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Republic Act No.

8749

June 23, 1999

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:: Chapter 1 General Provisions Article One Basic Air Quality Policies Section 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999." Section 2. Declaration of Principles. - The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. The State shall promote and protect the global environment to attain sustainable development while recognizing the primary responsibility of local government units to deal with environmental problems. The State recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based. The State also recognizes the principle that "polluters must pay". Finally, the State recognizes that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all and should, therefore, be the concern of all. Section 3. Declaration of Policies. - The State shall pursue a policy of balancing development and environmental protection. To achieve this end, the frame work for sustainable development shall be pursued. It shall be the policy of the State to:

(a) Formulate a holistic national program of air pollution management that shall be implemented by the government through proper delegation and effective coordination of functions and activities; (b) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries through the application of market-based instruments; (c) Focus primarily on pollution prevention rather than on control and provide for a comprehensive management program for air pollution; (d) Promote public information and education and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public in air quality planning and monitoring; and (e) Formulate and enforce a system of accountability for short and long-term adverse environmental impact of a project, program or activity. This shall include the setting up of a funding or guarantee mechanism for clean-up and environmental rehabilitation and compensation for personal damages.
Section 4. Recognition of Rights. - Pursuant to the above-declared principles, the following rights of citizens are hereby sought to be recognized and the State shall seek to guarantee their enjoyment:

(a) The right to breathe clean air; (b) The right to utilize and enjoy all natural resources according to the principles of sustainable development; (c) The right to participate in the formulation, planning, implementation and monitoring of environmental policies and programs and in the decision-making process; (d) The right to participate in the decision-making process concerning development policies, plans and programs projects or activities that may have adverse impact on the environment and public health;

(e) The right to be informed of the nature and extent of the potential hazard of any activity, undertaking or project and to be served timely notice of any significant rise in the level of pollution and the accidental or deliberate release into the atmosphere of harmful or hazardous substances; (f) The right of access to public records which a citizen may need to exercise his or her rights effectively under this Act; (g) The right to bring action in court or quasi-judicial bodies to enjoin all activities in violation of environmental laws and regulations, to compel the rehabilitation and cleanup of affected area, and to seek the imposition of penal sanctions against violators of environmental laws; and (h) The right to bring action in court for compensation of personal damages resulting from the adverse environmental and public health impact of a project or activity.
Article Two Definition of Terms Section 5. Definitions. - As used in this Act:

a) "Air pollutant" means any matter found in the atmosphere other than oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and the inert gases in their natural or normal concentrations, that is detrimental to health or the environment, which includes but not limited to smoke, dust, soot, cinders, fly ash, solid particles of any kind, gases, fumes, chemical mists, steam and radio-active substances; b) "Air pollution" means any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous or solid substances that will or is likely to create or to render the air resources of the country harmful, detrimental, or injurious to public health, safety or welfare or which will adversely affect their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate purposes; c) "Ambient air quality guideline values" mean the concentration of air over specified periods classified as short-term and long-term which are intended to serve as goals or objectives for the protection of health and/or public welfare. These values shall be used for air quality management purposes such as determining time trends, evaluating stages of deterioration or enhancement of the air quality, and in general, used as basis for taking positive action in preventing, controlling, or abating air pollution; d) "Ambient air quality" means the general amount of pollution present in a broad area; and refers to the atmosphere's average purity as distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source of pollution; e) "Certificate of Conformity" means a certificate issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to a vehicle manufacturer/assembler or importer certifying that a particular new vehicle or vehicle type meets the requirements provided under this Act and its rules and regulations; f) "Department" means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; g) "Eco-profile" means the geographic-based instrument for planners and decisionmakers which present an evaluation of the environmental quality and carrying capacity of an area. It is the result of the integration of primary and secondary data and information on natural resources and anthropogenic activities on the land which are evaluated by various environmental risk assessment and forecasting methodologies that enable the Department to anticipate the type of development control necessary in the planning area; h) "Emission" means any air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream or unwanted sound from a known source which is passed into the atmosphere; i) "Greenhouse gases" mean those gases that can potentially or can reasonably be expected to induce global warming, which include carbon dioxide, methane, oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, and the like;

j) "Hazardous substances" mean those substances which present either: (1) shortterm acute hazards such as acute toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye contact hazard or the risk of fire explosion; or (2) longterm toxicity upon repeated exposure, carcinogenicity (which in some cases result in acute exposure but with a long latent period), resistance to detoxification process such as biodegradation, the potential to pollute underground or surface waters; k) "Infectious waste" means that portion of medical waste that could transmit an infectious disease; l) "Medical waste" means the materials generated as a result of patient diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals; m) "Mobile source" means any vehicle propelled by or through combustion of carbonbased or other fuel, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation of property goods; n) "Motor vehicle" means any vehicle propelled by a gasoline or diesel engine or by any means other than human or animal power, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation of property or goods in a public highway or street open to public use; o) "Municipal waste" means the waste materials generated from communities within a specific locality; p) "New vehicle" means a vehicle constructed entirely from new parts that has never been sold or registered with the DOTC or with the appropriate agency or authority, and operated on the highways of the Philippines, any foreign state or country; q) "Octane Rating or the Anti-Knock Index(AKI)" means the rating of the anti-knock characteristics of a grade or type of automotive gasoline as determined by dividing by two (2) the sum of the Research Octane Number (RON), plus the Motor Octane Number (MON); the octane requirement, with respect to automotive gasoline for use in a motor vehicle or a class thereof, whether imported, manufactured, or assembled by a manufacturer, shall refer to the minimum octane rating of such automotive gasoline which such manufacturer recommends for the efficient operation of such motor vehicle, or a substantial portion of such class, without knocking; r) "Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)" means those substances that significantly deplete or otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to result in adverse effects of human health and the environment such as, but not limited to, chloroflourocarbons, halons and the like; s) "Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)" means the organic compounds that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. These compounds resist photolytic, chemical and biological degradation, which shall include but not be limited to dioxin, furan, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, such as aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, toxaphere and chlordane; t) "Poisonous and toxic fumes" means any emissions and fumes which are beyond internationally - accepted standards, including but not limited to the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values; u) "Pollution control device" means any device or apparatus used to prevent, control or abate the pollution of air caused by emissions from identified pollution sources at levels within the air pollution control standards established by the Department; v) "Pollution control technology" means the pollution control devices, production process, fuel combustion processes or other means that effectively prevent or reduce emissions or effluent; w) "Standard of performance" means a standard for emissions of air pollutant which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction, taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirement which the Department determines, and adequately demonstrates; and

x) "Stationary source" means any building or immobile structure, facility or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant.
Chapter 2 Air Quality Management System Article One General Provisions Section 6. Air Quality Monitoring and Information Network. - The Department shall prepare an annual National Air Quality Status Report which shall be used as the basis in formulating the Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework, as provided for in Sec. 7. The said report shall include, but shall not be limited to the following:

a) Extent of pollution in the country, per type of pollutant and per type of source, based on reports of the Departments monitoring stations; b) Analysis and evaluation of the current state, trends and projections of air pollution at the various levels provided herein; c) Identification of critical areas, activities, or projects which will need closer monitoring or regulation; d) Recommendations for necessary executive and legislative action; and e) Other pertinent qualitative and quantitative information concerning the extent of air pollution and the air quality performance rating of industries in the country.
The Department, in cooperation with the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), shall design and develop an information network for data storage, retrieval and exchange. The Department shall serve as the central depository of all data and information related to air quality. Section 7. Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework. - The Department shall within six (6) months after the effectivity of this Act, establish, with the participation of LGUs, NGOs, POs, the academe and other concerned entities from the private sector, formulate and implement the Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework for a comprehensive air pollution management and control program. The framework shall, among others, prescribe the emission reduction goals using permissible standards, control strategies and control measures to undertaken within a specified time period, including cost-effective use of economic incentives, management strategies, collective actions, and environmental education and information. The Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework shall be adopted as the official blueprint with which all government agencies must comply with to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards. Section 8. Air Quality Control Action Plan. - Within six (6) months after the formulation of the framework, the Department shall, with public participation, formulate and implement an air quality control action plan consistent with Sec. 7 of this Act. The action plan shall:

a) Include enforceable emission limitations and other control measures, means or techniques, as well as schedules and time tables for compliance, as may be necessary or appropriate to meet the applicable requirements of this Act; b) Provide for the establishment and operation of appropriate devices, methods, systems and procedures necessary to monitor, compile and analyze data on ambient air quality; c) Include a program to provide for the following: (1) enforcement of the measures described in subparagraph [a]; (2) regulation of the modification and construction of any stationary source within the areas covered by the plan, in accordance with land use policy to ensure that ambient air quality standards are achieved; d) Contain adequate provisions, consistent with the provisions of this Act, prohibiting any source or other types of emissions activity within the country from emitting any air pollutant in amounts which will significantly contribute to the non-attainment or will interfere with the maintenance by the Department of any such ambient air quality standard required to be included in the implementation plan to prevent significant deterioration of air quality or to protect visibility;

e) Include control strategies and control measures to be undertaken within a specified time period, including cost effective use of economic incentives, management strategies, collection action and environmental education and information; f) Designate airsheds; and g) All other measures necessary for the effective control and abatement of air pollution.
The adoption of the plan shall clarify the legal effects on the financial, manpower and budgetary resources of the affected government agencies, and on the alignment of their programs with the plans. In addition to direct regulations, the plan shall be characterized by a participatory approach to the pollution problem. The involvement of private entities in the monitoring and testing of emissions from mobile and/or stationary sources shall be considered. Likewise, the LGUs, with the assistance from the Department, shall prepare and develop an action plan consistent with the Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework to attain and maintain the ambient air quality standards within their respective airsheds as provided in Sec. 9 hereof. The local government units shall develop and submit to the Department a procedure for carrying out the action plan for their jurisdiction. The Department, however, shall maintain its authority to independently inspect the enforcement procedure adopted. The Department shall have the power to closely supervise all or parts of the air quality action plan until such time the local government unit concerned can assume the function to enforce the standards set by the Department. A multi-sectoral monitoring team with broad public representation shall be convened by the Department for each LGU to conduct periodic inspections of air pollution sources to assess compliance with emission limitations contained in their permits. Section 9. Airsheds. - Pursuant to Sec. 8 of this Act, the designation of airsheds shall be on the basis of, but not limited to, areas with similar climate, meteorology and topology which affect the interchange and diffusion of pollutants in the atmosphere, or areas which share common interest or face similar development programs, prospects or problems. For a more effective air quality management, a system of planning and coordination shall be established and a common action plan shall be formulated for each airshed. To effectively carry out the formulated action plans, a Governing Board is hereby created, hereinafter referred to as the Board. The Board shall be headed by the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources as chairman. The members shall be as follows:

a) Provincial Governors from areas belonging to the airshed; b) City/Municipal Mayors from areas belonging to the airshed; c) A representative from each concerned government agency; d) Representatives from peoples organizations; e) Representatives from non-government organizations; and f) Representatives from the private sector.
The Board shall perform the following functions:

a) Formulation of policies; b) Preparation of a common action plan; c) Coordination of functions among its members; and d) Submission and publication of an annual Air Quality Status Report for each airshed.

Upon consultation with appropriate local government authorities, the Department shall, from time to time, revise the designation of airsheds utilizing eco-profiling techniques and undertaking scientific studies. Emissions trading may be allowed among pollution sources within an airshed. Section 10. Management of Non-attainment Areas. - The Department shall designate areas where specific pollutants have already exceeded ambient standards as non-attainment areas. The Department shall prepare and implement a program that will prohibit new sources of exceeded air pollutant without a corresponding reduction in existing resources. In coordination with other appropriate government agencies, the LGUs shall prepare and implement a program and other measures including relocation, whenever necessary, to protect the health and welfare of residents in the area. For those designated as nonattainment areas, the Department, after consultation with local government authorities, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), peoples organiz ations (POs) and concerned sectors may revise the designation of such areas and expand its coverage to cover larger areas depending on the condition of the areas. Section 11. Air Quality Control Techniques. - Simultaneous with the issuance of the guideline values and standards, the Department, through the research and development program contained in this Act and upon consultation with appropriate advisory committees, government agencies and LGUs, shall issue, and from time to time, revise information on air pollution control techniques. Such information shall include:

(a) Best available technology and alternative methods of prevention, management and control of air pollution; (b) Best available technology economically achievable which shall refer to the technological basis/standards for emission limits applicable to existing, direct industrial emitters of nonconventional and toxic pollutants; and (c) Alternative fuels, processes and operating methods which will result in the eliminator or significant reduction of emissions.
Such information may also include data relating to the cost of installation and operation, energy requirements, emission reduction benefits, and environmental impact or the emission control technology. The issuance of air quality guideline values, standards and information on air quality control techniques shall be made available to the general public: Provided, That the issuance of information on air quality control techniques shall not be construed as requiring the purchase of certain pollution control devices by the public. Section 12. Ambient Air Quality Guideline Values and Standards. - The Department, in coordination with other concerned agencies, shall review and or revise and publish annually a list of hazardous air pollutants with corresponding ambient guideline values and/or standard necessary to protect health and safety, and general welfare. The initial list and values of the hazardous air pollutants shall be as follows:

(a) For National Ambient Air Quality Guideline for Criteria Pollutants: Short Term a Pollutants g/Ncm ppm Averaging Time g/Ncm

Suspended Particulate Matterc -TSP -PM-10 Sulfur Dioxidec Nitrogen Dioxide Photochemical Oxidants 230d 150f 180 150 140 0.07 0.08 0.07 24 hours 24 hours 24 hours 24 hours 1 hour 90 60 80 -------

As Ozone Carbon Monoxide

60 35 mg/Ncm 10 mg/Ncm

0.03 30 9 ----

8 hours 1 hour 8 hours 3 monthsg

---------1.0

Leadg
a

1.5

Maximum limits represented by ninety-eight percentile (98%) values not to be exceed more than once a year.
b

Arithmetic mean

SO2 and Suspended Particulate matter are sampled once every six days when using the manual methods. A minimum of twelve sampling days per quarter of forty-eight sampling days each year is required for these methods. Daily sampling may be done in the future once continuous analyzers are procured and become available.
d

Limits for Total Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 25-50 um.
e

Annual Geometric Mean

Provisional limits for Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 10 microns and below until sufficient monitoring data are gathered to base a proper guideline.
g

Evaluation of this guideline is carried out for 24-hour averaging time and averaged over three moving calendar months. The monitored average value for any three months shall not exceed the guideline value. (b) For National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Source Specific Air Pollutants from Industrial Sources/Operations: Pollutants1 Concentration2 Averaging time (min.)

Method of Analysis

/Ncm 1. Ammonia 2. Carbon Disulfide 3. Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds expressed as Cl2 4. Formaldehyde 200 30 100

ppm 0.28 0.01 0.03 30 30 5

Nesselerization/ In Tischer Method Methyl Orange

50

0.04

30

Chromotropic acid Colorimetric Metho

5. Hydrogen Chloride 6. Hydrogen Sulfide 7. Lead 8. Nitrogen Dioxide 9. Phenol 10. Sulfur Dioxide

200100

0.13 0.07

30 30 30

Volhard Titration w Methylene Blue AASc Greiss- Saltzman

20 375,260 100 470, 340 0.20,0.14 0.03 0.18, 0.13

30,60 30 30,60

4-Aminoantiphyrine

Colorimetric-Pararo

11. Suspended Particulate Matter-TSP


1

300

----

60

Gravimetric

Pertinent ambient standards for Antimony, Arsenic, Cadmium, Asbestos, Nitric Acid and Sulfuric Acid Mists in the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations may be considered as guides in determining compliance.
2

Ninety-eight percentile (98%) values of 30-minute sampling measured at 250C and one atmosphere pressure.
3

Other equivalent methods approved by the Department may be used.


The basis in setting up the ambient air quality guideline values and standards shall reflect, among others, the latest scientific knowledge including information on:

a) Variable, including atmospheric conditions, which of themselves or in combination with other factors may alter the effects on public health or welfare of such air pollutant; b) The other types of air pollutants which may interact with such pollutant to produce an adverse effect on public health or welfare; and c) The kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from presence of such pollutant in the ambient air, in varying quantities.
The Department shall base such ambient air quality standards on World Health Organization (WHO) standards, but shall not be limited to nor be less stringent than such standards. Section 13. Emission Charge System. - The Department, in case of industrial dischargers, and the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC), in case of motor vehicle dischargers, shall, based on environmental techniques, design, impose on and collect regular emission fees from said dischargers as part of the emission permitting system or vehicle registration renewal system, as the case may be. The system shall encourage the industries and motor vehicles to abate, reduce, or prevent pollution. The basis of the fees include, but is not limited to, the volume and toxicity of any emitted pollutant. Industries, which shall install pollution control devices or retrofit their existing facilities with mechanisms that reduce pollution shall be entitled to tax incentives such as but not limited total credits and/or accelerated depreciation deductions. Section 14. Air Quality Management Fund. - An Air Quality Management Fund to be administered by the Department as a special account in the National Treasury is hereby established to finance containment, removal, and clean-up operations of the Government in air pollution cases, guarantee restoration of ecosystems and rehabilitate areas affected by the acts of violators of this Act, to support research, enforcement and monitoring activities and capabilities of the relevant agencies, as well as to provide technical assistance to the relevant agencies. Such fund may likewise be allocated per airshed for the undertakings herein stated. The Fund shall be sourced from the fines imposed and damages awarded to the Republic of the Philippines by the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB), proceeds of licenses and permits issued by the Department under this Act, emission fees and from donations, endowments and grants in the forms of contributions. Contributions to the Fund shall be exempted from donor taxes and all other taxes, charges or fees imposed by the Government. Section 15. Air Pollution Research and Development Program. - The Department, in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), other agencies, the private sector, the academe, NGOs and POs, shall establish a National Research and Development Program for the prevention and control of air pollution. The Department shall give special emphasis to research on and the development of improved methods having industry-wide application for the prevention and control of air pollution. Such a research and development program shall develop air quality guideline values and standards in addition to internationally-accepted standards. It shall also consider the sociocultural, political and economic implications of air quality management and pollution control. Article Two Air Pollution Clearances and Permits for Stationary Sources

Section 16. Permits. - Consistent with the provisions of this Act, the Department shall have the authority to issue permits as it may determine necessary for the prevention and abatement of air pollution. Said permits shall cover emission limitations for the regulated air pollutants to help attain and maintain the ambient air quality standards. These permits shall serve as management tools for the LGUs in the development of their action plan. Section 17. Emission Quotas. - The Department may allow each regional industrial center that is designated as special airshed to allocate emission quotas to pollution sources within its jurisdiction that qualify under an environmental impact assessment system programmatic compliance program pursuant to the implementing rules and regulations of Presidential Decree No. 1586. Section 18. Financial Liability for Environmental Rehabilitation. - As part of the environmental management plan attached to the environmental compliance certificate pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1586 and rules and regulations set therefor, the Department shall require program and project proponents to put up financial guarantee mechanisms to finance the needs for emergency response, clean-up rehabilitation of areas that may be damaged during the program or projects actual implementation. Liability for damages shall continue even after the termination of a program or project, where such damages are clearly attributable to that program or project and for a definite period to be determined by the Department and incorporated into the environmental compliance certificate. Financial liability instruments may be in the form a trust fund, environmental insurance, surety bonds, letters of credit, as well as self-insurance. The choice of the guarantee instruments shall furnish the Department with evidence of availment of such instruments. Article Three Pollution from Stationary Sources Section 19. Pollution From Stationary Sources. - The Department shall, within two (2) years from the effectivity of this Act, and every two (2) years thereafter, review, or as the need therefore arises, revise and publish emission standards, to further improve the emission standards for stationary sources of air pollution. Such emission standards shall be based on mass rate of emission for all stationary source of air pollution based on internationally accepted standards, but not be limited to, nor be less stringent than such standards and with the standards set forth in this section. The standards, whichever is applicable, shall be the limit on the acceptable level of pollutants emitted from a stationary source for the protection of the publics health and welfare. With respect to any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning equipment or industrial plant emitting air pollutants, the concentration at the point of emission shall not exceed the following limits:

Pollutants

Standard Applicable to Source

Maximum Permissible Limits (mg/Ncm) 10 as Sb

1. Antimony and Its compounds 2. Arsenic and its compounds 3. Cadmium and its compounds 4. Carbon Monoxide 5. Copper and its Compounds 6. Hydrofluoric Acids and Fluoride compounds 7. Hydrogen Sulfide

Any source

AAS

Any source Any source

10 as As 10 as Cd

AAS

AAS

Any industrial Source Any industrial source

500 as CO 100 ax Cu

Orsa

AAS

Any source other than the manufacture of Aluminum from Alumina i) Geothermal Power Plants ii) Geothermal Exploration and welltesting iii) Any source other than (i) and (ii)

50 as HF

Titra Thio

c.d e 7 as H2S

Cad

Cad

8. Lead 9. Mercury

Any trade, industry or process Any Source

10 as Pb 5 as elemental Hg

AAS

AAS Hg A

10. Nickel and its compounds, except Nickel Carbonylf 11. NOx

Any source

20 as Ni

AAS

i) Manufacture of Nitric Acid

2,000 as acid and NOx and calculated as NO2 1,500 as NO2 1,000 as NO2 500 as NO2 1000 as NO2 500 as NO2

Phe

ii) Fuel burning steam generators Existing Source New Source Coal-Fired Oil-Fired iii) Any source other than (i) adn (ii) Existing Source New Source

Phe

Phe

12. Phosphorus Pentoxideg 13. Zinc and its Compounds


a

Any source Any source

200 as P2O5 100 as Zn

Spe

AAS

Other equivalent methods approved by the Department may be used. Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry

All new geothermal power plants starting construction by 01 January 1995 shall control HsS emissions to not more than 150g/GMW-Hr
d

All existing geothermal power plants shall control HsS emissions to not more than 200g/GMW-Hr. within 5 years from the date of efectivity of these revised regulations.
e

Best practicable control technology for air emissions and liquid discharges. Compliance with air and water quality standards is required.
f

Emission limit of Nickel Carbonyl shall not exceed 0.5 mg/Ncm. Provisional Guideline

Provided, That the maximum limits in mg/ncm particulates in said sources shall be:

1.

Fuel Burning Equipment a) Urban or Industrial Area b) Other Area 150 mg/Ncm 200 mg/Ncm 150 mg/Ncm 150 mg/Ncm 200 mg/Ncm

2. 3. 4.

Cement Plants (Kilns, etc.) Smelting Furnaces Other Stationary Sourcesa


a

Other Stationary Sources means a trade, process, industrial plant, or fuel burning equipment other than thermal power plants, industrial boilers, cement plants, incinerators and smelting furnaces.
Provided, Further, That the maximum limits for sulfur oxides in said sources shall be:

(1) Existing Sources (i) Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid and Sulf(on)ation Process (ii) Fuel burning Equipment (iii) Other Stationary Sourcesa (2) New Sources (i) Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid and Sulf(on)ation Process (ii) Fuel Burning Equipment (iii) Other Stationary Sourcesa
a

2.0gm.Ncm as SO3

1.5gm.Ncm as SO2 1.0gm.Ncm as SO3

1.5 gm.Ncm as SO3

0.7 gm.Ncm as SO2 0.2 gm.Ncm as SO3

Other Stationary Sources refer to existing and new stationary sources other than those caused by the manufacture of sulfuric acid and sulfonation process, fuel burning equipment and incineration.
For stationary sources of pollution not specifically included in the immediately preceding paragraph, the following emission standards shall not be exceeded in the exhaust gas:

I. Daily And Half Hourly Average Values Daily Average Values Total dust Gaseous and vaporous organic substances, expressed as total organic carbon Hydrogen chloride (HCl) Hydrogen fluoride (HF) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), expressed as nitrogen dioxide for incineration plants with a capacity exceeding 3 tonnes per hour Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), expressed as nitrogen dioxide for incineration plants with a capacity of 3 tonnes per hour or less Ammonia 10 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 1 mg/m3 50 mg/m3

Half Hour Average V

30 mg/m3

20 mg/m3 60 mg/m3 4 mg/m3 200 mg/m

200 mg/m3

400 mg/m

300 mg/m3 10 mg/m3

20 mg/m3

II. All the Average Values Over the Sample Period of a Minimum of 4 and Maximum of 8 Hours. Cadmium and its compounds, expressed as cadmium (Cd) Thallium and its compounds, expressed as thallium (Tl) Mercury and its Compounds, expressed as mercury (Hg) Antimony and its compounds, expressed as antimony (Sb) Arsenic and its compounds, expressed as arsenic (As) Lead and its compounds, expressed as lead ( Pb) Chromium and its compounds, expressed as chromium (Cr) Cobalt and its compounds, expressed as cobalt (Co) Copper and its compounds, expressed as copper (Cu) Manganese and its compounds, expressed as manganese (Mn) total 0.5 mg/m3

total 0.05 mg/m3

0.05 mg

Nickel and its compounds, expressed as nickel (Ni) Vanadium and its compounds, expressed as vanadium (V) Tin and its compounds, expressed as tin (Sn)
These average values cover also gaseous and the vapor forms of the relevant heavy metal emission as well as their compounds: Provided, That the emission of dioxins and furans into the air shall be reduced by the most progressive techniques: Provided, Further, That all average of dioxin and furans measured over the sample period of a minimum of 5 hours and maximum of 8 hours must not exceed the limit value of 0.1 nanogram/m 3. Pursuant to Sec. 8 of this Act, the Department shall prepare a detailed action plan setting the emission standards or standards of performance for any stationary source the procedure for testing emissions for each type of pollutant, and the procedure for enforcement of said standards. Existing industries, which are proven to exceed emission rates established by the Department in consultation with stakeholders, after a thorough, credible and transparent measurement process shall be allowed a grace period of eighteen (18) months for the establishment of an environmental management system and the installation of an appropriate air pollution control device : Provided, That an extension of not more than twelve (12) months may be allowed by the Department on meritorious grounds. Section 20. Ban on Incineration. - Incineration, hereby defined as the burning of municipal, biomedical and hazardous waste, which process emits poisonous and toxic fumes is hereby prohibited; Provided, however, That the prohibition shall not apply to traditional small-scale method of community/neighborhood sanitation "siga", traditional, agricultural, cultural, health, and food preparation and crematoria; Provided, Further, That existing incinerators dealing with a biomedical wastes shall be out within three (3) years after the effectivity of this Act; Provided, Finally, that in the interim, such units shall be limited to the burning of pathological and infectious wastes, and subject to close monitoring by the Department. Local government units are hereby mandated to promote, encourage and implement in their respective jurisdiction a comprehensive ecological waste management that includes waste segregation, recycling and composting. With due concern on the effects of climate change, the Department shall promote the use of state-of-the-art, environmentally-sound and safe non-burn technologies for the handling, treatment, thermal destruction, utilization, and disposal of sorted, unrecycled, uncomposted, biomedical and hazardous wastes. Article Four Pollution from Motor Vehicles Section 21. Pollution from Motor Vehicles. - a) The DOTC shall implement the emission standards for motor vehicles set pursuant to and as provided in this Act. To further improve the emission standards, the Department shall review, revise and publish the standards every two (2) years, or as the need arises. It shall consider the maximum limits for all major pollutants to ensure substantial improvement in air quality for the health, safety and welfare of the general public. The following emission standards for type approval of motor vehicles shall be effective by the year 2003:

a) For light duty vehicles, the exhaust emission limits for gaseous pollutants shall be: Emission Limits for Light Duty Vehicles Type Approval (Directive 91/441/EEC) CO (g/km) 2.72
a

HC + NOx (g/km) 0.970.14

PMa (g/km)

for compression-ignition engines only

b) For light commercial vehicles, the exhaust emission limit of gaseous pollutants as a function of the given reference mass shall be:

Emission Limits for Light Commercial Vehicles Type Approval (Directive 93/59/EEC) Reference Weight (RW) (kg) Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 1250< RW 1250< RW<1700 RW>1700 CO (g/km) 2.72 5.17 6.9

HC + NOx(g/km) PMa (g 0.97 1.4 1.7 0.14 0.19 0.25

for compression-ignition engines only

c) For heavy duty vehicles, the exhaust emission limits of gaseous pollutants shall be: Emission Limits for Heavy Duty Vehicles Type Approval (Directive 91/542/EEC) CO (g/k/Wh) 4.5
a

HC (g/k/Wh) 1.1

NOx (g/k/Wh) 8.0

PM (g/k/Wh) 0.36a

In the case of engines of 85 kW or less, the limit value for particular emissions in increased by multiplying the quoted limit by a coefficient of 1.7 Fuel evaporative emission for spark-ignition engines shall not exceed 2.0 grams hydrocarbons per test. Likewise, it shall not allow any emission of gases from crankcase ventilation system into the atmosphere.
b) The Department, in collaboration with the DOTC, DTI and LGUs, shall develop an action plan for the control and management of air pollution from motor vehicles consistent with the Integrated Air Quality Framework. The DOTC shall enforce compliance with the emission standards for motor vehicles set by the Department. The DOTC may deputize other law enforcement agencies and LGUs for this purpose. To this end, the DOTC shall have the power to:

(1) Inspect and monitor the emissions of motor vehicles; (2) Prohibit or enjoin the use of motor vehicles or a class of motor vehicles in any area or street at specified times; and (3) Authorize private testing emission testing centers duly accredited by the DTI.
c) The DOTC, together with the DTI and the Department, shall establish the procedures for the inspection of motor vehicles and the testing of their emissions for the purpose of determining the concentration and/or rate of pollutants discharged by said sources. d) In order to ensure the substantial reduction of emissions from motor vehicles, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), together with the DOTC and the Department shall formulate and implement a national motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program that will promote efficient and safe operation of all motor vehicles. In this regard, the DTI shall develop and implement standards and procedures for the certification of training institutions, instructors and facilities and the licensing of qualified private service centers and their technicians as prerequisite for performing the testing, servicing, repair and the required adjustment to the vehicle emission system. The DTI shall likewise prescribe regulations requiring the disclosure of odometer readings and the use of tamper-resistant odometers for all motor vehicles including tamper-

resistant fuel management systems for the effective implementation of the inspection and maintenance program. Section 22. Regulation of All Motor Vehicles and Engines. - Any imported new or locallyassembled new motor vehicle shall not be registered unless it complies with the emission standards set pursuant to this Act, as evidenced by a Certificate of Conformity (COC) issued by the Department. Any imported new motor vehicle engine shall not be introduced into commerce, sold or used unless it complies with emission standards set pursuant to this Act. Any imported used motor vehicle or rebuilt motor vehicle using new or used engines, major parts or components shall not be registered unless it complies with the emission standards. In case of non-compliance, the importer or consignee may be allowed to modify or rebuild the vehicular engine so it will be in compliance with applicable emission standards. No motor vehicle registration (MVR) shall be issued unless such motor vehicle passes the emission testing requirement promulgated in accordance with this Act. Such testing shall be conducted by the DOTC or its authorized inspection centers within sixty (60) days prior to date of registration. The DTI shall promulgate the necessary regulations prescribing the useful life of vehicles and engines including devices in order to ensure that such vehicles will conform to the emissions which they were certified to meet. These regulations shall include provisions for ensuring the durability of emission devices. Section 23. Second-Hand Motor Vehicle Engines. - Any imported second-hand motor vehicle engine shall not be introduced into commerce, sold or used unless it complies with emission standards set pursuant to this Act. Article Five Pollution from Other Sources Section 24. Pollution from smoking. - Smoking inside a public building or an enclosed public place including public vehicles and other means of transport or in any enclosed area outside of one's private residence, private place of work or any duly designated smoking area is hereby prohibited under this Act. This provision shall be implemented by the LGUs. Section 25. Pollution from other mobile sources. - The Department, in coordination with appropriate agencies, shall formulate and establish the necessary standards for all mobile sources other than those referred to in Sec. 21 of this Act. The imposition of the appropriate fines and penalties from these sources for any violation of emission standards shall be under the jurisdiction of the DOTC. Chapter 3 Fuels, Additives, Substances and Pollutants Article One Fuels, Additives and Substances Section 26. Fuels and Additives. - Pursuant to the Air Quality Framework to be established under Section 7 of this Act, the Department of Energy (DOE), co-chaired by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), in consultation with the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) of the DTI, the DOST, the representatives of the fuel and automotive industries, academe and the consumers shall set the specifications for all types of fuel and fuel-related products, to improve fuel composition for increased efficiency and reduced emissions: Provided, however, that the specifications for all types of fuel and fuel-related products set-forth pursuant to this section shall be adopted by the BPS as Philippine National Standards (PNS). The DOE shall also specify the allowable content of additives in all types of fuels and fuel-related products. Such standards shall be based primarily on threshold levels of health and research studies. On the basis of such specifications, the DOE shall likewise limit the content or begin that phase-out of additives in all types of fuels and fuel-related products as it may deem necessary. Other agencies involved in the performance of this function shall be required to coordinate with the DOE and transfer all documents and information necessary for the implementation of this provision. Consistent with the provisions of the preceding paragraphs under this section, it is declared that:

a) not later than eighteen (18) months after the effectivity of this Act, no person shall manufacture, import, sell, supply, offer for sale, dispense, transport or introduce into commerce unleaded premium gasoline fuel which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of not less that 87.5 and Reid vapor pressure of not more than 9 psi. Within six (6) months after the effectivity of this Act, unleaded gasoline fuel shall contain aromatics not to exceed forty-five percent (45%) by volume and benzene not to exceed four percent (4%) by volume; Provided, that by year 2003, unleaded gasoline fuel should contain aromatics not to exceed thirty-five percent (35%) by volume and benzene not to exceed two percent (2%) by volume; b) not later than eighteen (18) months after the effectivity of this Act, no person shall manufacture, import, sell, supply, offer for sale, dispense, transport or introduce into commerce automotive diesel fuel which contains a concentration of sulfur in excess of 0.20% by weight with a cetane number of index of not less than forty-eight (48):Provided, That by year 2004, content of said sulfur shall be 0.05% by weight; and c) not later than eighteen (18) months after the effectivity of this Act, no Person shall manufacture, import, sell, supply, offer for sale, dispense, transport or introduce into commerce industrial diesel fuel which contains a concentration of sulfur in excess of 0.30% (by weight).
Every two (2) years thereafter or as the need arises, the specifications of unleaded gasoline and of automotive and industrial diesel fuels shall be reviewed and revised for further improvement in formulation and in accordance with the provisions of this Act. The fuels characterized above shall be commercially available. Likewise, the same shall be the reference fuels for emission and testing procedures to be established in accordance with the provisions of this Act. Any proposed additive shall not in any way increase emissions of any of the regulated gases which shall include, but not limited to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter, in order to be approved and certified by the Department. Section 27. Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives. - The DOE, in coordination with the Department and the BPS, shall regulate the use of any fuel or fuel additive. No manufacturer, processor or trader of any fuel or additive may import, sell, offer for sale, or introduce into commerce such fuel for additive unless the same has been registered with the DOE. Prior to registration, the manufacturer, processor or trader shall provide the DOE with the following relevant information:

a) Product identity and composition to determine the potential health effects of such fuel additives; b) Description of the analytical technique that can be used to detect and measure the additive in any fuel; c) Recommended range of concentration; and d) Purpose in the use of the fuel and additive.
Section 28. Misfueling. - In order to prevent the disabling of any emission control device by lead contamination, no person shall introduce or cause or allow the introduction of leaded gasoline into any motor vehicle equipped with a gasoline tank filler inlet and labeled "unleaded gasoline only". This prohibition shall also apply to any person who knows or should know that such vehicle is designed solely for the use of unleaded gasoline. Section 29. Prohibition on Manufacture, Import and Sale of leaded Gasoline and of Engines and/or Components Requiring Leaded Gasoline. - Effective not later than eighteen (18) months after the enactment of this Act, no person shall manufacture, import, sell, offer for sale, introduce into commerce, convey or otherwise dispose of, in any manner, leaded gasoline and engines and components requiring the use of leaded gasoline. For existing vehicles, the DTI shall formulate standards and procedures that will allow nonconforming engines to comply with the use of unleaded fuel within five(5) years after the effectivity of this Act. Article Two Other Pollutants

Section 30. Ozone-Depleting Substances. - Consistent with the terms and conditions of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and other international agreements and protocols to which the Philippines is a signatory, the Department shall phase out ozone-depleting substances. Within sixty (60) days after the enactment of this Act, the Department shall publish a list of substances which are known to cause harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer. Section 31. Greenhouse Gases. - The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Service Administration (PAGASA) shall regularly monitor meteorological factors affecting environmental conditions including ozone depletion and greenhouse gases and coordinate with the Department in order to effectively guide air pollution monitoring and standard-setting activities. The Department, together with concerned agencies and local government units, shall prepare and fully implement a national plan consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other international agreements, conventions and protocols on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Section 32. Persistent Organic Pollutants. - The Department shall, within a period of two (2) years after the enactment of this Act, establish an inventory list of all sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the country. The Department shall develop short-term and long-term national government programs on the reduction and elimination of POPs such as dioxins and furans. Such programs shall be formulated within a year after the establishment of the inventory list. Section 33. Radioactive Emissions. - All projects which will involve the use of atomic and/or nuclear energy, and will entail release and emission of radioactive substances into the environment, incident to the establishment or possession of nuclear energy facilities and radioactive materials, handling, transport, production, storage, and use of radioactive materials, shall be regulated in the interest of public health and welfare by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), in coordination with Department and other appropriate government agencies. Chapter 4 Institutional Mechanism Section 34. Lead Agency. - The Department, unless otherwise provided herein, shall be the primary government agency responsible for the implementation and enforcement of this Act. To be more effective in this regard, The Department's Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) shall be converted from a staff bureau to a line bureau for a period of no more than two (2) years, unless a separate, comprehensive environmental management agency is created. Section 35. Linkage Mechanism. - The Department shall consult, participate, cooperate and enter into agreement with other government agencies, or with affected non-governmental (NGOs) or people's organizations (POs),or private enterprises in the furtherance of the objectives of this Act. Section 36. Role of Local Government Units . - Local Government Units (LGUs) shall share the responsibility in the management and maintenance of air quality within their territorial jurisdiction. Consistent with Sections 7, 8 and 9 of this Act, LGUs shall implement air quality standards set by the Board in areas within their jurisdiction; Provided, however, That in case where the board has not been duly constituted and has not promulgated its standards, the standards set forth in this Act shall apply. The Department shall provide the LGUs with technical assistance, trainings and a continuing capability-building program to prepare them to undertake full administration of the air quality management and regulation within their territorial jurisdiction. Section 37. Environmental and Natural Resources Office. - There may be established an Environment and Natural Resources Office in every province, city, or municipality which shall be headed by the environment and natural resources officer and shall be appointed by the Chief Executive of every province, city or municipality in accordance with the provisions of Section 484 of Republic Act No. 7160. Its powers and duties, among others, are:

a) To prepare comprehensive air quality management programs, plans and strategies within the limits set forth in Republic act. No. 7160 and this Act which shall be implemented within its territorial jurisdiction upon the approval of the sanggunian;

b) To provide technical assistance and support to the governor or mayor, as the case may be, in carrying out measures to ensure the delivery of basic services and the provision of adequate facilities relative to air quality; c) To take the lead in all efforts concerning air quality protection and rehabilitation; d) To recommend to the Board air quality standards which shall not exceed the maximum permissible standards set by rational laws; e) To coordinate with other government agencies and non-governmental organizations in the implementation of measures to prevent and control air pollution; and f) Exercise such other powers and perform such duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance:Provided, however, That in provinces/cities/municipalities where there are no environment and natural resources officers, the local executive concerned may designate any of his official and/or chief of office preferably the provincial, city or municipal agriculturist, or any of his employee: Provided, Finally, That in case an employee is designated as such, he must have sufficient experience in environmental and natural resources management, conservation and utilization.
Section 38. Record-keeping, Inspection, Monitoring and Entry by the Department . - The Department or its duly accredited entity shall, after proper consultation and notice, require any person who owns or operates any emissions source or who is subject to any requirement of this Act to:

(a) establish and maintain relevant records; (b) make relevant reports; (c) install, use and maintain monitoring equipment or methods; (d) sample emission, in accordance with the methods, locations, intervals and manner prescribed by the Department; (e) keep records on control equipment parameters, production variables or other indirect data when direct monitoring of emissions is impractical; and (f) provide such other information as the Department may reasonably require.
Pursuant to this Act, the Department, through its authorized representatives, shall have the right of:

(a) entry or access to any premises including documents and relevant materials as referred to in the herein preceding paragraph; (b) inspect any pollution or waste source, control device, monitoring equipment or method required; and (c) test any emission.
Any record, report or information obtained under this section shall be made available to the public, except upon a satisfactory showing to the Department by the entity concerned that the record, report or information, or parts thereof, if made public, would divulge secret methods or processes entitled to protection as intellectual property. Such record, report or information shall likewise be incorporated in the Department's industrial rating system. Section 39. Public Education and Information Campaign. - A continuing air quality information and education campaign shall promoted by the Department, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG), the Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Philippine Information Agency (PIA). Consistent with Sec. 7 of this Act, such campaign shall encourage the participation of other government agencies and the private sector including NGOs, POs, the academe, environmental groups and other private entities in a multi-sectoral information campaign. Chapter 5 Actions

Section 40. Administrative Action. - Without prejudice to the right of any affected person to file an administrative action, the Department shall, on its own instance or upon verified complaint by any person, institute administrative proceedings against any person who violates:

(a) Standards or limitation provided under this Act; or (b) Any order, rule or regulation issued by the Department with respect to such standard or limitation.
Section 41. Citizen Suits. - For purposes of enforcing the provisions of this Act or its implementing rules and regulations, any citizen may file an appropriate civil, criminal or administrative action in the proper courts against:

(a) Any person who violates or fails to comply with the provisions of this Act or its implementing rules and regulations; or (b) The Department or other implementing agencies with respect to orders, rules and regulations issued inconsistent with this Act; and/or (c) Any public officer who willfully or grossly neglects the performance of an act specifically enjoined as a duty by this Act or its implementing rules and regulations; or abuses his authority in the performance of his duty; or, in any manner, improperly performs his duties under this Act or its implementing rules and regulations: Provided, however, That no suit can be filed until thirty-day (30) notice has been taken thereon.
The court shall exempt such action from the payment of filing fees, except fees for actions not capable of pecuniary estimations, and shall likewise, upon prima facie showing of the nonenforcement or violation complained of, exempt the plaintiff from the filing of an injunction bond for the issuance of a preliminary injunction. Within thirty (30) days, the court shall make a determination if the compliant herein is malicious and/or baseless and shall accordingly dismiss the action and award attorney's fees and damages. Section 42. Independence of Action. - The filing of an administrative suit against such person/entity does not preclude the right of any other person to file any criminal or civil action. Such civil action shall proceed independently. Section 43. Suits and Strategic Legal Actions Against Public Participation and the Enforcement of This Act. - Where a suit is brought against a person who filed an action as provided in Sec. 41 of this Act, or against any person, institution or government agency that implements this Act, it shall be the duty of the investigating prosecutor or the court, as the case may be, to immediately make a determination not exceeding thirty (30) days whether said legal action has been filed to harass, vex, exert undue pressure or stifle such legal recourses of the person complaining of or enforcing the provisions of this Act. Upon determination thereof, evidence warranting the same, the court shall dismiss the case and award attorney's fees and double damages. This provision shall also apply and benefit public officers who are sued for acts committed in their official capacity, their being no grave abuse of authority, and done in the course of enforcing this Act. Section 44. Lien Upon Personal and Immovable Properties of Violators. - Fines and penalties imposed pursuant to this Act shall be liens upon personal or immovable properties of the violator. Such lien shall, in case of insolvency of the respondent violator, enjoy preference to laborer's wages under Articles 2241 and 2242 of Republic Act No. 386, otherwise known as the New Civil Code of the Philippines. Chapter 6 Fines and Penalties Section 45. Violation of Standards for Stationary Sources . - For actual exceedance of any pollution or air quality standards under this Act or its rules and regulations, the Department, through the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB), shall impose a fine of not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) for every day of violation against the owner or operator of a stationary source until such time that the standards have been complied with. For purposes of the application of the fines, the PAB shall prepare a fine rating system to adjust the maximum fine based on the violator's ability to pay, degree of willfulness, degree of negligence, history of non-compliance and degree of recalcitrance: Provided, That in case of

negligence, the first time offender's ability to pay may likewise be considered by the Pollution Adjudication Board: Provided, Further, That in the absence of any extenuating or aggravating circumstances, the amount of fine for negligence shall be equivalent to one-half of the fine for willful violation. The fines herein prescribed shall be increased by at least ten percent (10%), every three (3) years to compensate for inflation and to maintain the deterrent function of such fines. In addition to the fines, the PAB shall order closure, suspension of development, construction, or operations of the stationary sources until such time that proper environmental safeguards are put in place: Provided, That an establishment liable for a third offense shall suffer permanent closure immediately. This paragraph shall be without prejudice to the immediate issuance of an ex parte order for such closure, suspension of development or construction, or cessation of operations during the pendency of the case upon prima facie evidence that their is imminent threat to life, public health, safety or general welfare, or to plant or animal life, or whenever there is an exceedance of the emission standards set by the Department and/or the Board and/or the appropriate LGU. Section 46. Violation of Standards for Motor Vehicles. - No motor vehicle shall be registered with the DOTC unless it meets the emission standards set by the Department as provided in Sec. 21 hereof. Any vehicle suspected of violation of emission standards through visual signs, such as, but not limited to smoke-belching, shall be subjected to an emission test by a duly authorized emission testing center. For this purpose, the DOTC or its authorized testing center shall establish a roadside inspection system. Should it be shown that there was no violation of emission standards, the vehicle shall be immediately released. Otherwise, a testing result indicating an exceedance of the emission standards would warrant the continuing custody of the impounded vehicle unless the appropriate penalties are fully paid, and the license plate is surrendered to the DOTC pending the fulfillment of the undertaking by the owner/operator of the motor vehicle to make the necessary repairs so as to comply with the standards. A pass shall herein be issued by the DOTC to authorize the use of the motor vehicle within a specified period that shall not exceed seven (7) days for the sole purpose of making the necessary repairs on the said vehicle. The owner/operator of the vehicle shall be required to correct its defects and show proof of compliance to the appropriate pollution control office before the vehicle can be allowed to be driven on any public or subdivision roads. In addition, the driver and operator of the apprehended vehicle shall undergo a seminar on pollution control management conducted by the DOTC and shall also suffer the following penalties:

a) First Offense - a fine not to exceed Two Thousand Pesos (P2,000.00); b) Second Offense - a fine not less than Two Thousand Pesos (P2,000.00) and not to exceed Four Thousand Pesos (P4,000.00); and c) Third offense - one (1) year suspension of the Motor Vehicle Registration (MVR) and a fine of not less than Four Thousand Pesos (P4,000.00) and not more than Six thousand pesos (P6,000.00).
Any violation of the provisions of Sec. 21 paragraph (d) with regard to national inspection and maintenance program, including technicians and facility compliance shall penalized with a fine of not less than Thirty Thousand Pesos (P30,000.00) or cancellation of license of both the technician and the center, or both, as determined by the DTI. All law enforcement officials and deputized agents accredited to conduct vehicle emissions testing and apprehensions shall undergo a mandatory training on emission standards and regulations. For this purpose, the Department, together with the DOTC, DTI, DOST, Philippine National Police (PNP) and other concerned agencies and private entities shall design a training program. Section 47. Fines and Penalties for Violations of Other Provisions in the Act . - For violations of all other provisions provided in this Act and of the rules and regulations thereof, a fine of not less than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000) but not more than One Hundred thousand Pesos (P100,000) or six (6) months to six (6) years imprisonment or both shall be imposed. If the offender is a juridical person, the president, manager, directors, trustees, the pollution control officer or the officials directly in charge of the operations shall suffer the penalty herein provided. Section 48. Gross Violations. - In case of gross violation of this Act or its implementing rules and regulations, the PAB shall recommend to the proper government agencies to file the appropriate criminal charges against the violators. The PAB shall assist the public prosecutor in the litigation of the case. Gross violation shall mean:

(a) three (3) or more specific offenses within a period of one (1) year; (b) three (3) or more specific offenses with three (3) consecutive years; (c) blatant disregard of the orders of the PAB, such s but not limited to the breaking of seal, padlocks and other similar devices, or operation despite the existence of an order for closure, discontinuance or cessation of operation; and (d) irreparable or grave damage to the environment as a consequence of any violation of the provisions of this Act.
Offenders shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than six (6) years but not more than ten (10) years at the discretion of the court. If the offender is a juridical person, the president, manager, directors, trustees, the pollution control officer or the officials directly in charge of the operations shall suffer the penalty herein provided. Chapter 7 Final Provisions Section 49. Potential Loss or Shifts of Employment. - The Secretary of Labor is hereby authorized to establish a compensation, retraining and relocation program to assist workers laid off due to a company's compliance with the provisions of this Act. Section 50. Appropriations. - An amount of Seven Hundred Fifty Million Pesos (P750,000,000.00) shall be appropriated for the initial implementation of this Act, of which, the amount of Three Hundred Million Pesos (P300,000,000.00) shall be appropriated to the Department; Two Hundred Million Pesos (P200,000,000.00) to the DTI; One Hundred Fifty Million Pesos (P150,000,000.00) to the DOTC; and One Hundred Million Pesos (P100,000,000.00) to the DOE. Thereafter, the amount necessary to effectively carry out the provisions of this Act shall be included in the General Appropriations Act. Section 51. Implementing Rules and Regulations. - The Department, in coordination with the Committees on Environment and Ecology of the Senate and House of Representatives, respectively and other agencies, shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations for this Act, within one (1) year after the enactment of this Act: Provided, That rules and regulations issued by other government agencies and instrumentalities for the prevention and/or abatement of pollution not inconsistent with this Act shall supplement the rules and regulations issued by the Department pursuant to the provisions of this Act. Section 52. Report to Congress. - The Department shall report to Congress, not later than March 30 of every year following the approval of this Act, the progress of the pollution control efforts and make the necessary recommendations in areas where there is need for legislative action. Section 53. Joint Congressional Oversight Committee. - There is hereby created a joint congressional oversight committee to monitor the implementation of this Act. The committee shall be composed of five (5) senators and five (5) representatives to be appointed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively, the oversight committee shall be co-chaired by a senator and a representative designated by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively. The mandate given to the joint congressional oversight committee under this Act shall be without prejudice to the performance of the duties and functions by the respective existing oversight committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 54. Separability of Provisions. - If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances is declared unconstitutional, the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other person or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. Section 55. Repealing Clause. - Presidential Decree No. 1181 is hereby repealed. Presidential Decrees Nos. 1152, 1586 and Presidential Decree No. 984 are partly modified. All other laws, orders, issuance, rules and regulations inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. Section 56. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days from the date of its publication in the Official Gazetteor in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation. Approved, June 23, 1999.

Republic Act No. 9275

March 22, 2004

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS ARTICLE 1 DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES SECTION 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004." SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. - The State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters. To achieve this end, the framework for sustainable development shall be pursued. As such, it shall be the policy of the State:

a) To streamline processes and procedures in the prevention, control and abatement of pollution of the country's water resources; b) To promote environmental strategies, use of appropriate economic instruments and of control mechanisms for the protection of water resources; c) To formulate a holistic national program of water quality management that recognizes that water quality management issues cannot be separated from concerns about water sources and ecological protection, water supply, public health and quality of life; d) To formulate an integrated water quality management framework through proper delegation and effective coordination of functions and activities; e) promote commercial and industrial processes and products that are environment friendly and energy efficient; f) To encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries through the application of incentives and market-based instruments and to promote the role of private industrial enterprises in shaping its regulatory profile within the acceptable boundaries of public health and environment; g) To provide for a comprehensive management program for water pollution focusing on pollution prevention; h) To promote public information and education and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public in water quality management and monitoring; i) To formulate and enforce a system of accountability for short and long-term adverse environmental impact of a project, program or activity; and j) To encourage civil society and other sectors, particularly labor, the academe and business undertaking environment-related activities in their efforts to organize, educate and motivate the people in addressing pertinent environmental issues and problems at the local and national levels.
SECTION 3. Coverage of the Act. - This Act shall apply to water quality management in all water bodies: Provided, That it shall primarily apply to the abatement and control of pollution from land based sources: Provided, further, That the water quality standards and regulations and the civil liability and penal provisions under this Act shall be enforced irrespective of sources of pollution. ARTICLE 2 DEFINITION OF TERMS

SECTION 4. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act:

a) Aquifer - means a layer of water-bearing rock located underground that transmits water in sufficient quantity to supply pumping wells or natural springs. b) Aquatic life - means all organisms living in freshwater, brackish and marine environment. c) Beneficial use - means the use of the environment or any element or segment thereof conducive to public or private welfare, safety and health; and shall include, but not be limited to, the use of water for domestic, municipal, irrigation, power generation, fisheries, livestock raising, industrial, recreational and other purposes. 1. Use of water for domestic purposes - means the utilization of water for drinking, washing, bathing, cooking or other household needs, home gardens and watering of lawns or domestic animals; 2. Use of water for municipal purposes - means the utilization of water for supplying water requirements of the community; 3. Use of water for irrigation - means the utilization of water for producing agricultural crops; 4. Use of water for power generation - means the utilization of water for producing electrical or mechanical power; 5. Use of water for fisheries - means the utilization of water for the propagation of culture of fish as a commercial enterprise; 6. Use of water for livestock raising - means the utilization of water for large herds or flocks of animals raised as a commercial enterprise; 7. Use of water for industrial purposes - means the utilization of water in factories, industrial plants and mines, including the use of water as an ingredient of a finished product; and 8. Use of water for recreational purposes - means the utilization of water for swimming pools, bath houses, boating, water skiing, golf courses and other similar facilities in resorts and other places of recreation. d) Classification/Reclassification of Philippine Waters - means the categorization of all water bodies taking into account, among others, the following: (1) existing quality of the body of water; (2) size, depth, surface area covered, volume, direction, rate of flow and gradient of stream; (3) most beneficial existing and future use of said bodies of water and lands bordering them, such as for residential, agricultural, aquacultural, commercial, industrial, navigational, recreational, wildlife conservation and aesthetic purposes; and (4) vulnerability of surface and groundwater to contamination from pollutive and hazardous wastes, agricultural chemicals and underground storage tanks of petroleum products. e) Civil Society - means non-government organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations (POs). f) Cleaner Production - means the application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy to processes, products, services to increase efficiency and reduce risk to humans and the environment; g) Clean-up operations - means activities involving the removal of pollutants discharged or spilled into a water body and its surrounding areas, and the restoration of the affected areas to their former physical, chemical and biological state or conditions. h) Contamination - means the production of substances not found in the natural composition of water that make the water less desirable or unfit desirable or unfit for intended use. i) Department - means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

j) Discharge includes, but is not limited to, the act of spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, releasing or dumping of any material into a water body or onto land from which it might flow or drain into said water. k) Drinking water- means water intended for human consumption or for use in food preparation. l) Dumping - means any unauthorized or illegal disposal into any body of water or land of wastes or toxic or hazardous material: Provided, That it does not mean a release of effluent coming from commercial, industrial, and domestic sources which are within the effluent standards. m) Effluent - means discharge from known sources which is passed into a body of water or land, or wastewater flowing out of a manufacturing plant, industrial plant including domestic, commercial and recreational facilities. n) Effluent standard - means any legal restriction or limitation on quantities, rates, and/or concentrations or any combination thereof, of physical, chemical or biological parameters of effluent which a person or point source is allowed to discharge into a body of water or land. o) Environmental management - means the entire system which includes, but is not limited to, conservation, regulation and minimization of pollution, clean production, waste management, environmental law and policy, environmental education and information, study and mitigation of the environmental impacts of human activity, and environmental research. p) Environmental management system - means the part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environment policy. q) Freshwater - means water containing less than 500 ppm dissolved common salt, sodium chloride, such as that in groundwater, rivers, ponds and lakes. r) Groundwater - means a subsurface water that occurs beneath a water table in soils and rocks, or in geological formations. s) Groundwater vulnerability - means relative ease with which a contaminant located at or near the land surface can migrate to the aquifer or deep well. t) Groundwater vulnerability map - means the identified areas of the land surface where groundwater quality is most at risk from human activities and shall reflect the different degrees of groundwater vulnerability based on a range of soil properties and hydro geological criteria to serve as guide in the protection of the groundwater from contamination. u) Hazardous waste - means any waste or combination of wastes of solid liquid, contained gaseous, or semi-solid form which cause, of contribute to, an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness, taking into account toxicity of such waste, its persistence and degradability in nature, its potential for accumulation or concentration in tissue, and other factors that may otherwise cause or contribute to adverse acute or chronic effects on the health of persons or organism. v) Industrial waste - means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste material with no commercial value released by a manufacturing or processing plant other than excluded material. w) Integrated Water Quality Management Framework - means the policy guideline integrating all the existing frameworks prepared by all government agencies contain the following; water quality goals and targets; (b) period of compliance; (c) water pollution control strategies and techniques; (d) water quality information and education program; (e) human resources development program. x) Margin - means a landward and outer limiting edge adjacent to the border of any water bodies or a limit beyond where beyond where saturation zone ceases to exist.

y) National Water Quality Status Report - means a report to be prepared by the Department indicating: a) the location of water bodies, their quality, taking into account seasonal, tidal and others variations, existing and potential uses and sources of pollution per specific pollutant and pollution load assessment; b) water quality management areas pursuant to Section 5 of this Act; c) and water classification. z) Non-point source - means any source of pollution not identifiable as point source to include, but not be limited to, runoff from irrigation or rainwater, which picks up pollutants from farms and urban areas. aa) Point source - means any identifiable source of pollution with specific point of discharge into a particular water body. bb) Pollutant- shall refer to any substance, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive, which directly or indirectly: (i) alters the quality of any segment of the receiving water body to affect or tend to affect adversely any beneficial use thereof; (ii) is hazardous or potential hazardous to health; (iii) imparts objectionable odor, temperature change, or physical, chemical or biological change to any segment of the water body; or (iv) is in excess of the allowable limits, concentrations, or quality standards specified, or in contravention of the condition, limitation or restriction prescribed in this Act. cc) Pollution control technology- means pollution control devices or apparatus, processes, or other means that effectively prevent control or reduce pollution of water caused by effluents and other discharges, from any point source at levels within the water pollution standards. dd) Potentially infectious medical waste- include isolation wastes, infectious agents, human blood and blood products, pathological wastes, sharps, body parts, contaminated bedding, surgical wastes, and other disposable medical equipment and material that may pose a risk to the public health, welfare or the marine environment. ee) Secretary - means the Secretary of the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR). ff) Septage - means the sludge produced on individual onsite wastewater disposal systems, principally septic tanks and cesspools. gg) Sewage - means water-borne human or animal wastes, excluding oil or oil wastes, removed from residences, building, institutions, industrial and commercial establishments together with such groundwater, surface water and storm water as maybe present including such waste from vessels, offshore structures, other receptacles intended to receive or retain waste or other places or the combination thereof. hh) Sewerage - includes, but is not limited to, any system or network of pipelines, ditches, channels, or conduits including pumping stations, lift stations and force mains, service connections including other constructions, devices, and appliances appurtenant thereto, which includes the collection, transport, pumping and treatment of sewage to a point of disposal. ii) Sludge - means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste or residue generated from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or water control pollution facility, or any other such waste having similar characteristics and effects. jj) Surface water - means all water, which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. kk) Treatment - means any method, technique, or process designed to alter the physical, chemical or biological and radiological character or composition of any waste or wastewater to reduce or prevent pollution.

ll) Toxic amount - means the lowest amount of concentration of toxic pollutants, which may cause chronic or long-term acute or lethal conditions or effects to the aquatic life, or health of persons or which may adversely affect designated water uses. mm) Waste - means any material either solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gas or other forms resulting industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, or from community and household activities that is devoid of usage and discarded. nn) Wastewater - means waste in liquid state containing pollutants. oo) Water body - means both natural and man-made bodies of fresh, brackish, and saline waters, and includes, but is not limited to, aquifers, groundwater, springs, creeks, streams, rivers, ponds, lagoons, water reservoirs, lakes, bays, estuarine, coastal and marine waters. Water bodies do not refer to those constructed, developed and used purposely as water treatment facilities and / or water storage for recycling and re-use which are integral to process industry or manufacturing. pp) Water Pollution - means any alteration of the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological properties of a water body resulting in the impairment of its purity or quality. qq) Water Quality - means the characteristics of water, which define its use in characteristics by terms of physical, chemical, biological, bacteriological or radiological characteristics by which the acceptability of water is evaluated. rr) Water quality guidelines - means the level for a water constituent or numerical values of physical, chemical, biological and bacteriological or radiological parameters which are used to classify water resources and their use, which does not result in significant health risk and which are not intended for direct enforcement but only for water quality management purposes, such as determining time trends, evaluating stages of deterioration or enhancement of the water quality, and as basis for taking positive action in preventing, controlling or abating water pollution. ss) Water Quality Management Area Action Plan - includes, but not be limited to, the following: (a) goals and targets including sewerage or septage program, (b) schedule of compliance to meet the applicable requirements of this Act; (c) water pollution control strategies or techniques; (d) water quality information and education program; e) resource requirement and possible sources; f) enforcement procedures of the plan and (g) rewards and incentives under Chapter 4 of this Act.
CHAPTER 2 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARTICLE 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS SECTION 5. Water Quality Management Area. - The Department, in coordination with National Water Resources Board (NWRB), shall designate certain areas as water quality management areas using appropriate physiographic units such as watershed, river basins or water resources regions. Said management areas shall have similar hydrological, hydrogeological, meteorological or geographic conditions which affect the physicochemical, biological and bacteriological reactions and diffusions of pollutants in the water bodies, or otherwise share common interest or face similar development programs, prospects or problems. Said management area shall be governed by a governing board composed of representatives of mayors and governors of member local government units (LGUs), and representatives of relevant national government agencies, duly registered non-governmental organization, water utility sector, and business sector. The Department representative shall chair the governing board. In the case of the LGUs with memberships on more than one (1) management board, the LGU shall designate only one (1) single representative for all the management areas wherein is a member. The governing board shall formulate strategies to coordinate policies necessary for the effective implementation of this Act in accordance with those established in the framework and monitor the compliance with the action plan. Each management area shall create a multi-sectoral group to establish and affect water quality surveillance and monitoring network including sampling schedules and other similar activities. The group shall submit its report and recommendation to the chairman of the governing board.

A technical secretariat for each management area is hereby created which shall be part of the department and shall provide technical support to the governing board. They shall be composed of at least four (4) members who shall have the following minimum qualifications:

a) One (1) member shall be a member of the Philippines Bar; b) One (1) member shall be a Chemical Engineer, Chemist, Sanitary Engineer, Environmental Engineer or Ecologist or significant training and experience in chemistry; c) One (1) member shall be a Civil Engineer or Hydrologist or Significant training and experience in closely related fields and experience on ground water, respectively; and d) One (1) member shall be a Geologist, Biologist, or significant training and experience in closely related fields.
The areas within the jurisdiction of the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) shall be designated as one management area under the administration of LLDA in accordance with R.A. No. 4850, as amended: Provided, However, That the standards promulgated pursuant to this Act and wastewater charge system established pursuant hereof shall be enforced in said area. SECTION 6. Management of Non-attainment Areas. - The Department shall designate water bodies, or portions thereof, where specific pollutants from either natural or man-made source have already exceeded water quality guidelines as non-attainment areas for the exceeded pollutants. It shall prepare and implement a program that will not allow new sources of exceeded water pollutant in non-attainment areas without a corresponding reduction in discharges from existing sources; Provided, That if the pollutant is naturally occurring, e.g. naturally high boron and other elements in geothermal areas, discharge of such pollutant may be allowed: Provided, further, That the effluent concentration of discharge shall not exceed the naturally occurring level of such pollutant in the area: Provided, Finally, That the effluent concentration and volume of discharge shall not adversely affect water supply, public health and ecological protection. The Department shall, in coordination with NWRB, Department of Health (DOH), Department of Agriculture (DA), governing board and other concerned government agencies and private sectors shall take such measures as may be necessary to upgrade the quality of such water in nonattainment areas to meet the standards under which it has been classified. Upgrading of water quality shall likewise include undertakings, which shall improve the water quality of a water body to a classification that will meet its projected or potential use. The LGUs shall prepare and implement contingency plans and other measures including relocation, whenever necessary, for the protection of health and welfare of the residents within potentially affected areas. SECTION 7. National Sewerage and Septage Management Program. - The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), through its relevant attached agencies, in coordination with the Department, local government units (LGUs) and other concerned agencies, shall, as soon as possible, but in no case exceeding a period of twelve (12) months from the affectivity of this Act, prepare a national program on sewerage and septage management in connection with Section 8 hereof. Such program shall include a priority listing of sewerage, septage and combined sewerageseptage projects for LGUs based on population density and growth, degradation of water resources, topography, geology, vegetation, program/projects for the rehabilitation of existing facilities and such other factors that the Secretary may deem relevant to the protection of water quality. On the basis of such national listing, the national government may allot, on an annual basis, funds for the construction and rehabilitation of required facilities. Each LGU shall appropriate the necessary land, including the required rights-of-way/road access to the land for the construction of the sewage and/or septage treatment facilities. Each LGU may raise funds to subsidize necessary expenses for the operation and maintenance of sewerage treatment or septage facility servicing their area of jurisdiction through local property taxes and enforcement of a service fee system. SECTION 8. Domestic Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal . - Within five (5) years following the effectivity of this Act, the Agency vested to provide water supply and sewerage facilities and/or concessionaires in Metro Manila and other highly urbanized cities (HUCs) as defined in Republic Act No. 7160, in coordination with LGUs, shall be required to connect the existing sewage line found in all subdivisions, condominiums, commercial centers, hotels, sports

and recreational facilities, hospitals, market places, public buildings, industrial complex and other similar establishments including households to available sewerage system. Provided, That the said connection shall be subject to sewerage services charge/fees in accordance with existing laws, rules or regulations unless the sources had already utilized their own sewerage system: Provided, further, That all sources of sewage and septage shall comply with the requirements herein. In areas not considered as HUCs, the DPWH in coordination with the Department, DOH and other concerned agencies, shall employ septage or combined sewerage-septage management system. For the purpose of this section, the DOH, coordination with other government agencies, shall formulate guidelines and standards for the collection, treatment and disposal of sewage including guidelines for the establishment and operation of centralized sewage treatment system. SECTION 9. National Water Quality Management Fund. - A water quality management fund, to be administered by the Department, in coordination with other concerned agencies, as a special account in the National Treasury is hereby established. The fund shall be used to finance the following:

a) Finance containment and clean-up operations of the government in water pollution cases; b) Guarantee restoration of ecosystems and rehabilitation of affected areas; c) Support research, enforcement and monitoring activities; d) Provide technical assistance to the implementing agencies; e) Grant rewards and incentives; f) Support information and educational campaign; and g) Such other disbursements made solely for the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and management and administration of the management areas in the amounts authorized by the Department.
The fines imposed and damages awarded to the government by the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB), proceeds of permits issued by the Department under this Act, donations, endowments and grants in the form of contributions to the national government under this Act shall form part of the fund. Such donations, endowments and grants shall be exempt from donor's taxes and all other taxes, charges or fees imposed by the government and shall be deductible from the gross income of the donor for income tax purposes. Disbursements from the fund shall be subject to the usual accounting and budgeting rules and regulations. SECTION 10. The Area Water Quality Management Fund. - The area water quality management fund is hereby established for the maintenance and upkeep of the water bodies in a water quality management area. The fund shall be utilized for the grant of rewards and incentives for entities whose effluent discharges are better than the water quality criteria of the target classification of the receiving body of water, loans for acquisitions and repairs of facilities to reduce quantity and improve quality of wastewater discharges, and regular maintenance of the water bodies within the management area. An amount of not more than ten percent (10%) of the total amount accruing to the funds annually shall be allocated for the operational expenses of the governing board, its secretariat and multisectoral water quality surveillance and monitoring network. This fund shall initially be sourced from the fines incurred by the establishments located in rural areas before the effectivity of this Act. Thereafter, the fees collected under the wastewater charge system established under Section 13 of this Act, donations, endowments and grants for water quality management of the area shall accrue to the fund. Disbursements from the fund shall be subject to the usual accounting and budgeting rules and regulations. This fund shall be managed by the Board of the corresponding management area. SECTION 11. Water Quality Variance for Geothermal and Oil and Gas Exploration . - The Department may provide variance in water quality criteria and standards for geothermal exploration that encounters re-injection constraints: Provided, That there shall be provision for

adequate protection of beneficial use of water bodies, downstream of the geothermal project: Provided, further, That this provision may be applied to oil and gas exploration as determined by the Department. SECTION 12. Categories of Industry Sector. - Within twenty-four (24) months from the effectivity of this Act, and every two (2) years thereafter, the Department shall, through due public consultation, revise and publish a list of categories of industry sector for which effluent standards will be provided for each significant wastewater parameter per industry sector. The Department shall provide additional classification based on other parameters specifically associated to discharge of a particular industry which shall be included in the listing of categories prescribed in the preceding paragraph. ARTICLE 2 WATER POLLUTION PERMITS AND CHARGES SECTION 13. Wastewater Charge System. - The Department shall implement a wastewater charge system in all management areas including the Laguna Lake Region and Regional Industrial Centers through the collection of wastewater charges/fees. The system shall be established on the basis of payment to the government for discharging wastewater into the water bodies. Wastewater charges shall be established taking into consideration the following:

a) To provide strong economic inducement for polluters to modify their production or management processes or to invest in pollution control technology in order to reduce the amount of water pollutants generated; b) To cover the cost of administering water quality management or improvement programs; c) Reflect damages caused by water pollution on the surrounding environment, including the cost of rehabilitation; d) Type of pollutant; e) Classification of the receiving water body; and f) Other special attributes of the water body.
The fee shall be based on the net waste load depending on the wastewater, charge formula which shall be established with due public consultation within six (6) months from the effectivity of this Act: Provided, That net waste load shall refer to the difference of the initial waste load of the abstracted water and the waste load of the final effluent discharge of an industry: Provided, further, That no net waste load shall be lower than the initial waste load: Provided, finally, That wastewater charge system shall not apply to wastewater from geothermal exploration. Industries whose water effluent are within standards promulgated pursuant to this Act, shall only be charged with minimal reasonable amount which shall be determined by the Department after due public consultation, giving account to volumetric rate of discharge and effluent concentration. SECTION 14. Discharge Pemits. - The Department shall require owners or operators of facilities that discharge regulated effluents pursuant to this Act to secure a permit to discharge. The discharge permit shall be the legal authorization granted by the Department to discharge wastewater: Provided, That the discharge permit shall specify among others, the quantity and quality of effluent that said facilities are allowed to discharge into a particular water body, compliance schedule and monitoring requirement. As part of the permitting procedure, the Department shall encourage the adoption of waste minimization and waste treatment technologies when such technologies are deemed cost effective. The Department shall also develop procedures to relate the current water quality guideline or the projected water quality guideline of the receiving water body/ies with total pollution loadings from various sources, so that effluent quotas can be properly allocated in the discharge permits. For industries without any discharge permit, they may be given a period of twelve {12) months after the effectivity of the implementing rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to this Act, to secure a discharge permit. Effluent trading may be allowed per management area. ARTICLE 3 FINANCIAL LIABILITY MECHANISM

SECTION 15. Financial Liability for Environmental Rehabilitation . - The Department shall require program and project proponents to put up environmental guarantee fund {EGF) as part of the environmental management plan attached to the environmental compliance certificate pursuant to Presidential Decree No.1586 and its implementing rules and regulations. The EGF shall finance the maintenance of the health of the ecosystems and specially the conservation of watersheds and aquifers affected by the development, and the needs of emergency response, clean-up or rehabilitation of areas that may be damaged during the program's or project's actual implementation. Liability for damages shall continue even after the termination of a program or project and, until the lapse of a given period indicated in the environmental compliance certificate, as determined by the Department. The EGF may be in the form of a trust fund, environmental insurance, surety bonds, letters of credit, self-insurance and any other instruments which may be identified by the Department. The choice of the guarantee instrument or combinations thereof shall depend, among others, on the assessment of the risks involved and financial test mechanisms devised by the Department. Proponents required to put up guarantee instruments shall furnish the Department with evidence of availment of such instruments from accredited financial instrument providers. SECTION 16. Clean-Up Operations. - Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 15 and 26 hereof, any person who causes pollution in or pollutes water bodies in excess of the applicable and prevailing standards shall be responsible to contain, remove and clean-up any pollution incident at his own expense to the extent that the same water bodies have been rendered unfit for utilization and beneficial use: Provided, That in the event emergency clean-up operations are necessary and the polluter fails to immediately undertake the same, the Department, in coordination with other government agencies concerned, shall conduct containment, removal and clean-up operations. Expenses incurred in said operations shall be reimbursed by the persons found to have caused such pollution upon proper administrative determination in accordance with this Act. Reimbursements of the cost incurred shall be made to the Water Quality Management Fund or to such other funds where said disbursements were sourced. SECTION 17. Programmatic Environmental Impact Assessment . - The Department shall implement programmatic compliance with the environmental impact assessment system, as in the following types of development:

a) development consisting of a series of similar projects, or a project subdivided into several phases and/or stages whether situated in a contiguous area or geographically dispersed; and b) development consisting of several components or a cluster of projects co-located in an area such as an industrial estate, an export processing zone, or a development zone identified in a local land use plan.
Programmatic compliance with the environmental impact assessment system shall be guided by carrying capacity assessments determined from ecological profiles. Ecological profiles shall Identify environmental constraints and opportunities in programmatic areas. Programmatic assessment shall also take into account cumulative impacts and risks. Consistent with the provisions of the Local Government Code, the Department may enter into agreement with LGUs to incorporate programmatic environmental impact assessment into the preparation, updating or revision of local land use plans and area development plans. SECTION 18. Environmental Impact Assessment System Programmatic Compliance with Water Quality Standards. - The. Department may allow each regional industrial center established pursuant to Republic Act No.7916 (PEZA law) to allocate effluent quotas to pollution sources within its jurisdiction that qualify under an environmental impact assessment system programmatic compliance program in accordance with Presidential Decree No. 15867 and its implementing rules and regulations. CHAPTER 3 INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM SECTION 19. Lead Agency. - The Department shall be the primary government agency responsible for the implementation and enforcement of this Act unless otherwise provided herein. As such, it shall have the following functions, powers and responsibilities:

a) Prepare a National Water Quality Status Report within twenty-four (24) months from the effectivity of this Act:Provided, That the Department shall thereafter review or revise and publish annually, or as the need arises, said report; b) Prepare an Integrated Water Quality Management Framework within twelve (12) months following the completion of the status report;

c) Prepare a ten (10) year Water Quality Management Area Action Plan within twelve (12) months following the completion of the framework for each designated water management area. Such action plan shall be reviewed by the water quality management area governing board every five (5) years or as need arises; d) Prepare and publish a national a national groundwater vulnerability map incorporating the prevailing standards and methodologies, within twenty four (24) months after the effectivity of this Act; e) Enforce, review and revise within twelve (12) months from the effectivity of this Act water quality guidelines after due consultation with the concerned stakeholder sectors: Provided, That the Department, in coordination with appropriate agencies shall review said guidelines every five (5) years or as need arises; f) Review and set effluent standards every five (5) years from the effectivity of this Act or sooner as determined by the Department: Provided, That in the interim, the provisions of DENR Administrative Order No. 35 of the Department shall apply: Provided, further, That when new and more stringent standards are set in accordance with this section, the Department may establish a grace period with a maximum of five (5) years: Provided, finally, That such grace period shall be limited to the moratorium on the issuance of cease and desist and/or closure order against the industry's operations except in the event such operation poses serious and grave threat to the environment, or the industry fails to institute retooling, upgrading or establishing an environmental management system (EMS). g) Establish within twelve (12) months from the effectivity of this Act, internationallyaccepted procedures for sampling and analysis of pollutants and in coordination with other concerned agencies, formulate testing procedures and establish an accreditation system for laboratories; h) Within eighteen (18) months from the effectivity of this Act and every two (2) years thereafter, categorize point and non-point sources of water pollution; i) Classify groundwater sources within twelve (12) months from the effectivity of this Act; j) Classify or reclassify all water bodies according to their beneficial usages: Provided, that in the interim, the provisions of DENR Administrative Order No.34 shall apply: Provided, further, that such classification or reclassification shall take into consideration the operation of businesses or facilities that are existing prior to the effectivity of the Act: Provided, furthermore, that the Department may authorize the use of the water for other purposes that are more restrictive in classification: Provided, finally, That discharges resulting from such use shall meet the effluent standards set by the Department; k) Exercise jurisdiction over all aspects of water pollution, determine its location, magnitude, extent, severity, causes, effects and other pertinent information on pollution, and to take measures, using available methods and technologies to prevent and abate such pollution; l) Exercise supervision and control over all aspects of water quality management; m) Establish a cooperative effort in partnership with the government, LGUs, academic institutions, civil society and the private sector to attain the objectives of this Act; n) Disseminate information and conduct educational awareness and value formation programs and campaigns on the effects of water pollution on health and environment, water quality management, and resource conservation and recovery to encourage an environmentally action-oriented society in coordination with government agencies identified in Section 22 (f); o) Promote. and encourage private and business sectors especially manufacturing and processing plants the use of water quality management systems equipment, including but not limited to, industrial wastewater treatment collection and treatment facilities;

p) Report, on an annual basis, to Congress the, quality status of water bodies and other pertinent information and recommend possible legislation, policies and programs for environmental management and water pollution control; q) Issue rules and regulations for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act; r) Issue orders against any person or entity and impose fines, penalties and other administrative sanctions to compel compliance with water quality the provisions of this Act; s) Undertake appropriate protocol with other concerned agencies for immediate coordinated responses to water related emergency incidents; t) Issue permits, clearances and similar instruments pursuant to this Act; and u) Exercise such powers and perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out the objectives of this Act
The Department shall gradually devolve to the LGUs, and to the governing boards the authority to administer some aspects of water quality management and regulation, including, but not to be limited to, permit issuance, monitoring and imposition of administrative penalties, when, upon the Department's determination, the LGU or the governing board has demonstrated readiness and technical capability to undertake such functions. SECTION 20. Role of Local Government Units. - Local government units shall share the responsibility in the management and improvement of water quality within their territorial jurisdictions. Each local government unit shall within six (6) months after the establishment of the water quality management area action plan prepare a compliance scheme in, accordance thereof, subject to review and approval of the governing board. Each local government unit shall, through its Environment and Natural Resources Office (ENRO) established in Republic Act No.7160, have the following powers and functions:

a) Monitoring of water quality; b) Emergency response; c) Compliance with the framework of the Water Quality Management Action Plan; d) To take active participation in all efforts concerning water quality protection and rehabilitation; and e) To coordinate with other government agencies and civil society and the concerned sectors in the implementation of measures to prevent and control water pollution: Provided, however, That in provinces/cities/municipalities where there are no environment and natural resources officers, the local executive concerned may, with the approval of the Secretary of the DENR designate any of his official and/or chief of office preferably the provincial, city or municipal agriculturist, or any of his employee: Provided, finally, That in case an employee is designated as such, he must have sufficient experience in environmental and natural resources management, conservation and utilization.
SECTION 21. Business and Industry Role in Environmental Management . - The Department and the LGUs, in coordination with the appropriate government agencies. and in consultation with the business and industrial sectors including commerce, shall formulate appropriate incentives for the adoption procedures that will preserve and protect our water bodies through the introduction of innovative equipment and processes that reduce if totally eliminate discharge of pollutants into our water bodies. SECTION 22. Linkage Mechanism. - The Department and its concerned attached agencies including LLDA shall coordinate and enter into agreement with other government agencies, industrial sector and other concerned sectors in the furtherance of the objectives of this Act- The following agencies shall perform tile functions specified hereunder:

a) Philippine Coast Guard in coordination with DA and the Department shall enforce for the enforcement of water quality standards in marine waters, set pursuant to this Act, specifically from offshore sources; b) DPWH through its attached agencies, such as the MWSS, LWUA, and including other urban water utilities for the provision or sewerage and sanitation facilities and the efficient and safe collection, treatment and disposal of sewage within their area of jurisdiction; c) DA, shall coordinate with the Department, in the formulation of guidelines for the re-use of wastewater for irrigation and other agricultural uses and for the prevention, control and abatement of pollution from agricultural and aquaculture activities: Provided, That discharges coming from non-point sources be categorized and further defined pursuant to this Act: Provided, further, That the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) of the DA shall be primarily responsible for the prevention and control of water pollution for the development, management and conservation of the fisheries and aquatic resources; d) DOH shall be primarily responsible for the promulgation, revision and enforcement of drinking water quality standards; e) DOST, in coordination with the Department and other concerned agencies, shall prepare a program for the evaluation, verification, development and public dissemination of pollution prevention and cleaner production technologies; and f) Department of Education (DepEd), Commission Higher Education (CHED), Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Philippine Information Agency (PIA) shall assist and coordinate with the Department in, the preparation and implementation of a comprehensive program pursuant to the objectives of this Act.
SECTION 23. Requirement of Record-keeping, Authority for Entry to Premises and Access to Documents. - The Department or its duly authorized representative shall, after proper consultation and notice, require any person who owns or operates any pollution source or who is subject to. any requirement of this Act to submit reports and other written information as may be required by the department. Any record, report or information obtained under this section shall be made available to the public, except upon a satisfactory showing to the Department by the, entity concerned that the record, report, or information or parts thereof, if made public, would divulge secret methods or processes entitled to protection as intellectual property. Such record, report or information shall likewise be incorporated in the Department's industrial rating system. Pursuant to this Act, the Department, through it's authorized representatives, shall have the right to: (a) enter any premises or to have access to documents and relevant materials as referred to in the herein preceding paragraph; (b) inspect any pollution or waste source, control device, monitoring equipment or method required; and (c) test any discharge. In cases of fish kill incidence, the Bureau of Fisheries of the DA, in the course of its investigation, may enter the premises of an establishment reported to have caused said incident. SECTION 24. Pollution Research and Development Programs. - The Department, in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), other concerned agencies and academic research institutions, shall establish a national research and development program for the prevention and control of water pollution. As part of said program, the DOST shall conduct and promote the coordination and acceleration of research, investigation, experiments, training, survey and studies relating to the causes, extent, prevention and control of pollution among concerned government agencies and research institutions. CHAPTER 4 INCENTIVES AND REWARDS SECTION 25. Rewards. - Rewards, monetary or otherwise, shall be provided to individuals, private organization and entities, including civil society, that have undertaken outstanding and innovative projects, technologies, processes and techniques or activities in water quality management. Said rewards shall be sourced from the Water Quality Management Fund herein created. SECTION 26. Incentives Scheme. - An incentive scheme is hereby provided for the purpose of encouraging LGUs, water districts (WDs), enterprises, or private entities, and individuals, to develop or undertake an effective water quality management, or actively participate in any program geared towards the promotion thereof as provided in this Act.

A. Non-fiscal incentive 1. Inclusion in the Investments Priority Plan (IPP). - Subject to the rules and regulations of the Board of Investments (BOI), industrial wastewater treatment and/or adoption of water pollution control technology, cleaner production and waste minimization technology shall be classified as preferred areas of investment under its annual priority plan and shall enjoy the applicable fiscal and non-fiscal incentives as may be provided for under the Omnibus Investment Code, as amended. Fiscal Incentives 1. Tax and Duty Exemption on Imported Capital Equipment. - Within ten 10) years upon the effectivity of this Act, LGUs, WDs, enterprises or private entities shall enjoy tax-and-duty-free importation of machinery, equipment and spare parts used for industrial wastewater treatment/collection and treatment facilities: Provided, That the importation of such machinery, equipment and spare parts shall comply with the following conditions: a) They are not manufactured domestically in sufficient quantity, of comparable quality and at reasonable prices; b) They are reasonably needed and will be used actually, directly and exclusively for the above mentioned activities; and c) Written endorsement by the Department that the importation of such machinery, equipment and spare parts would be beneficial to environmental protection and management: Provided, further, That the sale, transfer or disposition of such machinery, equipment and spare parts without prior approval of the BOI within five (5) years from the date of acquisition shall be prohibited, otherwise the LGU concerned, WD, enterprise or private entity and the concerned vendee, transferee or assignee shall be solidarity liable to pay twice the amount of tax and duty exemption given it. 2. Tax Credit on Domestic Capital Equipment. - Within ten (10) years from the effectivity of this Act, a tax credit equivalent to one hundred percent (100%) of the value of the national internal revenue taxes and customs duties that would have been waived on the machinery, equipment, and spare parts, had these items been imported shall be given to enterprises or private entities and individuals, subject to the same conditions and prohibition cited in the preceding paragraph. 3. Tax and Duty Exemption of Donations, Legacies and Gifts. - All legacies, gifts and donations to LGUs, WDs, enterprises, or private entities and individuals, for the support and maintenance of the program for effective water quality management shall be exempt from donor's tax and shall be deductible from the gross income of the donor for income tax purposes. Imported articles donated to, or for the account of any LGUs, WDs, local water utilities, enterprises, or private entities and individuals to be exclusively used for water quality management programs shall be exempted from the payment of customs duties and applicable internal revenue taxes. Industrial wastewater treatment and/or installation of water pollution control devices shall be classified as pioneer and preferred areas of investment under the BOI's annual priority plan and shall enjoy- the applicable fiscal and non-fiscal incentives as may be provided for under the Omnibus Investment Code, as amended. B. Financial Assistance Program Government financial institutions such as the Development Bank of the Philippines, Land Bank of the Philippines, Government Service Insurance System, and such other government institutions providing financial services shall, in accordance with and to the extent allowed by the enabling provisions of their respective charters or applicable laws, accord high priority to extend financial services to LGUs, WDs, enterprises, or private entities engaged in sewage collection and treatment facilities. C. Extension or Grants to LGUs
Cities and municipalities which shall establish or operate sewerage facilities may be entitled to receive grants for the purpose of developing technical capabilities.

CHAPTER 5 CIVIL LIABILITY/PENAL PROVISIONS SECTION 27. Prohibited Acts. - The following acts are hereby prohibited:

a) Discharging, depositing or causing to be deposited material of any kind directly or indirectly into the water bodies or along the margins of any surface water, where, the same shall be liable to be washed into such surface water, either by tide action or by storm, floods or otherwise, which could cause water pollution or impede natural flow in the water body; b) Discharging, injecting or allowing to seep into the soil or sub-soil any substance in any form that would pollute groundwater. In the case of geothermal projects, and subject to the approval of the Department, regulated discharge for short- term activities (e.g. well testing, flushing, commissioning, venting) and deep re-injection of geothermal liquids may be allowed: Provided, That safety measures are adopted to prevent the contamination of the groundwater; c) Operating facilities that discharge regulated water pollutants without the valid required permits or after the permit was revoked for any violation of any condition therein; d) Disposal of potentially infectious medical waste into sea water by vessels unless the health or safety of individuals on board the vessel is threatened by a great and imminent peril; e) Unauthorized transport or dumping into sea waters of sewage sludge or solid waste as defined under Republic Act No.9003; f) Transport, dumping or discharge of prohibited chemicals, substances or pollutants listed under Republic Act No.6969; g) Operate facilities that discharge or allow to seep, willfully or through gross negligence, prohibited chemicals, substances or pollutants listed under R. A. No. 6969 into water bodies or wherein the same shall be liable to be washed into such surface, ground, coastal, and marine water; h) Undertaking activities or development and expansion of projects, or operating wastewater/sewerage facilities in violation of Presidential Decree. No.1586 and its implementing rules, and regulations; i) Discharging regulated water pollutants without the valid required discharge permit pursuant to this Act or after the permit was revoked for any violation of condition therein; j) Non-compliance of the LGU with the Water Quality Framework and Management Area Action Plan. In such a case, sanctions shall be imposed on the local government officials concerned; k) Refusal to allow entry, inspection and monitoring by the Department in accordance with this Act; l) Refusal to allow access by the Department to relevant reports and records in accordance with this Act; m) Refusal or failure to submit reports whenever required by the Department in accordance with this Act; n) Refusal or failure to designate pollution control officers whenever required by, the Department in accordance with this Act; and o) Directly using booster pumps in the distribution system or tampering with the water supply in such a way as to alter or impair the water quality.
SECTION 28. Fines, Damages and Penalties. - Unless otherwise provided herein, any person who commits any of the prohibited acts provided in the immediately preceding section or violates any of the provision of this Act or its implementing rules and regulations, shall be fined by the Secretary, upon the recommendation of the PAB in the amount of not less than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) nor more than Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) for every day of

violation. The fines herein prescribed shall be increased by ten percent (10%) every two (2) years to compensate for inflation and to maintain the deterrent function of such fines: Provided, That the Secretary, upon recommendation of the PAB may order the closure, suspension of development or construction, or cessation of operations or, where appropriate disconnection of water supply, until such time that proper environmental safeguards are put in place and/or compliance with this Act or its rules and regulations are undertaken. This paragraph shall be without prejudice to the issuance of an ex parte order for such closure, suspension of development or construction, or cessation of operations during the pendency of the case. Failure to undertake clean-up operations, willfully, or through gross negligence, shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than two (2) years and not more than four (4) years and a fine not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) and not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) per day for each day of violation. Such failure or refusal which results in serious injury or loss of life and/or irreversible water contamination of surface, ground, coastal and marine water shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than six (6) years and one day and not more than twelve (12) years, and a fine of Five Hundred Thousand Pesos (P500,000.00) per day for each day during which the omission and/or contamination continues. In case of gross violation of this Act, the PAB shall issue a resolution recommending that the proper government agencies file criminal charges against the violators. Gross violation shall mean any of the following:

a) deliberate discharge of toxic pollutants identified pursuant to Republic Act No.6969 in toxic amounts; b) five {5) or more violations within a period of two (2) years; or c) blatant disregard of the orders of the PAB, such as the non-payment of fines, breaking of seals or operating despite the existence of an order for closure, discontinuance or cessation of operation.
In which case, offenders shall be punished with a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than Three million pesos (P3,000,000.00} per day for each day of violation or imprisonment of not less than six {6) years but not more than ten {10) years, or both, at the discretion of the court. If the offender is a juridical person, the president, manager and the pollution control officer or the official in charge of the operation shall suffer the penalty herein provided. For violations falling under Section 4 of Presidential Decree No.979 or any regulations prescribed in pursuance thereof, such person shall be liable for a fine of no1 less than Fifty thousand pesos {P50,000.00) nor more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00) or by imprisonment of not less than one {1) year nor more than six (6) years or both, for each offense, without prejudice to the civil liability of the offender in accordance with existing laws. If the offender is a juridical entity, then its officers, directors, agents or any person primarily responsible shall be held liable: Provided, That any vessel from which oil or other harmful substances are discharged in violation of Section 4 of Presidential Decree No.979 shall be liable for penalty of fine specified in the immediately preceding paragraph and clearance of such vessel from the port of the Philippines may be withheld until the fine is paid and such penalty shall constitute a lien on such vessel which may be recovered in proceedings by libel in rem in the proper court which the vessel may be. The owner or operator of a vessel or facility which discharged the oil or other harmful substances will be liable to pay for any clean-up costs. Provided, finally, That water pollution cases involving acts or omissions --- committed within the Laguna Lake Region shall be dealt with in accordance with the procedure under R. A. No.4850 as amended. SECTION 29. Administrative Sanctions Against Non-compliance with the Water Quality Management Area Action Plan. - Local government officials concerned shall be subject to Administrative sanctions incase of failure to comply with their action plan accordance with the relevant provisions of R.A. No. 7160. CHAPTER 6 ACTIONS SECTION 30. Administrative Action. - Without prejudice to the right of any affected person to file an administrative action, the Department shall, on its own instance or upon verified complaint by any person, institute administrative proceedings in the proper forum against any person who violates:

a) Standards or limitations provided by this Act; or

b) By any such order, rule or regulation issued by the Department with respect to such standard or limitation.
CHAPTER 7 FINAL PROVISIONS SECTION 31. Appropriations.- An amount of One hundred million pesos (P100,000,000.00) shall be appropriated from the savings of the National Government to the Department for the initial implementation of this Act. Thereafter, the amount necessary to effectively carry out the provision of this Act shall be included in the General Appropriations Act of the year following its enactment into law and thereafter. SECTION 32. Implementing Rules and Regulations. - The Department, in coordination with the Committees on Environment and Ecology of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively and other concerned agencies shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations for this Act, within one (1) year after the enactment of this Act: Provided. That rules and regulations issued by other government agencies and instrumentalities for the prevention and/or abatement of water pollution not inconsistent with this Act shall supplement the rules and regulations issued by the Department, pursuant to the provisions of this Act. The draft of the implementing rules and regulations shall be published and be the subject of public consultations with affected sectors. There shall be a mandatory review of the implementing rules and regulations and standards set pursuant to the provisions of this Act. SECTION 33. Joint Congressional Oversight Committee. - There is hereby created a Joint Congressional Oversight Committee to monitor the implementation of this Act and to review the implementing rules and regulations promulgated by the Department. The Committee shall be composed of five (5) Senators and five; (5) Representatives to be appointed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively. The Oversight Committee shall be co-chaired by the Chairpersons of the Committee on Environment of the Senate and the Committee on Ecology of the House of Representatives. SECTION 34. Repealing Clause. - Presidential Decree No.984 is hereby repealed. Republic Act Nos. 6969 and 4850 as amended, Presidential Decree Nos. 1586, 1152, 979 and 856 are hereby amended and modified accordingly. All other laws, orders, issuance, rules and regulations inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SECTION 35. Separability Clause. - If any provision of this Act or the application such provision to any person or circumstances is declared unconstitutional, the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other person or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. SECTION 36. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days from the date of its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

G.R. No. 158290

October 23, 2006

HILARION M. HENARES, JR., VICTOR C. AGUSTIN, ALFREDO L. HENARES, DANIEL L. HENARES, ENRIQUE BELO HENARES, and CRISTINA BELO HENARES, petitioners, vs. LAND TRANSPORTATION FRANCHISING AND REGULATORY BOARD and DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS, respondents.

RESOLUTION

QUISUMBING, J.: Petitioners challenge this Court to issue a writ of mandamus commanding respondents Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) and the Department of Transportation

and Communications (DOTC) to require public utility vehicles (PUVs) to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternative fuel. Citing statistics from the Metro Manila Transportation and Traffic Situation Study of 1996,1 the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) of the National Capital Region, 2 a study of the Asian Development Bank,3 the Manila Observatory4 and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources5 (DENR) on the high growth and low turnover in vehicle ownership in the Philippines, including diesel-powered vehicles, two-stroke engine powered motorcycles and their concomitant emission of air pollutants, petitioners attempt to present a compelling case for judicial action against the bane of air pollution and related environmental hazards. Petitioners allege that the particulate matters (PM) complex mixtures of dust, dirt, smoke, and liquid droplets, varying in sizes and compositions emitted into the air from various engine combustions have caused detrimental effects on health, productivity, infrastructure and the overall quality of life. Petitioners particularly cite the effects of certain fuel emissions from engine combustion when these react to other pollutants. For instance, petitioners aver, with hydrocarbons, oxide of nitrogen (NOx) creates smog; with sulfur dioxide, it creates acid rain; and with ammonia, moisture and other compounds, it reacts to form nitric acid and harmful nitrates. Fuel emissions also cause retardation and leaf bleaching in plants. According to petitioner, another emission, carbon monoxide (CO), when not completely burned but emitted into the atmosphere and then inhaled can disrupt the necessary oxygen in blood. With prolonged exposure, CO affects the nervous system and can be lethal to people with weak hearts.6 Petitioners add that although much of the new power generated in the country will use natural gas while a number of oil and coal-fired fuel stations are being phased-out, still with the projected doubling of power generation over the next 10 years, and with the continuing high demand for motor vehicles, the energy and transport sectors are likely to remain the major sources of harmful emissions. Petitioners refer us to the study of the Philippine Environment Monitor 20027, stating that in four of the country's major cities, Metro Manila, Davao, Cebu and Baguio, the exposure to PM10, a finer PM which can penetrate deep into the lungs causing serious health problems, is estimated at over US$430 million.8 The study also reports that the emissions of PMs have caused the following:

Over 2,000 people die prematurely. This loss is valued at about US$140 million. Over 9,000 people suffer from chronic bronchitis, which is valued at about US$120 million. Nearly 51 million cases of respiratory symptom days in Metro Manila (averaging twice a year in Davao and Cebu, and five to six times in Metro Manila and Baguio), costs about US$170 million. This is a 70 percent increase, over a decade, when compared with the findings of a similar study done in 1992 for Metro Manila, which reported 33 million cases.9
Petitioners likewise cite the University of the Philippines' studies in 1990-91 and 1994 showing that vehicular emissions in Metro Manila have resulted to the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); that pulmonary tuberculosis is highest among jeepney drivers; and there is a 4.8 to 27.5 percent prevalence of respiratory symptoms among school children and 15.8 to 40.6 percent among child vendors. The studies also revealed that the children in Metro Manila showed more compromised pulmonary function than their rural counterparts. Petitioners infer that these are mostly due to the emissions of PUVs. To counter the aforementioned detrimental effects of emissions from PUVs, petitioners propose the use of CNG. According to petitioners, CNG is a natural gas comprised mostly of methane which although containing small amounts of propane and butane,10 is colorless and odorless and considered the cleanest fossil fuel because it produces much less pollutants than coal and petroleum; produces up to 90 percent less CO compared to gasoline and diesel fuel; reduces NOxemissions by 50 percent and cuts hydrocarbon emissions by half; emits 60 percent less PMs; and releases virtually no sulfur dioxide. Although, according to petitioners, the only drawback of CNG is that it produces more methane, one of the gases blamed for global warming. 11 Asserting their right to clean air, petitioners contend that the bases for their petition for a writ of mandamus to order the LTFRB to require PUVs to use CNG as an alternative fuel, lie in Section 16,12 Article II of the 1987 Constitution, our ruling in Oposa v. Factoran, Jr.,13 and Section 414 of Republic Act No. 8749 otherwise known as the "Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999." Meantime, following a subsequent motion, the Court granted petitioners' motion to implead the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) as additional respondent. In his Comment for respondents LTFRB and DOTC, the Solicitor General, cites Section 3, Rule 65 of the Revised Rules of Court and explains that the writ of mandamus is not the correct remedy since the writ may be issued only to command a tribunal, corporation, board or person to

do an act that is required to be done, when he or it unlawfully neglects the performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a duty resulting from an office, trust or station, or unlawfully excludes another from the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is entitled, there being no other plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law. 15 Further citing existing jurisprudence, the Solicitor General explains that in contrast to a discretionary act, a ministerial act, which a mandamus is, is one in which an officer or tribunal performs in a given state of facts, in a prescribed manner, in obedience to a mandate of legal authority, without regard to or the exercise of his own judgment upon the propriety or impropriety of an act done. The Solicitor General also notes that nothing in Rep. Act No. 8749 that petitioners invoke, prohibits the use of gasoline and diesel by owners of motor vehicles. Sadly too, according to the Solicitor General, Rep. Act No. 8749 does not even mention the existence of CNG as alternative fuel and avers that unless this law is amended to provide CNG as alternative fuel for PUVs, the respondents cannot propose that PUVs use CNG as alternative fuel. The Solicitor General also adds that it is the DENR that is tasked to implement Rep. Act No. 8749 and not the LTFRB nor the DOTC. Moreover, he says, it is the Department of Energy (DOE), under Section 2616 of Rep. Act No. 8749, that is required to set the specifications for all types of fuel and fuel-related products to improve fuel compositions for improved efficiency and reduced emissions. He adds that under Section 2117 of the cited Republic Act, the DOTC is limited to implementing the emission standards for motor vehicles, and the herein respondents cannot alter, change or modify the emission standards. The Solicitor General opines that the Court should declare the instant petition for mandamus without merit. Petitioners, in their Reply, insist that the respondents possess the administrative and regulatory powers to implement measures in accordance with the policies and principles mandated by Rep. Act No. 8749, specifically Section 218 and Section 21.19 Petitioners state that under these laws and with all the available information provided by the DOE on the benefits of CNG, respondents cannot ignore the existence of CNG, and their failure to recognize CNG and compel its use by PUVs as alternative fuel while air pollution brought about by the emissions of gasoline and diesel endanger the environment and the people, is tantamount to neglect in the performance of a duty which the law enjoins. Lastly, petitioners aver that other than the writ applied for, they have no other plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law. Petitioners insist that the writ in fact should be issued pursuant to the very same Section 3, Rule 65 of the Revised Rules of Court that the Solicitor General invokes. In their Memorandum, petitioners phrase the issues before us as follows:

I. WHETHER OR NOT THE PETITIONERS HAVE THE PERSONALITY TO BRING THE PRESENT ACTION II. WHETHER OR NOT THE PRESENT ACTION IS SUPPORTED BY LAW III. WHETHER OR NOT THE RESPONDENT IS THE AGENCY RESPONSIBLE TO IMPLEMENT THE SUGGESTED ALTERNATIVE OF REQUIRING PUBLIC UTILITY VEHICLES TO USE COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) IV. WHETHER OR NOT THE RESPONDENT CAN BE COMPELLED TO REQUIRE PUBLIC UTILITY VEHICLES TO USE COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS THROUGH A WRIT OF MANDAMUS20
Briefly put, the issues are two-fold. First, Do petitioners have legal personality to bring this petition before us? Second, Should mandamus issue against respondents to compel PUVs to use CNG as alternative fuel? According to petitioners, Section 16,21 Article II of the 1987 Constitution is the policy statement that bestows on the people the right to breathe clean air in a healthy environment. This policy is enunciated in Oposa.22 The implementation of this policy is articulated in Rep. Act No. 8749. These, according to petitioners, are the bases for their standing to file the instant petition. They aver that when there is an omission by the government to safeguard a right, in this case their right to clean air, then, the citizens can resort to and exhaust all remedies to challenge this omission by the government. This, they say, is embodied in Section 423 of Rep. Act No. 8749. Petitioners insist that since it is the LTFRB and the DOTC that are the government agencies clothed with power to regulate and control motor vehicles, particularly PUVs, and with the same agencies' awareness and knowledge that the PUVs emit dangerous levels of air pollutants, then, the responsibility to see that these are curbed falls under respondents' functions and a writ of mandamus should issue against them.

The Solicitor General, for his part, reiterates his position that the respondent government agencies, the DOTC and the LTFRB, are not in a position to compel the PUVs to use CNG as alternative fuel. The Solicitor General explains that the function of the DOTC is limited to implementing the emission standards set forth in Rep. Act No. 8749 and the said law only goes as far as setting the maximum limit for the emission of vehicles, but it does not recognize CNG as alternative engine fuel. The Solicitor General avers that the petition should be addressed to Congress for it to come up with a policy that would compel the use of CNG as alternative fuel. Patently, this Court is being asked to resolve issues that are not only procedural. Petitioners challenge this Court to decide if what petitioners propose could be done through a less circuitous, speedy and unchartered course in an issue that Chief Justice Hilario G. Davide, Jr. in his ponencia in the Oposa case,24 describes as "inter-generational responsibility" and "intergenerational justice." Now, as to petitioners' standing. There is no dispute that petitioners have standing to bring their case before this Court. Even respondents do not question their standing. This petition focuses on one fundamental legal right of petitioners, their right to clean air. Moreover, as held previously, a party's standing before this Court is a procedural technicality which may, in the exercise of the Court's discretion, be set aside in view of the importance of the issue raised. We brush aside this issue of technicality under the principle of the transcendental importance to the public, especially so if these cases demand that they be settled promptly. Undeniably, the right to clean air not only is an issue of paramount importance to petitioners for it concerns the air they breathe, but it is also impressed with public interest. The consequences of the counter-productive and retrogressive effects of a neglected environment due to emissions of motor vehicles immeasurably affect the well-being of petitioners. On these considerations, the legal standing of the petitioners deserves recognition. Our next concern is whether the writ of mandamus is the proper remedy, and if the writ could issue against respondents. Under Section 3, Rule 65 of the Rules of Court, mandamus lies under any of the following cases: (1) against any tribunal which unlawfully neglects the performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a duty; (2) in case any corporation, board or person unlawfully neglects the performance of an act which the law enjoins as a duty resulting from an office, trust, or station; and (3) in case any tribunal, corporation, board or person unlawfully excludes another from the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is legally entitled; and there is no other plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law. In University of San Agustin, Inc. v. Court of Appeals ,25 we said,

It is settled that mandamus is employed to compel the performance, when refused, of a ministerial duty, this being its main objective. It does not lie to require anyone to fulfill contractual obligations or to compel a course of conduct, nor to control or review the exercise of discretion. On the part of the petitioner, it is essential to the issuance of a writ of mandamus that he should have a clear legal right to the thing demanded and it must be the imperative duty of the respondent to perform the act required. It never issues in doubtful cases. While it may not be necessary that the duty be absolutely expressed, it must however, be clear. The writ will not issue to compel an official to do anything which is not his duty to do or which is his duty not to do, or give to the applicant anything to which he is not entitled by law. The writ neither confers powers nor imposes duties. It is simply a command to exercise a power already possessed and to perform a duty already imposed. (Emphasis supplied.)
In this petition the legal right which is sought to be recognized and enforced hinges on a constitutional and a statutory policy already articulated in operational terms, e.g. in Rep. Act No. 8749, the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999. Paragraph (a), Section 21 of the Act specifically provides that when PUVs are concerned, the responsibility of implementing the policy falls on respondent DOTC. It provides as follows:

SEC 21. Pollution from Motor Vehicles. - a) The DOTC shall implement the emission standards for motor vehicles set pursuant to and as provided in this Act. To further improve the emission standards, the Department [DENR] shall review, revise and publish the standards every two (2) years, or as the need arises. It shall consider the maximum limits for all major pollutants to ensure substantial improvement in air quality for the health, safety and welfare of the general public.
Paragraph (b) states:

b) The Department [DENR] in collaboration with the DOTC, DTI and LGUs, shall develop an action plan for the control and management of air pollution from motor vehicles consistent with the Integrated Air Quality Framework . . . . (Emphasis supplied.)
There is no dispute that under the Clean Air Act it is the DENR that is tasked to set the emission standards for fuel use and the task of developing an action plan. As far as motor vehicles are concerned, it devolves upon the DOTC and the line agency whose mandate is to oversee that motor vehicles prepare an action plan and implement the emission standards for motor vehicles, namely the LTFRB. In Oposa26 we said, the right to a balanced and healthful ecology carries with it the correlative duty to refrain from impairing the environment. We also said, it is clearly the duty of the responsible government agencies to advance the said right. Petitioners invoke the provisions of the Constitution and the Clean Air Act in their prayer for issuance of a writ of mandamus commanding the respondents to require PUVs to use CNG as an alternative fuel. Although both are general mandates that do not specifically enjoin the use of any kind of fuel, particularly the use of CNG, there is an executive order implementing a program on the use of CNG by public vehicles. Executive Order No. 290, entitled Implementing the Natural Gas Vehicle Program for Public Transport (NGVPPT) , took effect on February 24, 2004. The program recognized, among others, natural gas as a clean burning alternative fuel for vehicle which has the potential to produce substantially lower pollutants; and the Malampaya Gas-toPower Project as representing the beginning of the natural gas industry of the Philippines. Paragraph 1.2, Section 1 of E.O. No. 290 cites as one of its objectives, the use of CNG as a clean alternative fuel for transport. Furthermore, one of the components of the program is the development of CNG refueling stations and all related facilities in strategic locations in the country to serve the needs of CNG-powered PUVs. Section 3 of E.O. No. 290, consistent with E.O. No. 66, series of 2002, designated the DOE as the lead agency (a) in developing the natural gas industry of the country with the DENR, through the EMB and (b) in formulating emission standards for CNG. Most significantly, par. 4.5, Section 4 tasks the DOTC, working with the DOE, to develop an implementation plan for "a gradual shift to CNG fuel utilization in PUVs and promote NGVs [natural gas vehicles] in Metro Manila and Luzon through the issuance of directives/orders providing preferential franchises in present day major routes and exclusive franchises to NGVs in newly opened routes" A thorough reading of the executive order assures us that implementation for a cleaner environment is being addressed. To a certain extent, the instant petition had been mooted by the issuance of E.O. No. 290. Regrettably, however, the plain, speedy and adequate remedy herein sought by petitioners, i.e., a writ of mandamus commanding the respondents to require PUVs to use CNG, is unavailing. Mandamus is available only to compel the doing of an act specifically enjoined by law as a duty. Here, there is no law that mandates the respondents LTFRB and the DOTC to order owners of motor vehicles to use CNG. At most the LTFRB has been tasked by E.O. No. 290 in par. 4.5 (ii), Section 4 "to grant preferential and exclusive Certificates of Public Convenience (CPC) or franchises to operators of NGVs based on the results of the DOTC surveys." Further, mandamus will not generally lie from one branch of government to a coordinate branch, for the obvious reason that neither is inferior to the other. 27 The need for future changes in both legislation and its implementation cannot be preempted by orders from this Court, especially when what is prayed for is procedurally infirm. Besides, comity with and courtesy to a coequal branch dictate that we give sufficient time and leeway for the coequal branches to address by themselves the environmental problems raised in this petition. In the same manner that we have associated the fundamental right to a balanced and healthful ecology with the twin concepts of "inter-generational responsibility" and "inter-generational justice" in Oposa,28 where we upheld the right of future Filipinos to prevent the destruction of the rainforests, so do we recognize, in this petition, the right of petitioners and the future generation to clean air. In Oposa we said that if the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is now explicitly found in the Constitution even if the right is "assumed to exist from the inception of humankind, it is because of the well-founded fear of its framers [of the Constitution] that unless the rights to a balanced and healthful ecology and to health are mandated as state policies by the Constitution itself, thereby highlighting their continuing importance and imposing upon the state a solemn obligation to preserve the first and protect and advance the second, the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation, but also for those to come. . ." 29 It is the firm belief of this Court that in this case, it is timely to reaffirm the premium we have placed on the protection of the environment in the landmark case of Oposa. Yet, as serious as the statistics are on air pollution, with the present fuels deemed toxic as they are to the environment, as fatal as these pollutants are to the health of the citizens, and urgently requiring resort to drastic measures to reduce air pollutants emitted by motor vehicles, we must admit in particular that petitioners are unable to pinpoint the law that imposes an indubitable legal duty on respondents that will justify a grant of the writ of mandamus compelling the use of CNG for public utility vehicles. It appears to us that more properly, the legislature should provide first the specific

statutory remedy to the complex environmental problems bared by herein petitioners before any judicial recourse by mandamus is taken. WHEREFORE, the petition for the issuance of a writ of mandamus is DISMISSED for lack of merit. SO ORDERED.