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Subject: Administration and Supervision in Mathematics Topic: The Nature and Importance of Evaluation Reporter: Elizabeth P.

Eteroza Professor: Dr. Evangeline H. Cayanong

The Nature and Importance of Measurement and Evaluation

Both measurement and evaluation are important parts of the instructional process, a sequence of procedures conducted before, during, and after teaching.
Measurement is the process of quantifying the degree to which someone or something possesses a given trait, i.e., quality, characteristic, or feature.

Measurement
It is the systematic process of determining and differentiating the traits or characteristics a learner possesses.
It can be carried out both quantitatively and qualitatively (McMillan, 1997)

Evaluation is the systematic process involving collection and analysis of data in order to make decisions.
It is the process of forming judgments about the quality of the behavior or performance of a learner.

It involves the interpretation of information or data gathered.

Research
It is the formal, systematic application of the scientific method for the study of problems (Gay, 1996) Measurement and evaluation are key tools in research.

Measurement
Research

Evaluation

Here is a very simple illustration of measurement and evaluation in actual situation.


Suppose a teacher gives a test of 100 items. Then he sets a standard of 75 correct answers as the level of mastery that his students should attain. After giving the test, he checks the test papers and he finds out that the majority of his student have not reach the 75 mastery level. And so he tries to find out the reasons why his students have not come up to his standards. While giving the proper corresponding marks to his students based on their correct answers, he also institutes measures by revising his test which he finds faculty, or by remedial teaching, or by whatever way be thinks to be the best.

Principle 1. Significance Evaluation is an essential component of the teachinglearning process

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement The evaluation of learning outcomes necessitates careful planning and the use of appropriate measuring instruments.

Principle

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement

2. Continuity Placement, formative, diagnostic and Evaluation is a continuous summative evaluation should be process. It takes place before, conducted. during and after instruction

Principle
3. Scope Evaluation should be comprehensive and as varied as the scope of objectives.

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement


The areas to be evaluated should include thinking skills, knowledge and abilities (cognitive), physical and motor skills, attitudes and values (affective). The lesson objectives should be clearly stated. Appropriate evaluation measures should match these objectives.

4. Compatibility Evaluation must be compatible with the stated objectives.

Principle

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement

5. Validity There must be a close The classroom teacher should see to relationship between what an it that every test that she prepares will serve its purpose. evaluation instrument actually measures and what it is supposed to measure. 6. Objectivity Although effective evaluation The data and information needed for should use all the available evaluation should be obtained in an unbiased manner. information, it is generally believed that this information is more worthwhile if it objectively obtained.

Principle
7. Reliability Evaluation instruments should be consistent in measuring what it does measure.

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement


The classroom teacher should construct and use tests that will enable him/her to achieve specific lesson objectives consistently.

8. Diagnostic Value Provisions should be made for Effective evaluation should distinguish not only between diagnostic evaluation to determine the levels of learners performance strength as well as the weaknesses and learning problems of the but also between the processes students. which result in acceptable performance.

Principle
9. Participation Evaluation should be a cooperative effort of school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.

Application in Classroom Testing and Measurement


School administrators, teachers, students, and parents should be involved in the evaluation program. Specifically, students as well as their parents should be oriented on the evaluation policies of the school. Using a combination of evaluation of evaluation procedures is likely to yield results that will provide a reliable picture of the learners performance.

10. Variety Evaluation procedures are of different types, namely: standardized tests and teachermade tests; systematic observation and recording; rating scales; inventories, checklists, questionnaires; sentences completion; and sociometry.

III. Types of Evaluation


When Conducted Prior to instruction Type Placement or pre-assessment Purpose Determine entry knowledge and skills or learners Place learner in appropriate learning groups. Monitor learning progress Find out learning problems and their causes Sample Measures Pre-test Aptitude Test Readiness Test

During Instruction

Formative

At the end of instruction

Summative

Determine extent to which instructional objectives have been attained.

Teacher-made Tests Observation Homework Classroom Performance Parent-Teacher Conference Achievement Tests Rating Scales

IV. Evaluation Measures


A. Tests 1. Basic Concepts Tests are means of measuring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of learners. They vary according to function, content, form, administrative procedures, scoring system, and interpretation.

Purposes Tests provide useful data for making the following decisions Instructional Example: identifying areas of specific weakness of learners. Grading Example: identifying learners who are passing or failing in a given subject Selection Example: accepting or rejecting applicants for admission into a group, program or institution Counseling and guidance Identifying learners who need assistance in personal and academic concerns Curriculum Example: assessing the strengths and weakness of a curricular program Administrative policy Example: determining the budget allocation for a particular school or program

V. Types of Tests
Basis of Classification Type
Educational Tests

Description
Measure outcomes or effects of instruction

Examples
Achievement Test

Function

Psychological Tests

Measure intangible aspects Intelligence Tests of learners behavior Personality Test Consist of words Entail reading, writing, or speaking skills. Composed of numerals or drawings Achievement Test Diagnostic Test

Verbal Tests

Language Mode

Non-verbal Tests

Philippine Non-verbal Intelligence Test

V. Types of Tests
Basis of Classification Type Description
Constructed by test experts over a period of years. Designed to measure broad objectives. Administered using uniform procedures Accompanied by normative data. Constructed by classroom teachers Measures specific objectives Scores are interpreted in regard to a criterion, e.g. knowledge or skills Describe the performance of an examinee in terms of the relative position in the group

Examples
National Elementary Achievement Test Mooney Problem Checklist

Nature and Administration Procedures

Standardized Tests

Non-Standardized Tests

Unit Tests Quarterly Tests

Teacher-made Tests

Interpretation of Scores

Criterion-Referenced Tests

Norm-Referenced Tests

Standardized Tests

V. Types of Tests
Basis of Classification Type Power Tests Description
Have no time limit Measure accuracy rather than speed of response Have time limit Measure performance in terms of the number of tasks performed in a given time Require the examinee to provide answers to the given options

Examples
Most classroom Tests

Time Requirements

Speed Tests

Reading Test Typing Speed Test

Item Format

Supply Type Tests Selective Type Tests

Short Answers Tests Completion Tests

Ask the examinee to choose Binary Choice (Truethe correct answers from False) Multiple-Choice the given options

V. Types of Tests
Basis of Classification Type
Cognitive Tests

Description
Measure knowledge, abilities and thinking skills

Examples
Achievement Test Aptitude Test Intelligence Test Rating Scales Interview Questionnaire Sociogram

Domain/Target Measured

Affective Tests

Measure attitudes, values, motivation, and social skills

Non-Test Measures
1. Performance-Based Evaluation Measures
Types of Performance-based Assessment Tasks 1. Restricted-type Tasks Measure a narrowly defined skill Require relatively brief response Task is structured and specific Examples: Constructing a histogram from data provided. Writing a term paper about the significance a People Power II.

Extended-type Tasks

More complex , elaborate and time consuming Involves collaborative work with small groups of learners
Examples: Creating a commercial advertisement Composing a poem Putting up a school newsletter

2. Affective Evaluation Measures


a. Examples of Affective Assessment Methods 1. Teachers Observation

Unstructured
Open-ended Does not require checklist or rating scale for recording purposes

Structured
Uses a checklist or a rating scale for recording purposes

2. Leaner Self-Reports

Autobiography- the learner describes his/her own life as he/she has experienced and viewed it.

Self-expression- the learner responds to a particular question, issue, or concern in an essay form.

Self description- the learner paints a picture of himself/herself in his own words.

3. Peer Ratings

Sociometric technique- shows the interpersonal relationships among the members of a group.

Guess who technique- the learner are associated with given characteristics or activities.

communigram- indicates the extent of the verbal participation of a learner in a particular group within a given period of time.

Social distance scale- measures the degree of acceptance or rejection of a learner in relation to the other group members.