Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Pure accidents lead to great discoveries.

I was comparing the Sumerian polyvalency (the association of "many values" with a particular sign, each with its own separate pronunciation) when I came across two distinct readings: pa 'branch' can also be read idri 'scepter' an 'sky' can also be read diir 'god(dess)' The fact that the name of god derived form the name of sceptre does not require too much thought. It is common sense. Deep down in my soul, I had always believed that the name of god was associated with the title of the king and the throne. But it was a matter of coincidence that I finally demonstrated that the concept of god evolved from the office of the monarch. What matters is not the fact that these two cognates are similar to each other. Sumerian scribes tried very hard to separate the two. They made sure that the name of god and the name of the crown, power, and sceptre remained separate. But it is not rocket science to establish that in fact the letters of the name diir 'god' are in fact the transposition of letters idri 'scepter'. If people realized that gods were initially kings (as it was the natural course of a deified king) than the other option would be dismissed, the very fact that priests had been insisting all along, that the kingship came from heaven. It seems that in the primitive Sumerian society kings were actually gods. After the discovery of the constellations and the establishment of the zodiac signs, priests decided to raise the bar of the divine up to the heavens. In the meantime the language had preserved the initial primitive notion that kings were living gods. An advanced civilisation would have found a king god unacceptable and incompatible with the divine and abstract nature of a creator of the world. A mortal, a mere human could not have created the universe after all. That creates another puzzle, the puzzle of word formation. A spoken language works using the effect of metathesis. So the natural course of word formation according to any spoken language would have been as follows: idri 'scepter' > * dri- i and not di-ir 'god'. Well, Sumerian scribes made sure that no living soul would ever doubt the sinister nature of religion, the great ruse, the fact that there were no gods, the fat that ruling monarchs established themselves initially as the first gods, the fact that the creation of earth had taken place before Sumerians were even born as a species. In fact we can see that the name of sceptre itself derived from the name of tree in Sumerian. That is a stark reminder, that Sumerians had no gods when they invented the writing system. They must have believed in spirits of the dead, but the theory of creation was not born until the technology of writing developed into a sophisticated science of deception.

idru [SCEPTER] (129x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. idru;mumu-ud-ru "scepter" Akk. hau [1] [2] -0 (129x/100%). + 3500 3000 2500 2000 [1] [2] 9 13 87 idru (idri, mudru)

mu-ud-ru (ES) (no date)

1500 1000

18 distinct forms attested; click to view forms table. 1. scepter (129x/100%) ~ LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur idru OB Nippur Lu 144. ELA/Ur III/Ur gidri dha-ia3e3 UET 3, 0300 3; gidri-bi ub-bu-de3 UET 3, 0538 3; 1(di) uruda gidri UET 3, 0718 7; gar-ragidri-ba ku3-babbar gar-ra UET 3, 0740 3. ELA/Ur III/unclear 1(di) gidri uruda ki-la2-bi[x gin2] TLB 3, 168 o ii 18; 1(di) gidri ku3 kila2-bi 1(di) gin2 TLB 3, 168 r ii 14.unknown/ED IIIb/Girsu ka e2 gidri#-ka#-ta DP 053 o ii 16; ka e2 gidri-ka-ta RTC 047 o iii 6; 1(a@c) udu e2 gidri-ka RTC 047 o i 4. unknown/ED IIIb/Nippur nu-zuh gidri# ku3-geASJ 16, p. 43-46 prism xvi 7; gidri# [...] ASJ 16, p. 43-46 prism xvii 14. unknown/Old Akkadian/Girsu gidri u4 su3ra2 ITT 5, 06696 r i 1. unknown/Ur III/Umma 1(di) ma2 ma2gidri SNAT 409 r ii 3. ~ harmuen[snare]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur iidru har-muen-na OB Nippur Ura 1 537. Akk. hau "stick, scepter".

PA idru (mudru idri edru gidru gidri) idru [SCEPTER]. kun2 kun [SHINE]. lu9 lu [FLARE]. lu2 (lug2 lun lu9) lua [DAMAGE]. lua [SUBMERGE]. mu6 mu [MANLY]. pa (ba2) pa [BRANCH]. sag3 (sak3 zag2 zak2ag3 sig3 seg3) sag [BEAT]. sag [SCATTER]. sig3 sig [BURN]. sullat2 (ullat2) sullat [UNMNG]. ux(PA) (see full listing) ugula ugula [OVERSEER].

Full listing. Also: addirx(PA), ari3, aru, dur6, duru6?, endur, getara, gidar, gidirx(PA), gituru, edar, eturu, had, hani3, has2, ha2, ha, haz2, hendur, hud, kumx(PA), lar, ma4, midra, mua, muati, muatu, munsubx(PA), muwa, muwati, muya, muyati, si29, sigga2, siqqax(PA), ugulu, zaq2. It is obvious that the name of sceptre gituru = gi-turu [tree-small], So a sceptre was initially a small tree, basically a branch. Sumerian: tur (tul4 turu tura) tur [CHILD]. tur [SMALL].

e [TREE] (5552 instances) e [TREE] (5552x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. e; mu; u5 "tree; wood; a description of animals" Akk. iu See gu e al[submit], gu e ar[submit], e bala[sell], e hur[draw], e la[listen], e la[silent], e rah[beat], e tag[make offerings], e tuku[listen], e ur[abandon], e ur[harrow]. [1] [2] e (ge, i) mu (ES)

[3] u5 (ES) + -0 (5533x/100%); -a3 (18x/0%); - (1x/0%). (no 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 date) 508 [1] 190 251 1 0 [2] 14 [3] 32 distinct forms attested; click to view forms table. 1. tree (5539x/100%) ~ LEX/ED IIIa/unknown i ED Word List C = "Tribute" 65; i ED Word List C = "Tribute" 79;ZI&ZI.LAGAB i DUR2 ED Word List C = "Tribute" 84; ZI&ZI.E3 i dur ED Word List C = "Tribute" 86. LEX/Old

Babylonian/Nippur i# il2-il2 OB Nippur Lu 572; i gu2 ab-hi#-[ir]OB Kagal 538; ibi al-di#-[di] OB Kagal 539. LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown lu2 sa# [i]ra = a ne-ertim OB Lu-Azlag A 114. ELA/ED IIIb/Girsu 4(a@c) 5(ban2) zu2lum gesi4 ge ge6-da arx(NE)-ra gur-sag-gal2 VS 27, 080 o i 1; 4(a@c) 5(ban2) zu2-lum gesi4 ge ge6-da arx(NE)-ra gur-sag-gal2 VS 27, 080 o i 1; 5(ban2@c) zu2-lum ge si4gal-gal VS 27, 080 o i 2. ELA/ED IIIb/Nippur gi-a du3-de3 TMH 5, 181 6; 1(a@c) gi-a3? TMH NF 1-2, suppl 12 o i 2; lu gi-kam OSP 1, 094 o ii 2. ELA/ED IIIb/Ur gi be6-tag!? UET 2 supp 15 o i 5. ELA/ED IIIb/unknown igi-nu-du8 ge-me Nik 1, 002 o iii 2; igi-nu-du8 ge-me Nik 1, 009 o ii 6; igi-nu-du8 ge-me Nik 1, 018 o ii 2. ELA/Old Akkadian/Adab u ge gal2-la me Adab 0640 o ii 9; U+LAGAB [x ge]ig# ge salla Adab 0728 7; e ane ge!? Adab 1008 2. ELA/Old Akkadian/Girsu ge-a ba-ansi MVN 07, 146 5; 2(a@c) gu4 ge RTC 265 o ii 4; la2-ia3 2(di) gu4 ge RTC 265 o ii 6. ELA/Old Akkadian/Lagash 1(a@c) geban su ge sar# BM 026760 4; lu2# ge x BM 028652 3.ELA/Old Akkadian/Nippur ge x-lugal-abzu-ki x x TMH 5, 052 r i 8. ELA/Old Akkadian/Sagubugula ge-a3 MC 4, 45 27. ELA/Old Akkadian/Umma ge-a3 dub-sar-e USP 15 2;1(a@c) dur3 libir ge USP 54 4. ELA/Old Akkadian/Ur ge? UET 2 supp 18 1. ELA/Old Akkadian/unclear 3(u) 1(di) ge gid2-da Athene 19980924h 2; 4(di) ge gimu? Athene 19980924q 1. ELA/Old Akkadian/unknown 3(a@c) gu4 ge MAD 4, 028 1; ge# i3-da-ku5MAD 4, 170 5; [x] ki ge [x x] WO 13, 10 1. ELA/Lagash II/Girsu 1(di) gu4 ge ki [...]MVN 06, 338 11; gurum2? gekiri6 ge gal-gal MVN 07, 176 4. ELA/Ur III/Adab igi ki ABNI ge NI x MVN 13, 741 2. ELA/Ur III/Drehem 1(di) gu4 ge AfO 04, 23 1; mu gu4 ge-ka-e3 AnOr 07, 004 2; 1(di) ah2 nita iri ge niga AnOr 07, 009 2. ELA/Ur III/Girsu e2-udu ga2nun# ge#-e3# AAS 180 4; e ge e3-a ABTR 06 3; 6(di) gesag ge sie1/2(di) ku3-ta AION 31, 175 06 2. ELA/Ur III/Nippur ge gu2 i7-unu6-ib2ba AUCT 1, 454 2; 1(di) kak ge AUCT 1, 946 1; 2(di) ge 4(barig) x BE 03/1, 075 2. ELA/Ur III/Umma 1(ge2) gu4 ge AAS 043 1; 1(di) gu4 ge AAS 045 1; [e ge] e3#-a GAN2gu4 AAS 083 r v 8. ELA/Ur III/Ur 1(ge2) 2(u) 7(di) ge gal bar-da geig-e3 MVN 01, 117 1; 1(ar2) 3(geu) 5(u) sa ge u2-bil2 MVN 01, 117 3; 1(ge2) 3(di) ge bardasiki? [x] MVN 01, 117 5. ELA/Ur III/unclear 1(di) ge gal AAS 127 1; 1(di) genigargar-ki-du10 AAS 127 3; 4(ge2)# 2(u) 6(a)# 3(barig)# 1(ban2) ge i3 gur!? AAS 200 o iv 1. ELA/Ur III/unknown 1(u) ge x-[...] UCP 9-2-1, 062 5; 3(di) za3-mi-ri2-tumzabar ge-a du3a YOS 15, 181 1. ELA/Early Old Babylonian/Nippur 1(u) <(GAN2)> gekiri6ge gubba PBS 08/1, 008 1; 1(u) <(GAN2)> gekiri6 ge gub-ba PBS 08/1, 008 10.ELA/Early Old Babylonian/unknown [x] ge dam-i-lum kusagu lugal BIN 09, 035 1; gegigi-de3 BIN 09, 172 3; 1/2(di) ku udu babbar la-ar ge sa2-bi2-tum BIN 09, 253 4.ELA/Old Babylonian/Nippur e2# aag# gekiri6 ge gub-ba gekiri6 e2-gal ARN 065 9.ELA/Old Babylonian/unclear 1(di) x 1(di) ma2 x dsuen!? A? UD ge HA SDSU 5 3.unknown/ED IIIb/Girsu e2-a ge bi2-se3 DP 057 o vi 9; 1(a@c) gu4 ge DP 083 o ii 4;4(a@c) durx(U.ANE) UL.GI ge DP 083 o ii 6. unknown/ED IIIb/Lagash lugal-ka ge NIGIN2 tuku BiMes 03, 14 r i 3. unknown/ED IIIb/Nippur da dara3 ge ma NUN ASJ 16, p. 43-46 prism xx 11. unknown/ED IIIb/Umma 1/2(iku@c) GAN2 3(a@c) e gi-a3 lugal-ib2-ta-ni-e3 MC 4, 03 o ii 7. unknown/ED IIIb/unclear x lu2# [x x?] ge# [x x?] da# BIN 08, 159 o ii 6'. unknown/ED IIIb/unknown e2 gi-a3 sanga BIN 08, 102 o ii 2; 2(a@c) ge a3 BIN 08, 105 3; 1(a@c) lu2 ge BIN 08, 111 o ii 5. unknown/Old

Akkadian/Adab [x x] hi ge xOIP 014, 107 4; 2(a@c) abra ge# si4 OIP 014, 150 7; [x] dusu2 ge OIP 014, 194 1. unknown/Old Akkadian/Girsu 1(a@c) gu4 ge ITT 2, 03160 o i 23; 1(di) gu4 ge ITT 2, 03160 o ii 7; 1(a@c) gu4 ge ITT 2, 03160 o ii 10. unknown/Old Akkadian/unknown [e?]ge-ra GAN2-gu4 lugal AAS 204 2; 3(ge2) 1(u) la2 1(a@c) ge-a3 BIN 08, 100 o i 4;ge#-a3 BIN 08, 184 6. unknown/Ur III/Drehem 1(di) gukkal 2(di) gukkal ge du3Akkadica 78, 11 1; 1(di) udu a-lum ge du3 Akkadica 78, 11 3; 1(geu) 3(ge2) 3(u)ge [...] Aleppo 068 1. unknown/Ur III/Girsu e sumun guru7 ge-e3 ASJ 02, 21 61 6;6(di) sila3 lu2-dab5-ba ga2nun ge-ka gub-ba ASJ 14, 337 23 2; ga2-nun ge-kagub-ba ASJ 14, 337 27 2. unknown/Ur III/Lagash 1(di) dur3 ge Rochester 227 1.unknown/Ur III/Nippur 7(di) ane ge BBVO 11, 257, 4N-T193 1; 6(di) ane ge BBVO 11, 257, 4N-T193 3; 5(di) gu4 ge BBVO 11, 257, 4N-T193 5. unknown/Ur III/Umma2(di) ge x [x] gid2-bi 3(di)# ku3#-ta# AR RIM 07 12 10; 1(bur3) GAN2 tug2-gurx(E.KIN)# 1/2(iku)# 1/4(iku)# GAN2# ge# a#-ra2# 3(di) 1 (ee3) GAN2-ta ArOr 62, 233 I 865 o i 3'; 2(ee3) 3(iku) GAN2 ge ara2 3(di) 1(ee3) GAN2-ta ArOr 62, 233 I 865 o i 4'. unknown/Ur III/Ur ge [...] TCS 1, 005 r i 14. unknown/Ur III/unclear 1(di) gu4 geDoCu 170 3; 4(di) ge 1(u)ta Hirose 400 1; 1(di) ge 4(di) Hirose 400 2.unknown/Old Babylonian/Nippur x# [sar ge]-kiri6 ge gub-ba SAOC 44, 10 16. ~ n n takarin[boxwood]LEX/unknown/unknown i 4(u) 2(di) taskarin CBS 01862 r ii 35'. ~ gaba[chest]LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown i gaba-u10 Ugumu 185. unknown/Ur III/Umma1(di) gu4 ge gaba? x-su?-da-e3# TCNU 536 6. ~ giggi[black]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i giggi OB Nippur Ura 1 7. ~ gu[neck] abkiz[furrow]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur [i] gu2 ab#-[ki-iz] OB Kagal 537. ~ nuluha[asafoetida]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i# nu-luh-hasar OB Nippur Ura 4 Seg.4, 17. ~ numun[seed] igi[face]LEX/ED IIIa/unknown i numun igi-ta ED Plants 23. ~ sa[head]LEX/ED IIIa/unknown i sa ED Officials 100. ELA/Ur III/Girsu U+LAGAB 1(di)gu4 ge sag gu4 2(di)-e3 Amherst 052 r iv 4; U+LAGAB 1(di) ane 2(di) ge-e3sag ane-e3 Amherst 052 r iv 13; U+LAGAB 1(di) ane 2(di) ge-e3 sag dur3-e3Amherst 052 r iv 14. ELA/Ur III/Umma u3 ge? sag? ab-ba kid AnOr 01, 107 3; 1(di) gu4ge sag ab2 mah2-e3 su-ga engar TIM 06, 55 o ii 24; 1(di) gu4 ge sag ab2 mah2-e3 su-ga lu2-dutu TIM 06, 55 o iii 12; 1(di) gu4 ge sag ab2 mah2-e3 BM 105368 1.ELA/Ur III/Ur bagul a3 [x] ge sag [x] UET 3, 0013 3. ELA/Ur III/unclear 1(u) 1(di) [...]e# ge sag gur PA x MVN 13, 567 1. unknown/Old Akkadian/Girsu U+LAGAB 1(a@c)gu4 ge sag ab2-e3 ITT 2, 03160 r iii 6'. unknown/Ur III/Umma 1(di) gu4 ge sag ab2mah2-e3 UTI 3, 2093 7. ~ uniin[total]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i u-niin2-na OB Nippur Ura 1 706. ELA/Old Akkadian/Adab [x] si di ge Adab 1104 2. ELA/Old Akkadian/Girsu U+LAGAB 1(ge2@c)5(u@c) 2(a@c) 1/2(a@c) gu4 ge RTC 265 r ii 1'. ELA/Ur III/Drehem [U+LAGAB x gu4ge] Fs.Jones, 068 r iv 3; U+LAGAB 8(di) dusu2 nita2 ge OrSP 47-49, 108 4;U+LAGAB 1(u) 2(di) gu4 ge PDT 1, 341 6; U+LAGAB 3(di) dusu2 nita2 ge PDT 1, 341 10. ELA/Ur III/Girsu U+LAGAB 1(u) 6(a@c) gu4 ge Amherst 038 r i 23; U+LAGAB1(di) ab2 2(di) sag gu4 ge-e3 Amherst 052 r iv

3; U+LAGAB 1(di) ane 2(di) ge-e3 Amherst 052 r iv 15. ELA/Ur III/Umma U+LAGAB 2(di) gu4 ge Buffalo SNS.11-2, 129 03 r i 2; U+LAGAB 3(di) dur3 ge Buffalo SNS.11-2, 129 03 r i 18; U+LAGAB2(di) dur3 ge MVN 04, 076 r i 12. ELA/Ur III/Ur U+LAGAB 3(di)# gu4 ge# UET 9, 1071 r iii 12; U+LAGAB 2(di) dur3 ge UET 9, 1071 r iii 14. unknown/Old Akkadian/GirsuU+LAGAB 1(a@c) ab2 mah2 sag gu4 ge-e3 ITT 2, 03160 r iii 4'; U+LAGAB 4(u)8(a@c) gu4 ge ITT 2, 03160 r iii 5'; [U+LAGAB] 1(ge2) 1(u) 4(a@c) gu4 ge ITT 2, 03160 r v 9'. unknown/Old Akkadian/unknown ge-a3 Bridges p. 462 6; ge-a3 Bridges p. 466 4; U+LAGAB 4(u) gu4 ge Bridges p. 466 5. unknown/Ur III/Girsu [x] gu4 ge ASJ 15, 291 3 r ii 2; U+LAGAB 7(di) ma2 gid2 ma2 ge ASJ 20, 110, 8 r i 17; [U+LAGAB]7(di) ma2 gid2 ma2 ge ASJ 20, 110, 8 r ii 18. unknown/Ur III/Umma U+LAGAB 1(ban2)[ninda ge] U+LAGAB 1(ban2) zi3 gu sag10 ASJ 19, 164 64 5; U+LAGAB 1(di) gu4ge SNAT 381 10; U+LAGAB 1(di) gu4 ge UTI 3, 2285 r ii 4. unknown/Ur III/unclearU+LAGAB 6(di) gu4 ge AAICAB 1/1, pl. 071, 1924-0676 o iii 5; U+LAGAB 1(u) 6(di)gu4 ge AAICAB 1/1, pl. 071, 1924-0676 o iii 14; U+LAGAB 3(di) gu4 ge AAICAB 1/1, pl. 071, 1924-0676 r i 8; U+LAGAB 1(di) gu4 ge AAICAB 1/1, pl. 071, 1924-0676 r i 12. ~ tag[touch]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i tag-ga OB Kagal 527. ELA/ED IIIb/Girsu nig2 getag-ga VS 14, 005 r vi 2; ge be2-tag 2(ADI@t) VS 14, 005 r vi 10; ge be2-tag VS 14, 005 o i 6. ELA/ED IIIb/Ur ge e-tag UET 2 supp 46 o i 6. ELA/ED IIIb/unknown gebe2-tag Nik 1, 023 r iv 7; ge be2tag 6(ADI@t)? Nik 1, 023 r vii 7; ge e-tag-ge Nik 1, 023 o ii 11. ELA/Ur III/Umma nig2 ge tag-ga lugal Aegyptus 26, 167 18 3; nig2 getag-ga ku4ra Aegyptus 26, 167 18 6; nig2 ge tag-ga MVN 14, 0546 5. unknown/ED IIIb/Girsu nig2 ge tag-ga DP 040 o v 10; nig2 ge tag-ga DP 040 r iii 2; ge etag DP 043 o ii 1. unknown/ED IIIb/unknown nig2 ge tag-ga DP 025 o i 2; nig2 ge tag-ga ezemkisal-ka DP 025 o ii 3; ge e-tag HSS 03, 41 ii 2; ge be2tag 2(ADI@t) TSA 01 r v 3; nig2 ge tag-ga TSA 51 r vi 4; ge be2-tag Nik 1, 151 r ii 2. unknown/Ur III/Drehemnig2 ge tag-ga lugal Aleppo 414 4; nig2 ge tagga lugal Aleppo 415 4; nig2 ge tag-ga lugal Aleppo 416 3. unknown/Ur III/Girsu a2 ge tag-ga DoCu 459 8. ~ tuku[acquire]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i tuku OB Kagal 549; i tuku-tuku OB Kagal 550. LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown lu2 i tuku = e-mu-u2 OB Lu-Azlag A 59; lu2# i#tuku-tuku = e-mu-e-e2-u2-um# OB Lu-Azlag A 60; lu2 i!? tuku = e#-e#mu#-u2#-um#lu2-azlag B and C Seg.1, 59; lu2# i# tuku-tuku = e#-im#-mi#-u2#-um lu2azlag B and C Seg.1, 60. unknown/ED IIIb/unclear ge tuku# BIN 08, 042 o iv 5. See: gud e tag; e e rah; uzu e gaba; uzu e ag. 2. wood (13x/0%) ~LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown gi ra-ah = MIN<( si3-hi-il-ti)> i-i OB List of Diseases 105. ~ n gi[unit]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i 1(u) gin2 OB Nippur Ura 1 524; i 5(di) gin2 OB Nippur Ura 1 525; i 3(di) gin2 OB Nippur Ura 1 525a; i 2(di) gin2 OB Nippur Ura 1 525b; i 1(di) gin2 OB Nippur Ura 1 526.

~ n sila[unit]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i 1(di) sila3 OB Nippur Ura 1 520; i 1/2(di) sila3OB Nippur Ura 1 521; i 1/3(di) sila3 OB Nippur Ura 1 522; i 2/3(di) sila3 OB Nippur Ura 1 523. ~ gude[lute]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur mu gu3-de2 OB Nippur Lu 524. ~ nam[fate] tar[cut]LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur i nam nu-tar-re OB Nippur Ura 1 493. See: engar e e i. 3. a description of animals Akk. iu "tree". The final verdict is that the name of the tree was invented first, and then came the name of the sceptre which was not made of gold or silver. It was a mere stick... but why a stick and not a bow, a lance, a spear, an arrow, or maybe knife. A mace would have been the oldest sceptre inherited from the age of the hunter gatherer. The answer is very simple. The first kings of Sumer were shepherds and not farmers. Shepherds use the stick to bring the sheep together and similarly, the flock of the faithful was a naturally obedient herd. Stories of creation are abundant in every culture around the world. Even the most primitive tribes seem to have acquired some kind of abstract biblical perspective of creation. Yet, the cradle of civilisation, the land of Sumer elects a shepherd as the first king and does not care about the myth of creation. This fact is very important. It means that the model of creation arose very late, around 3000 BC. It seems ancient to us because primitive tribes adopted it wave by wave. But the epicentre of this great idea was the place where the writing began. And the written texts do not mention the myth of creation. They try to conceive the fact that the first kings were mortals who reared sheep and used sticks as crooks. And finally crooks became sceptres of gold and from there the name of god was cast. The mould that was used to cast the sceptre was altered phonetically to cast the name of god.