NEWS R E L E A S E

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
1520 H STREET, N O R T H W E S T ' TELEPHONES: DUDLEY 2 - 6 3 2 5

WASHINGTON 25. D. C. . EXECUTIVE 3 - 3 2 6 0

Cape Canaveral Press Room

SUNSET 3-7626
A p r i l 26, 1961

NOTE TO EDITORS:

Enclosed i s a press k i t d e t a i l i n g t h e f i r s t m nned Mercury +t % ei r s u b - o r b i t a l launch, Mercury-Redstone 3. The m a t- f i a l i n fx ? % ~ - * r e T F a X E * ~ Xmvr-mebla no e a l i e r than PM's Saturday, aTI A p r i l 29, 1961. The k i t c o n t a i n s eleven s e c t i o n s :

1. Mercury Redstone 3.
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Astronaut Observations and Control Tasks During Manned Mercury Flight P i l o t P r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e MR-3 F l i g h t .

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M - I n s i d e t h e P i l o t s Cabin. R3
Mercury Redstone Launch Vehicle. Mercury M - Recovery Operations. R3 P r o j e c t Mercury

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A Progress Report.

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" I F " A Study of Contingency Planning f o r t h e P r o j e c t Mercury Mission,

9. Mercury Redstone Abort.
10. Astronaut Biographies,

11. Astronaut T r a i n i n g Program Summary.

0. B. Lloyd D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e o f Public

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NEWS R E L E A S E
NATIONAL AERONAUTCS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
I S 2 0 H S T R E E T , NORTHWEST W A S H I N G T O N 2 5 . D. C . TELEPHONES: DUOLEY 2-6325 E X E C U T I V E 3-3260

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RELEASE NO, 61-88

In the next week OF so, the Project Mercury's third Hedstone launch will take place at Cape Canaveral. In this connection, James E. Webb, Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration, stated:

''Our NationQs space program will soon enter a new era manus participation in the exploration of space by our first ascronaut, The upcoming Mercury-Redstone flight is a most a step that will lead important step in the 16. S , program on to manps ultimate conquest of this new and hostile environment. It is also a most serious step; for it cannot be taken without risk to human life. I is the kind of risk that t Lindbergh t o s k when he crossed the Atlantic, that Chuck Yeager took in the X-1's f i r s t supersonic flight, and test pilots Scott C r o s s f i e l d , Joe Walker, and Bob White have taken in their flights in the X-15 airplane,

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' 1 am, confident that in Project Mercury every reasonable ' precaution has been taken to minimize this risk.
" M y very best wishes %OF success to to the Mercury team that ha8 worked so hard to bring this day about.

''To a11 the astronauts who volunteered and to the one making this flight, let me say 'Godspeed'.II

Mercury8s first manned apace flight is to take place approximately one hour after daybreak at Cape Canaveral, Florida, after a 2-day countdown operation. Maximum hold time on any given day will be 5 hours. The flight may be postponed fromi day to day fQP 5 days. The one-ton-plus spacecraft, boosted by a modified Redstone launch vehicle, will follow a ballistic arc with a range of 290 statute miles and 8 maximum altitude of 115 statute miles, The flight time - lift-off to splash will be about 15 minutes.

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Primary mission t e s t o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e :
1. F a m i l i a r i z i n g a man w i t h a b r i e f but complete space f l i g h t experience i n c l u d i n g l i f t - o f f " , powered f l i g h t , w e i g h t l e s s f l i g h t , e n t r y and l a n d i n g phases of space f l i g h t .
2 . Evaluating man's a b i l i t y t o perform u s e f u l funct i o n s d u r i n g space f l i g h t by ( a ) demonstrating manual c o n t r o l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e before, d u r i n g and a f t e r r e t r o f i r e and ( b ) u s i n g v o i c e communications d u r i n g f l i g h t .

3.
space f l i g h t ,

Studying manos p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n d u r i n g

General o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e t h e continued q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e Mercury s p a c e c r a f t and i t s systems f o r manned f l i g h t , and t o provide t r a i n i n g for ground support and recovery f o r c e s f o r f u t u r e manned flights, During t h e f l i g h t t h e p i l o t w i l l be s u b j e c t e d t o approximately "6g" through the powered p o r t i o n of t h e f l i g h t , approximately 5 minutes of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n from t h e launch v e h i c l e and approximately l l g d u r i n g r e e n t r y i n t o the e a r t h ' s atmosphere,
The s p a c e c r a f t which s t a n d s about 9 f e e t high and 6 f e e t a c r o s s i t s b l u n t base w i l l be launched v e r t i c a l l y on a p a t h s l i g h t l y s o u t h of e a s t ,

Here i s t h e noma1 OF planned mission p r o f i l e : The Redstone engine w i l l be s h u t down about two and a h a l f minutes a f t e r l i f t - o f f when t h e v e h i c l e has achieved a speed of about 4500 miles p e r hour i n a climbing a t t i t u d e about 40 degrees above t h e h o r i z o n t a l , A t engine c u t o f f , t h e escape tower clamp r i n g i s s e p a r a t e d and b o t h t h e escape r o c k e t and tower j e t t i s o n r o c k e t are f i r e d t o remove t h e tower.
Ten seconds a f t e r engine c u t o f f , a c l w p r i n g s e c u r i n g b o o s t e r and s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be s e p a r a t e d . Three 350-poundt h r u s t s o l i d p r o p e l l a n t r o c k e t s a t t h e base of t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be f i r e d t o separate t h e s p a c e c r a f t from t h e launch v e h i c l e . The p i l o t t s p e r i s c o p e i s t h e n extended. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a u t o p i l o t swings t h e s p a c e c r a f t around s o t h e b l u n t end i s forward and t i l t e d s l i g h t l y upward, 14.5 degrees above t h e h o r i z o n t a l , t h e same p o s i t i o n t h e c r a f t i s t o maintain i n o r b i t a l flights, T h i r t y seconds b e f o r e t h e c r a f t reaches peak a l t i t u d e , t h e a s t r o n a u t w i l l manually c o n t r o l t h e a t t i t u d e sf t h e c r a f t moving i t i n t o s e t r o s o c k e t f i r i n g p o s i t i o n - 34 degrees above h o r i z o n t a l - and w i l l hold t h i s
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be noted t h a t t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s are not needed f o r r e e n t r y i n

a t t i t u d e manually while t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s a r e f i r e d ,

It must

t h i s b a l l i s t i c f l i g h t but w i l l be f i r e d t o t e s t t h e i r opera-

t i o n i n space an4 t o provide p i l o t s w i t h f l i g h t experience i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e r e t r o f i r e maneuver, The a s t r o n a u t w i l l be a b l e t o maneuver t h e c r a f t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time b e f o r e he e s t a b l i s h e s t h e r e e n t r y a t t i t u d e and r e t r a c t s t h e p e r i s c o p e . After t h e p e r i s c o p e i s r e t r a c t e d , c o n t r o l of t h e c r a f t s s f l i g h t a t t i t u d e r e t u r n s to t h e automatic mode, When t h e "gse f o r c e s of r e e n t r y b u i l d up t o a t l e a s t ".O5g", t h e s p a c e c r a f t starts r e v o l v i n g i n a slow t o p - l i k e motion a t two r e v o l u t i o n s p e r minute,
A t 2lp0O0 f e e t , a p r e s s u r e s e n s i t i v e s w i t c h deploys a drogue parachute and a u t o m a t i c a l l y s c a t t e r s radar r e f l e c t i v e "chaff .'I

A t 10,000 f e e t , t h e antenna f a i r i n g a t t h e neck of t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s r e l e a s e d , a u t o m a t i c a l l y deploying t h e main l a n d i n g p a r a c h u t e , Concurrent w i t h main c h u t e deployment, a n underwater charge i s e j e c t e d t o a i d recovery f o r c e s , t h e UHF recovery beacon i s turned on, remaining hydrogen peroxide, used t o c o n t r o l t h e p o s i t i o n and r o l l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , i s j e t t i s o n e d . The p e r i s c o p e is extended s o t h e p i l o t may check v i s u a l l y on h i s parachute; should t h e main chute f a i l t o work, t h e p i l o t can j e t t i s o n t h e main c h u t e and deploy a r e s e r v e l a n d i n g p a r a c h u t e , During the descent, v a l v e s open t 0 allow outside a i r i n t o t h e cabin,

Upon landing, an impact s w i t c h j e t t i s o n s t h e parachute, r e l e a s e s f l o u r e s c e i n sea-marking dye, t u r n s o f f instrumentat i o n r e c o r d e r s and t r a n s m i t t e r s , The p i l o t , however, w i l l s t i l l have a v o i c e r a d i o link t o Mercury recovery f o r c e s . The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be picked up by t h e Mercury Recovery Forces. These f o r c e s i n c l u d e a n a i r c r a f t c a r r i e r and two d e s t r o y e r s i n t h e prime l a n d l n g a r e a . Search a i r c r a f t w i l l a l s o b e deployed i n t h e psime l a n d i n g area, Other s h i p s and f o r c e s w i l l be deployed along t h e intended p a t h of f l i g h t t o provide for recovery i n c a s e of undershoot o r overshoot.
If t h e f l i g h t and recovery are normal, a h e l i c o p t e r w i l l l i f t t h e c r a f t out of t h e w a t e r and p l a c e i t on t h e c a r r i e r e s f l i g h t deck, The p i l o t may e l e c t t o remain i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t u n t i l i t i s onboard t h e c a r r i e r , He can a l s o climb o u t t h e s p a c e c r a f t s i d e hatch, i n f l a t e a l i f e r a f t and be picked up by h e l i c o p f e r ,

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ASTRONAUT OBSERVATIONS AND CONTROL TASKS DURING MR-3 FLIGHT
CAPE CANAVEFUL, FLA, - One of t h e prime o b j e c t i v e s i n P r o j e c t Mercury i s t o d e t e m i n e man's c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t h e environment of space. During t h e MR-3 f l i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e a s t r o n a u t w i l l have s e v e r a l d e f i n i t e tasks t o perform. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a s t r o n a u t w i l l inform t h e ground of t h e a c t i o n he i s t a k i n g , t h e e v e n t s as they unfold, and what he i s s e e i n g during h i s c o n t r o l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , , A t t h e moment t h e Redstone l i f t s from t h e pad a t Cape Canaveral, t h e p i l o t w i l l check t o d e t e m i n e i f t h e f l i g h t timer on h i s instrument panel has begun t o o p e r a t e , If i t has not, he a c t u a t e s t h e c l o c k s t a r t b u t t o n and announces "clock o p e r a t i n g . " The f o l l o w i n g e v e n t s w i l l o c c u r i n a normal mission: T h i r t y seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f , and f o r each subsequent 30 seconds o f elapsed time d u r i n g powered f l i g h t , t h e p i l o t w i I l l r e p o r t on h i s control-system f u e l supply, t h e amount of It g t l o a d i n g he i s experiencing, t h e p i t c h a n g l e of h i s craf% ( i n degrees), h i s c a b i n p r e s s u r e (in pounds p e r square inch) and i f h i s oxygen supply i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . If a n y t h i n g unusual

happens he w i l l r e p o r t t h e event immediately t o t h e ground.
Two minutes and 15 seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f , he w i l l announce, I I s t a n d i n g by f a r c u t o f f . " A few seconds l a t e r t h e Redstone engines w i l l c u t off" and t h e s p a c e c r a f t D s escape tower w i l l j e t t i s o n . The p i l o t w i l l monitor t h e s e e v e n t s and r e p o r t them as they o c c u r ,

About two and one-half" minutes away from t h e ground, t h e p i l o t w i l l t u r n t h e s e t r o j e t t i s o n s w i t c h o f f t o safeguard a g a i n s t i n a d v e r t e n t j e t t i s o n i n g of t h e r e t r o r o c k e t package beneath t h e h e a t s h i e l d . The c r a f t w i l l t h e n s e p a r a t e when t h e c l u s t e r of t h r e e small p o s i g r a d e r o c k e t s (contained w i t h i n t h e r e t r o r o c k e t package) a r e f i r e d , pushing t h e caps u l e up and away from t h e Redstone, The automatic p i l o t then i s t o remove any c a p s u l e o s c i l l a t i o n s which rnigh"a; be generated by s e p a r a t i o n , The p i P o t P s p e r i s c o p e , which w i l l r e v e a l t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e e a r t h a t peak a l t i t u d e , w i l l be extended several. i n c h e s i n t o space, The p i l o t announces, " c a p s u l e posigrades f i r e d a u x i l i a r y damping OK separate p e r i s c o p e out." S e v e r a l key members of t h e Mercury Control C e n t e r team w i l l be a b l e t 6 t a l k w i t h t h e p i l o t i f necessary. However, i f a l l goes w e l l , all communications w i l l come from a f e l l o w a s t r o n a u t a t t h e c a p s u l e communicator console i n t h e Mercury Control Center,
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About 15 seconds after engine cutoff, the pilot announces, "Turn around started.'' The craftus automatic pilot turns the craft around 1800, placing the blunt end forward. Just before Tf3 minutes, the pilot announces, "In orbit attitude." The craft is now traveling about 4,500 m.p.h. and eak altitude. The blunt end is pitched slightly upward (1 0 is neari$

P

When the spacecraft is 3 minutes from the launch pad, the pilot begins to twist and turn the control stick in his right hand, announcing, "Hand controller movements pitch down yaw left pitch up roll left yaw right roll right." This will be done during periods when the control stick will not be connected to the craftls control system. The purpose of this is t o provide a study of the pilot's ability to perform while he is in a weightless environment, H i s hand motions will be instantaneously telemetered to the ground for analysis after the flight,

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Just after 3 minutes the astronaut announces, "Manual control handle on," then takes control of the attitude of the spacecraft on one axis at a time in the manual proportional control mode. For example, he will be able to perform basic maneuvers by manually taking control of the craft on one axis while the remaining two axes are controlled by the automatic pilot. He will announce, "manual pitch on pitching to retro returning to orbit." He will then announce, "manual yaw on yawing left twenty (degrees) returning right to zero." He will then pull a third "T" handle on his instrument rolling left to twenty panel and announce, "manual roll on (degrees) returning right to zero." The spacecraft motions throughout this sequence of simple control actions will be closely monitored,,

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Time: Almost 4 minutes: The pilot for the first time in the flight begins to use his earth periscope as a navigational aid, controlling the capsulets attitude by using the periscope presentation for attitude reference. At this time he will describe his view of the earth and inform the ground what predetermined checkpoints he can see from this altitude of approximately 100 miles, He is expected to say something U k e this, "Holding orbit with scope Weather map essentially correct, no alto cumulus in northeast quadrant of Carolina Coast *.,, Florida to Gulf visible, Lake Okeechobee visible Island 5 visible Island 3 Gulf of Mexico visible visible and so on,
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J u s t over f o u r minuces from lift-off, he w i l l announce, "Going high mag yawing L e f t twenty ( d e g r e e s ) returning r i g h t t o zero . . * MAR?." T h i s w i l l t e l l ground o b s e r v e r s t h a t t h e p i l o t h a s gone t o high magnification on h i s e a r t h periscope. Curvature of t h e e a y t h i s now n o t i c e a b l e and t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s f i e l d ~f view 1 s reduced from 1900 miles t o about 80 m i l e s of t h e E a r t h t s s u r f a c e . He can s e e e a r t h landmarks more c l e a r l y now. The p i l o t yaim h i s c r a f t , t h e n r e t u r n s t o h i s normal ( z e r o d e g r e e s ) p o s i t i o n u s i n g h i s p e r i s c o p e f o r r e f e r e n c e . T h i s maneuver determines t h e accuracy t o which he can determine yaw a t t i t u d e w i t h t h e p e r i s c o p e .

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About 4$ minutes from t h e launch pad, t h e p i l o t manually p i t c h e s t h e b l u n t end up to 340, announcing " S t a r t r e t r o .'I ( t h e n , seconds l a t e r , ) " i n r e t r o a t t i t u d e on sequence manual. 11

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over, I1 one,

A t a l i t t l e past f i v e r i n u t e s t h e f l i g h t i s o n e - t h i r d

Ground monitors listel; as t h e p i l o t announces, " f i r e I! ( t h e n seconds Later, " f i r e twop'' and " f i r e t h r e e ,

Three powerful s o l i d - p r o p e l l a n t r o c k e t s on t h e b l u n t f a c e of t h e c r a f t r i p p l e - f i r e , Each burns about 10 seconds, They w i l l be f i r e d in overlspping five-second i n t e r v a l s , During l a t e r o r b i t a l flights around t h e e a r t h , t h e s e r o c k e t s w i l l be used t o brake t h e speed of t h e c r a f t , a l l o w i n g t h e p u l l of g r a v i t y to b r i n g it back i n t o t h e atmosphere. On t h e Redstone x u b o r b i f a l t r a i n i n g flignts, t h e y w i l l be f i r e d only for continued q u a l i f i e a t i x i of t h e r e t r o m o t o r s and t o p r o v i d e p i l o t s w i t h manual r e t r o f i r e c o n t r o l experience. The p i l o t w i l l control any r e t r o f i r e misalignment t o r q u e by t h e manual proportfcnal c o n t r o l mode, r e p o r t i n g each r e t r o f i r i n g and announcing t h e p r e c i s e moment a t which t h e " f i r e r e t r o " Bight comes m on h i s i n s t m r n e n t p a n e l . Seconds l a t e r t h e p i l o t ams t h e " r e t r o j e t t i s o n " s w i t c h s o t h a t t h e exhausted petsosocket package w i l l be j e t t i s o n e d through t h e automatic seqwmce, Coming up on 6 minutes: The p i l o t announces, ''Going f l y by w i r e . " Simultaneously he s w i t c h e s h i s c o n t r o l mode t o l i n k h i s hand c o n t r o l L e r t o a system of e l e c t r i c a l r e l a y s which i n t u r n o p e r a t e t h e hydrsgen-peroxide t h r u s t o u t p u t from nozzles around t h e neck and base of t h e w a f t . About 30 seconds l a t e r , he announces t h a t h i s r e t r o p a c k age has been j e t t i s o n e d , "Going HF," he t h e n says, as he t u r n s on t h e high frequency k r a n s m i t t e r t o check its o p e r a t i o n .

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S i x and one-half minutes: "To r e e n t r y a t t i t u d e , " he r e p o r t s , as t h e c r a f t s t a r t s p i t c h i n g b l u n t end down t o r e e n t r y a t t i t u d e i n response t o t h e p i l o t ' s c o n t r o l movements. ASCS ( a u t o p i l o t ) holding," he says, "In reentry a t t i t u d e as he switches from manual c o n t r o l back t o automatic p i l o t .

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A few seconds l a t e r he r e p o r t s t h e automatic r e t r a c t i o n of h i s p e r i s c o p e .

"Going UHF and s t a r t i n g hand c o n t r o l l e r movements, t h e p i l o t says, Can he now perform manual c o n t r o l tasks as w e k l a f t e r 4 minutes of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s as when he e n t e r e d z e r o g? Here i s a chance t o compare h i s performance. " P i t c h down yaw l e f t , " he says as h i s r i g h t hand moves t h e sidearm con- I1 t r o l l e r , " p i t c h up, r o l l l e f t yaw r i g h t , r o l l r i g h t

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Seven minutes from launch: T i m e for the touch t e s t . The a s t r o n a u t touches, w i t h h i s r i g h t hand, p r e s e l e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t s . H i s eyes are c l o s e d . "Cabin a i r , I1 he s a y s "telemetry key scope AC v o l t s oxygen warning l i g h t . . . ' I h i s f i n g e r s move d e f t l y a c r o s s the maze of i n s t r u m e n t s i n a l l t h e r e are some 127 switches, d i a l s , b u t t o n s and f u s e s . The touch t e s t i s a check of h i s psychomotor a b i l i t y , and t h e complete sequence i s recorded by t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l camera.

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"Returning t o manual c o n t r o l , announces t h e p i l o t At t h i s t i m e he r e t u r n s t o manual i n the r o l l a x i s t o c o n t r o l t h e s p i n of t h e c r a f t on i t s v e r t i c a l axis d u r i n g r e e n t r y . r o l l i s planned, t o reduce l a n d i n g d i s p e r s i o n . ) (Some

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Seven minutes, p l u s : " P o i n t O5g," s a y s the p i l o t . The Mercury s p a c e c r a f t touches t h e d e l i c a t e f r i n g e of t h e e a r t h ' s atmosphere. "Roll r a t e I N , " he c o n t i n u e s . The f o r c e of g r a v i t y p r e s s e s h i m deeper and deeper i n t o h i s c o n t o u r couch. "Three
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There i s a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d of s i l e n c e .

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H i s v o i c e i s c l e a r and i s no l o n g e r s t r a i n e d .

"Rate of d e s c e n t and a l t i m e t e r on scale

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He i s 95 minutes from launch now. "Drogue ( t h e small 6-foot p a r a c h u t e ) deployed, I' he announces, t h e n ( f o u r seconds l a t e r ) ; " s n o r k e l (ambient a i r v a l v e ) open twenty thousand ( f e e t ) "

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Ten minutes p l u s from l i f t - o f f : From a small m i r r o r a t one of t h e c r a f t ' s two viewport windows he should see t h e l a r g e (63 f o o t ) red and white p a r a c h u t e u n f u r l from t h e caps u l e ' s upper neck. Seconds l a t e r t h e a s t r o n a u t f e e l s a pronounced t u g . "Main c h u out," says "reefed coming ... rateperoxidet e ( c - n30ohesystem ...e20) m.p.h.)......l apnedr iisnopene of decent f e e t (about cop o tr l f u l dumped ... g bag o u t ... (instrument panel i n d i c a t i o n ) green.

READY FOR LANDING."

Ships and a i r c r a f t have t h e c o l o r f u l p a r a c h u t e i n view and v e c t o r t o t h e l a n d i n g area.

A P r o j e c t Mercury a s t r o n a u t has r e t u r n e d from space.
The f u n c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d h e r e a r e t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t e s t e x e r c i s e purposes t o i n v e s t i g a t e man's c a p a b i l i t i e s d u r i n g a normal f l i g h t . I n a d d i t i o n t o these f u n c t i o n s , t h e p i l o t of the Mercury c r a f t can manually a c t i v a t e every system which i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e completion of t h e mission.

MR-3

PILOT PREPARATION FOR THE MR-3 MISSION
CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA, - P i l o t rehearsals f o r MercuryRedstone-3, u s i n g a c t u a l f l i g h t hardwareunder r e a l i s t i c c o n d i t i o n s , have been v i g o r o u s l y conducted f o r more t h a n a

month.

Before the launch, many mission s i m u l a t i o n s were conducted u s i n g t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t P r o j e c t Mercury Headquarters, Langley F i e l d , V i r g i n i a , w i t h t h e Mercury p i l o t " f l y i n g " h i s s p a c e c r a f t w i t h i n a s p e c i a l l y designed a l t i t u d e chamber l o c a t e d i n Hangar " S " a t Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a , and i n the Navy Centrifuge a t Johnsville, Pa, I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r chamber runs t o space e q u i v a l e n t a l t i t u d e , t h e p i l o t s were s u b j e c t e d t o p r e f l i g h t p h y s i c a l s , equipped w i t h medical s e n s o r s , and assisted i n t o t h e i r 20-lbe f u l l - p r e s s u r e space s u i t s . The p i l o t s and medical a t t e n d a n t s simulated all requirements as r e a l i s t i c a l l y as c o n d i t i o n s would permit, conducting p r e s s u r e and biomedical checks on t h e s u i t , About two weeks b e f o r e t h e programmed launch date, t h r e e days were devoted t o conducting simulated f l i g h t t e s t s w i t h t h e medical t r a n s f e r van, c a r r y i n g a n a s t r o n a u t and aeromedical a t t e n d a n t s , moving from Hanger " S " t o t h e launch s i t e . Wearing h i s f u l l - p r e s s u r e s u i t , a p i l o t went up t h e g a n t r y and e n t e r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t , A r e a l i s t i c countdown and simulated Mercury f l i g h t , followed w i t h ground f l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r s a t t h e i r stations. During t h e f i r s t two s i m u l a t i o n s t h e g a n t r y remained up a g a i n s t t h e v e h i c l e and t h e s i d e h a t c h of t h e s p a c e c r a f t was l e f t o f f . The t h i r d day, "dry run" s i m u l a t i o n included s e c u r i n g t h e s i d e hatch, purging t h e p i l o t ' s c a b i n w i t h oxygen and p u l l i n g away the g a n t r y . During the f o u r days preceding launch, t h e MR-3 mission was r e p e a t e d l y rehearsed, b o t h i n t h e v e h i c l e and i n a Linkt y p e s p a c e c r a f t s i m u l a t o r ( t h e Mercury Procedures T r a i n e r ) i n t h e Mercury Control Center.
Three days b e f o r e t h e f l i g h t , t h e p i l o t s w i l l on a low-residue d i e t ,

be placed

A t two i n t h e morning on t h e day of t h e launch, l i g h t s w i l l go on i n t h e crews' q u a r t e r s on t h e second f l o o r of Hangar 'IS" After a shower and a shave, t h e p i l o t w i l l have
e

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e breakfast. H w i l l have a s e l e c t i o n of t h i n g s t o eat; however, a t y p i c a l breakfast w i l l c o n s i s t o f : 4 ounces of orange sherbert; 4 ounces of f r o z e n s t r a w b e r r i e s i n syrup, 2 s u g a r cookies and 8 ounces of skim m i l k ,
F o r t y minutes a f t e r he i s wakened, he w i l l be g i v e n a p r e f l i g h t p h y s i c a l , About 35 minutes w i l l be s p e n t p l a c i n g medical s e n s o r s a g a i n s t t a t t o o e d r e f e r e n c e marks on h i s body. Then he w i l l climb i n t o h i s p r e s s u r e s u i t .
A t T- 145 minutes the a s t r o n a u t w i l l l e a v e Hangar "S" i n a medical van, t o g e t h e r w i t h a p r o c e s s i o n of e s c o r t v e h i c l e s and w i l l begin t h e 15-minute t r i p t o t h e launching s i t e .
The a s t r o n a u t ' s s u i t i s purged w i t h oxygen d u r i n g t h e t r a n s f e r p e r i o d , and as t h e p i l o t relaxes i n a r e c l i n i n g couch, continuous medical data are read o u t from t h e t r a i l e r consoles.

A t T- 2 hours the p i l o t t s f i n a l b r i e f i n g w i l l be conducted. The medical van w i l l have halted n e a r t h e Mercury-Redstone,

F i f t e e n minutes are devoted t h e n t o donning h i s g l o v e s and conducting a leakage t e s t of the s u i t , An a d d i t i o n a l 5 minutes e l a p s e s as t h e p i l o t and h i s a t t e n d a n t s ascend the gantry,
T-100 minutes:

The f l i g h t surgeon i n t h e Mercury Control Center p a s s e s "The a s t r o n a u t i s on t h e word along t o the F l i g h t D i r e c t o r g a n t r y . " The p i l o t e n t e r s t h e c r a f t through the s i d e hatch and a d j u s t s himself i n t h e c o n t o u r couch. Cornmunicationa and biomedical leads are connected. R e s t r a i n t h a r n e s s e s are secured about h i s shoulders, t o r s o , and knees. A t T 75 minutes, t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s helmet v i s o r i s c l o s e d and t h e s u i t i s i n f l a t e d t o 5 pounds p e r square i n c h , Leakage checks a r e conducted. A b u t t o n i s depressed on t h e side of the p i l o t ' s helmet and t h e p r e s s u r e i s exhausted. The s u i t w i l l n o t b e i n f l a t e d d u r i n g the f l i g h t u n l e s s t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e should f a i l . The s u i t , t h e r e f o r e , s e r v e s as a backup " p r e s s u r e chamber" p r o v i d i n g the p r o p e r gaseous environment t o s u s t a i n l i f e i n the event of t h e f a i l u r e of t h e primary system ( c a b i n ) .

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I n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e spacecraft's s i d e h a t c h commences. The o p e r a t i o n takes 20 minutes. A flow of cold oxygen i s f o r c e d i n t o t h e cabin. Leakage checks are conducted t o i n s u r e t h a t the p i l o t ' s chamber i s p r o p e r l y sealed.

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T - 55 minutes: S p a c e c r a f t t e c h n i c i a n s l e a v e t h e g a n t r y and t h e g a n t r y i s moved away from t h e launch v e h i c l e .
T - 15 minutes: M r . Walter Williams, Mercury Operation D i r e c t o r , informs D r . Kurt Debus, that he may o b t a i n Range Clearance f o r t h e Redstone. T 4 minutes: A l l s p a c e c r a f t systems a r e i n GO condit i o n . Mercum Control Center i s GO on t e l e m e t w and v o i c e communications. A t l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range i s GO on" s p a c e c r a f t C and S ( r a d a r ) beacons. The s p a c e c r a f t ready l i g h t i s ON. T 2 minutes: Onboard cameras and t a p e r e c o r d e r s are s t a r t e d . The a s t r o n a u t s e r v i n g as c a p s u l e communicator i n t h e blockhouse announces t h a t a l l f u r t h e r communications between t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e ground w i l l be by r a d i o .
T

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stopped,

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1 minute: Freon flow ( s p a c e c r a f t c a b i n c o o l a n t ) i s Remaining commands a r e i n i t i a t e d by t h e T e s t Conductor.

T 35 seconds t o l i f t - o f f i n r a p i d sequence: The t e s t conductor announces "Capsule u m b i l i c a l dropped." Other cont r o l l e r v o i c e s announce:

-

"Periscppe OK" "Vent v a l v e s closed" "Fuel t a n k p r e s s u r i z e d ' '
"LOX tank p r e s s u r i z e d "
I'

Vehi c 1 P o e r I' e w

"Boom drop"
'I

Ignition"

"Main s t a g e " "Lift-off"

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.

.

MR-3

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INSIDE THE PILOT'S CABIN

CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA. -- The pilot's cabin of the MR-3 spacecraft contains many items of equipment. Instrument Panel - Instruments are located on a main instrument panel, a left console, and a right console. The main panel is directly in front of the pilot. Navigational instruments are located in the left and center sections of the panel and the periscope is located in the center. The right section of the main panel is composed of environmental system indicators and controls, electrical switches, and indicators and communication system controls. The left console includes sequerxing telelights and warning panel, indicators and controls for the spacecraft's automatic pilot (ASCS) , environmental control and landing systems. All told there are well over 100 lights, fuses, switches and miscellaneous controls and displays. Periscope - Approximately two feet in front of the pilot will be located the earth periscope which will provide a11 360° view of the horizon. The pilot may manually adjust for lowll or I 1 high" magnificaticn. On 'llowll will have a view of the he earth of about 1900 miles in diameter - on "high" the field of view will be redyced to about 80 miles. Altitude can be measured within -10 nautical miles. The Mercury-earth periscope will, in addition, serve as a navigational aid. Pilot Support Couch - The astronaut's couch is constructed of a crushable honeycomb material bonded t o a fiberglas shell and lined with a rubber padding. Each astronaut has a couch contoured to his specific shape. The couch is designed to support the pilot's body loads during all phases of the flight and to protect him from the acceleration forces of launch and reentry. Restraint System - The pilot restraint system, which consists of shoulder ard chest straps, leg straps, a crotch strap, lap belt a d b e guards, is designed t o restrain the astronaut in the couch during maximum deceleration. Environmental CoRtrol System - The environmental control system provid-es the MR-3 spacecraft cabin and the astronaut with a 100-percent oxygen environment t o furnish breathing, ventilation, and pressurization gas required during the flight. The system is completely automatic, but in the event the automatic control malfunctions, manual controls can be used.
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41

The system c o n s i s t s of two i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s , namely t h e c a b i n c i r c u i t and t h e s u i t c i r c u i t , which w i l l normally o p e r a t e for about 28 hours. Both systems are o p e r a t e d simultaneously. The s u i t c i r c u i t i s simply i s o l a t e d from t h e c a b i n c i r c u i t by t h e a s t r o n a u t c l o s i n g t h e f a c e p l a t e on h i s helmet. Unless there i s a f a i l u r e i n t h e c a b i n c i r c u i t causing loss of p r e s s u r e , t h e p i l o t ' s p r e s s u r e s u i t w i l l n o t be i n f l a t e d .

Aeromedical I n f o r m a t i o n Throughout t h e f l i g h t t h e p h y s i c a l well-being of the p i l o t w i l l be monitored, The p i l o t ' s r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and depth, electrocardiogram, and body temperature w i l l be t e l e m e t e r e d t o f l i g h t surgeons on the ground.
P i l o t Communications - The a s t r o n a u t may remain i n touch w i t h the ground through t h e u s e of high-frequency and u l t r a high-frequency r a d i o s , radar recovery beacons, and i f t h e

-

s i t u a t i o n d i c t a t e s , a command r e c e i v e r and/or a telegraphtype code key. Main Battery System Three 3,000-watt-hour b a t t e r i e s and one 1,500-watt-hour b a t t e r y are connected i n p a r a l l e l t o provide power f o r t h e complete mission and about a 16-hour p o s t - l a n d i n g p e r i o d . A standby backup power system of 1,500watt-hour c a p a c i t y i s a l s o provided. To f u r t h e r i n s u r e r e l i a b l e o p e r a t i o n of t h e pyrotechnic system, each d e v i c e has a completely i s o l a t e d power feed system.

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Cameras A 16mm camera i s i n s t a l l e d t o t h e l e f t of the a s t r o n a u t ' s head t o photograph t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a n e l d i s p l a y from launch through recovery. A p i l o t o b s e r v e r camera i s mounted i n t h e main instrurpent p a n e l and w i l l a l s o be o p e r a t e d from launch t h r gh recovery.
Clock There w i l l be a c l o c k i n t h e MR-3 s p a c e c r a f t w i t h three major separate o p e r a t i o n a l components, I, (I) a s t a n d a r d a i r c r a f t - t y p e elapsed time clock, ( 2 ) a seconds from launch" d i g i t a l i n d i c a t o r w i t h a manual reset, and (3) a time-delay relay which i s t o i n i t i a t e the r e t r o grade f i r e sequence. %en t h e preset time has passed, t h e r e l a y c l o s e s and a c t u a t e s t h e r e t r o g r a d e f i r e s i g n a l , a t t h e

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same time sending a telemetered s i g n a l t o t h e ground.

Altimeter The Mercury barometer altimeter i s a singler e v o l u t i o n i n d i c a t o r w i t h a range from sea l e v e l t o 100,000 f e e t . The d i a l f a c e w i l l have r e f e r e n c e marks a t the drogue and main parachute deployment a l t i t u d e s .

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m-3

4-2

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At the top right corner of the main panel are located environmental displays, providing the pilot with readings of cabin pressure, temperature, humidity, and oxygen quantity remaining. Food, Water, and Waste Storage As with all manned capsules, MR-3 will be supplied'with about 3,000 calories of non-residue food and about 6 pounds of water. The water supply, which is sufficient for at least 2 hours, is contained 8 in two flat bottles, each fitted with an extendable tube. A container f o r liquid waste is located near the entrance hatch. Survival Equipment - A survival M t on the left side of the pilot's couch w i l l contain a personnel parachute which may be used as a third parachute backup for use in an extreme emergency. The survival package will also consist of a oneman life raft, desalting k i t , shark repellant, dye markers, first aid kit, distress signals, a signal m i r r o r , portable radio, survival ration, matches, a whistle, and 10 feet of nylon cord. Although not expected to be needed in Redstone flights it is the same k i t as carried in the orbital flights where contingencies might arise which require its use. For obvious reasons, it is not possible in this paper to include a detailed breakdown of all onboard systems and displays. Information contained in this paper is for the sole purpose of equipping newsmen with a general understanding of the types and functions of major Mercury spacecraft equipment. More detailed information on Mercury flight systems may be obtained by writing: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Project Mercury Public Affairs Office, Space Task Group, Langley Field, Virginia.

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MERCURY REDSTONE V E H I C J Z

The Mercury-Redstone v e h i c l e , a proven m o d i f i c a t i o n of one of the most r e l i a b l e l a r g e r o c k e t s developed i n t h e United S t a t e s , w i l l s e r v e as t h e launch v e h i c l e f o r the coming experiment i n t h e n a t i o n ' s Mercury manned space f l i g h t program.

Personnel of NASA's George C . Marshall Space F l i g h t Center a t H u n t s v i l l e , A l a . , who o r i g i n a l l y developed t h e Redstone, f i r s t a l t e r e d t h e r o c k e t f o r u s e i n s c i e n t i f i c space e x p l o r a t i o n and more r e c e n t l y for t h e Mercury p r o j e c t . A Mercury-Redstone w i l l soon laurlch an a s t r o n a u t on a subo r b i t a l f l i g h t down t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range from Cape Canaveral, F l a . , i n a p r e l u d e to f u t u r e U.S. manned o r b i t a l flights. I n an e a r l i e r modified. v e r s i o n , t h e Redstone was used as t h e f i r s t s t a g e of $he J x p i k r C v e h i c l e , which o r i b t e d t h e free world's f i r s t s a t e l l i t e Ekplorer I. The g r e a t e s t achievement of Explorer I was t h e d i s c o v e r y of the i n n e r Van Allen r a d i a t i o n b e l t e n c i r c l i n g t h e e a r t h . A s p e c i a l longrange v e r s i o n o f t h e r o c k e t had p r e v i o u s l y boosted t h e f i r s t nose cone t o s u c c e s s f u l l y reenteer the atmosphere from space.

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A s t h e i n i t i a l launch v e h i c l e to be used i n t h e manned phases of t h e Mercury p r o g r m , t h e Mercury-Redstone i s a

f u r t h e r d e p a r t u r e from i t s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n . Some 800 changes were r e q u i r e d t o transform t h e I t o l d " Redstone i n t o a modern, man-carrying power p l a n t . The T(IR-3 mission Redstone was b u i l t by t h e Chrysler Corporation. I n its r e d e s i g n , t h e r o c k e t ' s 70-inch-diameter t a n k s e c t i o n was lengthened about 6 f e e t , adding more t h a n 20 seconds of burning time. T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e vehicle's l e n g t h to 83 f e e t i n c l u d i n g s p a c e c r a f t and escape tower -- and i t s l i f t - o f f weight t o 66,000 pounds. Major changes i n t h e engine, which i n c r e a s e d i t s r e l i a b i l i t y , were a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d . For example, p r o v i s i o n s were b u i l t i n t o t h e engine t o allow f o r the e x t r a burning time, and major improvements were made i n the peroxide system which d r i v e s t h e f u e l and l i q u i d oxygen pumps and p r o v i d e s t h r u s t c o n t r o l . Other m o d i f i c a t i o n s i m proved the e n g i n e ' s s t a b i l i t y , and added an a n t i - f i r e hazard system. The Mercury-Redstone engine, developed and b u i l t by t h e Rocketdyne D i v i s i o n of N o r t h American Aviation, g e n e r a t e s a t h r u s t of 78,000 pounds. I n a d d i t i o n , a new instrument compartment, a completely automatic emergency s e n s i n g system, and a s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r were added.

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The i n s t m e f i t corrlpartment, produced by t h e Marshall Space F l i g h t Center,, houses the s e n s i t i v e c o n t r o l system. It i s l o c a t e d betweei-, the f u e l banks and t h e s p a c e c r a f t . Unlike the o r d i n a r y Redstone, t h i s compartment does n o t s e p a r a t e from t h e b o o s t e r a f t e r Surnout, rather i t descends t o the earth a t t a c h e d t o t h e p r o p u l s i o n u n i t . The s e n s i n g or 11a b o r t " system, a l s o developed by MSFC e n g i n e e r s , g i v e s an e l e c t r i c s i g n a l warning of p o s s i b l e t r o u b l e . I f t h i s s i g n a l i s i v e n , i t causes (1) t e r m i n a t i o n o f launch v e h i c l e t h r u s t ( 2 s e p a r a t i o n o f the s p a c e c r a f t from t h e b o o s t e r and (31 a c t i v a t e s t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s escape r o c k e t which p r o p e l s the c r a f t t o a s a f e d i s t a n c e w i t h i n a f r a c t i o n of a second.

7

The a b m t system s e n s s s ;Ip,d i s a c t i v a t e d by such c o n d i t i o n s as unacceptable d e v i a t i o n s i n '&e programmed a t t i t u d e of the r o c k e t , e x c e s s i v e turYr;Eng rates, l o s s of t h r u s t , c r i t i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of t h r u s t or l o s s o f e l e c t r i c a l power. I n a manned mission, the esca2e system could b e a c t i v a t e d by the p i l o t i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t , a-qd mavrually i n t h e launching blockhouse m d at; t h e NASA Mercury Control Center.

The c o n t r o l system of t h e Mercury-Redstone i s l e s s complex t h a n t h e e a r l i e r b a l l i s t i c model. T h i s system, s i m p l e r and more r e l i a b l e thaq b e f o r e , u s e s an a z t o p i l o t which minimizes d r i f t &..ming powered f l i g h t . Carbon vanes l o c a t e d i n t h e j e t exhaust of t h e p r o p u l s i o n u n i t coupled with a i r vanes are used as c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s t o mairLtain p r o p e r a t t i t u d e . The m J o r p o r t i o n of t h i s systen was provided by %he Ford I n s t r a n e n % Company.
I n s t r u m e n t s are i n s t a l l e d i n t h e b o o s t e r 'GO provide and telemeter some 65 measurements surveying a l l a s p e c t s of b o o s t e r behavior d u r i n g f l i g h t , such as a t t i t u d e , v i b r a t i o n , a c c e l e r a t i o n , temperature, p r e s s u r e , and t h r u s t l e v e l . These measurements are i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e many channels of i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l be telemetered from t h e s p a c e c r a f t i t s e l f during i t s journey. S e v e r a l t r a c k l n g signals are a l s o t e l e m e t e r e d by the b o o s t e r . Three Mercury-Redstones have been flown. The f i r s t 1960, launched a heavily-instrumented p r o d u c t i o n Mercury spacecraf-5 oil a s u c c e s s f u l s u b o r b i t a l f l i g h t . The t e s t v e r i f i e d the o p e r a t i o n of t h e Mercury system i n t h e space environment.
f i r e d on December 1g9
A second v e h i c l e , launched on January 21, c a r r i e d a chimpanzee on a s i m i l a r f l i g h t . The passenger, named Ham, was recovered unharmed i n a t e s t t h a t proved t h e Mercury l i f e

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p p o r t system i n f l i g h t . The t e s t d i d , hc rever, r e v e a l s e v e r a l t r o u b l e areas Systems v i b r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g from the g r e a t e r l e n g t h and a l t e r e d mass d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e Mercury-modified Redstone, f e d i n t o the v e h i c l e ' s automatic p i l o t and d i s t u r b e d i t s c o n t r o l system. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Redstone engine r a n w i t h i t s t h r o t t l e wide open, i n c r e a s i n g the v e h i c l e ' s speed from 4,900 t o 5,300 mph. Consequently, liquid oxygen w a s consumed a t a h i g h e r r a t e t h a n u s u a l , causing the engine t o c u t o f f prematurely. The r o c k e t ' s a b o r t sensing system r e a c t e d p r o p e r l y , a c t i v a t i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s emergency escape d e v i c e which p u l l e d t h e c r a f t away from t h e v e h i c l e . F i r i n g o f t h e escape r o c k e t added f u r t h e r t o t h e a l r e a d y g r e a t e r range and a l t i t u d e of t h e craftts flight.
A s a r e s u l t of +,his f l i g h t , s t e p s were taken t o c o r r e c t t h e problems and a t e s t of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these modi-

f i c a t i o n s was conducted on March 24., when a Mercury-Redstone c a r r y i n g a dummy s p a c e c r a f t was f i r e d from Cape Canaveral.

P r o j e c t o f f i c i a l s at the Marshall Center t e m e d t h e t e s t an u n q u a l i f i e d success. The r o c k e t , w i t h its spacec r a f t remaining a t t a c h e d throughout the f l i g h t , followed i t s p r e s c r i b e d t r a j e c t o r y , reaching an a l t i t u d e of about 100 miles and a d i s t a n c e of some 400 m i l e s . During t h e f l i g h t , the power p l a n t f u n c t i o n e d normally, t h e v e h i c l e was w e l l c o n t r o l l e d along t h e planned t r a J e c t o r y , and a l l networks a r d ground equipment operated as p r o g r s m e d .
by t h e Center s Launch Operations D i r e c t o r a t e .

The MR-3 roclcet, asse&led a t MSFC, w i l l be launckied

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MR-3 RECOVERY OPERATIONS
Ships, a i r c r a f t , h e l i c o p t e r s and ground v e h i c l e s w i l l be deployed i n a number of a r e a s t o e f f e c t q u i c k recovery of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . These areas i n c l u d e Cape Canaveral, t o cover t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of ar?? abort w h i l e t h e b o o s t e r i s e i t h e r on o r j u s t o f f t h e pad; the o f f - s h o r e waters n e a r Cape Canaveral, f o r an a b o r t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of f l i g h t ; and t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t p a t h from Cape Canaveral t o beyond t h e p r e d i c t e d impact p o i n t f o r t h e case of l a t e r a b o r t i n a d d i t i o n t o a fiormal l a n d i n g . The Task Force a s s i g n e d t o r e c o v e r t h e a s t r o n a u t and s p a c e c r a f t , i n NASA's MR-3 t e s t , w i l l be under t h e command of Rear Admiral F. V. 3. HILLES. The f o r c e w i l l be made up of u n i t s from t h e Destroyer Force, Naval A i r Force, F l e e t Marine Force, S e r v i c e Force, Mine Force, A i r Resuce S e r v i c e , and t h e A i r Force Missile T e s t Center. Many of t h e u n i t s have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the sizccessIou.1 recovery e x e r c i s e s p r e v i o u s l y conducted. P a s t experience and c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n with N S i n t h e development of procedures and techniques AA f o r safe b u t e x p e d i t i o u s recovery have been developed over t h e p a s t two y e a r s .
Admiral HILLES, Commander Destroyer F l o t i l l a FOUR and Commander P r o j e c t Mercury Recovery Force, w i l l e x e r c i s e command of t h e Recovery Force from t h e Recovery Control Room l o c a t e d i n t h e Natiorzal Aerormitics and Space Administ r a t i o n , Mercury C o c t r o l Center a t Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a . The Task Force i s comprised of several Task GYOUPS, each under a n i n d i v i d u a l comnmder

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A Task Group d i s p e r s e d along t h e t r a c k and i n t h e p r e d i c t e d l a n d i n g area w i l l be under t h e command of Rear A d m i r a l G . P. KOCH, Commander Carrier D i v i s i o n EIGHTEENj who w i l l f l y h i s f l a g i n t h e a i r c r a f t c a r r i e r USS LAKE CHAMPLAIN (CVS 39). The u n i t s of t h i s group are:

USS LAKE CHAMPLAIN (CVS 39) commanded by CAPT. R. M O U T H , USN USS DECATUR (DD 936) coma2ded by CDR A. W. MC LANE, USN S USS WADLEIGH (DD 689) commanded by LCDR D. W. KILEY, U N USS ROOKS (DD 804) commanded by CDR W. H. PATTILO, U N S USS THE SULLIVANS (DD 537) commanded by CDR F.H.S. HALL, U N S USS ABBOT (DD 629) commanded by CDR R. J. NORMAN, USN USS N.K. PERRY (DDR 883) commanded by CDR 0. A. ROBERTS, USN

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Air Support f o r this group will be provided by Patrol Squadron FIVE P2V's commanded by CDR T. H. CASEX, Jr., USN and supplemented with Air Rescue Service Aircraft. Carrier and shore based helicopters will be provided from the veteran recovery unit, Marine Air Group TWENTY SIX, commanded by COL P. T. JOHNSON, USMC.

A group positioned off shore consists of two minecraft and the USS RECOVERY (ARS 43) under the command of LCDR R. H, TAYLOR, USN.
Another group located at Cape Canaveral consists of numerous land vehicles and small craft from the Air Force Missile Test Center w i l l be under the command of LT COL Harry E. CANNON, USAF, of the Air Force Missile Test Center.

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PROJECT MERCURY PROGRESS CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA. -- Project Mercury, the first step in the United States manned space flight program, has been vigorously pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration since the project was begun two and one-half years ago. Carrying the nation's highest priority (DX) the project has had extensive support by the Department of Defense, other Government agencies, the scientific community, and U. S. industry. Main purpose of Mercury is to provide vitally needed information for future, more advanced, manned space flights. PROGRESS TO DATE With the launching of a man into suborbital flight, Mercury reaches a milestone -- first major event in the research and development process which got under way in early October, 1958. Subject to successful completion of other tests, orbital flight by an American astronaut is scheduled late this y e a r . Project Mercury has been built on a solid body or scientific knowledge and has involved a wide variety of ground and flight tests, engineering problems and operational planning. It has involved hundreds of wind tunnel and aircraft drop tests, wider direction of NASA's Space Task Group and supported by the entire NASA staff and plant. Ten major rocket launches have succeeded out of 13 tries (See attached table). Specially modified rocket boosters have been put in production; the McDonnell Mercury spacecraft has gone through the entire process of design, engineering, production and test, and 12 capsules have been completed and delivered; the seven astronauts and the operating forces have been trained, and a worldwide network of communications and tracking stations is in the final phase of construction. Cost of the program i s expected to total about $400 million for the entire process from design and production, through the planned series of orbital flights.

A high-priority project, Mercury has incurred overtime work by the NASA staff and the contracting personnel. For many months the McDonnell plant at St. Louis, Missouri,

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and t h e NASA and o t h e r employes a t , C a p e Canaveral, have been on a t h r e e - s h i f t , seven-day week. A number of N S AA employes work as much as 60 hours each week.
A s w i t h a l l r e s e a r c h and development p r o j e c t s , Mercury has kept pace w i t h s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances as t h e work progressed, and i t s f l i g h t schedules now coming i n t o t h e phase of i n c r e a s i n g frequency -- have followed a s t e a d y c o u r s e .

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ORGANIZATION

P r o j e c t Mercury was born a f e w days a f t e r t h e NASA was born October 1, 1958. It followed c l o s e l y t h e formation of t h e NASA Space Task Group under t h e O f f i c e of Space F l i g h t Programs. Space Task Group, l o c a t e d a t Langley Field, V i r g i n i a , has a s t a f f of more t h a n TOO headed by Robert R . G i l r u t h , D i r e c t o r . G i l r u t h formerly was A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of N A S A ' s Langley Research Center. Walter C, Williams, Associate D i r e c t o r , who heads Mercury f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s , w a s drawn from t h e F l i g h t Research Center, Edwards, C a l i f o r n i a , where he d i r e c t e d N A S A ' s h i g h speed arid a b t i t u d e research flights. G r e a t e s t government support of Mercury has been given From i t s l a r g e pool of experienced a e r o n a u t i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g t e s t p i l o t s , NASA s e l e c t e d i t s seven a s t r o n a u t s . The A r m y , N a v y and A i r Force are supplying v a l u a b l e medical s e r v i c e s and p e r s o n n e l . Each of t h e s e r v i c e s i s p r o v i d i n g communications and t r a c k i n g equipment and f a c i l i t i e s f o r s e c t i o n s of t h e Mercury network. By agreement-with t h e Department, t h e NASA reimburses t h e i n d i v i d u a l armed f o r c e s f o r s e r v i c e s above t h e i r normal operations.
by the Department of Defense.

The A i r Force Space Systems Command a l s o s u p p l i e s Atlas r o c k e t b o o s t e r s and launch s e r v i c e s , a i r r e s c u e u n i t s , map-making and c h a r t i n g , a i r c r a f t f o r a s t r o n a u t f l i g h t and zero G t r a i n i n g , use of t h e A t l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range, and animal specimens for t h e space f l i g h t program.
The U . S. Army i s f u r n i s h i n g a t r a c k i n g base a t i t s White Sands M i s s i l e Range and amphibious v e h i c l e s for recovery needs n e a r t h e launch s i t e . The Redstone r o c k e t ,

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originally developed by the Army and now produced by NASA and industry, is the prime launcher for Mercury suborbital f l i g h t series.

The Navy, whose main responsibility is location, recovery and delivery of the capsule and astronaut following flight, provides ships, aircraft, early warning c r a f t , amphibious and service vessels, Marine helicopters, and associated gear from the Atlantic fleet. The Navy is assisting with construction and operation of tracking and communications stations on i t s Pacific Missile Range.
Much of the progress of t h e Mercury project to date is due to the assistance and capability of American industry. A large share of its work has been performed by the hundreds of contractors and subcontractors from many segments of industry.

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I

A Study of Contingency Planning

for
The P r o j e c t Mercury Mission

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
SPACE TASK GROUP

Langley Field, V a .

April 10, 1961

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In aQy research and development program in which the state-of-the a & is being pressed or is about to be surmounted, there is always an undetermined number of " l F 1 ~or unknowns. " Project Mercury is just such a program. Its purpose is to investigate mmls capabilities -- perhaps to confirm those in space. capabilities

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In Mercury, extreme efforts have been made to attempt to insure operating reliability mission success and pilot safety. But these are mechanical, man-made pieces of equipment and are therefore subject t o malfunction. Many repetitive or backup systems have 'bee12 built into the Mercury spacecraft and related equipment. From prelaunch until safe recovery, hundreds of different possible contingencies have been anticipated. For example, in the Redstone-boosted flights:

IF space vehicle-to-ground connections indicate an unsafe condison in the booster before lift-off and umbilical disconnect, the escape system can be fired on signal from the blockhouse through the launch vehicle or through the spacecraft umbilical Line.
IF an unsafe condition is indicated before lift-off but afterTround umbilical disconnect, the escape system can be fired by a signal from the blockhouse ground-command equipment or by the astronaut in the cockpit.
IF an impending catastrophic failure is indicated between lift-off and esca;?e tower separation about 140 seconds after launchz the av.tomatic abort-sensing and implementation system (ASIS) c m automstically icitia'ce an escape sequence to remc;ve %he spacecraft from the booster, o r the escape system can be fired by ground command from the blocMnouse or by ground command! from the Mercury Control Center, o r , by the astronaut in t h e cockpit.
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IF a mission abort Secomes necessary after tower separatioE the spacecraft can be separated from the booster by firing the posigrade rockets on the blunt face of the spacecraft, by actomatfc sequencing equipment, or by the astronaut in the cockpi-k. Since only about ten seconds elapse between escape-tower jettison and spacecraft separation from the b o o s t e r , a near-normal Redstone-boosted mission is still possible at this point.

IF the automatic sequencing equipment does not jettison the ezape tower, tire astronaut in the cockpit can trigger the systen mar,i:.ail;y fron the cockpit.

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IF the spacecraft does not automatically separate from -h vehicle at booster burnout, separation can be the l c initiated by ground command or by the astronaut. The astronaut can initiate separation f r o m the cockpit manually.

IF the automatic stabilization and control system (ASCS) fails70 orient the spacecraft after separation from the booster, the astronaut has two separate manual backup control systems to achieve proper attitude control.
The success of the mission and the safety of the astronaut also depend on the Life Support System, communications, and electrical power. IF the automatic environmental control system, which provizs the spacecraft cabin and astronaut with oxygen and temperature control, fails alternate systems can be selected manually by the astronaut.

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IF the spacecraft pressure vessel develops a leak during flighc the astronaut I s full-pressure suit automatically inflates to five pounds per square inch to provide a second closed environment. IF the system which supplies oxygen to the astronaut's pressure suit fails, an emergency supply, which is in parallel w i t h the normal supply, automatically cuts into the circuit. The astronaut can start the alternate systems.

IF the spacecraft's main batteries fail during flight, a s t a b y system of 15-hour duration capacity is activated automatically or manually by the astronaut. IF the astronaut's primary ultra-high frequency voice link with the ground-tracking network fails, he may switch to a second UHF or a high frequency channel.
IF the astronaut's microphone fails, a second mike in paralEl with the first automatically begins to operate.
IF all voice link systems fail, the astronaut may resort to a code key in the cockpit and use the telemetry transmitters and frequencies to send messages back to the tracking network. IF command receiver I I A" fails, receiver "B" may be used to rezive commands from the ground.

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IF one telemetry transmitter fails, another with four channzs will convey aeromedical information and 90 other different measurements to ground-tracking stations.
IF a11 telemetry transmission equipment fails, onboard recorzrs will record and preserve data for use after recovery. One of the most important phases of the flight is the landing-recovery phase. Although the retro (braking) rockets are not needed on the Redstone-boosted flights to cause reentry, one of the objectives of these flights is to exercise the retrorocket system for I1 in space" qualification. This phase of the flight begins with the establishment of the proper retrorocket firing attitude and ends with the successful delivery of the spacecraft akoaTd the recovery ship.

IF the automatic attitude control system does not orient the szcecraft to the proper retrorocket firing attitude, the astronaut in the cockpit can assume attitude control through one of two alternate control systems.

IF the automatic timer in the cockpit does not fire the retroGckets, they can be fired by ground command from the Mercury Cor,trai Center, or, they can be fired by the astronaut in the cockpit.
IF the automatic system fails to initiate Jettisoning of tlirspent rekrorocket pack, the pilot can initiate the sequence from $he cocmft.
IF the automatic system does not retract the periscope befcrrreentry i n % o the atmosphere, the pilot can retract it namally from the cwkpit.

ALL SYSTEMS ARE AUTOMATIC IN SPACECRAFT
Since each Mercury manned mission profile is to be flow- l.lmnmn .ed before man can fly the same profile, all systems must be designed, manufactured, and installed in the spacecraft to operate on a completely automated basis. Many of the primary flight actions and systems can be activated OF controlled from the ground. However, it has not been possible to provide for ground control over all spacecraft systems. The introduction of the astronaut - the human observation and judgment factor - serves to enhance operational reliability to a great degree.

For exampie, cutomated electronic equipment which controls the initiation of the landing and recovery aids is duplicated. These systems are installed in parallel so that failure of one system should automatically cause a switchover to the alternate systern

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IF, however, t h e s e p a r a l l e l systems f a i l t o deploy t h e s i x - f G t - d i a m e t e r drogue p a r a c h u t e a t about 21,000 f e e t , the a s t r o n a u t i n the c o c k p i t can deploy the c h u t e manually. At t h i s p o i n t , small s t r i p s of aluminum (radar c h a f f ) a r e d i s p e r s e d t o provide a t a r g e t f o r radar l o c a t i o n .

I F t h e antenna c a n i s t e r , t o which t h e drogue parachute i s a t G c h e d , i s n o t j e t t i s o n e d t o a u t o m a t i c a l l y deploy t h e main 63-foot r i n g s a i l - t y p e l a n d i n g parachute, t h e p i l o t can manually j e t t i s o n t h e c a n i s t e r and deploy t h e main c h u t e .
I F t h e main l a n d i n g parachute does n o t deploy o r open p r o p e r l y , a t about 10,000 f e e t , a r e s e r v e l a n d i n g p a r a c h u t e i s a v a i l a b l e and can be deployed by t h e a s t r o n a u t i n t h e cockpit.

When t h e main l a n d i n g parachute i s deployed, a SOFAR underwater bomb i s deployed over t h e side t o provide an a u d i b l e sound l a n d i n g - p o i n t i n d i c a t i o n , and an u l t r a - h i g h frequency SARAH r a d i o beacon begins t r a n s m i t t i n g . A can of sea-marker dye i s deployed w i t h the r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e and remains a t t a c h e d t o the s p a c e c r a f t by a l a n y a r d r e g a r d l e s s of when the r e s e r v e chute i s deployed.

O l a n d i n g , an impact switch j e t t i s o n s t h e l a n d i n g n p a r a c h u t e and i n i t i a t e s t h e remaining l o c a t i o n and recovery aids. These i n c l u d e release of sea-marker dye w i t h t h e r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e i f i t has n o t p r e v i o u s l y been deployed, t r i g g e r i n g a h i g h - i n t e n s i t y f l a s h i n g l i g h t , e x t e n s i o n of a 16-foot whip antenna and t h e i n i t i a t i o n of t h e operatioi? of a high-frequency r a d i o beacon.
I F t h e automatic equipment f a i l s t o r e l e a s e t h e mafr, p a r a c E t e and j e t t i s o n t h e r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e , t h e a s t r o n a c t i n t h e c o c k p i t can i n i t i a t e t h e systems manually.
I F the u l t r a - h i g h frequency S A W r a d i o beacon f a i l s , t h e h E h - f r e q u e n c y r a d i o beacon a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes -the primary r a d i o l o c a t i o n a i d .
I F b o t h t h e UHF SARAH beacon and t h e HF recovery beacons t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s UHF and HF r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s become primary r a d i o l o c a t i o n aids. fail

to o p e r a t e ,

I F a l l of t h e r a d i o beacon l o c a t i o n aids f a i l , t h e highi n t e n x t y f l a s h i n g l i g h t and sea-marker dye become v a l u a b l e aids t o v i s u a l l o c a t i o n by s e a r c h i n g a i r c r a f t and s h i p s .

o r =The

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landing, the astronaut can escape either through the upper neck of the spacecraft or through the side hatch.

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to terminate o r

IF the flight terminates early, inadvertently, elemen-ts of thrMercury recovery forces are deployed along the intended flight path to make the recovery.
IF it is necessary to abort the mission, either off-thepad oyimmediately after engine ignitlon and lift-off, emergency rescue and recovery crew and equipment have been stationed near the launch area to make the recovery.
The foregoing is NOT a complete stu$y o f r , a l l redundant Mercury systems or of all of the vexing IF'S which must be considered in the conduct of Mercury flight tests.

I is intended, rather, as t interested in acquiring a basic planning in the Mercury mission as a "backup system" capable of reliability.

a primer for the layman understanding of contingency and the role of the astronaut greatly increasing mission

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MERCURY -REDSTONE ABORT

What i s an "abort" i n Me-cury-Redstone? It i s any unplanned t e r m i n a t i o z of t h e f i i g , h t i n i s s i o ~ ; , ~ The p c s s i b i l i t y of such a b o r t s has been f o r e s e e n and provided f o r i n t h i s program through t h e i n c l u s i o n of an escape r o c k e t mounted on a tower above t h e s p a c e c r a f t and thraiAgh t h e pwsovision of both automatic and manual means of fi??ing t h e escape pocket t o p u l l the s p a c e c r a f t away from an impending launch v e h i c l e malfunct i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , an e l e v a t i n g bocrn know. as a "cherry. p i c k e r " has been provided t o remove t h e p i l o t ; d u r i n g an emergency a r i s i n g d u r i n g t h e fical, 90 minutes af t h e countdown, Once t h e Redstone launch v e h i c l e has received i t s f i r i n g s i g n a l and even b e f o r e i t has l i f t e d o f f t h e pad, automatic f a i l u r e - d e t e c t i n g systems e s p e c i a l l y b u l l % i n r o the vehhcle w i l l s e n s e impending tmuS2.e and w i l l i r i i t i a t e an a b o r t , When t h i s happens, t h e clamp ring which attaches t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o t h e launch v e h i c l e i s r e l e a s e d by e x p l o s i v e b o l t s , t h e r e t r o r o c k e t package a t t a c h e d t o t h e spa,cecrafc h e a t s h i e l d i s j e t t i s o n e d , and t h e escape r o c k e t i s f i r e d . The t h r u s t of t h e escape r o c k e t i s s u f f i c i e n t , t'o p u l l t h e s p a c e c r a f t 50 an a l t i t u d e of o v e r 2000 f e e t and w e l l t o one s i d e sf 'che launch pad. A s t h e s p a c e c r a f t reaches i t s peak a l t i t u d e i n t h i s s h o r t f l i g h t e x p l o s i v e b o l t s ari? fSP-ed t o ? e l e a s e a n o t h e r clamp r i n g which a t t a c h e s t h e escape roeI.cet and tower t o t h e spacecraft A small roc,ke+, moi:n'r,ec2 beneath t h e escape r o c k e t begins t h r u s t i n g Lo c a r r y t,h% tower axd n c m empty escape rocket away from t h e s p a c e c r a f t and c l e a r t h e way f o r deploying p a r a c h u t e s from t h e small upper end af t h e s p a c e c r a f t . When t h e tower has gone t h e sn?sll 6-foot drog-de parachut,e i s deployed. T h i s p a r a c h u t e stags any r o t a t i o n of t n e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e n p u l i s away t h e antenna c a n a,ad deploys the 63-foot main l a n d i n g p a r a c h u t e . When +,he l a n d i n g p a r a c h u t e I s de2loyed t h e heat s h i e l d i s r e l e a s e d and t h i s , i n turn, extends t h e landingimpact bag which forms a pneumatic cushion to absorb t h e shock of l a n d i n g . The impact bag i s needed p?;ar,arilg for impacts on land but i s a l s o r e q u i r e d f ~ iandfngs on w a t e r whea wind and r waves are h i g h . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e automatic system d e s c r i b e d above, t h e escape r o c k e t can be f i r e d , i f necessary, by t h e a s t r o n a u t o r by r a d i o command from t h e Redstone blockhouse, t h e Mercury Control Center, o r t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range range s a f e t y o f f i c e r from t h e AMR C e n t r a l Control B u i l d i n g .

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For impending b o a s t e r malfunctions a f t e r 1lf.t;-off t h e automatic system described above goes through t h e $8188 sequence t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s moved well away from any p o t e n t i a l b o o s t e r explosion.

Bor o t h e r emergencies such as systems malfunctions w1t;hln t h e s p a c e c r a f t t h e a s t r m a u t and t h e f l i g h t monitors i n the Mercury Control Center can a l s o i n i t i a t e an a b o r t ,
t h u s a e p a r a t i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t f r o m t h e b o o s t e r and s a f e l y terminatlng t h e f l i g h t . The a t t a c h e d brochure e n t i t l e d "IF" d e s c r i b e s a number of the p o s s l b l e emergencies t h a t could lead t o an abort i n a Mercury f l i g h t mission and also d e s c r i b e s t h e many s t e p s that have been taken t o minimize t h e number of such emergencies t h a t oould reach t h e s t a g e of r e q u i r i n g an a b o r t .

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J O H N HERSCHEL GLENN, Jr.

BIOQRAPHY

P r o j e c t Mercury Astronaut John H, Glennp Jr., a l i e u t e n a n t c o l o n e l i n the U. S. Marine Corps, was born J u l y 18, 1921 i n Cambridge, Ohio. He c o n s i d e r s New Concord, Ohio, h i s permanent home. H e i s 5 f e e t 104 i n c h e s t a l l , weighs 168 pounds and has green eyes and red hair, H i s wife i s t h e former Anna Margaret Castor, daughter of D r . and Mrs. H. W. Castor, The Glenns have two c h i l d r e n : John David, 14, and Carolyn Ann, l a e H i s p a r e n t s are M r . and Mrs. John H. Glenn. The e l d e r M r . Glenn i s a r e t i r e d operakor of a plumbing and h e a t i n g b u s i n e s s , The e l d e r Glenns and C a s t o r s a l l l i v e on Bloomfield Road i n New Concord, Glenn a l s o has a s i s t e r , Mrs. J e a n Pinkston, of Cambridge. Glenn a t t e n d e d primary and high s c h o o l s i n Concord and a t t e n d e d Muskingum College t h e r e a l s o , Glenn e n t e r e d the Naval Aviation Cadet Program i n March 1942. He was graduated from t h i s program and commissioned i n the Marine Corps a y e a r l a t e r , After advanced t r a i n i n g , he j o i n e d Marine F i g h t e r Squadron 155 and s p e n t a year f l y i n g F4U f i g h t e r s i n t h e Marshall I s l a n d s , During h i s World War 1 s e r v i c e he f l e w 59 combat missions. 1 A f t e r t h e war, he was a member of F i g h t e r Squadron 218 on North China p a t r o l and had duty i n Guam, From June 1948 t o December 1950, he was an i n s t r u c t o r i n advanced f l i g h t training a t Corpus C h r i s t i , Texas, Glenn t h e n a t t e n d e d Amphibious Warfare School a t Quantico, V i r g i n i a . I n Korea he flew 63 missions w i t h Marine F i g h t e r Squadrons 311 and 27 while a n exchange p i l o t w i t h t h e A i r Force i n F-86 S a b r e j e t s . I n t h e l a s t n i n e days of f i g h t i n g i n Korea, he downed three WXG1s i n combat along t h e Yalu River. A f t e r Korea, Glenn a t t e n d e d T e s t P i l o t School a t t h e Naval A i r T e s t Center, Patuxent River, Maryland. Afeer g r a d u a t i o n , he was p r o j e c t o f f i c e r on a number of a i r c r a f t . H e was assigned t o t h e F i g h t e r Design Branch of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics i n Washington from November 1956 t o A p r i l 1959, d u r i n g which time he a l s o a t t e n d e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland. I n A p r i l 1959 he was s e l e c t e d as an a s t r o n a u t for P r o j e c t Mercury. Glenn has been awarded t h e Distinguished F l y i n g Cross on f i v e occasions, and holds t h e A i r Medal w i t h 18 Clusters f o r h i s s e r v i c e d u r i n g World War I1 and Korea. I n J u l y 1957, w h i l e p r o j e c t o f f i c e r of t h e FBU, he s e t a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l speed record from Los Angeles t o New York, spanning t h e country i n 3 hours and 23 minutes, T h i s was t h e f i r s t t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l f l i g h t t o average s u p e r s o n i c speed. He has more t h a n 5,100 hours of f l y i n g t i m e , i n c l u d i n g 1,600 hours i n jet; aircraft.
The Glenn family habbies a r e b o a t i n g and water s k i i n g .

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VIRGIL I V A N GRISSOM P r o j e c t Mercury Astronaut

BIOGRAPHY

V i r g i l I. Grissom, a c a p t a i n i n t h e U. S , A i r Force, was born A p r i l 3, 1926 i n M i t c h e l l , Indiana. He i s 5 f e e t 7 i n c h e s t a l l , weighs 150 pounds, has brown h a i r and brown eyes. Mrs, Grissom i s t h e former B e t t y L, Moore. They have two sons: S c o t t , 11,and Mark, 7 . Grissom's p a r e n t s , M r , and Mrs, Dennis D. Grisaom, l i v e a t 715 Baker S t r e e t , M i t c h e l l . H has two e b r o t h e r s : Norman, of M i t c h e l l ; and Lowell, a s e n i o r a t Indiana U n i v e r s i t y ; and a s i s t e r , Mrs. J o e Beavers, who resides i n Baltimore, Maryland. H i s w i f e ' s f a t h e r , Claude Moore, l i v e s i n Mitchell; her mother i s deceased.

Grissom a t t e n d e d primary and high s c h o o l s i n M i t c h e l l . He f i r s t e n t e r e d t h e A i r Force i n 1944 as an a v i a t i o n c a d e t and was discharged i n November 1945. He was graduated from Purdue U n i v e r s i t y w i t h a degree i n mechanical e n g i n e e r i n g i n 1950. He r e t u r n e d t o a v i a t i o n c a d e t t r a i n i n g a f t e r h i s graduat i o n from Purdue and r e c e i v e d h i s wings i n March 1951. Grissom j o i n e d t h e 75th F i g h t e r - I n t e r c e p t o r Squadron a t Presque I s l e , Maine, as an F-86 f i g h t e r p i l o t . He f l e w 100 combat m i s s i o n s i n Korea i n F-868s w i t h t h e 334th F i g h t e r - I n t e r c e p t o r Squadron. H e l e f t Korea i n June 1952 and became a j e t p i l o t i n s t r u c t o r a t Bryan, Texas. I n August 1955 he went t o t h e A i r Force I n s t i t u t e of Technology a t Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base, Ohio, t o study a e r o n a u t i c a l engineering. I n October 1956 he a t t e n d e d t h e T e s t P i l o t School a t Edwards A i r Force Base, C a l i f o r n i a , and r e t u r n e d t o Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base i n May 1957 as a t e s t p i l o t assigned t o t h e F i g h t e r Branch, He has flown more t h a n 3,400 hours, o v e r Z95QO i n j e t s . Grissom has been awarded t h e Distinguished F l y i n g Cross and A i r Medal w i t h C l u s t e r f o r s e r v i c e i n Korea,
H i s hobbies are h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g
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ALAN BARLETT SHEPARD, JR,

BIOGRAPHY

Project Mercury Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., a commander in the U.S. Navy, was born November 18, 1923 in East Derry, New Hampshire. The 37-year-old astronaut is 5 feet 11 inches t a l l , weighs 160 pounds, has blue eyes and brown hair. Shepard is married to the former Louise Brewer of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. The couple has two daughters: Juliana, 9, and Laura, 13. His parents, Col. and Mrs. Alan B. Shepard, live in East Derry where the elder Shepard, a retired officer of the Army of the United States, is an insurance broker, Shepard's sister, Mrs, Pauline S. Sheman, resides in Attleboro, Massachusetts. Shepard attended primary school in East Derry and was graduated from Pinkerton Academy, Derry, New Hampshire, 1940., He studied one year at Admiral Farragut Academy, Toms River, New Jersey, and then entered the Naval Academy, Annapolis, He was graduated from Annapolis in 1944. He was graduated from the Naval War College, Newport, m o d e Island, in 1958. The astronaut saw service on the destroyer COGSWELL in the Pacific during World War 11. He then entered flying training at Corpus Christi, Texas9 and Pensacola9 Florida, Me received his wings in March 1947. Subsequent service was in Fighter Squadron 42 at the Norfolk Naval Air Station and Jacksonville, Florida. He also served several tours aboard aimraft; carriers in the Mediterranean. Shepard went to USN Test Pilot School at Pacuxent River, Maryland, in 1950 and served two t o u r s in flight test work there. During this service he took part in high altitude tests to obtain data on light at different altitudes and on a variety of air masses over the North American Continent, He also took part in experihents in test and development of the Mavyns in-flight refueling system9 carrier suitability trials of t h e F2H3 Bansheeg and Navy t r i a l s of the first angled carrier deck. Between his flfght-tesk tours at Patuxent, Shepard was assigned to Fighter Squadron 193 at Moffett Field, California, a night fighter unit flying mnshee j e t s . He was Operawith it to the tions Officer of this squadron and made two t ~ u m Western Pacific on board the carrier ORISKANY. He has been engaged in the test of the F3H Dernoc, FbU Crusader2 F4D Skyray, and Fl1F Tigercat, He was proJect test pilot on the F5D Skylancer., The last five months at Patuxenf;were spmt a s an instructor in the Test Pilot School. After his graduation from the Naval War College, Shepard joined the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, as aircraft readiness officer. He has 3,700 hours of flying time, 1,800 in j e t s , Shepard's hobbies are golf, ice skating, and water skiing.

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ASTRONAUT T R A I N I N G PROGRAM SUMMARY
Here are some of t h e general t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e a s t r o n a u t s have undergone s i n c e May 1959,
1. Systems and v e h i c l e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . The a s t r o n a u t s were given l e c t u r e s i n t h e v e h i c l e systems by NASA and s e v e r a l of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g companies. Langley Research Center gave them a 50-hour course in a s t r o n a u t i c s . McDonnell gave t h e a s t r o n a u t s l e c t u r e s on t h e Mercury subsystems and s e s s i o n s on code t r a i n i n g . L e c t u r e s were given t o t h e a s t r o n a u t s by D r . W i l l i a m K. Douglas on aeromedical problems of space f l i g h t . A t t h e Wright A i r Development Division, t h e a s t r o n a u t s were i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h t h e Mercury p r e s s u r e s u i t , o p e r a t i o n of t h e s u i t i n low p r e s s u r e and h e a t chambers, on t h e c e n t r i f u g e , and during weightless f l y i n g . A t t h e Naval Medical Research I n s t i t u t e , t h e y were f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of a high CO c o n t e n t i n t h e environment. The Army B a l l i s t i c Missi e Agency i n d o c t r i n a t e d t h e a s t r o nauts an t h e Redstone, The A i r Force B a l l i s t i c M i s s i l e Division and i t s a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r a c t o r s i n d o c t r i n a t e d t h e a s t r o n a u t s on t h e Atlas.

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2. S t a r r e c o g n i t i o n . Each a s t r o n a u t was given concentrated p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e elements of c e l e s t i a l n a v i g a t i o n and on s t a r r e c o g n i t i o n a t t h e Morehead Planetarium, Chapel H i l l , North Carolina, d u r i n g February 1961. A t r a i n e r s i m u l a t i n g t h e c e l e s t i a l view through a c a p s u l e window p e r m i t t e d a s t r o n a u t p r a c t i c e i n c o r r e c t i n g yaw d r i f t .

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3. Desert s u r v i v a l . - A 5$-day course i n desert s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g was accomplished a t t h e U. S. A i r Force T r a i n i n g Command S u r v i v a l School a t Stead A i r Force Baseo Nevada. The course c o n s i s t e d of s u r v i v a l techniques through l e c t u r e s , demonstrations, and a p p l i c a t i o n i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e s e r t environment. The Mercury s u r v i v a l k i t was a l s o e v a l u a t e d .
4. Egress t r a i n i n g . During March and A p r i l 1960 open-water normal egress t r a i n i n g was conducted i n t h e Gulf of Mexico o f f Pensacola, F l o r i d a . Each a s t r o n a u t made a t l e a s t 2 egresses t h r o u h t h e upper h a t c h . S t a t e 3-4 seas (up t o 10-foot swells7 were experienced. Water s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g was a l s o accomplished d u r i n g t h i s program. A t r a i n i n g program of s i d e h a t c h e g r e s s was
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accomplished in August 1960 at Langley. Each of the astronauts made underwater egresses, some of which were made in the Mercury pressure suit.

5. Specialty assignments. uted to the Mercury development with Space Task Group engineers McDonnell coordination meetings Mercury-Atlas panel meetings in Astronaut specialty areas are:

The astronauts contribprogram by working directly and by attending NASAand Mercury-Redstone or their specialty areas.

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a. Carpenter Communication equipment and procedures, periscope operation, navigational aids and procedures.

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f i g u r a t i o n , t ra je c t o r y , aerodynaml c s, countdown,
and flight procedures.

b.

Cooper

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Redstone booster, including con-

c. Glenn - Cockpit layout or configuration, instrumentation, and controls for capsule and simulation.
d o Grissom Reaction control system, hand controller, autopilot and horizon scanners.

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e. Schirra Environmental control systems, pilot support and restraint, pressure suit, aeromedical monitoring. f. Shepard - Recovery systems, parachutes, recovery aids, recovery procedures and range network *
g. Slayton Atlas booster and escape system including Atlas configuration, trajectory, aerodynamics, countdown, and flight procedures.

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Some of the more specific training programs and equipment are:
1, Centrifuge programs. During the three Johnsville centrifuge programs, astronauts received extensive training in the full-scale simulations of the Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas flights and the aborts associated with each type of trajectory. The primary purpose of these programs was to give the astronauts training in capsule attitude and rate control, monitoring normal sequencing functions, and

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r e c t i f y i n g emergency problems while being exposed t o environmental c o n d i t i o n s t h a t might be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas p r o f i l e s . The environmental f a c t o r s emphasized d u r i n g t h e s e programs were a c c e l e r a t i o n , reduced cabin p r e s s u r e s , and Mercury p r e s s u r e s u i t c o n d i t i o n , and t h e e f f e c t s of these condit i o n s on a s t r o n a u t performance. The a s t r o n a u t s a l s o r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g w i t h v o i c e communications and code. Further e v a l u a t i o n of t h e McDonnell hand c o n t r o l l e r , Couch, c a p s u l e l i g h t i n g and instrument d e s i g n was a l s o accomplished during these programs.
2, Weightless f l y i n g . - The a s t r o n a u t s r e c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h w e i g h t l e s s n e s s by being flown as passengers through s e v e r a l p a r a b o l i c t r a j e c t o r i e s i n Cl31, C135, and F-100 t y p e a i r c r a f t . The d u r a t i o n s of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s v a r i e d from 15 seconds t o a minute, and t h e number of p a r a b o l a s p e r f l i g h t v a r i e d from 3 t o 24, depending upon t h e t y p e of a i r c r a f t being used. Each a s t r o n a u t has experienced approximately 40 minutes of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s . During t h e s e f l i g h t s , data were c o l l e c t e d on t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s a b i l i t y t o perform a simple t r a c k i n g task, changes i n normal speech, experience i n e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , v i s u a l a c u i t y and v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n problems for v a r i o u s body p o s i t i o n s , and p o s t w e i g h t l e s s psychomotor , t e s t i n g .

3. Procedures t r a i n e r s . The procedures t r a i n e r i s a complete mockup of t h e Mercury s p a c e c r a f t w i t h o p e r a t i n g inst,lwments and c o n t r o l s connected t o an analog computer t o s i m u l a t e a11 f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s t r a i n e r e n a b l e s a s t r o n a u t t r a i n i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e environmental v a r i a b l e s of 'che Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas t r a j e c t o r i e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e involved a c c e l e r a t i o n s . P r i m a r y emphasis has been astronauk t r a i n i n g on t h e s p a c e c r a f t systems, o p e r a t i o n s and procedures. Voice communications and p r e s s u r e s u i t experience i s a l s o accomplished d u r i n g t h i s program. Because of t h e t r a i n e r f l e x i b i l i t y , the a s t r o n a u t can p r a c t i c e w i t h any of the c o n t r o l - d i s p l a y modes u t i l i z i n g a v a r i e t y of r e t r o f i r e misalinement t o r q u e s and r e e n t r y o s c i l l a t i o n s , Astronauts have c o n c e n t r a t e d on f l y i n g Mercusy-Redstone mission s i m u l a t i o n s f o r t h e past s e v e r a l months, but t h e y have a l s o had e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n f l y i n g t h e Mercury-Atlas mission, c o n t r o l l i n g c a p s u l e a t t i t u d e s and r a t e s d u r i n g r e t r o f i r e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s , and r e s o l v i n g a m u l t i t u d e of i n f l i g h t systems f a i l u r e s .

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4. ALFA t r a i n e r . The a s t r o n a u t s r e c e i v e d extens i v e t r a i n i n g i n t h e A i r Lubricated F r e e Axis T r a i n e r u t i l i z i n g a p e r i s c o p e d i s p l a y o r a window w i t h a simulated e a r t h horizon f o r c o n t r o l l i n g a c t u a l c a p s u l e a t t i t u d e s and rates d u r i n g o r b i t and r e t r o r o c k e t f i r i n g . The a s t r o n a u t s c o n t r o l t h e c a p s u l e by a Reaction Control System c o n s i s t i n g of p r e s s u r i z e d a i r r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l n o z z l e s . The a s t r o n a u t s r e c e i v e d p e r i o d i c t r a i n i n g i n t h e ALFA t r a i n e r f o r t h e p a s t y e a r .

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5. MASTIF. I n March 1960 t h e a s t r o n a u t s r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e m u l t i p l e axes space t e s t i n e r t i a f a c i l i t y l o c a t e d a t NASA-Lewis Research Center. The purpose of t h e s t u d y w a s twofold: (1) t o g i v e the a s t r o n a u t s f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of tumbling, and ( 2 ) t o r e c o v e r from tumbling when i t occurs. A slow buildup of axes and rates was used t o a m a x i m u m of 30 rpm r o t a t i n g about a l l three axes. The a s t r o n a u t s i n a l l c a s e s were a b l e t o s t o p tumbling i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time, u s i n g t h e Mercury-type r a t e i n d i c a t o r and hand c o n t r o l l e r .
6. Summary of experience i n p r e s s u r e s u i t . The a s t r o n a u t s have had e x t e n s i v e experience i n t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t , a good deal of i t while undergoing t r a i n i n g f o r Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas f l i g h t missions. During t h e e a r l y Mercury p r e s s u r e s u i t development s t a g e , much of the a s t r o n a u t s ! experience i n t h e s u i t has been concerned w i t h f i t t i n g s both a t Goodrich and Langley. I n t h e past y e a r , however, almost a l l t h e t r a i n i n g i n the Centrifuge, Procedures T r a i n e r s , Egress T r a i n e r , Environmental Control T r a i n e r a t ACEL, and weightless f l i g h t t r a i n i n g have i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e Mercury p r e s s u r e s u i t i n t h e o v e r a l l t r a i n i n g programs.

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7. F l i g h t record. - The a s t r o n a u t s m a i n t a i n f l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y as part of t h e i r r e g u l a r a s t r o n a u t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . C u r r e n t l y two F-1061s have been a s s i g n e d t o them f o r these purposes. The a s t r o n a u t s c o n t i n u e t o o b t a i n r e g u l a r p r o f i c i e n c y and annual i n s t r u m e n t checks i n T-33 a i r c r a f t assigned t o t h e Tactical A i r Command, Langley A i r Force Base, V i r g i n i a .

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