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# Module 2 - Math

Unit 10

## Unit 10 Introduction to Statistics

2.10.0 Introduction We use statistics in our everyday lives. Think about the mileage your car gets per gallon of gas. When we purchase a vehicle, the mileage is posted on the sticker. How did the car manufacturer know how many miles per gallon this car gets? Statistics are based on sampling a certain number and using the information gathered from the sample to make a statement about the entire population. 2.10.1 Using Statistics Read the following scenario to better understand how statistics can be used to portray information. Matt Jones owns Mahogany Custom Furniture. He wants to attract new workers on the basis that he pays a high salary. Using this months payroll data, he writes, The average salary at Mahogany Custom Furniture is over \$2,200 per month." Did he lie? When report data, it is often easy to use the data in a way that makes our point or disproves another view. In the case above, Matt wanted to make his company look good. But what did John say when he read the ad?

## Module 2 - Math 2.10.2 Central Tendency

Unit 10

When we use a single value to represent a set of numbers, we call this a measure of central tendency. Mean, median and mode are all ways we express this measure. Definitions: Mean or average is the sum of the data divided by the number of numbers in the data set. (1600 + 1720 + 1800 + 1800 + 1850 + 6000) / 6 = \$2,203.67 (Matt didnt lie.) Median is the number closest to the middle of the numbers. Put the numbers in order. If there is an odd number of data points, choose the middle number. If there is an even number, you will need to average the middle two numbers. 1600 1720 1800 1800 1850 6000 In our case, both middle numbers are 1800, so the average is 1800 (the middle). Mode is the most frequent number in the data set. In our case, 1800. If no number repeats there is no mode.

2.10.3 Interpreting Statistics Carefully Matt did not, lie but he was not telling the whole story either. If he had reported that, The average salary at Mahogany Custom Furniture is over \$2,200 per month, and then added that the median salary was \$1,800 and the mode was \$1,800, he would have given a more accurate impression of the true state. Or, he could have stated the range was from \$1,600 to \$6,000 per month. When you read numbers in the paper or on the internet, be alert to how people use true facts to their advantage and neglect to mention other facts that may give a very different picture of the truth.

Module 2 - Math

Unit 10

Assessment
1) What are the mean, medium, mode, and range of Angelas test scores? She has the following scores on six tests: 95, 92, 87, 96, 87 and 98. 2) Which of the following statements are true about a set of numbers? a) The mean of a set of numbers is always a whole number. b) The mean of a set of numbers is always a number in the set. c) The median of any set of numbers is always a number in the set. d) All of the above. e) None of the above. 3) Riley scored 80 and 100 points on his first two math exams. If he scores a 90 on the third, which of the following data measures would change? a) The mean will change. b) The mode will change. c) The median will change. d) Nothing will change. Data Set for Problems 4-7 Expense Housing Utilities Food Medical Clothing Entertainment

## 4) What is the median cost of entertainment for the months listed?

5) What is the mean (average) food cost for the months listed?

## 6) In the average month, which costs more, Medical or Clothing?

Data Set for Problems 7 & 8 Miles Driven 287 310 298

## Cost \$32.85 \$32.60 \$32.89

Module 2 - Math

Unit 10

Mario keeps the above records for gas and miles to be reimbursed for using his own truck for business. The above data is for the entire month of May.

7) What are the average miles per gallon that Marios truck gets during May?