. A) like B) as

43

and relatives want to visit her. A) the most picturesque B) more picturesque than C) as picturesque as D) so picturesque that E) such a picturesque 11- The amazing thing about oltu stone is that ........ you keep it, ....... it gets. A) so long/so shiny B) the long/the shiny C) the longest/the shiniest D) the longer/the shinier E) as long/as shiny 12- For me, ......... aspect of the conference was the decision to concentrate on environmental issues. A) as encouraging B) so encouraged as C) more encouraged D) the most encouraging E) such an encouraged 13- My father plays golf just for fun, although sometimes he plays .... some professionals. A) so skilful that B) as skilfully as C) more skilfully D) the most skilful E) skilfully enough 14- She couldn't believe that her son had behaved ........ to be disciplined by the teacher. A) as bad as B) worse than C) the worst D) so badly that E) badly enough 15- The courts dealt with the farmer who had shot the thief ........tolerantly ........ most people considered appropriate.

A) more/as C) the most/than E) too/that

B) so/as D) less/than

16- Because it all happened he couldn't give the officer an accurate description of his attacker. A) so suddenly B) as sudden C) too sudden D) as suddenly E) the most sudden 17- The people have ......... distrust of the government in this African nation that few residents expect the elections to be fair. A) so C) as E) much 18- He is feeling ......... can be expected after ......... a major operation. A) well enough/like B) so well that/so C) as well as/such D) better than/that E) the best/as 19- I felt ........ ill yesterday to get out of bed, but I'm feeling ....... better today. A) as/much B) so /that C) more/so D) enough/more E) too/a lot 20- This material is ......... to be stitched together on a sewing machine. A) too delicate B) as delicately as C) so delicate that D) delicately enough E) such a delicate B) such D) like

TEST YOURSELF 2

44

1- She had acted ............ she was dismissed 1-60. sorularda, cmlede braklan bolua uygun den kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. immediately. A) more unprofessionally than B) as unproiessionally as C) so unprotessionally that D) unprofessionally enough E) the most unprofessionally 2- ......... we climbed, ......... the air became, which made it difficult for us to proceed. A) The higher/the colder B) The highest/the coldest C) Too high/too cold D) As high/so cold E) So high/very cold 3- The Goosander is one of ........ ducks which nest in tree holes. They are highly efficient underwater swimmers, being able to stay submerged for ....... a minute. A) the most/the longest B) the few/longer than C) too many/so long D) more/too long E) the least/as long 4- Records of Johannes Gutenberg are ......... vague for us to be able to know what he looked like or even his actual date of birth. A) such C) so B) more D) as

8- I didn't find the ski runs ........ so exhilarating as the ones in St Moritz. A) too nearly C) nearly E) so near B) nearer D) nearest

9- Farmer Parkinson's dog is ........... to scare any intruder. A) ferocious enough B) such ferocious C) as ferocious D) so ferocious that E) more ferocious 10- The two brothers could have hanged themselves or they could have been murdered by attackers. The police suspect ......... . A) such late C) later E) so late B) the latter D) the latest

11- ....... dangerously a person lives, ........... likely he or she is to die young. A) So/much more B) The more/the more C) As much/too D) Far too/so much E) The most/the most 12- To the thief, the bracelet will be ......... as it is only made of pewter, but to me it was precious because my aunt had given it to me just before she died. A) elaborate B) humble C) worthless D) plain E) priceless 13- Her economic situation has got ......... worse since she gave up her job because of her illness. A) more C) as E) too B) so D) even

E) too

5- I wish my cousin would type his letters to me as his handwriting is .......... legible. A) merely C) slightly E) utterly B) bitterly D) barely

6- I made a bit of a mess of wrapping Matthew's present, but it was ....... shape to wrap. A) too awkward B) as awkward as C) so awkward that D) such an awkward E) more awkward 7- The Renault Megane uses a little ...... petrol than the Skoda Esprit, but it performs ........ better. A) so much/less B) too much/more C) the most/a lot D) much/such E) more/much

14- Of all the problems she has faced, this one is by far ......... . A) badly B) worse C) too badly D) so badly E) the worst 15- I was ....... at the time to help him with his project at all, so it is completely his own work. A) too busy B) busier C) the busiest D) so busy E) such busy 16- I've had ........ trouble starting the car lately ........ I think I'll have to take it to

45

the garage. A) so much/that B) too many/for C) the most/that D) such a lot/as E) much more/than 17- In today's busy world traditional crafts, ......... knitting and embroidery, are declining in popularity. A) the most C) such E) much as B) much more D)such as

24- ....... the trial progressed, ........ apparent it became that he was guilty. A) So far/so much B) The farthest/the most C) The further/the more D) Much farther/too much E) The furthest/even so 25- If he spent ....... money on his family ........ he does on beer, his children wouldn't be running around without shoes on. A) as much/as B) so much/that C) a little/than D) enough/so E) too much/that 26- I know we didn't stop overnight when we drove to Scotland last year, but the Isle of Sky is much ....... Edinburgh. A) very far C) the farthest E) so far B) farther than D) as far as

18- The decision to promote him was based .......... on his sales record, and neither his management skills nor his organisational ability was taken into account. A) highly C) bitterly E) solely B) barely D) intensely

19- The holiday we spent in Canada turned out to be ....... expensive than we'd expected. A) so C) less B) much D) a little

27- The holiday firm was accused of ......... misleading holiday makers about the location of their hotel. A) accidentally C) exceptionally E) tactfully B) deliberately D) fairly

E) too

28- We took a tour of the most amazing Chateau during our holiday, which we discovered .......... by accident. A) purely B) wisely C) deliberately D) competently E) systematically 29- The ruddy duck is ......... seen in the wild on British lakes or rivers. A) loo rare B) rare C) so rare D) rarely E) the rarest 30- You should have ......... material for a skirt if you are careful about how you lay the pattern out. A) much C) the most E) such B) enough D) as

20- Don't be too critical of Mark as this is the first time he's played in ........ an important match. A) too C) so B) such D) as

E) more

21- I don't know why ........ people find skiing great. I can't think of anything ........ being cold and frightened at the same time. A) few/as badly as B) too many/the worst C) too much/so much D) so many/worse than E) the fewer/the worse 22- The Queen mother, who is 100 years old this year, is ......... member of the British Royal family. A) as old C) so old E) much older B) too old D) the eldest

31- ........ the tourists didn't want to go to the town where the riots had taken place just a few weeks before. A) Reluctantly B) Approximately C) Extremely D) Perfectly E) Understandably 32- Considering he is the top salesman, he is really ......... and never boasts at all. A) variable C) modest E) jealous B) suitable D) confident

23- As their conversation continued, she became ......... of the strange looking gentleman. A) as suspicious as B) more and more suspicious C) so suspiciously that D) more suspiciously than E) much too suspiciously

33- I believe no one could have investigated

46

the matter ......... we did. A) so thoroughly that B) as thoroughly as C) thorough enough D) more thorough than E) the most thoroughly 34- When I moved into the house, the grease on the oven was ......... it took me a whole morning to remove it. A) so thick that B) as thick as C) thick enough D) too thick E) much thicker 35- The director thought our proposal was ......... a good idea that he suggested we start implementing it immediately. A) so C) such E) more B)as D) like

E) more 42- ......... students enrolled on the SerboCroat language course that they are discontinuing this class. A) Fewer B) Less C) The least D) So little E) So few 43- I knew my grandmother was seriously ill as she couldn't speak ......... . A) tactfully B) utterly C) anxiously D) courageously E) coherently 44- The council are looking for a qualified management accountant, but it is a/an ......... position to cover the present post holder's maternity leave. A) temporary C) momentary E) limitless B) immediate D) compulsory

36- I don't know why the purchasing assistant is complaining as, of all the staff, she's ......... affected by the changes. A) so lew C) little E) the least B) few D) the lesser

45- ......... petroleum and natural gas, coal is a carbon-based fossil fuel. A) Such as C) So E) Like B) More D) As

37- A: Well, you've been ......... today, haven't you? B: Yes, not only have I put up these new shelves, but I have also mended the leaky tap in the bathroom. A) industrious C) watchful E) sincere B) confident D) careful

46- I thought we were being ....... we could be, but the neighbours still complained that we were ....... . A) quieter than/such noisy B) as quiet as/too noisy C) so quietly/noisy enough D) quietly enough/as noisy E) the quietest/noisier 47- I didn't really want the children to eat all the ice-cream, but I was ......... to argue with them. A) as tired as B) tired enough C) too tired D) so tired that E) more tired than 48- We were expecting it to be a little cool, but admittedly, none of us expected ......... weather ........ this for our club picnic. A) so awful/that B) as awfully/as C) more awfully/than D) such awful/as E) the most awful/than 49- The oak tree in our garden is almost ......... the house itself. A) so tall that C) much taller E) as tall as B) the tallest D) tall enough

38- The valley of the River Severn is ......... it's known as the garden of England. A) as fertile as B) so fertile that C) fertile enough D) more fertile than E) the most fertile 39- Simon and John are twins, but they are not identical ones. In fact, they are quite ......... from each other. A) similar C) different E) suitable B) the same D) complete

40- The dry-cleaner's couldn't get the stain out completely, but you can ......... see it now. A) approximately C) barely E) nearly B) virtually D) practically

41- Certain household items, ......... bleach and insecticides, are very dangerous and should be kept away from children. A) so much C) rather B) just as D) such as

50- In some southern counties in the USA, blacks outnumber whites by four to one. Yet ......... thirty-six years ago, in many of these counties, not a single black person was registered to vote.

47

A) as recently as B) so recently that C) more recently D) less recently E) recently enough 51- The shops on the main street have been restored and now they serve .......... boutiques and gift shops for tourists. A) such C) as E) enough B) so D) like

59- ....... birds ....... parrots, parakeets and mynahs learn to imitate sounds, but they do not have the capacity to think or to understand what they are saying. A) Rather/than C) Much/like E) As /as B) So/that D) Such/as

60- Canadian wolves are ......... wolves in the world and twice ......... a large dog. A) B) C) D) E) larger than/so big the largest/as big as large enough/bigger than too large/too big so large/the biggest

52- 'The Commercial Dispatch' is .... of all the newspapers published in Mississippi. A) more progressive B) the most progressive C) as progressive as D) too progressive E) so progressive that 53- Toads, which belong to ......... family ......... frogs, have shorter legs than frogs. A) the same/as B) more/than C) so/that D) such/as E) rather/than 54- It was ......... injury that he struggled to carry on playing for the rest of the game. A) so painfully B) such a painful C) the most painful D) as painful as E) too painfully 55- I felt quite out of place in my evening dress as most of the guests were ......... dressed. A) formally B) publicly C) privately D) casually E) peacefully 56- Most of the population of Canada live in the cities in the South, leaving the Arctic North ......... populated. A) plainly B) roughly C) sparsely D) densely E) primitively 57- For once she knew the answer to the question, and so, afraid to miss the chance, raised her hand ......... . A) limitlessly B) temporarily C) reluctantly D) tenderly E) enthusiastically 58- The comedian Jasper Carrot doesn't tell jokes, but he describes daily life ......... audiences roar with laughter. A) as humorously as B) humorously enough C) such a humorous D) more humorous than E) so humorously that

61- Drew's car is so old ................ . A) if he didn't earn enough to save for a new one B) even if he is considering buying a new one C) though prices of new cars in Britain are higher than in the rest of Europe D) that the manufacturer doesn't make spare parts for it any more E) to rely on to get us to work every day 62- ....... as to lend her car to Michael. A) It would have been a lot wiser for my niece B) The most foolish thing Julester did last year C) She is a much better driver than her husband D) I didn't expect my sister to do something so stupid E) Of all the foolish things she has done this year 63- The harder you have had to work for your possessions, ......... . A) your brother was luckier though B) the more you appreciate them C) as I know that you came from a poor family D) it hasn't been as easy as it seems E) the less time you had had for your family 64- As the weather conditions worsened and daylight began to fail, A) the climbers begin to wonder if they will reach the top B) much earlier than the climbers were used to in their country C) the climbers began considering possible alternative routes D) then the climbers would have no choice but to turn back E) there has been only one alternative left to the climbers 65- Our children aren't given enough support in sports ......... . A) as much as they arc in many western countries

48

B) than they used to be twenty years ago C) that we are producing very few professional athletes D) for this country to produce world class athletes E) less than any other European country 66- ..........., we hired them to decorate our hotel. 61-70. sorularda, yarm braklan cmleyi uygun ekilde tamamlayan 71-80. sorularda, verilen ngilizce ifadeyi bulunuz. cmlenin Trke dengini bulunuz. A) Their design wasn't as attractive as the other one B) Assuming we would save money by doing the job ourselves C) Although they had no difficulty paying their bill D) As they produced the most attractive plans E) They had made such a terrible job of the painting 67- We should have placed a larger order this year ......... . A) the more money we would have earned B) ordering so much before we have seen if they are popular products C) so the company gave a discount on our bulk purchase D) that we don't have enough room in the warehouse E) than we normally sell during winter months 68- I can only join you at the picnic ............. . A) B) C) D) E) if I feel better tomorrow when it makes me feel worse so I do hope you will be well again as I was feeling so ill at the time the less intense my headache gets

nutrition is very poor there. A) Btn ktalar iinde lm oran Afrika'da en yksektir ki bu da orada salk, temizlik ve beslenme dzeyinin ok kt olduunu gsterir. B) Afrika salk, temizlik ve beslenme dzeyi bakmndan ok kt olduundan, orada lm oran, dier ktalarda olduundan daha yksektir. C) lm oran dier ktalara gre daha yksek olan Afrika'da salk, temizlik ve beslenme dzeyinin ok kt olduu grlmektedir. D) Afrika'da salk, temizlik ve beslenme dzeyinin ok kt oluunun gstergesi, btn ktalar iinde en yksek lm oranna sahip olmasdr. E) Btn ktalar iinde salk, temizlik ve beslenme dzeyi bakmndan en kt olan Afrika olmal nk oradaki lm oran dier ktalara gre ok daha yksek. 72- The less cooking oil and salt you use in your meals, the less risk you'll have of catching heart diseases in later years. A) leriki yalarda kalp hastalklarna yakalanma riskinizi olabildiince azaltmanz iin. yemeklerinizde tuz ve ya ok az kullanmalsnz. B) Yemeklerinizde mmkn olduu kadar az ya ve tuz kullanrsanz, ileri yalarda kalp hastalklarna yakalanma tehlikesi o kadar az olur. C) Yemeklerinizde ne kadar az ya ve tuz kullanrsanz, ileriki yalarda kalp hastalklarna yakalanma riskiniz o kadar az olacaktr. D) Yemeklerinizde kullandnz tuz ve ya miktar ok dkse, ileriki yllarda kalp hastalklarna yakalanma riskiniz de ok dk olacak demektir. E) leriki yllarda kalp hastalklarna yakalanma riskinizi en aza indirgemek iin yemeklerinizde mmkn olduu kadar az tuz ve ya kullannz. 73- The city of Aden, which lies in the centre of an extinct volcano, is one of the hottest places on the Earth. A) Yeryznn en scak yerlerinden biri olan Aden ehri, snm bir volkann merkezinde yer almaktadr. B) Snm bir volkann merkezinde yer alan Aden ehri, yeryzndeki en scak yerlerden biridir. C) Aden ehri, yeryznn en scak yerlerinden biri olup snm bir volkann merkezinde kurulmutur. D) Snm bir volkann merkezinde kurulan Aden ehri, yeryznn en scak blgesidir. E) Aden ehri, snm bir volkann merkezinde konumland iin yeryznn en scak noktasdr. 74- Sometimes a dish may not taste as nice as it looks. A) ok ho grnen bir yemek bile bazen tatsz olabiliyor. B) Bazen bir yemein grn gzel ama tad irkin olabilir. C) Bir yemein grnnn gzel olmas tadnn da ho olaca anlamna gelmez. D) Bazen bir yemein tad kadar grnde ho olmayabilir. E) Bazen bir yemein tad grnd kadar ho olmayabilir.

69- ......... producing a report on the results of our research is the most important. A) The fact that I have been working overtime B) The quicker 1 print out the analysis C) Of all the tasks that I have to do at work D) In order to be able to finish before I went on holiday E) The one which is produced for the committee 70- ......... if there had been more people our own age at the hotel. A) The school excursion was great fun for all of us B) A number of bedrooms were vacant throughout our stay C) We may change the date of our vacation D) We would have enjoyed the holiday much more E) Several days alter we arrived at the popular resort 71- Of all the continents, the death rate is the highest in Africa, which indicates that the level of health care, sanitation and

49

81-90. sorularda, verilen Trke cmlenin ngilizce dengini bulunuz. 75- Roughly thirty percent of Sierra Leone is covered with tropical forests from which such valuable timber as mahogany and teak is obtained. A) Maun ve tik gibi ok deerli keresteler, Sierra Leone'nin neredeyse yzde otuzunu kaplayan tropik ormanlardan elde edilir. B) Sierra Leone'deki ormanlarn yaklak yzde otuzunu, kerestesi ok deerli olan maun ve tik aalan kaplamaktadr. C) Maun ve tik gibi deerli kerestesi olan tropik ormanlarn neredeyse yzde otuzu Sierra Leone'de yer almaktadr. D) ok deerli keresteler olan tik ve maunun yaklak yzde otuzu. Sierra Leone'deki ormanlardan elde edilmektedir. E) Sierra Leone'nin yaklak yzde otuzu, maun ve tik gibi deerli kereste elde edilen tropik ormanlarla kapldr. 76- The struggle between France and England called the Hundred Years' War was the longest war in recorded history. A) Fransa ve ngiltere arasndaki yazl tarihin en uzun sava olan mcadele. Yzyl Savalar diye adlandrlr. B) Yzyl Savalar denilen mcadele, yazl tarihin en uzun sava olup Fransa ile ngiltere arasnda olmutur. C) Fransa ile ngiltere arasndaki Yzyl Savalar diye adlandrlan mcadele, yazl tarihin en uzun savayd. D) Yzyl Savalar, Fransa ve ngiltere arasndaki savalarn en uzunu olarak tarihe gemitir. E) Fransa ile ngiltere arasnda olan Yzyl Savalar, yazl tarihin en uzun mcadelesi olarak kabul edilir. 77- The country's production of milk and dairy products is not plentiful enough to export, but it is sufficient for the domestic consumption. A) lkede'retilen st ve st" rnleri, i tketim iin yeterliyse de ihra edilecek kadar ok deildir. B) lkenin st ve st rnleri retimi, ihra edecek kadar ok deildir ama i tketim iin yeterlidir. C) St ve st rnleri retimi, lkenin i tketimi iin yeterli ancak ihra etmeye yetecek kadar ok deil. D) lke st ve st rnleri ihra edemiyor nk retimi ancak i tketime yant verebiliyor. E) lkenin st ve st rnleri, ihra edilecek kadar ok olmamakla beraber i tketimi rahatlkla karlayabiliyor. 78- Although living standards have considerably improved in our country in the last two decades, they are still far below expectations. A) lkemizde yaam standard son yirmi ylda hissedilir lde gelitiyse de, hala beklentilerin ok altndadr. B) lkemizde yaam standard son yirmi ylda byk lde geliti ama beklenildii kadar deil. C) lkemizde yaam standardndaki gelime yirmi yln sonunda bir lde

hissedilse de, hala beklentilerimizin ok altndayz. D) lkemizde yaam standard hala beklenenin altnda olmasna ramen, son yirmi yldaki gelime yadsnamayacak ldedir. E) lkemizde hala normalin ok altnda olan yaam standard, ancak son yirmi ylda biraz hissedilir bir gelime gstermitir. 79- The demand for fossil fuels is so widespread that it would be virtually impossible to stop their production and use on a global level even if we wanted to. A) Fosil yaktlara olan talep o kadar yaygn ki bunlarn kresel lekte retimini ve kullanmn, ok istediimiz halde, durduramyoruz. B) Fosil yaktlara bu kadar youn talep varken istense de bunlarn kresel lekte retimini ve kullanmn durdurmak mmkn olmayacaktr. C) Fosil yaktlara olan talep ok geni apl olduundan bunlarn kresel dzeyde retimini ve kullanmn durdurmak imkanszdr. D) Fosil yaktlara olan talep o kadar geni apl ki, istesek de bunlarn kresel dzeyde retimini ve kullanmn durdurmak neredeyse imkansz olurdu. E) Fosil yaktlara olan youn talep yznden, bunlarn kresel dzeyde retimini ve kullanmn durdurmak kesinlikle mmkn deildir. 80- Because much of Africa is near the equator, fatal or debilitating tropical diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and river blindness are very common there. A) Stma, uyku hastal ve nehir krl gibi insanlar ok bitkin dren tropik hastalklar, Afrika'nn ekvatora yakn olan byk bir blmnde ldrc olabilmektedir. B) Byk bir blm ekvatora yakn olan Afrika'da, stma, uyku hastal ve nehir krl gibi ldrc ya da bitkin dren tropik hastalklar ok yaygnlamtr. C) Afrika'nn ou blgeleri ekvatora yakn olduundan, orada ldrc ya da bitkin dren tropik hastalklardan zellikle stma, uyku hastal ve nehir krl ok yaygndr. D) Stma, uyku hastal ve nehir krl gibi ldrc tropik hastalklarn Afrika'da ok yaygn olmasnn nedeni, ktann byk bir blmnn ekvatora yakn olmasdr. E) Afrika'nn byk bir blm ekvatora yakn olduu iin, stma, uyku hastal ve nehir krl gibi ldrc ya da bitkin dren tropik hastalklar orada ok yaygndr. 81- zerindeki elbisenin byle resmi bir kokteyl iin doru seim olduu kansnda deilim. A) Were I you, I wouldn't choose that dress for such a formal cocktail party. B) You should wear a more formal dress to look right for this cocktail party. C) In my opinion, you have chosen to wear a very formal cocktail dress for this occasion. D) I don't think the dress you have on is the right choice for such a formal cocktail party. E) I think the dress you are wearing is a little too formal even for a cocktail party.

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82- 20. yzyln ikinci yarsnda elektronik rnler gnlk yasamda, dier teknoloji rnlerinin yarattndan daha byk deiiklikler yaratmtr. A) The greatest change in everyday life during the second half of the 20th century was the change caused by electronic technology. B) In the second half of the 20th century, electronic products have caused greater changes in everyday life than those of other technologies. C) There were many technological advances during the second half of the 20th century, of which those involving electronic products caused great changes in people's lives. D) The only new technology to alter everyday life greatly in the second half of the 20th century was electronics, which resulted in many new products. E) In the second half of the 20th century, electronic products changed people's lives to such an extent that no other technology could surpass. 83- Endstrilesmi lkelerde bile, eski zamanlardakine benzer aile iftlikleri hala vardr ama bunlar her geen yl daha da azalmaktadr. A) In industrialised nations, family-run farms, though in smaller numbers with each year, still employ methods similar to those of earlier times. B) Even in industrialised nations, farmers make little use of modern technology, especially more traditional family-run farms. C) There are still family farms similar to those of earlier times even in industrialised nations, but they are becoming fewer with each year. D) Although traditional family farms still exist, they are getting rarer with each year, especially in industrialised nations. E) There are still some family farms using the technology of former eras, but more and more farmers in industrialised nations are converting to modem technology. 84- Mali, Afrika'da nfus younluu ok dk olan lkelerden biridir. A) Mali is one of the countries in Africa with a very low population density. B) Mali is one of the least populated countries in Africa. C) The population of Mali is the smallest of all the African countries. D) Mali has a much smaller population than most African countries. E) The population density of Mali is not as high as of other African countries. 85- Kedi gibi sramalar ve hzl dnsleriyle tannan Rudolf Nureyev zamannn en baarl danssyd. A) Rudolf Nureyev's catlike leaps and rapid turns made him the most spectacular dancer of his time. B) Known for his catlike leaps and rapid turns, Rudolf Nureyev was the most accomplished dancer of his era. C) Among the most popular dancers of his era, Rudolf Nureyev was best known for his catlike leaps and rapid turns. D) Rudof Nureyev, an accomplished dancer

of his era, produced some remarkable catlike leaps and unbelievably rapid turns. E) One of the most accomplished dancers of all time, Rudolf Nureyev made his trademark catlike leaps and rapid turns. 86- Gnmz endstri toplumlarnda olduu gibi, bireylerin evrelerindeki yaamdan daha kopuk olduklar toplumlarda intihar olaylarnn yaygn olduu gzlenmektedir. A) in modern industrial societies, it is commonly believed that exclusion of an individual from the community is a primary cause of suicide. B) It has been observed that isolation, which is common in modern industrial societies, is the major cause which drives an individual to commit suicide. C) Suicides are more common in modern industrial societies, which could be due to isolation of individuals from the community they live in. D) It has been confirmed thai suicides are more common in areas where individuals lead a life isolated from other people than in modern industrial cities. E) It's been observed that suicide cases are common in societies where individuals are more isolated from the life around them, as in modern industrial societies. 87- 1987'de Van Gogh'un 'Irises' tablosunun 53.9 milyon dolara sat, bir sanat eseri iin o gne kadar denen en yksek fiyat olmutu. A) The highest price of all time paid for a single work of art has been for Van Gogh's 'Irises', which was sold for 53.9 million dollars in 1987. B) The sale of Van Gogh's painting 'Irises' in f 987-for 53.9 million dollars is still the highest price ever paid for a work of art. C) The sale of Van Gogh's painting 'Irises' for 53.9 million dollars in 1987 has been the highest price ever paid for one of his paintings. D) The sale of Van Gogh's painting 'Irises' for 53.9 million dollars in 1987 had been the highest price ever paid for a work of art up to that time. E) Before Van Gogh's 'Irises' was sold for 53.9 million dollars in 1987, no one had ever paid such an amount for a single work of art. 88- 1660'larda dantel yapmnda gereken malzeme iin o kadar byk miktarlarda para ngiltere dna gidiyordu ki parlamento ithalat yasaklamak zorunda kald. A) Because of the sums of money going out of the country to pay for lace used in manufacturing, Parliament banned its importation in 1660. B) Due to the large sums of money leaving the country to pay for material for lace making in the 1660s, Parliament banned its importation. C) In the 1660s, such huge sums of money were going out of England for die material needed for making lace that Parliament had to prohibit its importation. D) Foreign lace was so expensive causing huge sums of money to go abroad that in 1660, Parliament banned anyone from importing it. E) The high price of the material used for making lace during the 1660s was as

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91-105. sorularda, verilen cmleye anlamca en yakn olan seenei bulunuz. effective at deterring importation as any ban introduced by Parliament. 89- Baraj yaplp gle dntrlm olan Torrens Nehri, Avustralya'nn besinci byk ehri olan Adelaide'nin merkezine gzellik katmaktadr. A) The Torrens River, dammed and made into a lake, adds charm to the centre of Adelaide, the fifth largest city in Australia. B) The Torrens River runs through Australia's fifth largest city, Adelaide and, along with the lake created by the dammed river, adds charm to the centre of town. C) The fifth longest river in Australia, the Torrens River, has been dammed creating a charming lake in .the centre of Adelaide. D) The Torrens River, which runs through Australia's fifth largest city, Adelaide, has been dammed to create a charming lake. E) Australia's fifth largest city, Adelaide's charm is largely a result of the Torrens River, from which a lake was created in the centre of town. 90- Tarm konusunda tm dnyada trend, kk aile iftlikleri yerine, mekanize olmu ve en yeni bilimsel yntemleri kullanan daha byk iftlikler ynndedir. A) If the trend in agriculture continues all over the world, there will be very few small family farms and more large mechanised farms utilising the latest scientific methods. B) A trend all over the world towards larger farms using the latest scientific methods has meant a sharp reduction in the number of small family farms. C) Unlike small family farms, larger farms all over the world prefer to utilise mechanisation and the latest scientific methods. D) In agriculture, the trend all over the world is toward larger farms, rather than small family farms, that are mechanised and that utilise the latest scientific methods. E) On larger farms, the number of which is increasing at the expense of small family-run operations, mechanisation and the latest scientific methods are strictly employed. 91- It was such a delicious mousaka that I could have asked for a second helping if there had been any left. A) I asked the hostess if I could have some more mousaka as it was so delicious. B) I could have eaten another portion of the mousaka as it was so tasty, but unfortunately, there wasn't any left. C) I asked if there was any mousaka left because I really liked it and wanted to have some more. D) I regretted that 1 didn't ask for a second helping of mousaka because it was so delicious. E) The additional portion of mousaka I ordered wasn't as tasty as the first had been.

92- The birth of the quintuplets in Ontario, Canada, made more money for the country's government than their principal tourist attraction, Niagara Falls. A) The birth of quintuplets in Ontario. Canada, cost the government more than their greatest tourist attraction. Niagara Falls. B) Quintuplets, who were born in Ontario, Canada, cost more to raise than the entire earnings from tourists at Canada's premier attraction, Niagara Falls. C) The Canadian government profited more from quintuplets being born in Ontario than they did from Niagara Falls, their main attraction for tourists. D) The only attraction in Canada which raises more money for the government than the birthplace of the famous quintuplets is Niagara Falls. E) More people visited the quintuplets, who were born in Ontario. Canada, than have ever visited Canada's premier tourist trap, Niagara Falls. 93- Las Vegas is undeniably the most breathtaking city on earth. A) The fact that Las Vegas is one of the most exhausting cities in the world is beyond doubt, B) Indisputably, Las Vegas is more spectacular than any other city in the world. C) It cannot be argued that Las Vegas is a most exceptional, world renown city. D) Of all the spectacular cities in America. Las Vegas is the most popular. E) Everybody would like to visit Las Vegas. the world's most stunning city. 94- Windermere is England's largest lake, although tiny in comparison with Turkey's Lake Van. A) Windermere-is among England's biggest lakes, but it is not as big as Turkey's largest lake, Lake Van. B) The biggest ;ake in England is Windermere, but when measured against Lake Van in Turkey, it is extremely small. C) In comparison to England's Lake Windermere, Turkey's Lake Van is quite small. D) England's Lake Windermere is a very big lake, even bigger than Turkey's largest lake. Lake Van. E) Lake Van is Turkey's largest lake and it is a little bigger then '.ake Windermere in England. 95- Despite having extensive diamond deposits, no other country in the world is poorer than Sierra Leone. A) Sierra Leone is the poorest country in the world even though it has considerable diamond reserves. B) It is hard to believe that Sierra Leone is so poor because the country actually has large diamond reserves. C) Sierra Leone's large diamond reserves haven't prevented it from being among the poor countries of the world. D) Sierra Leone was the poorest country in the world until large diamond deposits were found there. E) If it didn't have large diamond mines, Sierra Leone would be the poorest country in the world.

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96- The more washing you put in the dryer, the longer it takes to dry. A) If you put too much washing in the dryer, it will take a very long time to dry. B) The drying time increases with the amount of washing put into the machine. C) Your washing is taking so long to dry because you put too much washing into the dryer. D) Large loads of washing take longer to wash in a machine than smaller amounts. E) The amount of washing does not affect the drying time in a machine. 97- The biggest problem we face is raising enough funds to continue. A) We desperately need to raise more money if we want to proceed. B) It's going to be extremely difficult to raise sufficient money to enable us to proceed. C) Raising sufficient money to proceed is the greatest difficulty ahead of us. D) We will have to raise a lot of money before we are able to proceed any further with our plans. E) Luckily, we raised sufficient funds to continue, but it wasn't easy. 98- A warmer world means more floods and more droughts, and they will hit developing countries the hardest. A) Global warming causes such extremes as floods and droughts, which have already been seen in some developing nations. B) Global warming will cause both floods and droughts, but only in the developing nations of the world. C) Rising temperatures throughout the world have been the cause of both floods and drought, which have affected developing nations lately. D) A rise in world temperatures will cause both more flooding and more droughts, which will cause the most devastation in developing nations. E) A rise in temperatures in developing nations around the world has been causing severe floods and droughts. 99- During the next half a century, the sea level will rise by at least 50 centimetres. A) Over the last 50 years, the sea level has risen by over 50 centimetres. B) It is feared that in 50 years' time, the sea level could be half a metre or more higher than it is today. C) Every 50 years, the sea level rises by approximately half a metre. D) The sea level has been rising at a rate of a metre a century. E) The sea level is expected to rise by no less than half a metre in the next 50 years. 100- Once every 133 years, the moon appears much brighter than normal due to its proximity to the Sun. A) 133 years ago, the moon shone a lot brighter than it usually does because it came very close to the Sun. B) When the moon comes close to the Sun, which happens at least once every 133 years, it appears slightly brighter than normal.

C) In the next 133 years, the moon will shine extremely brightly because it will pass very close to the Sun. D) In 133 years' time, the moon will be extremely close to the Sun. and this will cause it to appear very bright. E) As a result of its being close to the Sun, the moon shines a lot brighter than usual every 133 years. 101- There is barely anywhere more beautiful than New England in autumn. A) New England looks more, beautiful in autumn than at any other time of the year. B) Actually, there are several places as beautiful as New England in autumn. C) It is not hard to find somewhere as beautiful as New England in autumn. D) In autumn, New England is more beautiful than virtually any other place. E) Nowhere in the world is as beautiful as New England is in autumn. 102- Regular exercise is one of the most effective methods of tackling stress and insomnia. A) In some cases, sufferers of stress and sleeplessness can be helped by taking regular exercise. B) The only way to beat stress and sleeplessness is to take exercise regularly. C) Stress and sleeplessness can be a symptom of lack of exercise. D) The best method to relieve stress and sleeplessness is to start an exercise program. E) One of the best ways to overcome stress and sleeplessness is to take regular exercise. 103- A steady temperature in greenhouses requires a careful and accurate control. A) The ventilation of greenhouses should be tightly monitored at all times. B) If you want to ensure a constant temperature inside a greenhouse. heating appliances need to be installed. C) The temperature inside a greenhouse should not be allowed to fluctuate. D) Precise and thorough control is necessary for the temperature in greenhouses to remain constant. E) To achieve the optimum temperature in greenhouses, heating must be chosen accurately. 104- The coastline at Dunnage has receded by one mile since Roman times. A) The coast al Dunnage was one mile farther out in Roman times than it is today. B) Dunnage was about a mile away from the coast in Roman times. C) Today Dunnage is one mile nearer the coast than it was in Roman times. D) Dunnage has expanded one mile towards the coast since Roman times. E) In Roman, times. Dunnage had a coastline which was about one mile in width. 105- A fifteen-minute rest can be as energising as sleeping for hours. A) Taking a fifteen-minute break can refresh you until you are able to get

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some proper sleep. B) A quarter of an hour's sleep should be enough for anyone to refresh. C) A long sleep isn't always necessary and sometimes as little as a quarter of an hour's rest is ample.

D) Relaxing for quarter of an hour can refresh you as much as a long sleep. E) Even if we don't have time to sleep for a long period, we must make sure that we sleep no less than fifteen minutes.

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY


1- During training, the coach makes us jump and touch our knee with our opposite ........ which is good for coordination and stamina. A) head C) chest E) elbow 2- People who sell Avon cosmetics and toiletries earn twenty-five percent ........ on the value of orders that they take. A) wages B) winnings C) commission D) debt E) achievement 3- I won this medal for coming second in the school chess ........ . A) board B) opponent C) enthusiast D) tournament E) struggle 4- The police have searched the suspect's house ......... but they haven't found the weapon used in the murder. A) curiously B) meticulously C) superficially D) cunningly E) permanently 5- Cynthia Jones has worked for this company for ten years and we have found her smart, punctual and ........ A) trustworthy B) dishonest C) greedy D) sentimental E) temporary 6- Automotive manufacturing is essential for the ........ of the British economy. A) sincerity B) enjoyment C) toughness D) stability E) tenderness 7- Fortunately, the cut on my son's forehead after he fell from the tree was only ......... so it didn't require any stitches. A) minor B) inferior C) major D) low E) primary 8- The fact that one of the students from the school has been accepted at Harvard University has had a positive ........ on all B) toe D) back the other students. A) bias B) average C) prejudice D) deterrent E) influence 9- Everyday items, such as umbrellas or shoes, can become.... if they were once owned by a celebrity. The umbrellas used by 'The Beatles' in their film 'Help' are worth a small fortune now. A) useful B) practical C) countless D) infinite E) valuable 10- None of the children at the party were ........., but Simon was naughtier than all the others. A) silly B) well-behaved C) intelligent D) industrious E) joyful 11- I wish I had bought some milk on the way home as the milk in the refrigerator has gone ........ . A) bitter B) sour C) gloomy D) rotten E) muddy 12- Button Gwinnett, who was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence, is ........ in Colonial Park Cemetery in Savannah, USA. A) concealed B) buried C) obscured D) submerged E) masked 13- Jim Browns arrest confirmed my........ that he was a dishonest man. A) methodology B) suggestion C) suspicion D) recommendation E) allowance 14- Kelly has a quarterly sales........ of twenty caravans. Last quarter, she exceeded this and sold twenty-five. A) target C) flag E) dial 15- Deschamps is one of the oldest French footballers, but his........ in the European Championship was fantastic. B) aim D) monitor

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A) production B) trend C) label D) performance E) composition 16- Elif learnt English from an Australian teacher, and thus, she has acquired an Australian ........ . , A) slope C) melody E) mood B) posture D) accent

C) grateful D) greedy E) extravagant 24- I like pancakes with maple syrup for breakfast, but, of course, it contains a lot of calories, and so is very ....... . A) fattening B) fatiguing C) wealthy D) tiring E) tasteless 25- The rate of beer ....... at the Dog and Fox pub is amazing. Customers drink more than three barrels a night! A) manufacture B) consumption C) inflation D) flavour E) adequacy 26- The former German President, Helmut Kohl's ........ has been damaged by a scandal concerning donations to his political party. A) embezzlement B) bribery C) reputation D) dishonesty E) complexion 27- This power station is coal fired and it ....... electricity to the whole of Derbyshire. A) mines C) supplies E) floods B) broadcasts D) involves

17- The coach of the Dutch team resigned after Holland's ........ to win the event. A) defect C) failure E) flaw 18- Farmer Butterworth was banned from keeping animals by the courts because the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals proved he had........ his farm animals and allowed them to suffer unnecessarily. A) neglected B) rejected C) consented D) regretted E) discriminated 19- The border control officers ........ a cargo of illegal weapons, which was concealed under blankets. A) clenched C) fired E) seized B) stamped D) lost B) imperfection D) error

20- There were three other ........ in my ward and all of them had also had eye operations. A) mourners B) patients C) spectators D) onlook E) bystanders 21- The side of my foot, where the strap on my new sandals has been rubbing the skin, is ...... . A) sore C) hurtful E) scattered 22- The ........ of my son's shirt gets filthy quickly because he doesn't clean his neck properly. A) lace C) belt E) rim 23- Johnny, don't be so............. . Leave some food for the others. A) thirsty B) vain B) button D) collar B) harmful D) evil

28- The models on the catwalk were all absolutely ....... . In fact, they were so pretty that Paul could hardly take his eyes off them! A) plain C) huge B) stunning D) stretched E) frustrating

29- There is too much ........ about the situation in this city. Nobody seems to know anything about it. A) ignorance C) collection E) care B) reality D) obligation

30- The board of directors had ........ some resistance from the employees to the new application, but not so much as they actually received. A) scheduled B) devoted C) prepared D) anticipated E) responded 31- Marie had trained in the traditional craft of basket weaving and decided ........ her work at a local craft show. A) to exploit B) to explore C) to exhibit D) to operate E) to scatter

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32- The newspaper article had ........ humiliated the South African captain in very plain language. A) secretly B) superstitiously C) publicly D) environmentally E) narrowly 33- The South African captain had foolishly ........ money for information on the game and ruined his career. A) accepted B) printed C) wasted D) agreed E) released 34- The family of the ambassador, who was assassinated, urged the public to let them grieve ......... away from reporters and photographers. A) publicly B) privately C) sarcastically D) remotely E) indifferently 35- He had ........ parked right in front of someone's driveway. A) accurately B) gracefully C) lawfully D) thoughtlessly E) mercilessly 36- When Susan's husband was in hospital for an operation, her neighbour........ asked her to let her know if there was anything she could do to help.

A) painfully B) arrogantly C) considerately D) aggressively E) observantly 37- Because he had already handed in his notice, he worked ........ for the rest of the month. A) successfully B) unshakeably C) expertly D) fortunately E) half-heartedly 38- No matter how many referee's decisions go against him, Pete Sampras always keeps his ........ on the tennis court. A) balance C) symmetry E) tune B) harmony D) composure

39- I think he made a ........ decision under the circumstances. It would have been foolish to let his son go to a dangerous part of the city at night. A) responsible B) selfish C) hasty D) respectable E) authentic 40- Be careful of the dog as he is sometimes a little.......... A) aggressive B) cute C) cunning D) tender E) inhuman

ANSWER KEY
Exercise 1 (pg.7) 1. A 2.A 3.B 4.A 5.B 19.A 20.B Exercise 2 (pg.12) 6.B 7.A 8.B 9.B 10.A 11.B 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.B 18.A

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1. significant/accidental 2. deeply/evenly 3. completely/late 4. worried/lately 5. late/hardly 6. Normally /reasonable 7. meticulously/current 8. cheaply 9. immediately/serious 10. good 11. well/good 12.good/quickly/properly 13. extremely/tiring 14. efficient/normally 15. proficiently/absolute 16.confident/decisively/similarly 17. nearly /shortly 18. hard/hardly 19. highly/generally 20. high/seriously 21.huge/scarcely 22. incredibly/quie/normal/usually/busy 23. painful /quickly 24. traditional/serious 25.terrible/profoundly/bad 26. confident/anxiously 27. carefully/natural 28. fluently/naturally 29. strictly/comfortably 30. serious/special 31. good/inadequately 32. extremely/angry/harshly 33. mistakenly/extremely/cheap 34. extreme 35. atrocious /badly 36.atrociously/importart 37. regularly/occasionally /strenuous 38. internationally/totally/erroneous/critical 39. tightly/quickly 40. tight/strict/new 41. surprisingly/successful 42. surprising/successfully 43. nasty/angrily 44. violent/well 45. kindly /nice Exercise 3 (pg.18) 1.E 2.E 3. D 4.A 5.A 6. B 7.A 8. E 9.D 10. B Exercise 4 (pg.18) a) l. c 2.d 3. e 4.b 5. i 6.a 7.h 8.j 9.g 10.f b) l. B 2. C 3. D 4.E 5.A Exercise 5 (pg.19) a) l.g 2.i 3.e 4.b 5.c 6.d 7.h 8.f 9.a l0.j b) l.B 2.A 3.C 4.C 5.E Exercise 6 (pg.19) a) l. e 2.d 3.i 4.h 5.m 6.g 7.a 8.j 9.l 10.b 11.n 12.f 13.o 14.k 15. c b) l. A 2.D 3. B 4.A 5.C 6. C 7. E 8. D 9. B 10. E Exercise 7 (pg.20) l.E 2.D 3.B 4.B 5. E 6. C 7.E 8.A 9. C 10. C 11. D 12.A 13.B 14. D 15. E Exercise 8 (pg.21) l.B 2.C 3.A 4.D 5. C 6. B 7. E 8.A 9.C 10.D 11. E 12. E 13.B 14.A 15. C Exercise 9 (pg.27) 1.so condescending when he spoke to me that I had to ay hard to keep my composure 2. so huge that you might want to share a meal unless you're very hungry 3. such a boring game that he didn't stay until the end 4. so carelessly that he dropped his glass of Coke and stained his new t-shirt 5. such an interesting story that they all listened to heir attentively 6. so low that he wrote a letter of complaint Exercise 10 (pg.27) a) l. such a greedy person that he never seems to stop eating 2. such strong coffee that I will probably be awake most of the night 3. such a lot of calories in Brek that if you eat a lot of it, vou'll become overweight 4. such distressing news that he collapsed immediately 5. such a wonderful holiday resort that we have already booked to go there again next year b) l. so cowardly that he didn't mention the problem to the manager 2. so long to get served in the library that I was late back to my office 3. so many defective products that we hadto send the entire consignment back to Germany 4. so helpful that I settled down here quickly 5. so sharp that it can cut steak easily Exercise 11 (pg.32) l.more pleasant (pleasanter) 2. less/more 3. more worried 4. better 5. better/better 6. earlier 7. more passionately 8. more famous 9. more effective 10. worse 11. worse 12. more diplomatically 13. harder

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14. farther (further) 15. Further Exercise 12 (pg.33) 1 .older /younger 2. further 3. harder/hardly 4. worse 5. faster/fast 6. more cheaply 7. elder 8.better/well 9.old 10. elder/young 11. more effective/more carefully 12. far/close 13. highly/more serious 14. nearly 15.better-known/surprisingly Exercise 13 (pg.34) 1. harder and harder 2. easier and easier 3. more and more painful 4.worse and worse 5. more and more confident 6. clearer and clearer 7. more and more popular 8. dizzier and dizzier 9. more and more expensive 10. tighter and tighter Exercise 14 (pg.34) 1. The ofder my brother gets, the more pessimistic he gets. 2. The more intricate the design (is), the more expensive the vase (is). 3. The bigger the waves got, the more pleasure we derived from surfing. 4. The farther I walked, the sorer my feet became. 5. The more money we make now, the further well be able to expand the business next year. Exercise 15 (pg.38) 1. wasn't such a good house as this one 2. have to stay in hospital as/so many days as I had expected 3. don't spend as/so much on eating out as we used to 4.isn t as/so easy to play as backgammon 5. could nave thought of such a practical solution as this

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