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Prof. B.

Ould Bouamama PolytechLille Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs

Professeur Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA

Recherche : Responsable de lquipe de recherche MOCIS
Laboratoire d'Automatique, Gnie Informatique et Signal de Lille (LAGIS -UMR CNRS 8219)

Enseignement: Professeur et Directeur de la recherche Poltech lille

Ml : Belkacem.ouldbouamama@polytech-lille.fr,

1
Supervision des Systmes Industriels.
Supervision of Industrial Systems.
Ce cours et bien dautres sont disponibles
http://www.mocis-lagis.fr/membres/belkacem-ould-bouamama/

Ce cours est dispens aux lves de niveau Master 2 et ingnieurs 5me anne.
Plusieurs transparents proviennent de confrences internationales : ils sont alors rdigs en anglais
Chap.1 /2
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
PLAN
Introduction : place de la surveillance dans un systme de supervision

Synthse des mthodes de surveillance

Analyse structurelle et graphe biparti

Redondance dinformations pour la surveillance

Synthse dobservateurs pour la surveillance

Les bond graphs pour la surveillance

Conception dun systme des supervision.

Application un processus rel: gnrateur de vapeur

Conclusions et Bibliographie


Chap.1 /3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
FDI and FTC :
Blanke, M., Kinnaert, M., Lunze, J. and Staroswiecki, M. (Eds)(2007) Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control,
Berlin:Springer-Verlag.
"Automatique et statistiques pour le diagnostic". T1 et 2 sous la direction de Bernard Dubuisson, Collection
IC2 Edition Hermes, 204 pages, Paris 2001.
A.K. Samantaray and B. Ould Bouamama "Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond Graph Approach" .
Springer Verlag, Series: Advances in Industrial Control, 490 p. ISBN: 978-1-84800-158-9, Berlin 2008.
D. Macquin et J. Ragot : "Diagnostic des systmes linaires", Collection Pdagogique d'Automatique, 143
p., ISBN 2-7462-0133-X, Herms Science Publications, Paris, 2000.
Bond Graph FDI based
B. Ould Bouamama, M. Staroswiecki and A.K. Samantaray. Software for Supervision System Design In
Process Engineering Industry . 6th IFAC, SAFEPROCESS, , pp. 691-695.Beijing, China.
B. Ould Bouamama, K. Medjaher, A.K. Samantary et M. Staroswiecki. "Supervision of an industrial steam
generator. Part I: Bond graph modelling". Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 1 14/1 pp 71-83, Vol 2.
14/1 pp 85-96, 2006.
B. Ould Bouamama., M. Staroswiecki et Litwak R. "Automatique et statistiques pour le diagnostic". sous la
direction de Bernard Dubuisson, chap.. 6 : "Surveillance d'un gnrateur de vapeur". pp. 168-199, Collection
IC2 Edition Hermes, 204 pages, Paris 2001.

PhD Thesis, several lectures can be doownloaded at : //www.mocis-lagis.fr/membres/belkacem-ould-bouamama/


Prof. Belkacem Ould
Bibliography
Chap.1 /4
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
SUPERVISION DANS LINDUSTRIE
Supervision ?
Technique industrielle de suivi et de pilotage informatique de
procds de fabrication automatiss.
La supervision concerne l'acquisition de donnes (mesures,
alarmes, retour d'tat de fonctionnement) et des paramtres de
commande des processus gnralement confis des
automates programmables

Logiciel de supervision:
Interface oprateur prsente sous la forme d'un synoptique.
Prof. Belkacem Ould
Chap.1 /5
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Pourquoi Superviser ?
contrler la disponibilit des services/fonctions
contrler lutilisation des ressources
vrifier quelles sont suffisantes (dynamique)
dtecter et localiser des dfauts
diagnostic des pannes
prvenir les pannes/dfauts/dbordements (pannes latentes)
prvoir les volutions
Suivi des variables

Chap.1 /6
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Fonctions de la supervision
GESTION
ERP : Enterprise Resource planning : planification des ressources de
l'entreprise
intgration des diffrentes fonctions de l'entreprise dans un systme
informatique centralis configur selon le mode client-serveur.
MRP : Manufacturing Resource Planning : planification des capacits de
production
Systme de planification qui dtermine les besoins en composants
partir des demandes en produits finis et des approvisionnements
existants
PRODUCTION
SCADA : Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition
PC & PLC Process Control/ Programmable Logic Controller

Chap.1 /7
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Supervision et Monitoring
Monitoring
Suivi de paramtres
Scurit (diagnostic) locale

Rguler
Control des paramtres

Supervision
Centralise le monitoring local et le contrle
Deux parties dun scAda
hardware (collecte de donnes)
Software (contrle, surveillance, affichage etc..)

Chap.1 /8
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Logiciels de supervision
Wonderware
Leader dans le domaine de la supervision et du SCADA, notamment au
travers du logiciel InTouch,
INTouch
Logiciel de supervision de rfrence. Bibliothque extensible contenant de
base +500 symboles graphiques prts lemploi.
PANORAMA :
IHM ergonomique, module de traitement des alarmes et des vnements, un
module d'exploitation des historiques.
WinCC
Systme de supervision dot de fonctions chelonnables, pour la
surveillance de processus automatiss, offre une fonctionnalit SCADA
complte sous Windows
DSPACE MATLAB-Simulink
Chap.1 /9
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Caractristiques dun SCADA
Simplicit, convivialit
Solveurs
Traitements graphiques (icnes, bibliothques,
Supervision
Commande
Surveillance
Traitement des alarmes
Archivage
Programmation
Performances/Prix :
Prix : matriel + systme d exploitation, logiciel, mise jour, assistance,
documentation
Chap.1 /10
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Supervision Graphical User Interface (Inteface Homme Machine IHM)
Objectifs et
Definitions
Chap.1 /12
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions
Processus industriel
Assemblage fonctionnel de composants technologiques associs les uns
aux autres de faon former une entit unique accomplissant une mission.

Architecture du systme
Modle orient composant qui dcrit directement le processus industriel
comme un rseau des composants industriels.

P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams )
Plans des Instruments Dtaills, utilis pour une description visuelle de
l'architecture du processus (utilise norme ISO).

Fonctionnement normal
Comportement appartenant un ensemble de comportements nominaux
pour lesquels le systme a t conu.
Chap.1 /13
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions
Dfaillance
Modification suffisante et permanente des caractristiques physiques d'un
composant pour qu'une fonction requise ne puisse plus tre assure dans
les conditions fixes.
Dfaillances naissantes
Ayant un caractre passager
Constantes
Evoluant dans le temps
Catastrophique

Faute (ou dfaut)
Dviation d'une variable observe ou d'un paramtre calcul par rapport
sa valeur fixe dans les caractristiques attendues du processus lui-mme,
des capteurs, des actionneurs ou de tout autre quipement.

Chap.1 /14
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions
Symptmes
Traductions d'un changement d'un comportement d'une variable dtecte par
comparaison des valeurs de rfrence.

Contraintes
Limitations imposes par la nature (lois physiques) ou l'oprateur.

Rsidu ou indicateur de faute
exprime l'incohrence entre les informations disponibles et les informations
thoriques fournies par un modle

Erreur
Ecart entre une valeur mesure ou estime d'une variable et la vraie valeur
spcifie par un capteur talon ou juge correcte.

Spcifications (cahier des charges)
Objectifs que doit atteindre le systme de surveillance
Chap.1 /15
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
INTRODUCTION : Historique
Depuis 1840: Apparition de lautomatique
Tches : amliorer la qualit des produits finis, la scurit et le rendement
des units en implantant des commandes performantes

Depuis 1980, nouveau challenge : Supervision
Rles : Fournir l'oprateur humain une assistance dans ses tches
urgentes de gestion des situations d'alarmes pour l'augmentation de la
fiabilit, de la disponibilit et de la sret de fonctionnement du processus.

Apparition de lautomatisation intgre
Commande des systmes de production et sret de fonctionnement,
maintenance, gestion technique, diagnostic de fonctionnement
Chap.1 /16
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
INTRODUCTION : Automatisation intgre
Supervision
Monitoring
Regulation
Instrumentation
Entre
Sortie
Aide la conduite planification, diagnostic
interface homme machine
Suivi de ltat du processus
Visualisation
Commande logique, rgulation
Optimisation
Choix et implmentation des
capteurs et actionneurs
Observations
Dcisions
Niveau 3
Niveau 2
Niveau 1
Niveau 0
Chap.1 /17
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
What is a supervision : two levels FDI FTC?
Supervision :
Set of tools and methods used to operate an industrial process
in normal situation as well as in the presence of failures.
Activities concerned with the supervision :
Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) in the diagnosis level, and
the Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) through necessary
reconfiguration, whenever possible, in the fault
accommodation level.
SUPERVISION
FDI : How to detect and
to isolate a faults ?
FTC : How to continue to
control a process ?
Chap.1 /18
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Exemple
Quelle est lorigine
de la dfaillance ?
Que dois je faire ?
Chap.1 /19
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
R
E
G
I
O
N

D
A
N
G
E
R
E
U
S
E

R
E
G
I
O
N

D
A
N
G
E
R
E
U
S
E

REGION DANGEREUSE
Relation entre FDI et FTC Perf=F(Y1,Y2)
PERFORMANCES INACCEPTABLES
PERFORMANCES INACCEPTABLES
Y1
Y2
P
E
R
F
O
R
M
A
N
C
E
S

D

G
R
A
D

E
S

PERFORMANCES
DGRADES
PERFORMANCES
REQUISES
Reconfiguration
Fault
Chap.1 /20
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
SUPERVISION in INDUSTRY
Maintenance


List of faults
DIAGNOSTIC
Technical
specification
Observations
Control signals
Set points
SENSORS
Control

INPUT (I)
OUTPUT (O)
FTC Level
Fault accommodation
Reconfiguration
Chap.1 /21
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
FDI Purpose
Objectives : given I/O pair (u,y), find the fault f . It will be done
in 3 steps :

DETECTION
detect malfunctions in real time, as soon and as surely as possible :
decides whether the fault has occured or not

ISOLATION
find their root cause, by isolating the system component(s) whose
operation mode is not nominal : find in which component the fault has
occured

DIAGNOSIS
diagnose the fault by identifying some fault model : determines the kind and
severity of the fault
Chap.1 /22
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Medical interpretation of FDI system
c~0
T
37
+
-
NON
OUI
c
E
x
a
m
e
n

c
l
i
n
i
q
u
e

D
i
a
g
n
o
s
t
i
c

Chap.1 /23
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
FT (Fault Tolerance)
Analysis of fault tolerance : The system is runing
under faulty mode
Since the system is faulty, is it still able to achieve its
objective(s) ?


Design of fault tolerance :
The goal is to propose a system (hardware architecture and
sofware which will allow, if possible, to achieve a given
objective not only in normal operation, but also in given fault
situations.




Chap.1 /24
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Control and Fault Tolerant Control
Control algorithms :
implement the solution of control problems : according to the
way the system objectives are expressed


FTC algorithms
implements the solution of control problems : controls the
faulty system
the system objectives have to be achieved, in spite of the
occurence of a pre-specified set of faults

Chap.1 /25
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Control Problem
Traditional control : two kinds of objectives
control of the system , estimation of its variables

Problematic : Given
a set U of a control law (open open loop, closed loop, continuous or
discrete variables, linear or non-linear
a set of control objective(s) O,
set of uncertain constraints C(u), (dynamic models)

The solution is completely defined by the triple
<O,C(u), U >


Chap.1 /26
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
FTC problem
FTC Controls the faulty system: 2 cases
1) fault adaptation, fault accomodation, controller reconfiguration
change the control law without changing the system
2) system reconfiguration
change both the control and the system :

The difference with Control problem
System constraints
may change.
U C O U C O
U C O U C O
f f n n
f n
, ( , , ( ,
, ( , , ( ,
u u
u u

: e 2.Structur
: rs 1.Paramete
Admissible control laws
may change.
r f f n n n
U C O U C O , ( , , ( , u u

Chap.1 /27
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Passive and active fault tolerance
Passive fault tolerance
Active fault tolerance
control law unchanged
when faults occur
Normal mode
Control law solves < O, C
n
(u
n
), U
n
>

Faulty mode
Control law also solves < O, C
f
(u
f
), U
f
>
f e F
specific solution for
normal and faulty mode
<O,C
n
(u
n
),U
n
> and
< O, C
f
(u
f
), U
f
> f e F
ROBUST TO FAULTS
Knowledge about C
f
(u
f
) and U
f

must be available .
FDI layer must give
information.
Chap.1 /28
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Fault accommodation and System reconfiguration
FDI system
System
reconfiguration
Provide estimation of
C
f
(u
f
) U
f
of the fault impact
solve < O, C
f
(u
f
), U
f
>
Fault
solve < O, I
f
(O
f
), U
f
>
Provide estimation of
I
f
(O
f
), U
f
of the fault impact
Fault
FDI cannot provide
any estimate of the fault
impact
solve < O, C
r
(u
r
), U
r
>
Fault
Fault accommodation
Chap.1 /29
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Fault accommodation
Process
Controller
FDI
Fault
Accomodation
Controller
parameters
Ref.
Y
u
S
u
p
e
r
v
i
s
i
o
n

Chap.1 /30
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Fault Reconfiguration
FDI
New control
configuration
Reconfiguration
Yref
Nominal
Controller
Process
Y
u
u'
New
Controller
Yref
Y
S
u
p
e
r
v
i
s
i
o
n

C
O
N
T
R
O
L

HOW TO DESIGN SUPERVISION SYSTEMS ?
Chap.1 /32
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
DIAGNOSTIC METHODS (2/2)
ALGORITMES
Sans modles
base de modles
Observateurs
Identification
Redondance
dinformation
Redondance
analytique
Redondance
matrielle
Chap.1 /33
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Model-based FDI
S E N SO R S
Process actual operation

RESIDUAL
GENERATOR

MODEL OF
THE NORMAL
OPERATION
ALARM GENERATION
0
Isolation Identification
ALARM INTERPRETAION
Detection
Chap.1 /34
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Diagnostic par identification et observateurs
y
Modle
U
y
Residu
+
-
u

ref
u
y
Observateur
U
y
Residu
+
-
y
Chap.1 /35
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
No model based
Only experimental data are exploited

Methods : statistical learning, data
analysis, pattern recognition, neuronal
networks, etc.
?
?
?
Problems
need historical data in normal and in
abnormal situations,
every fault mode represented ???
generalisation capability ??
Chap.1 /36
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
METHODES SANS MODELES
Mthodes de reconnaissances de formes
Dtermination dun certain nombre de classes (apprentissage)
A chaque classe est associ un mode de fonctionnement
(normal, dfaillant)
Chaque donne prleve est affecte lune de ces classes :
determination du mode de fonctionnement
Chap.1 /37
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
METHODES QUALITATIVES
Utilise la connaissance intuitive du monde :
appliquer des modles de pense humaine pour des systmes physiques
Exemple : Quand le dbit augmente, la temprature doit diminuer)

L'avantage principal des mthodes qualitatives:
possibilit de n'utiliser que le modle qualitatif: aucun besoin de grandeurs
numriques des paramtres ni de connaissances profondes sur la structure
du systme.

Inconvnients
Les dfaillances des capteurs ne sont pas dtectes. Il n'est pas ais de
dterminer les valeurs limites infrieures et suprieures de dviation.
D'autre part un problme combinatoire peut apparatre lors des procdures
d'infrences pour les systmes complexes.
PROBLEMATIC IN FDI THEORY
Chap.1 /39
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Tches dun systme de surveillance : FDI
Alarmes
Fonctionnement
normal
Modle
+ -

DIAGNOSTIC
Type de panne
Dtection
Localisation
Identification

DECISION
Composant dfectueux
cahier des charges
Chap.1 /40
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Steps in FDI system (1/4)
1. Dtection
Opration logique : On dclare le systme est dfaillant ou non
dfaillant
Les critres
Non dtection ou dtection trop tardive Consquences
catastrophique sur le process
Fausses alarmes Arrts inutiles de lunit de production. Plus de
confiance de loprateur
Test dhypothses : La dtection se ramne un test
dhypothses
H0 : hypothse de fonctionnement normal (Domaine de dcision D0)
H1 : hypothse de fonctionnement dfaillant (Domaine D1)
Dx : Domaine de non dcision
Chap.1 /41
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Steps in FDI system (2/4)
H
0
H
1
Decide H
0
OK Missed
detection
Decide H
1
False
alarm
OK


Problematic
Given R=[r
1
, .r
n
] fault indicators

Two distributions are known p(Z/H
0
) and p(Z/H
1
)
One of two hypotheses, H
0
or H
1
is true
What to do ?
Verify if each r
i
(i=1,..n) belongs to p(Z/H
0
) and p(Z/H
1
)
4 possibilits




Chap.1 /42
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Steps in FDI system (3/4)
P(r
i
/H
0
).P(H
0
)
D
0

D
1

P
fa

P
nd

P(r
i
/H
1
).P(H
1
)
D
x

- o
i
+o
i
| |
| | | |
i
i i i i
i
i i i i
D r r
D r r
1
0
, , ,
,
e + + + e
e + e
o o
o o
P
fa

False alarm
r
i
est dclar appartenir H1 (dfaillant)
alors quil appartient H0
o
i
: choisi pour assurer
un bon compromis :
Probabilit H1 min.
Probabilit de Pnd
min.
o
i
< probabilit de
fausse alarme limite
fixe.
Chap.1 /43
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Steps in FDI system (4/4)
2. Localisation
Etre capable de localiser le ou les lments dfaillants
Les critres
Non isolabilit Consquences catastrophique sur le process
Fausses isolabilit Arrts inutiles de lunit (ou de lquipement)
dfaillant. Plus de confiance de loprateur de maintenance

Identification (diagnostic)
Lorsque la faute est localise, il faut alors identifier les causes
prcises de cette anomalie. On fait alors appel des
signatures rpertories par les experts et valides aprs
expertise et rparation des dysfonctionnements.



Chap.1 /44
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Specifications
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

Which parameters must be supervized ?
What are the non acceptable values ?
Objectives
Performances
false alarm
missed detection
detection delay
Available data
other (cost, complexity, memory, ...)
Constraints
I. Systems and faults
Chap.1 /46
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
System (1)
COMPS = {comp1, comp2, comp3, comp4, comp5}

x
a
b
c
d
y
z
e
f
comp1
comp2
comp3
comp4
comp5
A system is a set of interconnected components
Chap.1 /47
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
A system is a set of interconnected components
COMPS = {input valve, tank, output pipe, level sensor}

System (2)
Chap.1 /48
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
System (3)

x = a v b
y = ( b
z = c v d
e = x . y
f = z . (( y)
SM is the set of all those constraints
x
a
b
c
d
y
z
e
f
comp1
comp2
comp3
comp4
comp5
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

SM is the set of all those constraints
Input valve
Tank
Output pipe
) ( ) ( t l k t q
o
=
) ( ) (
) (
t q t q
dt
t dl
o i
=
o = =
= =
) ( 1 ) (
0 ) ( 0 ) (
t q t u
t q t u
i
i
Level sensor
) , 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (
o c
c
N
t t l t y
~
+ =
System (4)
Chap.1 /50
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Constraints ?
When non faulty, each component achieves some
function of interest

because it exploits some physical principle(s) which are
expressed by some relationship(s) between the time
evolution of some system variables.


Relationships are called constraints,
Time evolution of a variable is its trajectory.
Chap.1 /51
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Normal situation ?
Normal operation is the simultaneous occurrence of
two situations :

1) components really behave as the designer expects

2) interactions between the system and its environment are
compatible with the system's objectives.

Chap.1 /52
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Internal and external faults
1) components behave as the designer expects
IF NOT : INTERNAL FAULT

constraints applied to the variables are the nominal ones
OK(comp) is true

2) interactions between the system and its
environment are compatible with the system's
objectives
IF NOT : EXTERNAL FAULT


Chap.1 /53
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Examples of internal faults (1)
x
a
b
c
d
y
z
e
f
comp1
comp2
comp3
comp4
comp5
y = ( b OK(comp2) is false
Chap.1 /54
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Examples of internal faults (2)
Process fault : the tank is leaking
Sensor fault : noise has improper
statistical characteristics
) , (
) ( ) ( ) (
E ~
+ =
b N
t t l t y
c
c
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
t q t q t q
dt
t dl
l o i
=
Actuator fault : input valve is
blocked open
o
o
= =
= =
) ( 1 ) (
) ( 0 ) (
t q t u
t q t u
i
i
Chap.1 /55
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Examples of external faults (1)
a = 2
x
a
b
c
d
y
z
e
f
comp1
comp2
comp3
comp4
comp5
Chap.1 /56
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Examples of external faults (2)
min 1 2 1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
+ >
}
t t t dt t q
t
t
o
max

min


Control algorithm objective :


cannot be achieved for too large output
flows

max min
) ( s s t
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Diagnosis algorithm
SD is now ...
OK(input valve)

OK(tank)

OK(output pipe)

OK(level sensor)
o = =
= =
) ( 1 ) (
0 ) ( 0 ) (
t q t u
t q t u
i
i
) ( ) (
) (
t q t q
dt
t dl
o i
=
) ( ) ( t l k t q
o
=
) , 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (
o c
c
N
t t l t y
~
+ =
OK(comp1) x = a v b
OK(comp2) y = ( b
OK(comp3) z = c v d
OK(comp4) e = x . y
OK(comp5) f = z . (( y)
Chap.1 /58
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Problems
1) For some given S _ COMPS, how to check
the consistency of
SD {OK(X)|X e S} OBS
2) How to find the collection of the NOGOODS
Chap.1 /59
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
How to check the consistency
OBS (controls,
measurements)
Properties that OBS
should satisfy / values
that OBS should have
TEST
Actual system Nominal system model
Detection
Compare actual system and nominal system
Chap.1 /60
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Two means to check consistency
Analytical Redundancy
properties that OBS should satisfy if actual system healthy
properties that are satisfied by the nominal system trajectories
check whether they are true or not


Observers
values that OBS should have if actual system healthy
simulate / reconstruct the nominal system trajectories
check whether they coincide with actual system trajectories

Chap.2

ANALYTICAL REDUNDANCY
Chap.2 /62
Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Chap.2 ANALYTICAL REDUNDANCY
Chap.2 /63 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Representation

=
=
) , (
) , , , , (
m
p
x C y
t d u x f
dt
dx
u
u
Parameters :
es Disturbanc :
u
d
PROCESS
Capteurs
u
p

d
x
0

x(t)
y(t)
u(t)
u
m

PROCESS
Capteurs
u
p

d
x
0

x(t)
y(t)
u(t)
u
m

=
=
) , , (
) , , , , , (
s m
p p
x C y
t d u x f
dt
dx
u
u
Model of the faulty system
Model of the healthy system
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
State space representation

+ + + =
+ + + =

H Gd Du Cx y
F Ed Bu Ax
dt
dx
Faults
Disturbances
Linear case
Nonlinear case

=
=
) , , , (
) , , , (

d u x C y
d u x F
dt
dx

+ + + =
+ + + =

H Gd Du Cx y
F Ed Bu Ax
dt
dx
Faults
Disturbances
Chap.3 /65
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
When the system is faulty ?
Given a system




The system works in normal regime (hypothesis H0) means :
y is produced according law C
and x is produced according law f
and c is produced according law of probability P


The system works in failure mode hypothesis H1) means :
y is not produced according law C, or
x is not produced according law f, or
c is not produced according law of probability P

=
=
) , (
) , , , ( ) (
c
u
x C y
t u x f t x
noise :
parameters :
input :
t measuremen :
state :
c
u
u
y
x
Chap.2 /66 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Analytical redundancy :How to generate ARRS ?
What is ARR ?
Given


The ARR express the difference between information
provided by the actual system and that delivered by its
normal operation model.



What is Residual ?

=
=
) (
) , (
) 1 (
x C y
u x f x
) 1 ( ) (
1
=

y C x
ARR u y
dt
y C d
= u

) , ,
)) ( (
(
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
u

u y
dt
y C d
, ,
)) ( (
1
u
y
r
Chap.2 /67 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Analytical Redundancy Relations (ARR) and Residuals (r)
Definition
ARR
ARR is a mathematical model where all variables are known. The known
variables are availlable from sensors, set points and control signal.
ARR : F(u,x
0
, y, O)
Lvolution de x suit une trajectoire qui dpend de x
0
et u

Residual r
Residual is the numerical value of ARR (evaluation of ARR)
R= Eval (ARR)

Problematics : How to generate ARRs
Elimination of unknown variables theory

Chap.2 /68 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
General principle
Analytic model
measurement equations
or
state and measurement
equations
0 : ARR = (u,y)
Off-line
Elimination of unknown variables
techniques
0 r
RESIDUALS
= = ) ,y (u
actual actual
On-line
Computation of ARRs (actual
system)
Chap.2 /69 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
69
R
Hardware and analytical redundancy
S
1
or S
2
0
P
. P * Q
1
1 1
=
dt
d
C R
S
2
Hardware redundancy
Detection
Isolation
Sensors
0
S
. S * F r
1
1 1 1
~ =
dt
d
C R
S
3
S
2
S
1
F
2
F
1
0 * Q
2
= P R 0 S * F r
1 2 2
~ = R
Analytical redundancy
?
Leakage

S
1
F
1
Valve R

F
2
r
1
r
2
1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

Monitorability analysis
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Detectability and isolability

e
=
otherwise 0
1
i j
ij
ARR if E
s
S
ij
: boolean value (0,1)

E
j
(j=1,m) : Fault which may
affect the j
th
component

Fault Signature Matrix (FSM)
Ib : Isolability
Mb: Detectability

DEFINITION

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Detectability and isolability
Detectability
A component fault E
j
is detectable (M
bj
=1) if at least one s
ij
(j=1,m) of its
signature vector V
Eij
is different than zero
0 ), , 1 ( = e - =
Eij ij
V s m j j
Isolability
A component fault E
j
is isolable (I
bj
=1) if it is detectable and its signature
vector V
Eij
is different from others .

= = =
=
otherwise 0
) ( ) , 1 ( 1 i V V m if
I
El Ej
bj
The signature vector V
Ej
(j=1,m) of each component fault E
j
is given by the
column vector:
| |
T
nm j j Ej
s s s m j V ... ) , 1 (
2 1
= =
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Detectability and isolability example
Faults and ARR
Fault Signature Matrix (FSM)
{ }
{ }
2 1
2 1 1
.
ARR ARR ARR
F ValveR Leak S F F
=
=
Signature vectors
| |
| |
| |
| |
| | 1 0
1 1
0 1
1 1
0 1
2
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
F
R Valve
Leak
S
F
V
V
V
V
V
Hamming Distance
j i
S C D =
C: Binary coherence vector
S
j
: Signature vector of the j
th
component to be monitored
to isolate k failures, the distance should be equal to 2k + 1.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Hamming Distance
Hamming Distance of given example
Signature vectors
| |
| |
| |
| |
| | 1 0
1 1
0 1
1 1
0 1
2
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
F
R Valve
Leak
S
F
V
V
V
V
V
The Hamming distance shows the ability to isolate two faults.
| | | |
| | | |
| | | | 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
3 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
3 2
3 1
2 1
,
,
,
= =
= =
= =
F F
F F
F F
D
D
D
| |
| |
| | 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
3
2
1
=
=
=
F
F
F
V
V
V
Chap.3 /74
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
HARDWARE REDUNDANCY
Chap.2 /75 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Simplest redundancy : hardware redundancy
Hardware redundancy uses only measurement
equations (therefore it can detect only sensor faults)


Example : duplex redundancy
Model :
y
1
=x
y
2
=x
Static ARR : y
1
- y
2
= 0
Chap.2 /76 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Duplex redundancy
r
t
Seuil max
Seuil mini
Alarme
Fn. normal
Chap.2 /77 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Triplex redundancy
r
1

t
r
2

t
r
3

t
Residuals
r
1
= m
1f
- m
2

f

r
2
= m
1f
m
3f

r
3
= m
2f
m
3f

Chap.2 /78 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Fault detection : Problematic
y
1
- y
2
= 0
it is not impossible (but it is not certain) that both
sensors are healthy

Why is it so ???
because there might be non detectable faults
Chap.2 /79 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
non detectable faults
y
1
= x + f
1
y
2
= x + f
2
r = y
1
- y
2
= f
1
- f
2
r = 0 when there is a combination of faults f
1
and f
2
such that : f
1
- f
2
= 0

example : common mode failures
Computation form
Evaluation form
Redundancy with Non detectable faults
Given fault model

Chap.2 /80 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
yes is never true
no is always true

because y
1
= x + o
1
y
2
= x + o
2

we need a model of the uncertainties

Assume we know o
1
e [a
1
, b
1
], o
2
e [a
2
, b
2
], then we know

o
1
- o
2
e [a
12
, b
12
]
r = y
1
- y
2
= o
1
- o
2
Redundancy with uncertainties
y
1
y
2
= 0 ?
Residual
Generation
r

Chap.2 /81 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
y
1
= x + c
1
y
2
= x + c
2

r = y
1
- y
2
= c
1
- c
2
Redundancy with noises
Assume we know P(c
1
) and P(c
2
), then we know P(c1 - c2)
is r distributed according to P(c1 - c2) ???
r
P(c1 - c2)
r
d(c1 - c2)
we need a Statistical
decision theory
Chap.2 /82 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
triplex redundancy
y
1
=x
y
2
=x
y
3
=x
two residuals

r
1
=y
1
- y
2
=0
r
2
=y
2
- y
3
=0
Remarks
* any linear combination of residuals is a residual (r
3
= y
2
- y
3
)
How to isolate the fault ?
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
1
1 1 0
0 1 1
2
1
y
y
y
r
r
The set {r
1
, r
2
} is a residual
basis in the following sense :
Chap.2 /83 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Fault isolation (fault model)
Triplex redundancy
y
1
=x +f
1
x =y
1
- f
1
y
2
=x +f
2
x =y
2
- f
2
y
3
=x +f
3
x =y
3
- f
3
y
1
- f
1
= y
2
- f
2
y
2
- f
2
= y
3
- f
3
r
1
= y
1
- y
2
= f
1
- f
2
r
2
= y
2
- y
3
= f
2
- f
3
Computation form
Evaluation form
Chap.2 /84 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Fault isolation
r
1
= y
1
- y
2
= f
1
- f
2
r
2
= y
2
- y
3
= f
2
- f
3
f
1
f
2
f
3
r
1
1 1 0
r
2
0 1 1
Structured and directional residuals
Directional residuals
| |
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

3
2
1
3 2 1
3
2
1
.
1 1 0
0 1 1
2
1
f
f
f
W W W
f
f
f
r
r
Chap.2 /85 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Conclusion about hardware redundancy
detect sensor faults (if detectable)

isolate sensor faults (if enough redundancy)

needs noise models for statistical decision

needs uncertainty models for set theoretic based decision

powerful approach but multiplies weight and costs

limited to sensor faults
Chap.2 /86 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Static Analytical redundancy
Chap.2 /87 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Systme linaire
Soit donne
x(t+1) = A x(t) + B u(t) + F
x
d(t) + E
x
c(t)
y(t) = C x(t) + D u(t) + F
y
d(t) + E
y
c(t)


Redondance statique
Soit m>n : Alors, il existe (en permutant ventuellement les
lignes) une dcomposition de C sous la forme


telle que C
1
est inversible et alors y(t) lquation de
mesure scrit :
m n
y x 9 e 9 e ,
(

=
2
1
C
C
C
F : fault,
E : uncertainties
Chap.2 /88 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Lquation de mesure devient :


X est calcul alors partir de y1,


et limin en le remplaant dans Y2 : on obtient les RRAs
en substituant x dans y2

) ( ) ( u ) ( x
) ( y
) ( y
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
t
E
E
t
F
F
(t)
D
D
t
C
C
t
t
y
y
y
y
c o
(

+
(

+
(

+
(

=
(

| | ) ( ) ( ) ( u ) ( y ) ( x
1 1
1 1
1
1
t E t F t D t C t
y y
c o =

0 ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( u ) ( ) ( y ) ( y
1
2
1 2
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 2 1
1
1 2 2
= +
+ +


t E C E
t F C F t D C D t C C t
y
y
y y
c
o
Chap.2 /89 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Forme de calcul et dvaluation du rsidu







Une autre approche pour liminer linconnu x consiste trouver une
matrice W orthogonale C/ (WC=0) (Chow 84). En multipliant lquation
de mesure gauche par W :


) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( u ) ( ) ( y ) ( y ) (
1 2 1 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 2 1
1
1 2 2
t E C E t F C F
t D C D t C C t t
y y y y
c o



+ +
= + =
0 ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( u ) ( ) ( y ) ( y
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 2 1
1
1 2 2
2
1 2
= +
+ +


t E C E
t F C F t D C D t C C t
y y
y y
c
o
) ( ) ( t WEy W WFy d(t) WD u(t) t WEy WFy d(t)
WD u(t) WCx(t) Wy(t)
+ + = + +
+ =
Chap.2 /90 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Dans ces conditions :
1. le systme de lquation de mesure est sur-dtermin
par rapport x :
on a m n relations de redondance analytique, car la
matrice W possde m n lignes linairement
indpendantes (formant une base du noyau de C).

Chap.2 /91 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Espace de parit statique
Soit lquation de mesure donne par :




Colonnes de C : sous espace vectoriel de dimension
R(C) :
On note C
R(C)

Soit le sous espace suplmentaire C
R(C)
not

W
m-R(C)
W
m-R(C)
est dit Esapce de Parit
On a : C
R(C)


W
m-R(C)
=R
m
( somme desapce vectoriels)
m C R C Rang
n m C
n k x
m k y
k Gf k d H k Du k x C k y
< =
=
=
=
+ + + =
) ( ) (
) dim(
1 )) ( dim(
1 )) ( dim(
) ( ) ( . ) ( ) ( . ) (
Chap.2 /92 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Projection dans lespace de parit
En projetant lquation de mesure dans lespace de parit
(en multipliant les deux membres de lquation de mesure
y(k) par W) sachant que WC=0, on obtient :



RRA et rsidu : en absence de dfaillances et de
perturbations (d(k)=f(k)=0)



Comme W est de rang m-R(C) alors les m-R(C), rsidus sont
linairement indpendants
| | | | ) ( ) ( . ) ( ) ( k Gf k d H W k Du k y W + =
| | RRA k Du k y W = 0 ) ( ) (
| | Rsidu k Du k y W k r = ) ( ) ( ) (
Chap.2 /93 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Formes du vecteur de parit
| | | | ) ( ) ( . ) ( ) ( k Gf k d H W k Du k y W + =
Forme de calcul
| | 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( = = k Du k y W k r
mesur mesur
Forme dvaluation
| | ) ( ) ( . ) ( k Gf k d H W k r + =
Chap.2 /94 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Redondance physique
Example : triplex redundancy





y
1
= x + f
1
x = y
1
- f
1
y
2
= x + f
2
x = y
2
- f
2
y
3
= x + f
3
x = y
3
- f
3
y
1
- f
1
= y
2
- f
2
y
2
- f
2
= y
3
- f
3
r
1
= y
1
- y
2
= f
1
- f
2
r
2
= y
2
- y
3
= f
2
- f
3
Chap.2 /95 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Redondance physique
Gnration des RRAs par Espace de parit





Espace de parit de dimension 2. Une base W peut tre choisie WC=0 (2
vecteurs hortogonaux C). Parmi toutes les solutions choisissons :


Projetant lquation de mesure dans lespace de parit


) ( ) ( . ) ( k Gf k x C k y + =
1 3 ) dim( , 1 1 ) ( dim( , 1 3 )) ( dim(
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
1
1
) (
) (
) (
2
2
1
2
2
1
= = =
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

C k x k y
k f
k f
k f
k x
k y
k y
k y
(

=
1 1 0
0 1 1
W
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 2 3 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 1
k f k f k y k y k y k r
k f k f k y k y k r
= =
= =
| |
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

= + =
(

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 0
0 1 1
) ( ) ( .
) (
) (
) (
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
1
k f
k f
k f
k y
k y
k y
k Gf k y W
k r
k r
k r
Chap.2 /96 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Rsidus directionnels
r(k) peut sexprimer comme suit :





Lespace de parit est un espace de dimension 2. Le vecteur des rsidus se
dplacera suivant une direction specifique chacune des pannes
| |
(
(
(

=
(

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
3
2
1
3 2 1
2
1
k f
k f
k f
W W W
k r
k r
k r
(

=
(

=
(

=
1
0
,
1
1
,
0
1
: soit
3 2 1
W W W
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
k f W k f W k f W k r + + =
r
1
r
2
f
1
f
2
f
3
Chap.2 /97 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
EXEMPLE REDONDANCE STATIQUE
Espace de parit statique

=
+ =
Cx y
Bu Ax zx
(
(

= =
(
(
(

=
(

=
(

=
3
2
1
, 0 ,
0 1
1 0
0 1
,
0
1
,
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
y
y
y
y D C B A

=
=
=

+ =
+ =
1 3
2 2
1 1
2 1 2
1 1
5 . 0 2
1 . 0
x y
x y
x y
x x zx
u x zx
1 . 0
1
z
5 . 0
2
z
u
y2
y1
y2
x1 x2
y3
Pour liminer x, on cherche W tel que : Wy = WCx = 0
0 0 = = = WC Wcx Wy
( ) ) , ) ( ) dim(
1 2 3 ) ( ) (
) (
m W Rang W
C Rang m W Rang
m C Rang
=
= = =
s
Chap.2 /98 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Les rsidus sont :

Comme dim(W)=1x3, alors W = (a b c)
Tous les vecteurs de la forme : W= [a 0 -a] annule WC


Alors on trouve :


On retrouve la redondance matrielle :


0 = =Wy r
| |
3 1
3
2
1
0 . 0 y y r
y
y
y
a a Wy r = =
(
(
(

= =
Chap.2 /99 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Conclusion Redondance statique
Il y a redondance statique si on peut trouver :
un ensemble de vecteurs W orthogonaux C. WC = 0
Les vecteurs lignes de W dfinissent l'espace de parit statique :
En projetant l'quation de la mesure dans l'espace de parit, on
obtient :

RRA statique : W.Y = W.C.X = 0
Dans la ralit : Y = C.X + e + d

Chap.2 /100 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
A bit more complex

Analytical redundancy (dynamic)
Chap.2 /101 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
State space model
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t Du t Cx t y
t Bu t Ax t x
+ =
+ =

) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
t Du t Cx t y
t Bu t Ax t x
+ =
+ = +
Continuous time
Discrete time
If there exists W such that WC =0
then static redundancy relations can be found
Analytical redundancy (dynamic)
Chap.2 /102 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t Du t Cx t y
t Bu t Ax t x
+ =
+ =
) ( ) ( ) ( t u D t x C t y + =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t u D t CBu t CAx t y + + =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t u D t CBu t CAx t y
t Du t Cx t y
+ + =
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
) (
) ( 0
) (
) (
) (
t u
t u
D CB
D
t x
CA
C
t y
t y

Dynamical Analytical redundancy (continuous)
Drivation de y
Chap.2 /103 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) (
+ + + = +
+ =
t Du t CBu t CAx t y
t Du t Cx t y
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
t Du t Cx t y
t Bu t Ax t x
+ =
+ = +
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( + + + = + t Du t Cx t y
) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( + + + = + t Du t CBu t CAx t y
Dynamic Analytical redundancy (Discrete)
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
+ ) 1 (
) ( 0
) (
) 1 (
) (
t u
t u
D CB
D
t x
CA
C
t y
t y
Drivation de y
Chap.2 /104 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
) (
) ( 0
) (
) (
) (
t u
t u
D CB
D
t x
CA
C
t y
t y

If there exists W such that
( ) 0
2 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
CA
C
W W
W
then
( ) 0
) (
) ( 0
) (
) (
2 1
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
t u
t u
D CB
D
t y
t y
W W

Analytical redundancy (dynamic)
Chap.2 /105 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

) (
...
) (
) (
...
0 ... ... ...
... ...
0 ... 0
) (
...
...
) (
) (
) (
) 1 (
) (
) (
t u
t u
t u
D CB B CA
D CB
D
t x
CA
CA
C
y
t y
t y
p
p
p
p

) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t Du t Cx t y
t Bu t Ax t x
+ =
+ =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t u D t CBu t CAx t y + + =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t u D t u CB t x CA t y + + =
etc.
Observability matrix OBS(A, C, p)
Toeplitz matrix
T(A, B, C, D, p)
Analytical redundancy (general)
Drivation de y
Drivation de y
Drivation de y
(n)

Chap.2 /106 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Expressions of dynamical ARRs
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

) (
...
) (
) (
...
0 ... ... ...
... ...
0 ... 0
) (
...
...
) (
) (
) (
) 1 (
) (
) (
t u
t u
t u
D CB B CA
D CB
D
t x
CA
CA
C
y
t y
t y
p
p
p
p

) ( ) (
). , , , , ( ) ( ). , , (
p p
u p D C B A T t x p C A OBS y + =
0 ) , , , , ( .
) ( ) (
=
p p
u p D C B A T W y W
If there exists W such that
0 ) , , ( . = P C A OBS W
) ( ) (
). , , , , ( ) ( ). , , (
p p
u p D C B A WT t x P C A WOBS y W =
ARRs are :
Rows of W are a basis of Ker(OBS), define the parity space
Parity space dimension is number of sensors
Chap.2 /107 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
RESUME REDONDANCE DYNAMIQUE
Soit donn le systme

A linstant K+1

En utilisant (1) on a
Alors:


En gnralisant lordre p
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
k Du k Cx k y
k Bu k Ax k x
+ =
+ = + (1)
(2)
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( + + + = + k Du k Cx k y (3)
(4) ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( + + + = + k Du k CBu k CAx k y
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
+ )) 1 (
) ( 0
) (
) 1 (
) (
k u
k u
D CB
D
k x
CA
C
k y
k y
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

) (
...
) 1 (
) (
...
0 ... ... ...
... ...
0 ... 0
) (
...
) (
...
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
p k u
k u
k u
D CB B CA
D CB
D
k x
CA
CA
C
p k y
k y
k y
p
p
) , ( ). , , , , ( ) ( ). , , ( ) , ( k p u p D C B A T k x p C A OBS p k y + =
Chap.2 /108 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Consquence du thorme de Cayley-Hamilton
Il existe p tel que le rang de OBS(A,C,p) soit infrieur au nombre de lignes
donc on peut trouver une matrice W telle que :
W.OBS(A,C,p) = 0
L'espace supplmentaire OBS, dfini par W, est appel "espace de
parit".
En projetant l'quation (3) dans cet espace, on obtient :

Cette relation est appele : "relation de redondance analytique
dynamique". Le rsidu est :

0 ) , ( ) , , , , ( ) , ( = p k u p D C B A WT p k y W
0 ) , ( ) , , , , ( ) , ( ) ( = = p k u p D C B A WT p k y W k r
)) 1 ( ), ( ( ) dim(
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
+ =
+ =
p m W rang W
T rang p m W rang
Chap.2 /109 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Application numrique

=
+ = +
) k ( Cx k ( y
) k ( Bu ) K ( Ax ) 1 k ( x
(

=
(

= =
(

=
(

=
(

=
0
0
D ,
y
y
y , I
1 0
0 1
C ,
0
1
B ,
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
A
2
1
) k , p ( u ). p , D , C , B , A ( T ) k ( x ). p , C , A ( OBS ) p , k ( y + =
(
(
(

+
+
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+
+
) 2 k ( u
) 1 k ( u
) k ( u
.
0 CB CAB
0 D CB
0 0 D
CA
CA
C
) 2 k ( y
) 1 k ( y
) k ( y
2
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(

=
(

=
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
1 0
0 1
,
25 . 0 2 , 1
0 01 . 0
1 1
2
T
CA
C
OBS A
CB
D
D
) 4 , 2 ( )) 1 ( ), ( ( ) dim(
2 2 ) 1 1 ( * 2 ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
1
= + =
= + = + =
p m W rang W
T rang p m W rang
Calcul de W : drive ordre 1 :
) , 1 ( ). 1 , , , , ( ) ( ). 1 , , ( ) 1 , (
1
k u D C B A T k x C A OBS k y + =
Drive jusqu lordre deux
Chap.2 /110 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
= 0 (.) .
1
OBS W
| | | | 0 0
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
1 0
0 1
0 (.) .
1
=
(
(
(
(

= d c b a OBS W
Trouvons alors 2 vecteurs W linairement indpendants
inconnues 4 quations 2
0 5 . 0
0 2 1 . 0

= +
= + +
d b
d c a
| |
| |
| | 2 0 1 4 2 et 0
0 10 0 1 1 . 0 , 0 , 0
1 20 5 . 0 0 20 , 5 . 0 1 , 0
3
2
1
= = =
= = = =
= = = = =
W d c
W c a d et b
W d c d b d et a
On fixe arbitrairement 2 inconnues
Expressions des rsidus
p k u p D C B A WT p k y W k r , ( ) , , , , ( ) , ( ) ( =
W3 est une
combinaison linaire
de W1 et W2
1 2 3
2 5 . 0 W W W =
(

=
2
1
W
W
W
Chap.2 /111 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
) 1 , ( ) 1 , , , , ( ) 1 , ( ) (
1
k u D C B A WT k y W k r =
(

+
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
(

=
(

=
) 1 (
) (
.
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
.
2 0 1 4
0 10 0 1
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
) (
.
2 0 1 4
0 10 0 1
) (
) (
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
k u
k u
k y
k y
k y
k y
k r
k r
k r
2 2
1
1
1
2 2 2 1 2
1
1 1
1
1 1 1 1
2 4 ) ( ) 1 ( 2 ) ( ) ( 4 ) (
10 10 ) ( ) ( 10 ) 1 ( 10 ) ( ) (
y y z y z z r k y k y k y k r
u z y y z z r k u k y k y k r
+ = + + =
+ = + + =


1 2 1
2 2
1 1
2 1 2
1 1
5 . 0
2
,
1 . 0
5 . 0 2
1 . 0
y
z
y
z
u
y
x y
x y
x x zx
u x zx

=
=

+ =
+ =
Si r=0, on retrouve le modle initial
Chap.2 /112 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Rsidus dordre 2
Les matrices OBS et T seront :



On obtient aprs calcul







Analyse
A lordre deux on obtient des rsidus sensibles uniquement Y2
Si on augmente lordre, on obtient les mmes RRAs dcales dans le temps (filtres)

(
(
(

=
(
(

=
0
0
0 0
2 2
CB CAB
D CB
D
T
CAB
CA
C
OBS
) 6 , 4 ( )) 1 ( ), ( ( ) dim(
4 2 ) 1 2 ( * 2 ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
= + =
= + = + =
p m W rang W
T rang p m W rang
2 2
1
1
1
2
1
1 1
1
1
2 4 ) (
10 10 ) (
y y z y z z r
u z y y z z r
+ =
+ =


Rsidu dordre 1 obtenu avant
u z y y z y z r
z u z y z y z r
y z y z y z r
z u z y y z r
2
2 2
1
2
2
4
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1 1
1
1
40 20 12
) ( 10 10
2 4
) ( 10 10




+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
Rsidu dordre 2
Chap.2 /113 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique
Conclusions
detects any fault (if detectable)

isolates any fault (if enough redundancy)

estimates the unknown variable with several
estimation versions

needs noise models for statistical decision

needs uncertainty models for set theoretic based
decision


Chap.3 /114
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
CHAP3:
Structural Analysis
Chap.3 /115
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
PLAN
Structural analysis
Motivations
Structural description
Structural properties
Matching
Causal interpretation of matchings
Subystems characterization
System decomposition
Conclusion

Chap.3 /116
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Complex systems :
hundreds of variables and equations

Many different configurations

Many different kinds of models
(qualitative, quantitative, static, dynamic, rules, look-up tables, )

Description of physical plants as interconnected subsystems

Analytic models not available

The structural description of a system expresses only the links
between the variables and the constraints

Motivations
Chap.3 /117
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Digraph: definitions
The digraph ? [Blanke and al. 2003]
Graph whose set of vertices corresponds to the set of
inputs u
i
, output y
j
and state variables x
k
and edges are defined as :
An edge exists from vertex x
k
(respectively from vertex u
l
) to vertex x
j
if and only
if the state variable x
k
(respectively the input variable u
l
) really occurs in the
function F (i.e. vertex u
i
) in the function
An edge exists from vertex x
k
to vertex y
j
if and only if the state variable x
k
really
occurs in the function g
Physical means
Digraph is a structural abstraction of the behaviour model
where
Edge represents mutual influence between variables :
The time evolution of the derivative x
i
depends to the time evolution of x
k



Directed graph representation

=
=

O =
O =
g f C
y u x Z
u x g y
u x F x
) , , (
) , , (
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
) (
) (
0 ) (
) (
0
) (
) ( 0
) (
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
t x
t x
e t y
t u
d t x
t x
c b
a
t x
t x

x
1

x
2

u
y
x
1

u
y
Edge represents mutual influence
between variables:
Means : the time evolution of the derivative
depends to the time evolution of x
2

1
x
Directed graph
representation
Chap.3 /119
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Structural description
Behaviour model of a system : a pair (C, Z)
Z = {z
1
, z
2
,...z
N
} is a set of variables and parameters,
C = {c
1
, c
2
,...c
M
} is a set of constraints

variables
quantitative, qualitative, fuzzy

Constraints
algebraic and differential equations,
difference equations,
rules, etc.

time
continuous, discrete


Bipartite Graph
{ } { } { } { }
n c m p
f f f F F F F ....
2 1
= =

CORRECTOR

PROCESS
C
X
Y
U

SENSOR

M
{ } { } { } { }
m
z z z Y U X Z ....
2 1
= =
U, subset of control variables
Y, subset of measured variables
X, subset of unknown variables
K={Y}U{U}
-
+
C : set of constraints
F
c
F
s
F
p
Z : set of variables
Structure = binary relation
S : C x Z {0, 1}
(f
i
, z
j
) S(f
i
, z
j
)
Chap.3 /121
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Bipartite graph
A graph is bipartite if its vertices can be partitioned
into two disjoint subsets C and Z such that each
edge connects a vertex from C to one from Z.
Bi-partite graph : links between variables and constraints

Chap.3 /122
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Definition
The structural model of the system (C,Z) is a bipartite
graphe (C,Z,A) ,
Where A is a set of edges defined as follows
(c
i
, z
j
) eA if the variable appears in the constraints c
i



Example : c
1
: U-Ri=0, c
2
: y-i=0 Z={i,u} , C ={c
1
, c
2
}
Chap.3 /123
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example

u
e
u
C
C
u
R
i
u
m
u
L
R
L

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0 : c
: c
0 : c
0 ) ( : c
0 : c
0 : c
0 : c
s Constraint
2 7
1 6
5
4
3
2
1
dt
du
z
dt
di
z
u u u u
u F u
dt
du
C i
dt
di
L u
Ri u
C
C L R e
C m
C
L
R
{ }
m
z z z Z .... : Variables
2 1
=
{ }
n
c c c C ....
2 1
=
{ } variables Known :
e m
u u K =
{ } { } { } X K z z i u u u u u Z
C L R e m
= =
2 1
{ } variables Unknown :
2 1
z z i u u u X
C L R
=
Chap.3 /124
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example : bipartite graph

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0 : f
0 : f
0 : f
0 ) ( : f
0 : f
0 : f
0 : f
s Constraint
2 7
1 6
5
4
3
2
1
dt
du
z
dt
di
z
u u u u
u F u
i
dt
du
C
dt
di
L u
Ri u
C
C L R e
C m
C
L
R
{ }
2 1
z z i u u u u u Z
C L R e m
=

= =
=
=
=
=
=
=
0 : c
: c
0 : c
0 ) ( : c
0 : c
0 : c
0 : c
s Constraint
2 7
1 6
5
4
3
2
1
dt
du
z
dt
di
z
u u u u
u F u
i
dt
du
C
dt
di
L u
Ri u
C
C L R e
C m
C
L
R
Chap.3 /125
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Incidence matrix
F/Z u
R
u
L
u
C
i z
1
z
2
u
m
u
e
c
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
c
2

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
c
3

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
c
4

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
c
5

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
c
6 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
c
7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
C
o
n
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
s

Variables Z
UnKnown variables
Known
variables
Chap.3 /126
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Definitions
Dfinition 1.
On appelle structure du systme le graphe bi-parti G(C, Z, A) o A est
un ensemble darcs tels que :
(c, z) e C Z, a = (c, z) e A la variable z apparat dans la
contrainte c

Dfinition 2.
On appelle structure dune contrainte c le sous-ensemble des variables
Z(c) telles que : z e Z(c), (c, z) e A

Dfinition 3.
On appelle sous-systme tout couple (u, Z(u)) o u est un sous
ensemble de C et Z(u) = c e u Z(c).

Chap.3 /127
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example
A subsystem is a pair (u, Z(u)) where u is a
subset of C and Z(u) = c e u, Z(c).
C/Z u
R
u
L
u
C
i z
1
z
2
u
m
u
e
c
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
c
2

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
c
3

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
c
4

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
c
5

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
c
6 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
c
7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
C/Z u
R
u
L
i
c
1 1 0 1
c
2

0 1 1
Subsystem (R,L)
Chap.3 /129
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Incidence matrix
C/Z z
1
z
2
x
1
x
2
u

y

c
1 0 0 1 1 0 0
c
2

0 0 1 1 1 0
c
3

0 0 1 0 0 1
c
4

1 0 1 0 0 0
c
5

0 1 0 1 0 0
c
1

c
2

c
3

x
1

x
2

u
y
z
1

z
2

c
5

c
4

Chap.3 /130
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Differential and algebraic equations

Are used three kinds of equations:
Differential
Algebraic
Measure




Used variables are
) ( ) (
) , , ( 0
) , , (
) , , ( ) (
t x
dt
d
z t x
u x x h
u x x g y
u x x F t x
i i i
d a
d a
d a d
= =

=
=
=

{ } { } { y u x x x Z
d d a
= }
{ } { } { }
s constraint al differenti :
)
`


)
`

=
dt
d
F h g
dt
d
C
Chap.3 /131
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example
Tank c
1
: dx(t)/dt - q
i
(t) + q
o
(t) = 0

Input valve c
2
: q
i
(t) - au(t) = 0

Output pipe c
3
: q
0
(t) - k
v
(x(t)) = 0

Level sensor 1 c
4
: y
1
(t) - x(t) = 0

Level sensor 2 c
5
: y
2
(t) - x(t) = 0

Output flow sensor c
6
: y
3
(t) - q
o
(t) = 0

Control algorithm


c
7
: u(t) = 1 if lmin > y
1
(t) > lmax
u(t) = 0 else
y
1
y
2
x
q
o
q
i
LC
U(t)
y
3
y
1
y
2
x
q
o
q
i
LC
U(t)
y
3
Differential constraint
c
8
: z=dx/dt
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Bipartite graph
z

x(t))

q
i
(t)

q
o
(t)

u(t)

y
1
(t)

y
2
(t)

y
3
(t)
c
8

c
1

c
2

c
3

c
4

c
5

c
6

c
7
c
1
: dx(t)/dt - q
i
(t) - q
o
(t) = 0

c
2
: q
i
(t) - au(t) = 0

c
3
: q
0
(t) - k
v
(x(t)) = 0

c
4
: y
1
(t) - x(t) = 0

c
5
: y
2
(t) - x(t) = 0

c
6
: y
3
(t) - q
o
(t) = 0

c
7
: u(t) = 1 if lmin > x(t) > lmax
u(t) = 0 else
c
8
: z=dx/dt
Chap.3 /133
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Unknown variables Known variables
Fi(i=1-8) x q
i
q
o
z u y
1
y
2
y
3
C
1
Tank
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
C
2
Valve
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
C
3
Pipe
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
C
4
LI1
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
C
5
LI2
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
C
6
FI
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
C7 LC
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
C8 Dif.
Cons.
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Incidence matrix of the hydraulic system
State space model and digraph

=
=
=
= + +
0 ) ( ) ( :
0 ) ( ) ( :
0 ) ( ) ( :
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( : f
TANK
3 3
2 2
1 1
t x K t y g
t x t y g
t x t y g
t u t x K t x
v
v
o
Digraphe representation
Bipartie graph representation
Chap.3 /135
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Sous systme : Caractrisation
La condition dexistence dune RRA est lie la
caractrisation des sous systmes

Un sous systme :
Il est associ lensemble des contraintes C
i
quil fait
intervenir :
cest un couple (C
i
, ,Q(C
i
) dans lequel Q(C
i
) est lensemble
des variables contraintes par C
i

Q(C
i
) est dcompos en deux parties
Qc(C
i
): correspond aux variables connues
Qx(C
i
): correspond aux variables inconnues

Chap.3 /136
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
y
1
y
2
x
q
o
q
i
LC
U(t)
y
3
y
1
y
2
x
q
o
q
i
LC
U(t)
y
3
Unknown variables Known variables
Fi(i=1-8) x q
i
q
o
Z=x u y
1
y
2
y
3
C
1
Tank
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
C
2
Valve
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
C
3
Pipe
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
C
4
LI1
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
C
5
LI2
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
C
6
FI
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
C7 LC
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
C8 Dif.
Cons.
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Exemple : Un sous systme : cest un couple (C
i,
,Q(C
i
) dans lequel Q(C
i
)
est lensemble des variables contraintes par Ci.
Q(C
i
)
Q
X
(C
i
) Q
C
(C
i
)
{ } | | z q q x C COMP Tank
o i
, , , ,
1
=
C
i
Q(C
i
)

Chap.3 /137
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
TYPES DE SOUS SYSTEMES
TYPES DE SOUS SYSTEMES
Le nbre de solutions pour Qx(C
i
) qui peuvent tre obtenues
partir de Qc(C
i
) caractrise chaque sous systme . On
distingue :
Un systme sous dtermin
Juste dtermin
Sur dtermin
Chap.3 /138
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Sytme sous dtermin ?

(C, Q(C)) est sous-dtermin si,
pour toute valeur de Qc(C), l'ensemble des valeurs de Qx(C) vrifiant les
contraintes C est de cardinal suprieur un. : card(C)<card(Qx(C))
Causes :
Il n y a pas assez dquations pour dterminer x
La non unicit des solutions : les variables Qx(C) ne peuvent pas tre calcules
partir des valeurs connues des variables Qc(C) et des contraintes C.
Consquence d'une modlisation insuffisante du systme, ou de la non observabilit
de certaines variables.




Chap.3 /139
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Systme juste et surdtermin
(C, Q(C)) est juste dtermin si :
card(C)=card(Qx(C))
Les variables inconnues Qx(C) peuvent tre calcules de faon unique
partir des variables connues Qc(C) et des contraintes C.

(C, Q(C)) est surdtermin si :
card(C)>card(Qx(C))
Causes
Les variables Qx(C) peuvent tre calcules de diffrentes faons partir
des variables connues Qc(C) et des contraintes C
chaque sous-ensemble C
i
c C fournit un moyen diffrent de calculer
Qx(C)). Puisque les rsultats de ces diffrents calculs doivent tre
identiques (il s'agit des mmes variables physiques), l'criture des relations
d'galit constitue l'ensemble des relations de redondance analytique
cherch
Chap.3 /140
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example (1/2)
0 )
2 )
2 )
1
1
1
=
=
=
) (F card(Q
) (F card(Q
) card(Q(F
C
X
y
1
0
C
2
(y
1,
U)=0 1
1
0
Z={X} U {K}
X={u, i}, K={y
1,
}
C1: u-Ri=0
C2: y
1
-u=0
Sous-systme : C
1
(i,u)=0 ) (C Q ) (C Q ) Q(C
C X 1 1 1
=
(C
1
, Q(C
1
)) est sous-dtermin si,
pour toute valeur de Q
C
(C
1
),
l'ensemble des valeurs de Qx(C
1
)
vrifiant les contraintes C
1
est de
cardinal suprieur un.
(C
1
, Q(C
1
)) est sous-dtermin
) (C Q
C 1
) (C Q
X 1
1
1
C
1
(i,u)=0
u i
(C
2
, Q(C
2
)) est juste dtermin : Card(C
2
)=1=Card(Q
x
(C
2
)
Card(C
1
)=1<Card(Q
x
(C
1
)=2.
(C, Q(C)) est juste dtermin: Card(C)=2=Card(Q
x
(C)=2
Chap.3 /141
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example (2/2)
Z=XUK
X={u, i}, K={y
1,
y
2,
}
C1: U-Ri=0
C2: y1-u=0
C3: y2-i=0
1
1
y
1
0
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
1 1
0
C
1
(i,
,
u)=0
u i
y
2
0
C
3
(i
,
y
2
)=0
0 0
1
1
0
(C, Q(C)) est sur dtermin:
Card(C)=3>Card(Q
x
(C)=2
Chap.3 /142
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example : Incidence matrix
C/Z u i
C
1
(i,u)=0
y
2
x={u, i}
K={}
C
1
: U-Ri=0
1
x={u, i}
K={y
1
}
C
1
: U-Ri=0
C
2
: y
1
U=0
x={u, i}
K={y
1
,y
2
,
}
C
1
: U-Ri=0
C
2
: y
1
U=0
C
3
: y
2
-U=0
1
y
1
0
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
1 1
0
y
2
0
C
3
(u
,
y
2
)=0
0 1
0
1
0
i
R
u
y
1
Chap.3 /143
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Canonical decomposition
Any system can be uniquely decomposed into 3 subsystems :
Over-constrained
Just-constrained
Under-constrained
Only the over-constrained subsystem is monitorable
C/Z
x
X-{x} y
1
y
2

f
1 1 0 1 0
f
2 1 0 0 1
c
1
: F
1
(y
1
, x) = 0
c
2
: F
2
(y
2
, x) = 0
Subsystem {c
1
, c
2
} overdetermines the unknown variable x :
x can be computed via two different ways , The two results have to be identical
Example of overdetermined system
x=(F
2
)
-1
(y
2
)
x=(F
1
)
-1
(y
1
)
Chap.3 /144
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Matching
(Couplage)
Dfinitions











Soit a e A
X
, on note X(a) l'extrmit de a dans X et C
X
(a)
l'extrmit de a dans C
X
. L'arc a peut s'crire :
a = (C
x
(a), X(a))

Considrons le graphe G(Cx, X, Ax), restriction du graphe structurel
du systme l'ensemble des sommets appartenant Cx (pour les
contraintes) et X (pour les variables), et o Ax reprsente
l'ensemble des arcs qui relient Cx X.

X C
G(Cx,X,Ax)
A
A={a
1
, a
2
, a
n
)
X={x
1
, x
2
, x
n
)
C={c
1
, c
2
, c
n
)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Dfinitions
Considrons le graphe G(Cx, X, Ax), restriction du graphe
structurel du systme l'ensemble des sommets appartenant Cx
(contraintes) et X (variables), et o Ax reprsente l'ensemble des
arcs qui relient Cx X.




Soit a e A
X
, on note X(a) l'extrmit de a dans X et C
X
(a) l'extrmit
de a dans C
X
. L'arc a peut s'crire : a = (C
x
(a), X(a))



X C
A A={a
1
, a
2
, a
n
)
X={x
1
, x
2
, x
n
)
C={c
1
, c
2
, c
n
)
X
C(x) X(a)
Cx(a)
a
Chap.3 /147
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Dfinition : un couplage
G(Cx, X, A) is a matching on G(Cx, X, Ax) if and only if
1) A c Ax
2) a1, a2 e A a1 = a2
Cx(a1) = Cx(a2)
X(a1) = X(a2)



Interpretation
A matching is a set of pairs (c
i
,x
i
) s.t. the variable x
i
can be
computed by solving the constraint c
i
, under the hypothesis
that all other variables are known

X
C(x)
X(a
1
)
Cx(a
1
)
X
C(x)
X(a
2
)
Cx(a
2
)
a
1
a
2
Chap.3 /148
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Examples and means
A mathing is
A subset of edges such that any two edges have non
common node (neither in C nor in Z)
Differents matchins can be defined on a bi-partite graph
C
1
(i,
,
u)=0
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
C
3
(u
,
y
2
)=0
C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

Different matchings
Chap.3 /149
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Matching on a bi-partite graph
Concept of matching in a bipartite graph
is a causal affectation which associates some system
variables with the system constraints from wich they can be
calculated .

Two situations of matchings
The variables cannot be matched :
they cannot be calculated
The variables can be matched in several ways :
they can be calculated by different possibilities : there are redunduncaies :
this case important for FDI
Chap.3 /150
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Maximal matching
A maximal matching on G(Cx, X, Ax) is a matching G(Cx, X, A)
s.t.:
A' c A, A'= A G(Cx, X, A') is not a mtaching.
What is it ?
A maximal matching is a matching such that no edge can be added
without violating the no common node property
C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

This matching is not maximal
(C
2
,y
1
) can be added C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

This matching is maximal :
Any matching can be added
Chap.3 /151
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Complete matching
A matching is complete w.r.t to C (set of constraints )
respectively to Z (set of variables) if :
z e Z, - c e C such that (c,z) e : complete w.r.t. C
c e C, - z e Z such that (c,z) e : complete w.r.t. Z

C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

This matching
is complete w.r.t. to C
(All constraints are
matched)
C
1
(i,
,
u)=0
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
C
3
(u
,
y
2
)=0
C
1
i
u
C
1
(i,
,
u)=0
This matching
is complete w.r.t. to C
But incomplte w.r.t.
to X
Chap.3 /152
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Matching and the incidence matrix 1/2

Select at most one "1" in each row and in each column

Each selected "1" represents an edge of the matching

No other edge should contain the same variable : it is
the only one in the row

No other edge should contain the same constraint : it
is the only one in the column.

Chap.3 /153
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Matching and the incidence matrix 2/2

C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

y
2
C/Z u i y
1
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
C
1
(u,i)=0
C
3
(u
,
y
2
)=0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
y
2
y
2
C/Z u i y
1
C
2
(y
1,
u)=0
C
1
(u,i)=0
C
3
(u
,
y
2
)=0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
y
2
C
1

C
2

C
3

i
u
y
1

y
2

Chap.3 /154
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Oriented graph associated with a matching
Matched constraints
the output is computed : the inputs are supposed to be
known.
The edges adjacents to a matched constraints are oriented

C/Z x x
1

x
2
x
3

C
1
1 1 1
C
2
x x x
C
3
x x x
C
4

x x x 1
1
1
1
C
-1
(x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)
x
1

x
2

x
3

x
Chap.3 /155
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Oriented graph associated with a matching
Causal and acausal constraint
u-Ri=0 : acausal constraint have not a direction. The variables
have the same status: the graph is non oriented
u=Ri : causal constraint : i is known, u is calculated. Here the
matching is chosen. The matched constraint is associated
with one mathed variable and with some non matched one
0
u
i
C

C: u-Ri=0

Non matched
constraint

u
i
C

Matched
constraint

Chap.3 /156
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Oriented graph associated with a matching
Non-matched constraints
all the edges adjacent to a non-matched constraint are
inputs. The relation C is redundant.
All variables are inputs

C/Z x
1

x
2
x
3

C
1
1 1 1
C
2
C
3
C
4
1
1
1
x
3

c
1

Maximal matching w.r.t. to X
But incomplte w.r.t. to C
C
1
is redundant (is not used to eliminate X)

Chap.3 /157
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Causal interpretation of matchings

Causal graph ?
The oriented bipartite graph which results from a causality
assignment is named Causal graph
Algebraic constraints
At least one variable can be matched in a given constraint
Non invertible algebraic constraints
Consider C(x
1
,x
2
)=0


C
x
1
x
2
Possible matching
calculated be can ) (
1
1
2
x C x

=
x
1
x
2
C
Impossible matching
calculated be cannot ) (
2
1
1
x C x

=
C/Z

x
1
x
2
C 1 1
1
C/Z

x
1
x
2
C 1 1
x
Chap.3 /158
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Alternated chain
What is alternated chains ?
A path between two nodes (variables or constraints)
alternates always successively variables and constraints
nodes : this path is said alternated chain
Lenth of alternated chain ?
Number of constraints accrosed along the path

Reachability
A variable x
1
is reachable from variable x
2
if there exists an
alternated chain from x
1
to x2

Chap.3 /159
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Chap.3 /160
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Structural analysis
Systems which have the same structural model are
structurally equivalent

Structural properties ?
They are properties of the system structure, they are shared
by all structurally equivalent systems

Example :
systems which only differ by the value of their parameters
structural properties are independent of the values of the
system parameters (true almost everywhere in the system
parametric space).

Chap.3 /161
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Structural observability
Under derivative causality, the system is structurally
observable if and only if :
1. All the unknown variables are reachable from the known
ones (measure)

2. the over constrained and just-constrained subsystems are
causal (no differential loop)

3. the under-constrained subsystems is empty
Chap.3 /162
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Over-constrained system
The system is over-constrained if
There is a causal matching which is complete w.r.t. all the
unknown variables but not w.r.t. all the constraints.

The unknown variables can be expressed (in several ways)
as functions of the known variables.

The subsystem is observable and redundant
Chap.3 /163
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Just-constrained subsystem
The system is just-constrained if :
1) There is a causal matching which is complete w.r.t. all the
unknown variables and all the constraints.

2) The unknown variables can be expressed as functions of
the known variables.

3) The subsystem is observable
Chap.3 /164
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Under-constrained system
The system is under-constrained if
There is no causal matching which is complete w.r.t. the
unknown variables.

Some unknown variables cant be expressed as functions
of the known variables.

The subsystem is not observable, and not monitorable.
Chap.3 /165
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Structural monitorability
The conditions for a fault to be monitoable are :
1. the subsustem is observable

2. the fault belongs to the structurally observable over
constrained part of the subsystemm to be monitored
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction
Example: Oriented graph from the matching
Maximal matching w.r.t. to X
Incomplte matching w.r.t. to C
y
1

C
2
C
1

{ } { }
2 1
2 3 2
1 2 1
1
, , ,
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , ( 0
y y K i u X
u y C u y
u y C u y
i u C Ri u
= =
= =
= =
= =
1
y u =
R
y i
/ 1
=
C
3

y
2

0 edge
0 :
1 2
= y y ARR
Maximal matching w.r.t. to X
Incomplte matching w.r.t. to C
y
1

C
2

C
1

2
y u =
R
y i
/ 2
=
C
3

0 edge
y
2

0 :
1 2
= y y ARR
i is computed in two ways differents
Chap.3 /167
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Hydraulic example
Pr
R
y
V
V
dt
d
z
bV y
RV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
=
: C
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
4
3
2
1

C
1

C
2

C
3

V
y
q
i

q
o
z
C
4
y
C
3

V
C
2

q
o
C
4

z

q
i

C
1

Zero
Zero edge
) (t q
o
) (t q
i
{ }
{ } y t q K
z V t q X
i
o
), (
, ), (
=
=
Maximal matching w.r.t. to X
Incomplte matching w.r.t. to C
Graphe bipartite
Coupled variables
Chap.3 /168
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Differential constraints
Differential constraints can always be represented
under the form : x
2
(t) = dx
1
(t) / dt.

Derivative and integral causality
Derivative causality



Integral causality


dt
dx
x
1
2
=
1
x
2
x
) 0 (
1 2 1
x dt x x + =
}
2
x
) 0 (
1
x
1
x
Initial conditions must be known
Chap.3 /169
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Loops
Definitions
In the oriented graph, loops are a special subset of
constraints, which have to be solved simultaneously,
because the output signals of some constraints in the loop
are the inputs are some others in the same loop : the number
of matched variables is equal to the number of constraints
(length of the loop).
Algebraic loop
C/Z

x
1
x
2
C
1
1 1
C
2
1 1 1
1
C
3

V
C
2

q
o
x
2
C
1

x
1
C
2

Chap.3 /170
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Differential loop: example
V
C
2

C
4

q
i

C
1

z

q
0
Interpretation
V, z, q
0
= 3 unknowns
c
1
, c
2
, c
4
= 3 constraints

there is one single (a finite
number of) solution(s).
R
V
V
dt
d
z
RV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
4
2
1

) (t q
o
) (t q
i
{ }
{ } ) (
, ), (
t q K
z V t q X
i
o
=
=
Chap.3 /171
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Differential loop
How to broke the loop
Adding a sensor
A matching without any differential loop is called a causal
matching

V
C
2

C
4

q
i

C
1

z

q
0
C
3

y
V
dt
d
z
bV y
RV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
=
: C
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
4
3
2
1

Example just-constrained system
V
dt
d
z
bV y
RV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
=
: C
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
4
3
2
1

V
C
2

C
4

C
1

z

q
0
C
3

y
q
i
C/Z

z=dV/dt V q
i
q
o
y
C
1
1 0 1 1 0
C
2
0 1 0 1 0
C
3
0 1 0 0 1
C
4
1 1 0 0 0
1
1
1
1
All unknown variables matched
A
l
l

c
o
n
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
s

a
r
e


m
a
t
c
h
e
d

{ }
{ } y K
V q q V x
o i
=
=
known) (
unknown) (

Suppose input flow q
i
is unknown
Chap.3 /173
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example Over-constrained system
) ( : C
: C
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
i 5
4
3
2
1
u F q
V
dt
d
z
RV y
aV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
=
=

V
C
2

C
4

C
1

z

q
0
C
3

y
u
C
5

q
i
C/Z

z=dV/dt V q
i
q
o
y u
C
1
1 0 1 1 0 0
C
2
0 1 0 1 0 0
C
3
0 1 0 0 1 0
C
4
1 1 0 0 0 0
C
5
0 0 1 0 0 1
1
1
1
1
All unknown variables matched
C
1

i
s

n
o
t

m
a
t
c
h
e
d

{ }
{ } u y K
V q q V x
o i
=
=
known) (
unknown) (

Redundancy
Chap.3 /174
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
What is happened in integral causality?
( )
) ( : C
: C
) ( : C
) 0 ( ) ( ) ( : C
i 5
3
2
1
u F q
bV y
RV t q
V dt t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
+ =
}
V
C
2

C
1

q
0
C
3

y
u
q
i
V(0)
C
5

C/Z

V(0) V q
i
q
o
y u
C
1
1 0 1 1 0 0
C
2
0 1 0 1 0 0
C
3
0 1 0 0 1 0
C
5
0 0 1 0 0 1
1
1
1
X :All unknown variables matched
C

:

A
l
l

c
o
n
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
s
a
r
e


m
a
t
c
h
e
d

{ }
{ } u y K
V V q q V x
o i
=
=
known) (
) 0 ( unknown) (

The system is now just-determined : the matching is
complete w.r.t to X and C.
1
Chap.3 /175
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Example under-constrained system
) ( : C
: C
) ( : C
) ( ) ( : C
i 5
4
2
1
u F q
V
dt
d
z
RV t q
t q t q V
o
o i
=
=
=
=

V
C
2

C
4

C
1

z

q
0
u
q
i
C
5

C/Z

z=dV/dt V q
i
q
o
u
C
1
1 0 1 1 0
C
2
0 1 0 1 0
C
4
1 1 0 0 0
C
5
0 0 1 0 1
1
{ }
{ } u K
V q q V x
o i
=
=
known) (
unknown) (

1
1
1
The system is not observable
There is a differential loop
Chap.3 /176
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Canonical decomposition
Known variables Unknown variables
Over-constrained
subsystem
Just-constrained
subsystem
Under-constrained
subsystem
Chap.3 /177
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Conclusions (1/4)
Structural analysis based on bipartite graphs is easy to
understand, easy to apply,

Shows the relation between constraints and
components,

Allows to :
identify the monitorable part of the system, i.e. the subset of
the system components
whose faults can be detected and isolated,

Chap.3 /178
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Conclusions (2/4)
Advantages
Easy to implement and suited for complex systems
Allows to determine the FDI/FTC possibilities
No a priori knowledge of the model equations is necessary
Lack
Structural analysis produces only structural properties

Chap.3 /179
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Conclusiosn (3/4) :What we can do with structural analysis ?
can the system be observed ?
can all the system variables be computed from the knowledge of the
sensors outputs
can the system be controlled ?

can the system be monitored ?
can the malfunction of the system components be detected and isolated

can the system be reconfigured ?
can the system achieve some objective in spite of the malfunction of
some components

Chap.3 /180
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis
Conclusions 4/4
Actual properties are only potential when structural
properties are satisfied.

They can certainly not be true when structural
properties are not satisfied.

Structural properties are properties which hold for
actual systems almost everywhere in the space of their
independent parameters.

Chap.4 /181
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
CHAP4
Observer-based approaches
Chap.4 /182 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Introduction
Principe des mthodes FDI par observateur
Reconstruction de la sortie du procd partir des
observations issues des capteurs puis comparer cette
estimation la valeur relle de cette sortie
En fonction dee la nature du systme on a:
Cas dterministe : lestimation laide des observateurs
Cas stochastique : filtre de Kalman

Un observateur ?
Reconstructeur qui a pour but partir des variables
mesures de permettre une estimation du vecteur dtat
Chap.4 /183 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
What is observer ?
Process
u
x
C
y
p m n
u y x
t Cx y
t Bu t Ax t x
9 e 9 e 9 e

=
+ =
, ,
,
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
| |
0
) 0 (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

x x
t x C y
t x C t y K t Bu t x A t x
=

=
+ + =
( ) | |
0
) 0 (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (

x x
t x C y
t y
t u
K B t x KC A t x
=

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Given


How to reconstruct based on output error





Chap.4 /184 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Simulation of the observer
( ) | |

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (

t x C y
t y
t u
K B t x KC A t x
C
x

}
0
x
y
) (t u
A-KC
| | K B
Chap.4 /185 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Observer and process
A
C
x
x
}
0
x
y
) (t u
+
B
PROCESS
x

y
B
}
K
x
A A
C
x A
) (t Bu
) ( y y K
+
-
+
+
OBSERVER
x C
y
Chap.4 /186 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Convergence (1/2)
Convergence conditions















p m n
u y x
t Cx y
t Bu t Ax t x
9 e 9 e 9 e

=
+ =
, , ,
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
| |

=
+ + =
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

t x C y
t x C t y K t Bu t x A t x
( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) (

~

~
x x KC x x A x C y K Bu x A Bu Ax x x x
x x x
= + + + = =
=

Chap.4 /187 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Erreur destimation

Convergence (2/2)
( ) x KC A x x KC x x A x
dt
x x d
~
) ) ( ) (
~
) (
= = =


( ) ( )
0 0
1
) (
~
x x KC A pI p x + =

( ) ) ( .
) (
t KC A
dt
t d
c
c
=
c sannule exponentiellement si (A-KC) est
asymptotiquement stable i.e. valeurs propres (modes) sont
partie relles ngatives :
Comment ? : Bien choisir K
Chap.4 /188 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Remarques
Conclusion
Lerreur de reconstruction nest pas nulle: car les CI de
lobservateur est choisi arbitrairement et celui du systme
inconnu
Comment annuler lerreur : On ne peut agit que sur K :
choisir alors K pour stabiliser la matrice A-KC assurant la
convergence vers zro de lerreur
Techniques utilises : Placement de ples permet de fixer
la vitesse de convergence en ajustant les coefficient de K
(voir sur Matlab les instructions place et acker)

Chap.4 /189 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Ide du diagnostic par observateur
Impossible de gnrer lerreur destimation : car tat rel
nexiste pas (car non mesur)
Lerreur de reconstruction de la sortie y peut tre calcule car
on suppose quelle est mesure

Schma de principe :
Residual
Process
Observateur
C
o
m
p
a
r
e
u
y
y
Chap.4 /190 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Comment gnrater les rsidus ?
1. Par simulation
C
x

}
0
x
y
) (t u
A-KC
| | K B
Capteur
y
+
-
Rsidu
( ) | |

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (

t x C y
t y
t u
K B t x KC A t x
+
+
y
process
Chap.4 /191 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Calcul du rsidu en Z
| | ( ) Ky Bu KC A zI C x C y + = =

. ) (
1
y de Estime
) ( x C y K Bu x A x z + + =
( ) Ky Bu KCx A zI x z
Ky Bu x KC x A x z
+ =
+ = +
) (

| | ( ) Ky Bu KC A zI x + =

. ) (
1
( ) | | ( ) Bu Ky KC A zI C y y y z r + = =
1
( ) (
Rsidu
Chap.4 /192 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Calcul du rsidu en p
(2)
0
) 0 ( 0
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
x x t
t Cx y
t Bu t Ax t x
= =

=
+ = | |

=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0
p CX p Y
x p BU A pI p X
L
(1)
| | ( )
0
1
) ( ) ( x p BU A pI C p Y + =

? ) (

p Y de Calcul
| |

=
+ + =
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

t x C y
t x C t y K t Bu t x A t x
| | ( )
0
1
) ( ) ( ) (

x p KY p BU KC A pI C p Y + + + =

Chap.4 /193 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Calcul du rsidu en p
( ) | | | | ( ) | || |
0
1
0
1
1
1
) ( ) ) ( .( ) (
) ( ) (
~
) (

) (
x p BU KC A pI C x p BU A pI C K KC A pI C I
p r p Y p Y p Y
+ + + +
= =

(1)-(2) : Rsidu
( )
0
1
0
1 1
) ( ) ( ) . ( ) ( x KC A pI C x A pI C K KC A pI C I p r

+ + =
Aprs quelques simplifications
( )
1
1
1 1 1 1
) (


+ = + VP U VP I U P P UV P
Lemme dinversion de matrice :
( ) ( )
0 0
x x ) (
1
+ =

KC A pI C p r
Rsidu
Chap.4 /194 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
convergence de lobservateur et sensibilit du rsidu aux bruits
Analyse de r(p)
1. Lerreur de reconstruction de la sortie dpend de lerreur
destimation des CI

2. Dilemme convergence de lobservateur et sensibilit du
rsidu aux bruits

Choisir le gain K de faon que lerreur converge rapidement
(en imposant des valeurs propres de la matrice trs faible)

Mais si K augmente trop, le rsidu sensible aux bruits
alatoires

Chap.4 /195 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Exemple
Cas simple monovariable






Convergence de lerreur
( ) ) ( 4 2 ) ( ) ( 2
~

) (
x x K x x KC x x x x x
dt
x x d
= = = =


( ) ) 4 2 (
) (
0
K p
p
+ +
=
c
c
( ) ) ( . 4 2
) (
t K
dt
t d
c
c
=
x x t ) ( = c
0
) 0 ( , 0
) ( 4
) ( ) ( 2 ) (
x x t
t x y
t u t x t x
= =

=
+ =
| |
0
) 0 ( , 0
) ( 4
) ( 4 ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (

x x t
t x y
t x t y K t u t x t x
= =

=
+ + =
2 4
. ) (
0
+ =
=

k
e t
t
o
c c
o
5 , 0 0 2 4 0 > > + > k k o
Conditions de
Stabilit
Chap.4 /196 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Simulation
| |
0
) 0 ( , 0
) ( 4
) ( 4 ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (

x x t
t x y
t x t y K t u t x t x
= =

=
+ + =
BU
PROCESS
dx/dt
x
Ax
Xestim
yestim
Rsidu
dxest/dt
OBSERVATEUR
U
1
s
1
s
A
A
C
K
B
C
Capteur
SIMULATION
Chap.4 /197 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Exemple 2
x
) ( y y

=
+ =
Cx y
Bu Ax zx
(

= =
(

=
(

=
2
1
, ,
0
1
,
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
y
y
y I C B A

=
=

+ =
+ =
2 2
1 1
2 1 2
1 1
5 . 0 2
1 . 0
x y
x y
x x zx
u x zx
Soit le systme dont seul la sortie est mesure
1. On reconstruit ltat du systme x par une estimation
2. Comment ? : on va corriger cet estimation par ladjonction de lerreur sur la mesure
destimation sur la mesure par lquation
) ( x C y K Bu x A x z + + =
2. quation dynamique de lerreur destimation
( )c c KC A z =
x x = c
) ( x C y K
3. Convergence de cette erreur
0 c
Trouver une matrice K telq ue A-KC soit stable (racines dans le cercle unit
Chap.4 /198 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Exemple 2/3
Expression des rsidus r(z)





Application numrique
Choix de K pour assurer la convergence
| | ( ) Ky Bu KC A zI C x C y + = =

. ) (
1
Ky Bu x KC x A x z y y K Bu x A x z + = + + + = ) (
( ) | | ( ) Bu Ky KC A zI C y y y z r + = =
1
( ) (
| | ) ( * ) (
1
Ky Bu KC A zI x + =

( )c c KC A z =
Chap.4 /199 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
EXEMPLE ( 3/3)
1. Dead Beat Observer ( rponse pile)
( )c c KC A z =
( )
A K I C
KC A
= =
= 0
( ) | | ( ) Bu Ky KC A zI C y z r + =
1
( ) (
( ) Bu z y A zI z zr = ) ( ) (
2 ples lorigine
A K
I C
=
=
) ( .
0
1
*
) 5 . 0 ( 2
0 ) 1 . 0 (
) (
) (
2
1
2
1
z u
y
y
z
z
z zr
z zr
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
(

1 2 2
1 1
2 ) 5 . 0 ( ) (
) ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) (
y y z z zr
z u y z z zr
=
=
1
1
2
1
2 2
1
1 1 1
2 . . 5 . 0 . ) (
) ( 1 . 0 ) (
y z y z y z r
z u z y y z r

=
=
En remplaant A et B par leur valeurs :
Chap.4 /200 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Observateur
Observateur quelconque
On impose une dynamique au systme boucl.



Puis on dtermine alors le gain K de lobservateur permettant
dassurer cette dynamique


Ayant fix K, on peut calculer les rsidus
( ) |
.
|

\
|
= =
1 . 0 0
0 05 . 0
0
KC A A
( ) |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
4 . 0 2
0 05 . 0
1 . 0 0
0 05 . 0
K KC A
( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | ( ) Bu Ky A A zI I y Bu Ky KC A zI C y z r + = + =
1
0
1
( ( ) (
Chap.4 /201 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Suite exemple
Expressions des rsidus
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

+
(

|
.
|

\
|
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

(

=
(


u
y
y
zI
y
y
z r
z r
0
1
4 . 0 2
0 05 . 0
*
1 . 0 0
0 05 . 0
5 . 0 2
0 1 . 0
) (
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
( ) | | ( ) Bu Ky KC A zI C y z r + =
1
( ) (
( )
( ) | |
( )
| |
2 1 2
1 1
) 5 . 0 ( 2
1 . 0
1
) (
) ( ) ( * 1 . 0
05 . 0
1
) (
y z y
z
z r
z u z y z
z
z r
+

=
Chap.4 /202 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Observateur de Luenberger Gnralis
Soit donn le systme :





1. On veut estimer la sortie y(t)
On utilise alors un observateur de gain K
X(t) : tat,
u(t) : entre
d(t) : dfauts
e(t) : perturbations ou bruits
s approprie dimensions de matrice : , , , , ,
, , ,
) 0 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
E F D C B A
u y x
x x
t e E t d F t Du t Cx y
t e E t d F t Bu t Ax t x
p m n
y y
x x
9 e 9 e 9 e

=
+ + + =
+ + + =
(1)
| |

=
+ =
+ + =
0
) 0 (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

x x
t Du t x C y
t Du t x C t y K t Bu t x A t x
(2)
Chap.4 /203 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Erreurs destimation
2. Equations dynamiques des erreurs destimation


(1)- (2)


3. Transforme de Laplace de lerreur de sortie

( )
( )
) 3 (
~
) 0 (
~
) ( ) ( ) (
~
.
~
) ( ) ( ) (
~
~

=
+ + = =
+ + = =

x x
t e E t d F t x C y y y
t e E t d F t x KC A
dt
x d
dt
x x d
y y
x x
) 4 ( ) (
~
). ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) (
~
0
p x p G p e p G p d p G p y
e d
+ + =
| | ( )
| | ( )
| |
1
0
1
1
) (
) (
) (

+ =
+ + =
+ + =
KC A pI C p G
E KE E KC A pI C p G
F KF F KC A pI C p G
y y x e
y y x d
Chap.4 /204 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Remarque sur le rsidu
) 4 ( ) (
~
). ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) (
~
0
p x p G p e p G p d p G p y
e d
+ + =
1. Le rsidu est sensible aux dfauts d(p), aux perturbations et
bruits e(p), mais aussi aux CI. Lobservation converge vers 0
pour t, on peut ngliger les transitoires dues aux CI.

2. si d=0, e=0, on obtient lexpression obtenue prcdemment.

3. Le gain K de lobservateur influe de faon semblable sur d et e :
Alors il est difficile de gnrer un rsidu sensible aux dfauts
dtecter mais insensible aux perturbations

4. Lanalyse des matrices G permet de savoir si les composants
de d sont isolables des autres

Chap.4 /205 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Diffrentes influences sur le rsidu
1. Influence du bruit sur le rsidu
Soit e(t) un bruit ralisation dune variable alatoire Esp(e(t)=0




Trouvons le rsidu en frquentiel r(p)
En utilisant les quations ci-dessus on obtient les expressions des erreurs de
reconstruction (en posant Ey=1 D=0

=
+ + =
+ =
0
) 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
x x
t e E t Du t Cx y
t Bu t Ax t x
y

=
+ + =
+ + =
0
) 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (
)) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
x x
t e E t Du t x C y
t x C y K t Bu t Ax t x
y

Observateur
( ) ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
t Ke t x KC A t x =

Frquentiel
( ) ( ) ) ( ) (
~
0 0
1
p Ke x x KC A pI p x + =

) ( ) (
~
) ( ) (
~
t e t x C t r t y + = =
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ) ( ) ( ) (
~
1
0 0
1
p e K KC A pI C I x x KC A pI C p r p y

+ + + = =
Chap.4 /206 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Influence du bruit sur le rsidu
Ngligeons dabord linfluence des CI




Etude de linfluence du point de vue frquentiel de e sur r(p)






Rduction du bruit e(j) sur r(j) : chercher un gain de rglage K, en
plaant la pulsation de coupure du filtre tel que linfluence du bruit
soit rduite
( ) | | ) ( . ) (
1
p e K KC A pI C I p r

+ =
) (e e
) (e r
( )
1
( ) (

+ = KC A pI C I p r
e
Chap.4 /207 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Calcul du seuil dalarmes du rsidu
Soit donnes les hypotheses statistiques du bruit :





Examinons lestimateur






=
=
0
)) ( (
0 ) ( (
V t e Var
t e Esp
( ) ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
t Ke t x KC A t x =

0 )) (
~
( = = t x Esp 0 Esp(e(t)) si
Si valeur moyenne du bruit du bruit e est nulle il en est de
mme pour lestimateur.

=
+ =

=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t e t x C y
t Bu t x A t x
t e t Cx y
t Bu t Ax t x

( ) ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
t Ke t x KC A t x x x = =

Estimateur
Chap.4 /208 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Equation de propagation de la variance



Application erreur destimation

Calcul du seuil dalarmes du rsidu
) ( ) ( ) ( t BW t Ax t x + =
T
W
T
x x x
B t BV A t V t AV t V ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( + + =

( )
{ }
0
) (
) ( ) (
~
) (
~
) ( ) (
~
) (
~
V t e Var
t e t x C t y
t Ke t x KC A t x
=

+ =
=
o

( )
0
~ ~
0
~ ~ ~
). ( ) (
) )( ( ) ( ) (
V C t CV t V
K KV KC A t V t V KC A t V
T
x y
T T
x x x
+ =
+ =

Chap.4 /209 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Calcul des seuils dalarme du rsidu
Calcul en rgime stationnaire des seuils dalarme
Dterminer un seuil dans la procdure de dcision de la prsence de fautes en fonction de la
variance de y au del duquel le rsidu pourra tre considr nul (il y a rellement alarme)


0
~ ~ ). ( ) ( V C t CV t V
T
x y
+ =
K
V
0

x
V~
y
V~
( )
T T
x x
x
K KV KC A t V t V KC A
t V
0
~ ~
~
) )( ( ) ( 0
0 ) (
+ + =
=

: re stationnai Etat
Dtermination de la variance du rsidu
t
Seuil
0
ALARME
NORMAL
Rsidu :
~
(t) y
Chap.4 /210 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
2. Influence dune erreur de modlisation
Problmatique
En pratique existence toujours dune erreur de
modlisation
Observateur construit partir du modle alors la sortie
reconstruite est sensible aux erreurs de modlisation
Le diagnostic se base sur lcart entre sortie reconstruite
et relle
Difficile de sparer erreurs dues la modlisation et celles dues
aux fautes
But
Construire un observateur sensible aux dfauts et peu
sensible aux erreurs de modlisation

Chap.4 /211 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Dveloppement
Modle dtat incertain : On se limite une erreur sur A




Estimation de ltat cal sur A




Cet observateur doit alors dtecter, au travers de lerreur de
reconstruction de la sortie, la perturbation du systme oA

=
=
+ + =
0
) 0 (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
x x
t Cx y
t Bu t x A A t x
Traduit lapparition dune
perturbation oA sur le
systme
( )

=
=
+ + =
0
) 0 (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

x x
t x C y
t x C t y K t Bu t x A t x
Reprsente un
observateur cal
sur le systme nominal
Chap.4 /212 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Hypothses sur erreur
Hypothses sur lerreur
Borne c..d. lgre imprcision du modle sur les
coefficients

Problme rsoudre : gnrer des rsidus
1. peu sensibles oA
2. avec un maximum de sensibilit vis--vis des
fautes
Chap.4 /213 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Influence des incertitudes paramtriques
1. Influence des variations oA sur les rsidus
Erreurs destimation (des quations prcdentes ) :







Domaine frquentiel
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

+ + + =
+ + + =


) ( ) (
~
) ( ) (
~
1
0 0
1
1
0 0
1
p Ax KC A pI C x x KC A pI C p y
p Ax KC A pI x x KC A pI p x
o
o
) ( ) ( ) (
~
t x t x t x =
( )
0 0
) 0 (
~
) ( ) (
~
) (
) (
~
x x x
t Ax t x KC A
dt
t x d
=
+ = o
Lerreur de reconstruction est sensible
aux imprcisions oA et ltat x(t) (qui
nest pas limine ici)
Chap.4 /214 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Influence de lentre et de oA
Influence de lentre u sur le rsidu
Pour CI=0, et en remplaant x(p) par son expression on a :


Ainsi le rsidu dpend de u et de oA
On exploite cette proprit pour distinguer sur le rsidu les influences
des dfauts et des incertitudes
Comment ? :
Comme oA est inconnu, on exprime lerreur de construction en
fonction de ce quon lui applique u pour max (oA )
On va alors chercher une majoration de lerreur de construction si u
est borne : (on calcule le seuil pour max oA )

( ) ( )

+ + s ) ( max
~
1 1
t u B KC A I j A KC A I j C y
A
e o e
o
( ) | | u(p) . ) ( ) (
~
1 1
B KC A pI A KC A pI C p r p y

+ + = = o
Chap.4 /215 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Dcision
Schma de dcision
1. Si la valeur du rsidu est en de du seuil : alors diagnostic rserv car
lerreur est peut tre due aux incertitudes
2. Au-del de ce seuil lamplitude du rsidu tmoigne de la prsence dune faute
distincts des erreurs du modle
U (borne)
Majorant de lerreur de
construction (du rsidu)
) max( A o
seuil :
~

y
t
0
ALARME
NORMAL
(t) y
~
Rsidu

~

y

~

y
Chap.4 /216 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Observateurs entres inconnues
Problmatique
Modles o la sortie des actionneurs nest pas mesures
Lvaluation des RRAs ncessite la connaissance des mesures et
des entres
Alors : on utilise observateurs entres inconnues (UIO :
Unknown Input Observers)

Principe
Soit un systme avec des entres connues u(t)
et entres inconnues ) (t u
Chap.4 /217 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Observateur entre inconnue
Soit le systme entre inconnue




Considrons alors lobservateur :





Lerreur de reconstruction sera alors :


et sa drive




inconnu Connu, :
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
u u:
t Cx y
t u F t Bu t Ax t x

=
+ + =

=
+ + =
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
t Ey t z t x
t Ky t Gu t Nx t z
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
t z t x EC I t x
t ECx t z t x t Ey t z t x t x t x t x
+ =
+ = + = =
) ( ) ( t x T t z =
: re intermdia variable une soit
Chap.4 /218 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
En drivant puis en remplaant x(t) et z(t) on aura:
( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
t Ky t Gu t Nz t u F t Bu t Ax EC I t x + + + + + =

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
t u PF t u G PB t x KC NP PA t x N t x + + + =

Posons : P = I+EC
Chap.4 /219 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Lerreur de reconstruction de ltat du UIO






Lentre tant inconnue on tente davoir :


Cette reconstruction tend alors asymptotiquement vers zro ssi:








) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
t u PF t u G PB t x KC NP PA t x N t x + + + =

) (
~ ~
) (
~
) (
~
t x C y
t x N t x
=
=

=
=
=
+ =
stable N
PF
PB G
NP PA KC
EC I P
0

=
=
=
+ =

stable N
NE K L
KC PA N
PB G
C CF F I P
1
) (
1
) ( 0

= = + CF F E ECF F
Chap.4 /220 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Procdure de calcul du UIO
Calcul de linverse gnralise de CF
Dduire P, puis G
On fixe les ples de N, on dduit K puis N
On calcule L

Lentre inconnue nintervient pas
dans lexpression du rsidu.
Chap.4 /221 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Estimation de lentre inconnue
Lquation du systme initial :





Si (CF)
-1
existe, on aura
inconnu
Connu
:
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
u
u:
t Cx y
t u F t Bu t Ax t x

=
+ + =
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=

) ( ) (
) (
) (
1
t CBu t CAx
dt
t dy
CF t u
Chap.4 /222
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Different UIO schemes
SOS : Simplified Observer Scheme
DOS : Dedicated Observer Scheme
Only one UIO
Allows to detect faults. No isolation possibilities
Bank of UIO
Each observer is sensitive to one fault (diagonal structure)
Chap.4 /223
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
D.O.S w.r.t. actuators
Actuators System
Sensors
u
y
UIO m
u

UIO 1
u
1
u
mu

e
1

e
mu

:
:
Diagonal structure w.r.t. actuator faults
Chap.4 /224
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
D.O.S w.r.t. sensors
Diagonal structure w.r.t. sensors faults
Actuators System
Sensors
u
y
UIO m
u

UIO 1
y
1

y
my

e
1

e
mu

:
:
Chap.4 /225
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
G.O.S w.r.t. actuators
y
u
Actuators System
Sensors
UIO m
u

UIO 1
u
1
u
mu

e
1

e
mu

:
:
Each residual is affected by all faults except for one actuator fault
Chap.4 /226
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
G.O.S w.r.t. sensors
Actuators System
Sensors
u
y
UIO m
u

UIO 1
y
1

y
my

e
1

e
mu

:
:
Each residual is affected by all faults except for one sensor fault
Chap.4 /227 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
SYSTEM
Input Output
Identification
White
Box
Black
Box
Grey
Box
Identification based approach
Chap.4 /228 Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs
Identification-based Residual
Off line
SYSTEM
MODEL
u y
u
REF

On line
u
REF

SYSTEM
MODEL
u y
r(t)
t > t
1
t < t
1

u
^
-
+
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
BOND GRAPH
FOR SUPERVISION DESIGN
Chapitre 5
Chap.5/229
Chap.5/230
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
PLAN
1) Motivations et positionnement

2) Problmatique des mthodes base de modles

3) Bond graph et le diagnostic

4) Conception dun systme de supervision

5) Outil logiciel pour la conception de systmes de supervision

6) Application a un gnrateur de vapeur


Chap.5/231
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Contexte
Rsultats de recherche depuis 12 ans
B. Ould Bouamama and A.K. Samantaray. "Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond
Graph Approach" . Springer Verlag, To be published on 2007, Berlin.
Thoma J.U. et B. Ould Bouamama. "Modeling and Simulation in Thermal and Chemical Engineering".
A Bond Graph Approach. Springer Verlag, 219 pages, Berlin 2000.
More : Web : http://sfsd.polytech-lille.net/BelkacemOuldBouamama

Applications
Projet Europens (CHEM, damadics) supervision de procds chimiques et ptrochimiques, raffinerie de sucre , ..
Projet nationaux : EDF Filtrage dalarmes
Projet rgional : supervision de procds non stationnaires
Outils logiciels dvelopps
Model Builder FDIPAD
Gnration de modles et dindicateurs de fautes formels partir des PIDs
Analyse de la surveillabilit : placement de capteurs
Gnration de S-function ou code C pour la simulation

La supervision aujourdhui dans lindustrie
Chap.5/232
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Integrated design for supervision
P&ID
Generate a dynamic
and formal models
Generate a formal and
robust ARRS
Optimal sensor
placement
Diagnosability
results
New sensor
architecture
Process
Online
implementation
Data from sensors
Sensors
Technical specifications
Diagnosability
analysis
ARRs
Uncertain Parameters
Chap.5/233
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Model based in the supervision platform. Chem Project example
TB3.4:
Diagnosis
using causal
graph (IFP)
M
o
d
e
l
s

TB5.4: Fault diagnosis and
alarm management using
causal graphs
Causal graph
Recovery decision

TB7.2 :
Reconfiguratio
n

Recovery decision
TB5.1: Model
builder for FDI
design (LAIL)
P&ID
Residuals,
Monitorability analysis,
Dynamic model,

DATA
MANAGER
DTM

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
s

Measures Measures
TB5.2, TB3.2:
Temporal Band
Sequences (Thalles)
Residuals
Models
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
234
2) Problmatique des mthodes base de
modles

Approche bond graph
Chap.5/235
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Model based approach : Issues
MODELLING
Modelling step is most important in FDI design
obtaining the model is a difficult task
The constraints are not deduced in a systematic way
It is not trivial in the real systems to write the model under a "beautiful" form x=f(x,u,).
RESIDUAL GENERATION
Eliminate the unknowns : analytic redundancy approach
Existing methodology : parity space for linear, elimination theory (constraints under polynomial forms)
Variables to be considered : all quantities constrained by the system components (process,
actuators, sensors, algorithms)
How to generate directly from the process ARRs and models : Bond graph tool well suited
because of its causal and structural properties.

Chap.5/236
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Bond graph and diagnostic
BOND GRAPH FOR MODELLING (1961)
Control (1990) Diagnostic
Qualitative Approach
(1993)
Quantitative approach
(1995)
Open loop
Linear model
Sensor and actuator faults
Monoenergy Bond Graph
Multienergy bond
graph
Closed loop
Sensor, process and actuator faults
Implementation
Chap.5/237
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
DEFINITION, REPRESENTATION
DEFINITION
REPRESENTATION
P = e.f
e
f
1
2
Mechanical power :
e
t
Notion de causalits
f
e
f
e
f
e
A B
f
A B
f
e
f
A
B
e
f
AA
BB
Chap.5/239
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Electrical
DOMAIN
Mechanical (rotation)
Hydraulic
Chemical
Thermal
Economic
Mechanical
(translation)
POWER VARIABLES FOR SEVERAL DOMAINS
VOLTAGE
u [V]
CURRENT
i [A]
FORCE
F [N]
VELOCITY
v [m/s]
FLOW (f)
EFFORT (e)
TORQUE
I [Nm]
ANGULAR VELOCITY
e [rad/s]
UNIT PRICE
P
u
[$/unit]
FLOW OF ORDERS
f
c
[unit/period]
CHEM. POTENTIAL
[J/mole]
MOLAR FLOW
PRESSURE
P [pa]
VOLUME FLOW
/s] [m
3
V

[mole/s] n
TEMPERATURE
T [K]
ENTROPY FLOW
[J/(K.s]] S

Causal path and causality


E
C
i
C

U
C

i
F
C
i
C

U
C

dt
dE
C i
C
. =
Se:E
U
C

i
C
}
= idt
C
U
C
. 1
Se:E
U
C
i
U
C
i
C

U
C

i
C
0 Se:E
i
C

Derivative causality
0
C
Sf: i
Integral causality
Chap.5/241
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Dualised sensors
I

Se
Df

R

1
SSf

R L
i A
R L
i A
R L
Se: u
i A
RL circuit
I

Se
Df

R

1
Bond graph model in integral causality
For control and
simulation
Bond graph model in derivative causality with
dualised sensor why ?
Initial Conditions no knowns
Df : as source of information
Systme sous dtermin et surdtermin
De

I

Se
Df

C

R

1 0 SSe

SSf

I

Se
Df

C

R

1 0
SSf

Pas de conflit de causalit,
Systme sur-dtermin
Conflit de causalit,
Systme sous-Dtermin
?
Chap.5/243
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
BG example (1/2)

T
2

On-Off
V
o


Q
O
PI
T
1

Chap.5/244
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
BG example (2/2)

Tank2
0
C:C
1

De2
6
Tank1
0
C:C
1

De1
2
Pump
MSf
1
1
T
2

On-Off
Valve1
1
R:R
1

4
3
5
Valve 2
1
R:R
1

Se
1
7
8
9
PI
u
1

On-off
USER
u
3

PI
T
1

V
o


Q
O

O
u
t
f
l
o
w

t
o

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r

Chap.5/245
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Specialized software for Bond graph modelling
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
246
3) Bond graph and diagnostic :
determinsit and robust case
Chap.5/247
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Hydraulic academic example
R
f
3

f
2

e
2

f
1

MSf
Ps=0
FI
PI
LI
Bond graph model
0
MSf
C
1
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
n
e
m
e
n
t

5
Se
1
2
3
4
u
Z
0 1
C
De:P
Df:F
De:P
Df:F
u
J0

u
J1

u
C

u
R

u
mP

u
mF

e
2
f
2

e
4
f
4

X
u
s

u
b

u
m

K
MSf

Se
De
Df
Se MSf
De:P
Df:F
R R
Chap.5/249
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
ARRs generation matching and incidence matrix
f
2
e
2
f
4
e
4
MSf Se De Df
u
J0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
u
J1
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0
u
C
1 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
u
R
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
u
mP
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
u
mF
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
Causal matching w.r.t all unknown variables but not w.r.t all
the constraints
u
Z=XK
X K
1
1
1
1
RRA1
RRA2
Chap.5/250
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Oriented graph associated with a matching
u
mP

e
2
f
2

De
u
C

MSf
Df
u
mF

f
4

u
J0

RRA1
MSf
u
mP

De
Se
Df
u
mF

f
4

e
2

u
J1

RRA2
Se
u
R

e
4

Chap.5/251
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
251\93
ARRS generation : Bi-partite graph and BG approach
1) Unknown variables elimination
order in the oriented graph
2) Initial step for ARR generation :
difficult to fix
1) Covering causal path in the BG
which is a particular matching
according to the affected causality
2) From Energy conservation law
from 0 or 1 junction
The goal is to study all the causal paths
relating the considered junction to the
sources and the sensors
Bond graph Bi-partite graph
ARRS generation using BG approach (1/2)
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
n
e
m
e
n
t

0 1
5 1
2
3
4
0 1
C
R
De:P
Df:F
Se
MSf
A) Bond graph model in integral causality
Chap.5/253
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
253\93
ARRS generation using BG approach (2/2)

0 *
2 3 1
= = De f f f :
J0
{ }?
2 3 1
, , f f f X =
?
1
f
?
2
f
MSf f =
1
1- MSf
( ) dt De d f
c
/ ) (
2
u = 2-C-2-De
?
3
f
Df f =
3
3-Df
) / ) ( ( dt De d Df MSf
c
u : ARR1 ) (Df D
R
u - Se - e : ARR2
0 *
5 4 3
= = Df e e e :
J1
{ }?
5 4 3
, , e e e X =
0 1
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
n
e
m
e
n
t

5
1
2
3
4
0 1
C
R
Se
MSf
De*:P
Df*:F
?
3
e De e =
3
3- De
?
5
e Se e =
5
5-Se
?
4
e
) (
4
Df e
R
u =
4-R-4-Df
Bond graph model in derivative
causality detectors are dualised
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
FDI robuste using BG
Chap.5/255
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Quelques commentaires
Mthodes qualitatives
Lutilisation du flou ne rgle pas le problme des observations situes aux
frontires de plusieurs classes.
Lapproche probabiliste suppose connue la probabilit a priori doccurrence
de chaque classe de fonctionnement.
Mthodes quantitatives
Lespace de parit et les observateurs sont bien adapts au diagnostic des
dfauts capteurs et actionneurs.
Lapproche de filtrage suppose que les incertitudes et les dfauts
ninterviennent pas la mme frquence.
Les incertitudes paramtriques ne sont pas affiches explicitement par le
modle (en gnral dtat)
RRAs incertaines non gnres automatiquement

Chap.5/256
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Approche propose et contribution
Outil utilis:
Modles Bond Graphs sous forme LFT
[B. Ould Bouamama 2002] et [G. Dauphin-Tanguy & al 1999 ]
Performances recherches
Robustesse aux fausses alarmes
Amlioration et contrle des performances vis--vis des non dtections et
des retards dans les dtections des dfauts
Contribution
Gnration automatique des RRAs robustes et des seuils adaptatifs de
fonctionnement normal
Dfinition dindices de sensibilit aux incertitudes paramtriques
Dfinition dindices de dtectabilit des dfauts

Chap.5/257
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Intrt des BGs pour le diagnostic robuste ?
Approche intgre :
Une seule reprsentation : systme physique, modle BG incertain, RRAs robuste

Reprsentation de tous les types dincertitudes.

Les incertitudes paramtriques sont structures, donc plus faciles
quantifier.

Visualisation explicite des incertitudes paramtriques sur le modle

Lintroduction des incertitudes naffecte pas la causalit et les proprits
structurelles des lments sur le modle nominal.

La partie incertaine du modle est parfaitement spare de sa partie
nominale.

Modlisation LFT
( ) ( )
( )
n
q n q m
I I
u S H F y
o o ,..., , ,...,
,
1
1 1
A A = A
A =
H(S)

u
y
z
w
Reprsentation LFT
Fonction de transfert
M

u
y
z
w
Reprsentation LFT
Reprsentation dtat
( )
n
q n q m
I I
M
u D w D x C y
u D w D x C z
u B w B Ax x
o o ,..., , ,...,
tat d' augmente Matrice :
1
1 1
22 21 2
12 11 1
2 1
A A = A

+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Modlisation LFT des lments BG (1/2)
R R
f R e =
( )
( )

+ =
= =
+ =
inc R R
R n R inc R n R
R n R R n R
e e e
f R e f R e
f R f R e
n
n n
n
et o
o
Systme Physique
Modle bloc diagramme
Modle mathmatique
R

f
R
e
R
R
f
R
e
R

R
e
R
e
inc
+
+
R
n
f
R
e
Rn
n R n
R R R o + =
f
R
e
R
( )
R n R n R
f R R e o + =
Chap.5/260
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Modlisation LFT des lments BG (2/2)
R
n
f
Rn
e
Rn
e
R
e
inc
+
+

R
R:R

f
R
e
R
R

f
R
e
R
1 0 R:R
n
De*:z
R
MSe*:w
R
-
R
e
Rn
f
1
=f
Rn
e
Rn
e
Rn
e
inc
f
R
e
R
z
R w
R
-
R
(

0
1
n
n
R
R
Chap.5/261
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Mise en oeuvre sur exemple
R L
i A
R L
i A
R L
Se: u
i A
Se: u
1
4
1
R:R
n
MSe:w
R


2
5
9
0
R
-
6
Df: i
I:L
n
3
10
0
7
L
-
8
R:R R:R R:R
2 2 2 2
I:L
3
Chap.5/262
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse structurelle (1/2)
Systme propre et observable
[C. Sueur & al 1989]
Systme surdtermin
Proposition : Sur un modle bond graph destin la surveillance (mis en
causalit drive), le systme sera sous-dtermin si en dualisant les
dtecteurs, les lments dynamiques ne peuvent pas tre mis en causalit
drive.
Remarque: Llment lorigine du conflit de causalit sur un systme observable
sous dtermin, peut tre mis en causalit intgrale lorsque les conditions initiales sont
connues. Le systme devient ainsi sur-dtermin.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
5.2 Gnration de RRAs robustes
Chap.5/264
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Approche BG dterministe pour la gnration des RRAs (1/1)
I:L
3
1
S
e
:

u

R:R R:R R:R
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4
SSf: i Df: i
0 :
2 3 1 J1
= =
SSf
e e e e
{ }? , ,
2 3 1
e e e X =
?
1
e
Se e =
1
1- Se
?
2
e ( ) i e
R
u =
2
SSf- 2-R-2
) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1 dt i d i Se
L R
u u
?
3
e
SSf- 3- L- 3
|
.
|

\
|
u =
dt
di
e
L 3
R L
i A
R L
i A
R L
Se: u
i A
Chap.5/265
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Gnration de RRAs robustes (1/2)
MSe:w
L
R:R
n
I:L
n
Se: u
MSe:w
R


1
2
3
5
4
7
8
9
10
0
1
0
R
-
L
-
0 :
7 5 2 3 1 J1
= = + +
SSf
e e e e e e
{ }? , , , ,
7 5 2 3 1
e e e e e X =
?
1
e
Se e =
1
1- Se
?
2
e
( ) i e
n
R
u =
2 SSf - 2- 9- R
n
- 9- 2
L R L R
w w dt i d i Se
n n
+ + u u ) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1
?
3
e SSf - 3 - 10- L
n
- 10- 3
|
.
|

\
|
u =
dt
di
e
n
L 3
6
?
5
e
R
w e =
5
5- MSe:w
R
?
7
e
L
w e =
7
7- MSe:w
L
Chap.5/266
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Gnration de RRAs robustes (2/2)
MSe:w
L
R:R
n
I:L
n
Se: u
MSe:w
R


1
2
3
5
4
7
8
9
10
0
1
0
R
-
L
-
6
L R L R
w w dt SSf d SSf Se
n n
+ + u u ) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1

+ =
u u =
L R
L R
w w
dt SSf d SSf Se
n n
a
) / ) ( ( ) ( r
: ARR1
a r a s s
Chap.5/267
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Algorithme de gnration de RRAs robustes
Vrification des proprits structurelles sur le modle BG nominal
Le modle BG en causalit drive avec capteurs dualiss est mis sous forme
LFT;
Les variables inconnues sont limines en parcourant les chemins causaux
entre les lments BG et les dtecteurs;
Les RRAs sont gnres au niveau des jonctions 0 et 1, o toutes les variables
associes sont connues;
Les RRAs gnres sont constitues de deux parties parfaitement spares
r : la partie nominale qui reprsente le rsidu
a : la partie incertaine utilise pour calculer les seuils.


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
5. 3 Analyse de sensibilit
Chap.5/269
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (1/8)
Indice de sensibilit normalis
value lnergie apporte au rsidu par lincertitude sur
chaque paramtre en la comparant lnergie totale
apporte par toutes les incertitudes paramtriques.

Chap.5/270
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (2/8)
Indice de sensibilit Indice de sensibilit normalis

=
c
c
=

i
i
i
w a
a
S
i
o
o

=
=
=
c
c
=


1
i
i
SI
w a
a
w
a
a
SI
i
i
i
i
i
o
o
o
o

i
: Incertitude sur le i
me
paramtre
i {R, C, I, RS, TF, GY}

i
: i
me
entre module correspondant Incertitude sur le i
me
paramtre

Chap.5/271
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (3/8)
MSe:w
L
R:R
n
I:L
n
Se: u
MSe:w
R


1
2
3
5
4
7
8
9
10
0
1
0
R
-
L
-
6
dt
di
L i R
w w
n L n R
L R
o o + =
+ =

a
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
dt
di
L i R
a
a
a
SI
dt
di
L i R
a
a
a
SI
n L n R
l
L
L
L
n L n R
R
R
R
R
L
R
o o
o
o
o
o
o o
o
o
o
o
o
o
. . .
. . .
a
w
dt
di
L
a
SI
a
w
i R
a
SI
L
n
L
R
n
R
L
R
= =
= =
o
o
o
o
1 = = + = +
a
a
a
w
a
w
SI SI
L R
L R
o o
Chap.5/272
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (4/8)
Indice de dtectabilit de dfauts
Types de dfauts
Dfaut paramtrique: Dviation anormale de lun des paramtres du
modle de sa valeur nominale (not Y
j
: % de la valeur nominale du
paramtre j)

Dfaut structurel: Dfaut qui engendre un changement dans la structure
du systme, donc dans la structure du modle (not Y
s
).

Chap.5/273
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Dfinition: Lindice de dtectabilit de dfaut DI est la diffrence entre leffort (ou
flux) apport par les dfauts en valeur absolue et celui apport par lensemble des
incertitudes en valeur absolue.



Proposition: Condition de dtectabilit de dfauts



0 jonction une .
1 jonction une .
a Y f Y DI
a Y e Y DI
s i i
s i i
n
n
+ =
+ =
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (5/8)

>
s
dtectable Dfaut 0
dtectable non Dfaut 0
DI
DI
Chap.5/274
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (6/8)
Hypothse : Leffort (ou le flux) apport aux rsidus par loccurrence simultane
de plusieurs dfauts (en valeur absolue) est suprieur leffort (ou le flux) apport
aux rsidus par loccurrence dun seul dfaut (en valeur absolue).

Taux Dtectable dun dfaut paramtrique





Valeur dtectable dun dfaut structurel
0 jonction une
1 jonction une
n
n
i
i
i
i
f
a
Y
e
a
Y
>
>
a Y
s
>
Chap.5/275
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (7/8)
MSe:w
1L
R:R
n
I:L
n
Se: u
MSe:w
1R


1
2
3
5
4
7
6
8
9
10
0
1
0
( )
R
Y +
R
-
( )
L
Y +
L
-
Se: Y
s
R
-
L
-
L R L R
w w dt i d i Se
n n
+ + u u ) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1
s L R L R
Y w w dt i d i Se
n n
+ + + u u
1 1
) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1
MSe:w
R


MSe:w
L
dt
di
L Y w
dt
di
L Y w
i R Y w i R Y w
n L L n L L L
n R R n R R R
. ). (
. ). (
1
1
+ = + =
+ = + =
o
o
s n L n R L R
s L R
Y
dt
di
L Y i R Y w w
Y w w
+ + + + =
+ + =
. .
1 1
o
a Y
dt
di
L Y i R Y DI
s n L n R
+ + = . .
Chap.5/276
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (8/8)
R:R
n
I:L
n
Se: u
1
2
3
5
4
7
6
8
9
10
0
1
0
( )
R
Y +
R
-
( )
L
Y +
L
-
Se: Y
s
MSe:w
R


MSe:w
L
L R L R
w w dt SSf d SSf Se
n n
+ + u u ) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1
s L R L R
Y w w dt SSf d SSf Se
n n
+ + + u u
1 1
) / ) ( ( ) ( : ARR1
dt
di
L Y w
dt
di
L Y w
i R Y w i R Y w
n L L n L L L
n R R n R R R
. ). (
. ). (
1
1
+ = + =
+ = + =
o
o
s n L n R L R
s L R
Y
dt
di
L Y i R Y w w
Y w w
+ + + + =
+ + =
. .
1 1
o
a Y
dt
di
L Y i R Y DI
s n L n R
+ + = . .

>
>
>
a Y
dt
di
L
a
Y
i R
a
Y
s
n
L
n
R

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique
Chap.5/278
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique (1/7)
Outil utilis: Symbols2000
Interface FDIPad
Fentre expression
Dfinition des variables internes comme variables globales
Cration de boites outils rutilisables pour les systmes incertains
Cration de boites outils rutilisables pour les systmes incertains partir
de celles dj existantes en dterministe
Implmentation Informatique (2/7)
R L
i A
R L
i A
R L
Se: u
i A
Chap.5/280
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique (4/7)
Chap.5/281
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique (5/7)
281\83
Chap.5/282
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique (6/7)
Chap.5/283
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implmentation Informatique (7/7)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Applications
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
285
CONCEPTION DUN SYSTEME DE
SUPERVISION
Chap.5/286
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
CADRE PROJET CHEM
DEVELOPPER et IMPLEMENTER UN SYSTEME SOUS FORME
MODULAIRE :
Bas sur les outils de
Statistique, thorie des systmes, IA pour FDI,..
Pour:
Amliorer la scurit,
Qualit des produits,
Fiabilit des oprations,
et Rduction des pertes conomiques dues au fautes
Appliqu aux
Systmes chimiques, ptrochimiques, Raffinage
O: process pilotes
Chap.5/287
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Cahier des charges
Concevoir un outil logiciel pour gnrer sous forme symbolique
Les modles dynamiques
Les RRAs
La surveillabilit
Pour :
Nimporte quel processus thermofluides
Intgrable dans un systme de supervision
Modles et RRAs sous forme XML
Convivial pour les oprateurs
Introduction dicne mtiers (approche fonctionnelle)
Chap.5/288
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Main activity
S
O
F
T
W
A
R
E

Formal
residuals
Formal dynamic model
Monitorability
analysis
Technical
specifications
P&IDiagram
XML format
Chap.5/289
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
HOW TO BUILD ARCHITECTURAL MODEL ?
PID
PID
Generic data base
Select process plant
item
Interconnect process plant
item
Check architectural
consistency
Chap.5/290
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Graphical User Interface (1/2)
Architectural model
Behavioral model
Data base
Chap.5/291
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
GENERIC DATA BASE
Chap.5/292
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND MONITORABILITY ANALYSIS
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
293
DEMONSTRATIONS
Analyse de la surveillabilit structurelle et
gnration automatique de RRAs
Chap.5/294
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Vue gnrale
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
295
APPLICATION A UN GENERATEUR DE
VAPEUR
Chap.5/296
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Supervision GUI
Chap.5/297
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
General Informations (1/2
Prsentation
The test plant is designed to be a scale-model of a power station.
It is located at the University of Lille, in the laboratory of Automatic
Control and Computers for Industry (LAIL, unit CNRS UMR 8021
Constitution
The installation is mainly constituted of four subsystems:
1. a receiver with the feed water supply system,
2. a boiler heated by a 60kW thermal resistor,
3. a steam flow system,
4. a complex condenser coupled with a heat exchanger
5. Process delay system

Chap.5/298
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Production mode : the pilot process produces steam in a
continuous mode.
Power 60 kW.
Nominal regime: 180C Max., 10 bars.
Produced steam flow: 85 kg/h.
General Informations (2/2)
STEAM GENERATOR P & I DIAGRAM
P
r
o
c
e
s
s

d
e
l
a
y

s
y
s
t
e
m

FIR
10
PR
11
PIR
16
TR
17
PC
2
PR
14
PR
15
TR
38 PR
38
TR
29 PR
31
V1
V6
User
PR
13
PR
12
ZC
1
V2
V11
BOILER
LIR
9
LIR
8
LG
1
TR
5
PC
1
PIR
7
TR
6
Q
4
Thermal resistor
LC
1
V10
60kW
FIR
3
P2
P1
V9
STORAGE TANK
TIR
2
LIR
1
LG
3
STEAM FLOW
FEED WATER
CONDENSER HEAT-EXCHANGER
V8
Condensate
V4
V5
LG
2
LC
2
Aero-refrigerator
TIR
26
Environment
FIR
23
FIR
24
TIR
27
TIR
21
Cooling water
P3
P4
TIR
22
TC
5
PR
27
TIR
20
LIR
19
LIR
18
V3
TIR
25
Chap.5/300
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Number of sensors 28
10 Pressure sensors
12 Temperature sensors
5 Level sensors
4 Flow sensors
1 Power sensor
Number of actuators 8
1 Pump (switching level control in the boiler)
1 Thermal resistor (switching pressure control in the boiler)
1 Valve (Continuous pressure control in the condenser)
1 Valve (Continuous valve position)
3 discharge valves (switching level control in the condenser)
1 Three way-valve (continuous cooling water temperature control )

General Informations
Chap.5/301
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Number of equipment units
1 storage tank of 0.4 m
3

4 Pumps
1 Boiler of 0.175 m
3

5 controlled valves
1 Controlled three-way-valve
1 Condenser coupled with an exchanger
1 Aero-refrigerator
1 Thermal resistor of 60 KW
1 PC-based digital control system
1 process delay system
General Informations
Chap.5/302
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Failure scenarios
Plant faults
Water leak in the boiler by opening valve V11
Thermal insulation fault taking off the calorifuge sheet
Pressure leak in the steam flow system by opening valve V3
Water leak in the storage tank by opening valve V10
Steam pipe blocked out by closing the manual valve V13

Actuator faults
Any valve can be blocked open or closed
Pump fault by switching off the power supply
The actuator control signals can be modified
Failure Discharge valves leak by opening valve V8 et V9
Sensor abrupt faults
Any sensor can be temporary disconnected
The sensor signals can be modified



General Informations
Chap.5/303
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Reconfigurability
Degraded mode: one or two discharge valves in running
Use of one or two controlled valves in the steam flow system
The long loop of the heat-exchanger in fault mode: degraded mode, only the
short loop is in running mode
Feeding pumps are redundant
Sensor system can be reconfigured


General Informations
Chap.5/304
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
The process can be used by anyone

Automation System:
Conventional instrumentation
The used technology is the 4-20 mA
Control system
Two types of digital controllers are used: On-off and PI
Controlled parameters:
Boiler pressure, boiler level, condenser level, condenser pressure, Steam flow
valve position and Cooling water temperature.
Interface to this control system.
supervision software " Panorama "


General Informations
Chap.5/305
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
305\93
WORD BOND GRAPH OF THE INSTALLATION
Condenser
Cooling
circuit
T P,
m H

,
T P,
m H

,
Condenser-Heat exchanger
m H

,
T P,
Boiler
m H

,
T P,
Steam
expansion
m H

,
T P,
Feed water
circuit
T P, m H

,
Receiver
T P,
m H

,
Discharge
valves
T P,
m H

,
Voltage source
i
U
Q

Thermal
resistor
T
Chap.5/306
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Modelling hypothesis
For the feeding circuit the liquid is incompressible.

In the steam boiler, water and steam are in thermodynamic equilibrium,
This is justified by the fact that we have a good homogenous mixture of
the emulsion water-steam. The mixture is at uniform pressure, which
means that we neglect surface tension of the steam bubbles.

The boiler has a thermal capacity and is subject to heat losses towards the
environment

All variables are described by lumped parameters.

Chap.5/307
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
307\93
MODELLING and SIMULATION
Numerical using
Matlab Simuling
Software
Formal model
generation using
symbols software
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
308
RRAs GENERATION
Chap.5/309
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs
Chap.5/310
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de
RRAs (suite)
Contraintes:
Chap.5/311
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs
(suite)
Elimination des variables inconnues:
Chap.5/312
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs
(suite)
RRA1:
RRA2:
Chap.5/313
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs
(suite)
RRA3:
RRA4:
RRA5:
Chap.5/314
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)
RRA6:
RRA7:
RRA8:
Chap.5/315
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Matrice des signatures des fautes
Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)
Chap.5/316
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Supervision du GV (Schma de supervision)
RRA, MATRICE DES
SIGNATURES DES
FAUTES
MODELE BG
EVALUATION DES RRA,
RESIDUS, PROCEDURE DE
DECISION
LISTE DES
FAUTES
A
C
C
O
M
M
O
D
A
T
I
O
N

D
E
S

F
A
U
T
E
S
,

R
E
C
O
F
I
G
U
R
A
T
I
O
N

CAPTEURS COMMANDE ACTIONNEURS
GENERATEUR DE
VAPEUR
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
317
Gnration automatique des RRAs
Chap.5/318
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Gnration automatique des RRAs
Chap.5/319
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Gnration automatique des RRAs
Chap.5/320
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Gnration automatique des RRAs
Chap.5/321
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Matrice de surveillabilit
Chap.5/322
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Implementation : Panorama CCOM Interface
3. Data acquisition
Panorama Supervision
Controls Faults Residuals
FCTINTPP
Archives
Mistral Alarms
Data
Server
CCOM
C++/java/G2
Interface
CCOM
Server
CCOM Client
TBxx
PROCESS
SUPERVISION
SYSTEM
TCP/IP
COMMUNICATIO
N SYSTEM
1
2
4
Chap.5/323
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
(Panorama: Editeur de synoptiques)
Chap.5/324
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Supervision du GV (Panorama: Rgulation)
Chap.5/325
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Supervision du GV (Panorama: Dfinition des variables)
Chap.5/326
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Supervision du GV (Panorama: Dfinition des alarmes
Chap.5/327
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Dcision
Simple test
Chap.5/328
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Dcision (suite)
Two-sided CuSum
Chap.5/329
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Dcision (suite)
Application de CuSum
S
i
m
p
l
e

t
e
s
t

Chap.5/330
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
CONCLUSIONS
The interest of the presented approach :
consists in the use of only one representation (bond graph modelling) for ARRs and dynamics
models generation in symbolic format.
the industrial designer can easily (because of integration of the functional tool as interface with
the human operator) build the thermofluid dynamic model and ARRs
Propose to the user a sensor placement to satisfy a given technical specification
To add a new component in the data base in a generic way
What are the limits in model based supervision ?
The performances depend on the accuracy of the model
Processes are no stationary : the models change
There is not the method for supervision but integration of tools is
needed
Real time applications are not yet used in industry : maintenance of
implemented algorithms is difficult.

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