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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

The Immune System A second line of defense is housed within the body: a finely tuned immune system that recognizes and destroys foreign substances and organisms that enter the body. The immune system can distinguish between the body's own tissues and outside substances called antigens. This allows cells of the immune army to identify and destroy only those enemy antigens. The ability to identify an antigen also permits the immune system to "remember" antigens the body has been exposed to in the past; so that the body can mount a better and faster immune response the next time any of these antigens appear. The immune system also includes other proteins and chemicals that assist antibodies and T cells in their work. Among them are chemicals that alert phagocytes to the site of the infection. The complement system, a group of proteins that normally float freely in the blood, move toward infections, where they combine to help destroy microorganisms and foreign particles. They do this by changing the surface of bacteria or other microorganisms, causing them to die.

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enzyme (EN-zime) is a protein that helps speed up a chemical reaction In the body. antigens (AN-tih-jens) are substances that are recognized as a threat by the body's

immune system, which triggers the formation of specific antibodies against the substance.
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bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. lymphatic (lim-FAH-tik) system is a system that contains lymph nodes and a network immunity (ih-MYOON-uh-tee) is the condition of being protected against an infectious

of channels that carry fluid and cells of the immune system through the body.
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disease. Immunity often develops after a germ is introduced to the body. One type of immunity occurs when the body makes special protein molecules called antibodies to fight the disease-causing germ. The next time that germ enters the body, the antibodies quickly attack it, usually preventing the germ from causing disease. Primarily, the immune system classifies a substance as: a. Self-non-foreign they are normally ignored and tolerance and is exhibited towards these substances. They are not deemed harmful. b. Non-self termed as an antigen; a specific response is developed to a specific antigen. The response is then stored in the immune systems memory cells for future reference. Components of the Immune System: 1. Lymphoid Structures Spleen Composed of red and white pulp, acts somewhat like a filter. The red pulp is the site where old and injured red blood cells are destroyed. The white pulp contains concentrations of lymphocytes. Lymph Nodes Are distributed throughout the body Are connected by lymph channels and capillaries, which remove foreign material from the lymph before it enters the bloodstream.

2. Immune Cells Lymphocytes a. B lymphocytes (or B cells) - produce immunoglobulins. b. T lymphocytes (or T cells) - help control the immune response and destroy foreign antigens directly.
c. Plasma Cells - are white blood cells that produce large volumes of

antibodies. 3. Tissues The remaining lymphoid tissues, such as the tonsils and adenoids and other. Mucoid Lymphatic Tissue contain immune cells that defend the bodys mucosal surfaces against microorganisms. Types of Immune Defense: a. Innate or Nonspecific Immunity Also termed as the persons natural resistance, and are the most basic and primary of all defenses in the body. (skin, mucus membranes, phagocytic activity) 4. Immune Cells Lymphocytes d. B lymphocytes (or B cells) - produce immunoglobulins. e. T lymphocytes (or T cells) - help control the immune response and destroy foreign antigens directly.
f. Plasma Cells - are white blood cells that produce large volumes of

antibodies. 5. Tissues The remaining lymphoid tissues, such as the tonsils and adenoids and other. Mucoid Lymphatic Tissue contain immune cells that defend the bodys mucosal surfaces against microorganisms.

2 Types of Immunity Active acquired through previous exposure of the disease or through immunization wherein the body actively participates in formation of antibodies for future reference. Passive refers to whole, ready made immunity acquired from another, the body is just passive in the process of developing antibodies, as it is already made and given readily. 4 Types of Active Immunity a. Humoral Immunity b. Mucosal Immunity c. Cell-mediated Immunity d. Delayed HypersensitivityReaction Antibodies or Immunoglobulins developed from B-cells through the stimulation of cytokines produced by helper T-cells in the presence of an antigen. They attach to specific determinant sites on antigens, and carries out phagocytosis and initiating inflammation. IgG 75% Crosses placental barrier; present in circulation and tissue spaces; antiviral, antitoxic and anti-bacterial properties; IgA IgM IgE IgD 15% 10% .2% .004% activates complement Found in body secretions and breast milk; protects mucous membranes from microorganisms Forms natural ABO antibodies; present in early immune responses; activates complement Hypersensitivity reaction mediator; Involved in parasitic infectious Necessary for maturation of B lymphocytes

Hematopoic System:

The hematologic system pays an important role in hormone transport, the inflammatory and immune responses, temperature regulation, fluid-electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance.

Two types of blood vessels carry blood throughout our bodies: 1. Arteries carry oxygenated blood (blood that has received oxygen from the lungs) from the heart to the rest of the body. 2. Blood then travels through veins back to the heart and lungs, where it receives more oxygen. The blood that flows through this network of veins and arteries is whole blood, which contains three types of blood cells: 1. Red blood cells (RBCs) (also called erythrocytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain the iron-rich protein hemoglobin. Blood gets its bright red color when hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues. The body contains more RBCs than any other type of cell, and each has a life span of about 4 months. Each day, the body produces new RBCs to replace those that die or are lost from the body. 2. White blood cells (WBCs) (Also called leukocytes) are a key part of the body's system for defending itself against infection. They can move in and out of the bloodstream to reach affected tissues. Blood contains far fewer WBCs than red blood cells, although the body can increase WBC production to fight infection. There are several types of WBCs, and their life spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. Certain types of WBCs produce antibodies, special proteins that recognize foreign materials and help the body destroy or neutralize them. The white cell

count (the number of cells in a given amount of blood) in someone with an infection often is higher than usual because more WBCs are being produced or are entering the bloodstream to battle the infection. 3. Platelets (also called thrombocytes) are tiny oval-shaped made in the bone marrow. They help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the Platelets survive only about 9 days in the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced new cells. Platelets and clotting factors work together to form solid lumps to seal leaks, wounds, cuts, and scratches and to prevent bleeding inside and on the surfaces of our bodies. The process of clotting is like a puzzle with interlocking parts. When the last part is in place, the clot happens but if even one piece is missing, the final pieces can't come together. by leak. cells

Cardiovascular System

The heart is a muscular organ found in all vertebrates that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart" and comes from the Greek , kardia, for "heart." The vertebrate heart is composed of cardiac muscle, which is an involuntary striated muscle tissue found only within this organ. The average human heart, beating at 72 beats per minute, will beat approximately 2.5 billion times during an average 66 year lifespan. It weighs on average 250 g to 300 g in females and 300 g to 350 g in males. The external structures of the heart include the ventricles, atria, arteries and veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood into the heart.The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen and high content of carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen and low content of carbon dioxide.

Layers of the Heart a. Endocardium (innermost layer) b. Myocardium (middle layer) c. Epicardium (visceral pericardium or outermost layer) Heart Chambers Atria a. Right atrium receives de-oxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava. b. Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the left and right pulmonary veins. Ventricles a. Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation for the lungs. b. Left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation for the rest of the body. Heart Valves Atrioventricular (AV) Valves are one way valves that ensure that blood flows from the atria to the ventricles a. Right AV valve a. Pulmonary semilunar valve The Hearts Electrical Conduction System SA Node AV Node The Cardiac Cycle Systole contracting part of the heart Diastole period of time when the heart relaxes after contraction in preparation for refilling with circulating blood. AV Bundle Purkinje Fibers b. Left AV valve b. Aortic semilunar valve Semilunar (SL) Valves prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles