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Impression materials
IMPRESSION

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Definition: It is the negative replica of the structures of the oral cavity be it hard(tooth) or soft(gingiva, mucous membrane) structures, which are used to fabricate the cast or model of the patient, and for making crowns, dentures, and other prosthesis.
CLASSIFICATION OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS. I) BASED ON MODE OF SETTING & ELASTICITY

a) Rigid
i) Reversible (thermoplastic) E.g. impression compound ii) Irreversible (thermosest) E.g. Zoe impression paste Impression plaster.

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b) Elastic
i) Hydrocolloid

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i) Hydrocolloid a) reversible E.g. Agar b) Irreversible E.g. Alginate ii) Elastomeric impression materials E.g. Polysulfides Polyether Addition silicones Condensation silicones
II) BASED ON TYPE OF IMPRESSION & AREA OF USE

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CLEANING (SCALING AND PLANING)

A) Dentulous
i) Primary E.g. alginate ii) Secondary: E.g. Elastomers Agar

B) Edentulous i) Primary
E.g. Impression compound Impression plaster Alginate ii) Secondary e.g. ZOE impression paste Elastomers for CD
III) BASED ON THEIR USE IN DENTISTRY

A) Edentulous For complete denture prosthesis e.g. Impression compound zoe impression paste alginate Elastomers B) Dentulous i) FPD ii) RPD E.g. Agar Alginate Elastomers
IV) BASED ON THE AMOUNT OF PRESSURE APPLIED

SMILE MAKE OVER

i) Mucocompressive e.g. Impression compound ii) Mucostatic e.g. Impression plaster


V) BASED ON THE MANIPULATION

A) Hand mixing i) Kneading e.g. Impression compound wet kneading putty consistency Elastomers

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ii) Circular motion (with glass slab & spatula) eg. Zoe impression paste polysulfide iii) Vigorous mixing e.g. Alginate (figure of 8 motions)

B) Mechanical mixing
VI) BASED ON THE TRAY USED FOR IMPRESSION

A) Stock tray i) Types of tray a) rim locked perforated e.g. Alginate Elastomers b) water cooled e.g. Agar c) Plastic e.g Orthodontic Tray ii) Based on type of Perforation a) Perforated e.g Alginate Elastomers b) Non Perforated e.g Impression Compound B) Special Tray i) base plate wax e.g. Zoe impression paste medium body

GUM DISEASE

ii) resin

TOOTH REPLACEMENT

Zinc Oxide Eugenol (or) ZOE is a Irreversible Rigid Impression material used as a secondary technique to take impression of Edentulous patients with the help of Mucocompessive technique. As seen in the name this impression material is made up of Zinc Oxide and Eugenol (Oil of cloves).

Classification: It is classified by ADA with the ADA Specification N.o: 16 Type I: Hard Type II: Soft
TOOTH IMPLANTS

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Composition: This Impression material is available in paste form in 2 tubes: Base Paste (White) Accelerator Paste/ Reactor/ Catalayst Paste (Red) Base Paste: Zinc Oxide Olive Oil Accelerator Paste: Oil of Cloves Gum or Polymerized Rosin Filler(Silica type) Lanolin Resinious Balasam Accelerator Solution Setting Reaction : ZnO + H2O ? Zn (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 + 2HE ? ZnE2+ 2 H2O Manipulation: 1. Dispense equal length of the 2 pastes. Variation in length alters setting time. 2. Paper pad is used as a mixing slab & a stiff stainless steel spatula with an 8-10 cm blade should be used. 3. 4.
ORTHODONTIC TREATMENTS

87% 13%

12% 50% 20% 3% 10% 5%

Mixing is done for 30-40 sec until no color streaks in the mix are seen & a uniform consistency is obtained. The mix is then transferred to a impression tray to take an impression.

Factors controlling setting time: Decreasing setting time: Small amt. of zinc acetate Accelerators Small drop of water mixed in the paste containing eugenol Increasing the mixing time. Increasing accelerator paste while mixing. Increasing setting time: Cooling the spatula & mixing slab Addition of inert oils & waxes during mixing to reduce hardness like: olive oil. Increasing base paste while mixing. Properties: i) consistency & flow

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-thick consistency compress the tissues. ii) dimensional stability -quite satisfactory, -less than 0.1 % shrinkage occurs during hardening. iii) reproduction of details -good. Biologic considerations: Some patients experience burning sensation in the mouth due to eugenol & can also cause tissue irritation. This maybe overcome by using a non eugenol paste. Uses: 1. cementing & insulating medium 2. temporary filling 3. root canal filling material 4. surgical pack in periodontal surgical procedures. 5. bite registration pastes 6. temporary relining material for dentures. 7. impression material for edentulous patients. Advantages: 1. Good dimensional stability 2. good detail reproduction 3. impression surface can be modified by adding in deficient areas 4. easy to manipulate 5. long working time, so border moulding can be done while relining dentures. Disadvantages: 1. burning sensation due to eugenol. 2. messy to work with 3. sticks to skin & instruments , difficult to clean. 4. rigid so tends to break off in areas of undercuts.

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IMPRESSION COMPOUND It is a rigid, reversible impression material which sets by physical change.

Classification:
Acc to ADA sp. No.3: Type I:

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Low fusing compound green stick compound. Medium fusing compound impression compound. Type II: high fusing compound tray compound.

Aug 11 (5) Aug 10 (4) Aug 09 (4) Aug 07 (5) Adult Permanent Teeth Coming In Behind Baby Teeth:... The Anatomy of a Tooth Nine Drinks that Can Dissolve Your Teeth Pulpitis: Whats the Difference Between Reversible... Impression materials

Supplied as:
1. as sticks, cakes, & cones. 2. colors green, brown, red.

Applications:
Type I: For making primary impressions. For individual tooth impression For peripheral tracing or border moulding. To check undercuts in inlay preparation. Type II: To make a special tray.

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Requirements of an ideal impression compound:


1. Harden at or little above mouth temp. 2. Be plastic at a temp. not injurious or harmful to oral tissues. 3. Not containing irritating or toxic ingredients. 4. Harden uniformly when cooled without distortion. 5. Have a consistency when softened which will allow it to reproduce fine details. 6. Be cohesive but not adhesive. 7. Not undergo permanent deformation or fracture while withdrawing the impression from the mouth. 8. Be dimensionally stable after removal from mouth & during storage. 9. Exhibit a smooth glossy surface after flaming. 10. Withstand trimming with sharp knife without flaking or chipping after hardening.

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Composition
Rosin 30 Copal resin 30 Carbuna wax 10 Stearic acid 5 Talc 25 Coloring agent app.

Significance:
During softening of the material , the outside will soften first & inside last. So to ensure uniform softening the material should be kept immersed for a long time in water bath. The layer adjacent to the mouth tissue swill remain soft. Therefore Its imp to cool the compound thoroughly before removing the impression.

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Properties:
Thermal properties i) thermal conductivity: has low thermal conductivity.

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ii) Coefficient of linear expansion. (CTE) high CTE , 0.3% acceptable. iii) Flow high fusing compounds < 2% at 37 .C & < 70-85 % at 45.C low fusing compounds < 3% at 37 C & < 80-85% at 45 C iv) Glass transition temp: It is the temp. at which the material loses its hardness or brittleness on heating or forms a rigid mass. App. 39.CMaterial removed from the mouth after glass transition temp. is reached. v) Fusion Temp. Its the temp. at which the impression compound becomes plastic. Its 43.5.C vi) Dimensional stability. Poor dimensional stability. To prevent distortion pour the cast within 1 hr. vii) surface detail reproduction is less because of high viscosity & low flow.

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Manipulation
Sticks: Small amount softened over flame Cakes: Softened in a thermostatically controlled waterbath.

Precautions:
Prolonged immersion in a water bath is not indicated overheating In water makes the compound sticky & difficult to handle. Avoid incorporating water while kneading.

BLOGROLL

Advantages:
cheap reusable does not produce irritation to the patientimpression can be remodified & resoftned again till an accurate impression is obtained

Disadvantages
difficult to record details accurately. Soft tissues are compressed due to pressure applied while taking the impression. Distortion. Difficult to remove undercuts. Does not have an pleasant taste. Can be uncomfortable in patients because of the rigidity. POLYSULFIDE ELASTOMERIC IMPRESSION MATERIAL: First elastomeric impression material to be introduced, also known as mercaptan / thymol, it is a type of Rubber based impression material Supplied as

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Base paste (white) Accelerator (brown/grey) Available in 3 viscosities: Light bodied Medium bodied Heavy bodied Composition: Base paste: Liquid polysulfide polymer Inert fillers (titanium oxide, zinc sulfate, silica) Reactor Paste: Lead dioxide Dibutyl phthalate Sulfur Other substances (like magnesium stearate) and deodorants Setting reaction: HS R SH -PbO2 + S-> Properties: 1) Setting time 5-8 min. colder climate increases setting time. Drop of water accelerates the reaction. 2) Excellent detail reproduction. 3) Dimensional stability curing shrinkage 0.45% due to continued reaction. Shrinkage due to loss of byproduct. 4) Permanent deformation 3-5% highest amongst elastomers. 5) High tear strength 7000gm/cm2 6) Good flexibility of 7%, allows elastic recovery of the material. 7) Hydrophobic- tissue should be thoroughly dried before making the impression. 8) Can be electroplated with copper. Advantages: 1. long working time. 2. proven accuracy 3. high tear resistance. 4. inexpensive to use 5. less hydrophobic 6. longer shelf life. Disadvantages: HS R- S S R SH + H2O 60-69% 30-35% 3% 2% 80-85% 16-18%

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1. must be poured with dental stone immediately. 2. potential for significant distortion. 3. odor is offensive. 4. messy & stains clothes. 5. second pour is less accurate.

Alginate Impression material


Alginate Impression material is an Elastic, Irreversible Impression material which is used to take the impression of both Dentulous and Edentulous Impressions.

TYPES: Type I fast setting : 1-2 min. Type II normal setting : 2-4.5 min. Available as : Bulk powder Preweighed packages Color changing alginates:violet during mixing, pink when ready to be seated and white when set Composition: Ester salts of alginic acid(sodium or potassium or triethanolamine alginate) 15% Calcium sulphate (reactor) 16% Zinc oxide 4% Potassium titanium fluoride 3% Diatomaceous earth 60% Sodium phosphate 2% Coloring & flavoring agents traces Setting reaction: 2 Na3PO4 + 3 CaSO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 3Na2SO4 Setting Time: Type I (fast set) : 1-2min Type II (normal) : 2-4.5 min.

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Control Of gelation time: Undercontrol by manufacturers: By the amountt of retarder added during manufacturer Under Control of clinicians By altering the W:P ratio By changing the mixing time. By altering the temp.of water Increase in temp. decreases gelation time & vice versa. Premature gelation causes distortion in the impression & it is rendered useless. Prolonged gelation time is tedious for both pt. & the dentist. Manipulation : The Powder is taken after inverting the can several time to produce uniform distribution of the filler before mixing with water. The top of the can should be taken off carefully to prevent the silica particles from being inhaled. The proper W/P ratio as pacified by the manufacturer should be used measured quantity of water and powder are added in the rubber bowl & mixing is started, with a stirring motion to wet the powder with water. Once its moistened rapid spatulation by swiping or stropping against the side of the bowl is done. A vigorous figure eight motion is used. Mixing time:Working time For fast set alginate45 sec.1 min. For normal set alginate60 sec.2 min Properties: Taste & odor: Pleasant Flexibility:lower w/p ratio results in lower flexibility. Elasticity & elastic recovery: highly elastic, permanent deformation less if the impression is removed from the mouth quickly. Reproduction of the surface detail: lower than agar. Strength: compressive strength : 5000-8000 gm/cm2 Tear strength : 350-700 gm/cm2 Dimensional stability: Poor Biologic properties: Silica present in the dust which rises from the can after fluffing alginate powder is a health hazard. Dustless alginate is also present in the market which contain glycol. Uses: for making primary impression of edentulous patients with undercut ridges. for preliminary impressions for complete dentures. for making impressions for dentulous pts. For construction of study models & temporary removable prosthesis. for making impression for orthodontic study models. used for making impressions for the preparation of mouth protectors for athletes. used as duplicating material. Advantages: ease of mixing & manipulation.

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no elaborate equipment required. material is elastic & comes out easily from undercuts. economical impression can be removed easily & has pleasant taste & odor, so comfortable for the patient. Disadvantages: cant be electroplated. poor tear strength especially in thin sections. dimensional stability is poor. distortion may occur if tray is shifted during setting. cant be refined. Types of failures: 1.Defects: improper mixing prolonged mixing undue gelation w/p ratio is too low. 2.Tearing: inadequate bulk moisture contamination premature removal from mouth prolonged mixing 3.External bubbles: undue gelation preventing flow air incorporated during mixing 4.Irregularly shaped voids: moisture 5.Rough or chalky stone model: inadequate cleaning of the impression excess water left in impression premature removal of model. 6.Distortion: if impression not poured immediately CONDENSATION SILICONES It was the first type of silicone impression material. Also known as conventional silicones. Setting occurs in room temp , so called as RTV silicones. Composition: Base paste 1. Polydimethyl siloxane (hydroxy terminated)

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2. Colloidal silica or micro sized metal oxide filler 3. putty viscosity 60-70% 4. medium viscosity 35-75 % 5. low viscosity 5-15% 6. color pigments accelerator paste 1. alkyl silicate (ortho ethyl silicate) 2. stannous octate 3. inert filler. Setting reaction: Dimethyl orthoethyl + Siloxane Properties: STANNOUS OCTATE> silicate + rubber alcohol

silicone

ethyl

1. Setting time 8-9 min. 2. Mixing time 45 sec. 3. Excellent detail reproduction 4. Dimensional stability high curing shrinkage. 5. Permanent deformation 1-3 % 6. Ttear strength 3000gm/cm 7. Sitffer & harder than polysulfide material. 8. Hydrophobic 9. Can be electroplated with silver & copper. 10. Shelf life 2 yrs. Advantages: 1. Adequate working & setting timer. 2. Pleasant odor & no staining. 3. Adequate tear strength 4. Better elastic properties on removal. 5. Less distortion on removal. Disadvantages: 1. Adequate accuracy if poured immediately. 2. Poor dimensional stability. 3. Potential for significant distortion. 4. Putty-wash method is technique sensitive. 5. Slightly more expensive.

ADITION SILICONES

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Introduced after condensation silicones Have better properties than condensation silicones. Also known as poly vinyl siloxane. Composition: Base paste 1. Poly(methyl hydrogen siloxane) 2. Other siloxane prepolymers 3. Fillers putty viscosity 60-70 % medium viscosity 35-75 % low viscosity 5-15% accelerator paste 1. Divnyl polysiloxane 2. Inert oils & fillers 3. Platinum salt 4. Palladium 5. Retarders 6. Fillers. Setting reaction: Poly vinyl siloxane + silane siloxane Properties: 1. Setting time: 5.9 min. 2. Mixing time 45 sec 3. Excellent surface detail reproduction. 4. Highest dimensional stability amongst elastomers 5. Lowest curing shrinkage 0.17 % 6. Good tear strength 3000gm/cm 7. Extremely hydrophobic 8. Low flexibility 9. Electroplated with copper & silver. 10. Shelf life 1-2 yrs. Advantages: 1. Short setting time 2. Adequate tear strength 3. Extremely high accuracy 4. Minimal distortion on removal 5. Dimensionally stable even after 1 week 6. If hydrophilic, good compatibility with gypsum. Disadvantages:

Pt ,Salt > silicone rubber

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1. Hydrogen gas may cause dimensional change. 2. Hydrophobic & hence requires a very dry field. 3. Expensive.

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