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An Exclusive
Interview with
Henrietta Fore

Development 2.0
Staff Care the Rules of
During the Permissible
Economic Lobbying

Getting Your
the New

Message Out

Vol. 27, No. 3

Managing Editor/Art Director

Chad Brobst

Copy Editor
Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales

Michael Haslett 18
Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Tony Fleming, New Media 21

Chad Brobst, Publications
Michael Haslett, Publications
Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate
Andrea Alves, Intern

Editorial Committee
InterAction Communications Team March 2009 • Vol. 27 • No. 3

1400 16th Street, NW Features Global Development 2.0:
Suite 210 An Expanding
Washington, DC 20036 Cover Story: Effective Ecosystem | 23
Tel: 202.667.8227
Development Assistance If new and traditional players
Speaks for Itself | 12 collaborate effectively, their
ISSN 1043-8157 efforts could be more than the
sum of the parts.
Driving Change | 15
Monday Developments is published 11 Understanding the rules for
times a year by InterAction, the larg- Assessing the New
permissible lobbying activity for
est alliance of U.S.-based international
Congress | 25
development and humanitarian non- A new Congress, working with
governmental organizations. With more a new Administration, offers
than 170 members operating in every E-Advocacy | 17 new possibilities for foreign
developing country, InterAction works to Do 50,000 Clicks Make a
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer- assistance.
ing by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. Transforming
Exclusive Interview:
InterAction welcomes submissions of Participation | 27
news articles, opinions and announce-
A Conversation with Moving from beneficiaries to
ments. Article submission does not guar- Henrietta Fore | 18 citizens shaping a world with
antee inclusion in Monday Developments. The former Director of USAID enough for all.
We reserve the right to reject submis- shares her views with the
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion development and humanitarian
Proper Insurance Equals
of our editorial team as to which articles
aid community. Inside This Issue | 3
are published in individual issues. Peace of Mind | 29
All statements in articles are the sole
Consider factors carefully when Southern Voices | 4
opinion and responsibility of the authors. researching insurance coverage
for your organization. Inside Our Community | 6
Articles may be reprinted with prior per-
mission and attribution. Letters to the Staff Care Corner | 7
editor are encouraged.
Inside InterAction | 8

15 Step By Step Advocacy | 9

A limited number of subscriptions are
made available to InterAction member
agencies as part of their dues. Individual Countdown to Forum | 10
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Washington Update | 11
Samples are $5, including postage.
Additional discounts are available for Events | 31
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for
delivery. Advertising rates are available Employment
on request. Opportunities | 33
INSIDE This Issue

An Historic Moment
or more than a year we have witnessed the buildup to and cohering our government’s foreign assistance programs.
an incredible moment in American history. Whether you However, we recognize that that might not be viable in the
voted for President Obama or not, seeing two million of short term, and we will work with President Obama, Secre-
our fellow Americans come together on the National Mall tary of State Clinton, and congressional leadership to take
for the inauguration was truly inspiring. President Obama’s other steps that ensure that development and humanitarian
remarks on that day also gives us much to be hopeful for: assistance are elevated and strengthened within our govern-
ment, and that these critical programs are unified under a
“To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work along- single National Strategy for Global Development. Our other
side you to make your farms flourish and let clean waters advocacy work over the last several months has occurred on
flow; to nourish starved bodies and feed hungry minds. various fronts, including the presidential transition (we deliv-
And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, ered more than 1,000 copies of our Foreign Assistance Brief-
we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering ing Book to the transition teams at the State Department,
outside our borders; nor can we consume the world’s re- USAID, and Department of Defense, and to every House
sources without regard to effect. For the
world has changed, and we must change
with it.”

These words remind us of the importance

of advocacy as a tool to advance the cause
of international relief and development.
Through the advocacy of InterAction and its
members in the heartland of America and
on Capitol Hill, we have raised the profile of
issues like clean water, food security, and
humanitarian response so that they mer-
ited mention in the inaugural address.
This month’s issue of Monday Develop-
ments focuses on advocacy, and I hope that it
will be a resource for your own organization’s
advocacy. More importantly, I hope you will
be inspired to renew your commitment to
holding our elected officials accountable to
both the level of prioritization the American
people have given these issues and to the needs of the ben- and Senate office); climate change (we recently coordinated
eficiaries of U.S. humanitarian and development assistance an event for congressional staff featuring panelists from the
because these issues are a priority for the Americans who development, environmental, and faith-based communities);
support our organizations. Within these pages you will find the conflict in West Bank/Gaza; and our continuing efforts
an exclusive interview with former USAID Administrator and to increase the funding for relief and development within the
Director of Foreign Assistance Henrietta Fore, an assessment International Affairs Budget.
of the new Congress and what it portends for international re- We must always remember that our partners and benefi-
lief and development, and an article on permissible advocacy ciaries overseas rely on us to articulate their needs to policy-
activities. You will also find a piece that explores why foreign makers here in the U.S. As the U.S. NGO community contin-
Photo: Dan Moore – Istockphoto.com

assistance reform matters to grassroots audiences. This last ues to effectively deliver critical assistance to the world’s
topic will become increasingly important as USAID and the poorest and most vulnerable people, we must also bolster our
NGO community work to spend scarce resources more effec- capacity to advocate on their behalf. MD
tively during this time of global economic instability.
For its part, InterAction has invested significant time and
resources into its work on foreign assistance reform and
modernization. We remain committed to the idea that a cab- Sam Worthington
inet-level department focused on international development President and CEO
and humanitarian response is the best solution for elevating InterAction



A Lost Boy
Finds His Calling
By Melanie Jones
Communications Officer, Winrock International

orn in the southern Sudanese village of
Gualla, Panther Alier was four years old when he lost
both of his parents to disease, and was raised by his aunt
until the civil war in Sudan separated them in 1987. Fleeing
a massive attack staged on his village by the northern Suda-
nese army, Panther and hundreds of other children from his
village traveled thousands of miles to Ethiopia, where they
spent four years as refugees, caring for each other until war
broke out in that country as well. He fled again, and, walk-
ing thousands more miles, reached northern Kenya in 1992.
There, Panther became one of the first to be admitted to Ka-
kuma, a United Nations refugee camp, where he would spend
nine years under extremely harsh conditions.
In 2001, the United Nations High Commissioner for Ref-
ugees, together with the United States government, made
the decision to resettle 3,800 young Sudanese in the U.S.,
a group who would become known as the Lost Boys of Su-
dan. Panther arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, on March 8,
where he enrolled in the University of Massachusetts, gradu-
ating magna cum laude with a bachelor’s degree in political
science. Now pursuing his master’s in sustainable interna-
tional development at Brandeis University’s Heller School for Panther is reunited with his brother, Mach Alier.
Social Policy and Management in Boston, Panther has joined
Winrock International as an intern with the Enterprise and town of Bor, where he met up with his brother and cousin.
Agriculture group, where he is receiving practical experience “It was so emotional meeting the two,” he says. “But not as
in sustainable international development programs, particu- emotional as meeting the whole family the next day.” When
he arrived, he found numerous relatives waiting along the
“I think there is a collective roadside, and as Panther exited the car, sisters, brothers,
cousins and others rushed toward him, praying and crying
responsibility in delivering change in tears of joy as they welcomed home this long-lost son. “As

the lives of people back home.” such, I broke down in tears,” says Panther. “I always thought
I knew them through my memory, but everyone’s look has
changed. My sister and one brother look so sick.”
larly how they relate to Southern Sudan. “I believe in em- Following the emotional reunion with his family, Panther
powerment of small businesses as they are the backbones of returned for a week to Juba, where he met with a number of
any nation’s economy,” he says. “In my view, small business government officials. “I think there is a collective responsibil-
enterprise development is the most sustainable way of com- ity in delivering change in the lives of people back home,”
bating extreme poverty and, in a way, creates avenues for says Panther. “Most diaspora members have acquired useful
peace and stability in these impoverished areas.” skills that can contribute to that change. The real challenges
This past September, Panther was finally able to return facing many institutions in Southern Sudan are a result of
home to South Sudan, both to be reunited with the family he lack of human capital.” He contends that because so many in
Photo: Panther Alier

had not seen in decades, and to conduct an assessment of the diaspora are equipped with the skills necessary to help
the diaspora situation in Juba. “When I landed at the airport change South Sudan, and because they are also exposed to
in Juba, I kept reminding myself that I was now home. I was modern economies and political institutions, “the diaspora
now standing on the land that brought me to light just over can be instrumental in fighting elements of tribalism that has
30 years ago,” he says. From there, Panther traveled to the consumed the region for so long.” MD


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INSIDE Our Community

World Learning Launches Video for USAID

Award Recognizes Members’ Achievements in CASCAID Project
Disability Inclusive Development World Learning, in collaboration with The George Washing-
Over the past year, significant progress has been ton University School of Media and Public Affairs, has completed
made to include people with disabilities in international a five-minute documentary that tells the story of the Communi-
development, most notably with the UN Convention on ties and Schools for Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (CASCAID)
the Rights of People with Disabilities entering into force project in Ethiopia. CASCAID, which ended in December 2008,
in May 2008. was a PEPFAR-funded project implemented by World Learn-
To support this momentum, Mobility International ing that helped Ethiopian orphans and vulnerable children af-
USA (MIUSA) in collaboration with InterAction, is pleased fected by HIV/AIDS complete a primary school education, and
to announce a new award for disability inclusion. The strengthened the community support networks for OVC’s. The
award recognizes outstanding achievements made by video will be distributed in Ethiopia to share learning from this
InterAction members to promote the inclusion of people successful program model. It can be viewed on World Learn-
with disabilities in their international development and ing’s YouTube channel at www.youtube.com/worldlearning.
humanitarian assistance programs. The 1st Annual Dis-
ability Inclusion Award will be presented to up to three International Medical Corps and Agility Logistics
InterAction members at the 2009 InterAction Forum. Partner to Enhance Delivery of Humanitarian Relief
All members are encouraged to apply. For more infor- International Medical Corps (IMC) and Agility, a global lo-
mation or to request a nomination form, please contact gistics leader, signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU)
Suz Dunn at sdunn@miusa.org or (541) 343-1284. The that outlines plans to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness
deadline for nominations is Friday, April 24th, 2009. of humanitarian relief.
InterAction is pleased to offer this award in public rec- The two parties agreed to work together on both emergen-
ognition of our community’s efforts. We look forward to cy relief and development settings to provide rapid response
receiving your nominations! to populations in need and logistical support for long-term
assistance. The agreement details plans for Agility supply
chain management experts to support International Medi-
cal Corps’ operations in the field. During emergencies, Agility
will also provide logistics personnel to aid in International
Medical Corps’ delivery and transportation of relief supplies,
including warehouse storage and shipping. With operations
in some of the world’s most difficult environments, Interna-
tional Medical Corps often needs supplies delivered quickly
to hard-to-access areas.
An international company with more than 550 offices in
100 countries around the world, Agility provides a global in-
tegrated logistics system through a network of warehous-
ing facilities and transportation and freight services. As part
of its social responsibility initiative, Agility created the Hu-
manitarian and Emergency Logistics Program (HELP) to help
governments and NGOs bring food, shelter, medicine, cloth-
ing, and other relief supplies where they are needed around
the world.

Office Space Available 1 Block from Metro

Handicap International is looking to sublet 2-3 office
suites (over 300 square feet) at a highly competitive rate
(available immediately). The windowed and furnished
space includes a shared reception area, kitchen, and
mail room. The office building is located in Takoma Park,
MD just one block from the Takoma Metro Station on
the Red Line. The ADA compliant building also features
two levels of secured parking as well as surface parking
for guests. Inquiries: (p) 301-891-2138—ask for Ed or
Email info@handicap-international.us MD


Staff Care Corner

Staff Care and Support

• People don’t only want to know final decisions or outcomes.
They are also interested in processes. Inform staff of the
processes being used to make decisions about the future

During the Economic and when there might be additional information to share.
• Try to use multiple communication channels. Email is not

Downturn enough. Staff meetings, one-on-one discussions, sugges-

tion/question boxes, and taped voicemail or video mes-
sages are options worth exploring.
By Lynne Cripe, Sr. Technical Advisor-Staff Support, CARE • Acknowledge anxiety and the need for clarity. You may not
have all the answers or information, but empathy can be a

elief and development organizations typically powerful intervention.
talk about staff care in the context of supporting field • Never make up information and avoid speculating. If you
staff working in challenging operating environments and do not know the answer to a question, say so and try to
providing support after critical incidents. Headquarters/U.S.- find out the information.
based employees often are a secondary priority because they • Create space for staff to ask questions. Even if there is
are perceived as facing fewer risks to their physical or psy- no news to share, employees will appreciate the time and
chological safety. However, U.S.-based staff are facing seri- space to ask their questions and air their concerns.
ous challenges and needs because of the economic downturn, • Offer brown-bags and other opportunities for staff to ac-
and NGOs have the opportunity to take proactive measures to cess practical information and/or support. Sample topics
help their staff cope with the volatile economic environment. might include: talking to your kids about finances, keep-
The current climate may be affecting staff in several ways. ing your marriage/relationship strong in times of economic
As contributions decrease for many non-profits, employees stress, creating additional income streams, and basic fi-
may be concerned about the financial viability of their em- nancial management skills.
ployer and the security of their own jobs. The recession may • As a team, plan activities that promote overall well-being.
also be taking a toll on families through spouse/partner job At CARE, Human Resources has recently begun “Fabu-
loss, home foreclosure, concern about older parents’ retire- lous Fifteen”—a weekly fifteen-minute activity that reduces
ment savings, adult children moving back home or struggling stress, helps people relax or encourages fun. It is no-cost,
financially, and children’s questions and anxiety about the requires minimal preparation and is practical in that most
things they are hearing on TV and at home and school. people can take a fifteen-minute break. We have done ev-
Consequently, staff may have a heightened need for infor- erything from a fifteen-minute game of Pictionary to 10
mation about what is happening within the organization. They minutes of guided meditation.
may be distracted and have difficulty concentrating on job • Encourage staff to take advantage of your organization’s
tasks if they have personal or family matters to attend to. Ill- Employee Assistance Program (EAP), if you have one.
ness and absenteeism may increase as stress takes a physical EAPs often offer financial and legal services in additional
toll on employees. In extreme situations, the stress and anxi- to counseling; all of these can be helpful during times of
ety may manifest itself in performance problems or destructive financial stress and turbulence.
behavior such as substance abuse or threats of violence.
The good news is that there are a number of things that Individuals
organizations, managers and individuals can do to construc- • Be extra vigilant about practicing good stress management
tively navigate these turbulent times. and employing healthy coping strategies such as regular
exercise, getting enough sleep, journaling, meditation/
Organizations and Managers prayer, and positive social support.
In times of uncertainty, people have an unquenchable thirst • Limit your exposure to media coverage of the economic
for information. It is impossible to over-communicate. Because situation, as it tends to only heighten anxiety and fear.
of the extent of the economic crisis, staff will likely have ques- • Identify your financial stressors and make a plan to ad-
tions about the financial stability of your organization, even if dress them.
the true picture is positive. Regardless of the financial health • If your anxiety or stress starts to interfere with work per-
of your organization—but especially if you are anticipating formance or relationships, consider getting additional sup-
cost-cutting measures—management teams can take a num- port from a counselor or clergyperson. If your organization
ber of steps to help employees when the future is uncertain: has one, contact the Employee Assistance Program for re-
• Share and repeat any information that you do know. Peo- ferrals and resources.
ple under stress often need to hear information more than
once to fully process it. Anticipate being asked the same InterAction’s Staff Care Working Group meets on the first
questions multiple times and don’t worry that you will Wednesday of every month and discusses topics such as this.
bore people if you repeat information you’ve already shared If you are interested in participating in the working group,
once. Repetition is a good thing! please contact Linda Poteat at lpoteat@interaction.org. MD


INSIDE InterAction

Outreach and Communications Working Group

InterAction is pleased to announce the reforming of its
Outreach and Communications Working Group (OCWG)
in 2009. A collaborative effort of InterAction’s Policy & Com-
munications Team, the working group is designed to be a
skills-building and information sharing forum for members’
staff with advocacy, grassroots, communications, and out-
reach responsibilities. Participants will network, share best
practices, and potentially collaborate on joint campaigns.
The first meeting, Crafting Messages that Resonate, was
held on Wednesday, January 28 at InterAction’s Washing-
ton, DC offices. A researcher and public affairs expert from
the Glover Park Group joined the group to discuss a recent
poll on how commonly used terms associated with foreign “Getting Neglected Emergencies onto the News Agenda” participants
assistance connect with the American public. A grassroots
coordinator from Bread for the World shared a case study news outlets. The panelists then took questions from the au-
from a recent grassroots campaign. dience on why they made certain recommendations and what
Future meetings will be held on the fourth Wednesday of they might recommend for other scenarios. After the presen-
every other month from 2pm-3:30pm. To participate, please tation, John Donnelly and his colleague Coimbra Sirica led
contact the group’s co-leaders, Filmona Hailemichael, Inter- a training session for the participants on how to package a
Action Senior Advocacy Associate, at fhailemichael@interac- good press release, and best and worst media outreach prac-
tion.org or Tawana Jacobs, InterAction Senior Public Rela- tices. For additional information, please contact Nasserie
tions Manager, at tjacobs@interaction.org or 202-667-8227. Carew at ncarew@interaction.org.
Editor’s Note: The May issue of Monday Developments will
include a feature article exploring neglected hot spots in the
InterAction Reacts to the Crisis in Gaza developing world.
As the humanitarian crisis in Gaza intensified in the
days and weeks following attacks by Israeli air and ground Burns: The Forgotten Global Health Crisis
forces, representatives of a half dozen InterAction mem- On February 27, from 12-1:30pm, Interplast will lead a
bers and InterAction staff held urgent meetings with the brown bag meeting to share its findings about the forgotten
Administration and Congress. During calls with officials global health crisis of burns. Interplast will share information
at the State Department and with staff for House Major- on how to tap into its network of year-round outreach pro-
ity Leader Steny Hoyer, Senate Majority Leader Harry grams to help burn victims in your humanitarian programs
Reid, and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, receive the reconstructive surgery they need and discuss the
NGO representatives described conditions within Gaza need to pioneer burn prevention programs, which are almost
provided to them by national staff still trying to work. nonexistent in developing countries according to the World
They asked their interlocutors to support an immediate Health Organization. Interplast, founded in 1969, helps
cessation of hostilities and the opening of neighboring those who survive burns to lead more normal lives again—
country borders to permit humanitarian personnel and restoring their ability to walk or to use their hands through
commodities to enter Gaza. Letters with similar content reconstructive surgery.
were sent to then Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice Nearly 4 million women fall victim to a severe burn from fire
and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. InterAction also each year—the same number who are diagnosed with HIV/
issued several press releases highlighting the need for AIDS every year. More school-aged children die of fires each
unimpeded humanitarian access. year than of tuberculosis or malaria. Almost all severe burns
happen in developing countries where open fires for cooking,
heating and lighting are commonplace. Without adequate med-
Getting Neglected Emergencies into the News ical care, burn victims are frequently disfigured, disabled and
On Monday, February 2, InterAction and AlertNet co- shunned; they often lose the ability to be productive citizens.
hosted an event on “Getting Neglected Emergencies onto the Interplast’s niche is reconstructive surgery, but fully rec-
News Agenda.” Panelists included Reuters editor Howard ognizes that burns need to be tackled more holistically and
Goller, Burness Communications vice president John Don- prevention is critical. It looks forward to meeting members
nelly, and producer of the Kojo Nnamdi Show, Tara Boyle. involved in global health.
The event kicked off with three member agencies (American The meeting will take place at InterAction, 1400 16th St,
Red Cross, Catholic Relief Services, and Lutheran World NW, Washington, DC. Space is limited. For questions or to
Relief) pitching stories to the panelists, who discussed ef- RSVP, contact Sara Anderson, sara@interplast.org, or Dan-
fective ways to make humanitarian information appealing to ielle Heiberg, dheiberg@interaction.org or 202-667-8227. MD


Step By Step Advocacy

Changing Policies
and principles for which the process is striving. Decision-
making should be democratic and open yet sufficiently
rapid to be able to respond to fast changing situations.

Through Advocacy 4. Reports and proposals should be brief, have an executive

summary of no more than two pages, and contain carefully
researched, accurate and well-documented information.
By John Ruthrauff 5. Establishing relationships with allies and targeted deci-
Senior Manager of Member Advocacy, InterAction sion-makers is key.
6. Focusing energy and resources on a very specific problem

rganizations have a range of choices to in- is essential for success.
fluence policy issues including education, media and 7. Working on limited objectives for short-term change is
research. One strategy that includes elements of all useful to build experience, sharpens skills, and stimulate
of these but has a methodology focus is advocacy. This is leadership development. Victories build strength and de-
the beginning of a series of articles that will appear in Mon- velop momentum.
day Developments on developing advocacy strategy. An ad-
vocacy strategy consists of a series Elements
of planned activities, based on a The Advocacy Series will examine
power analysis, which organiza- the following elements or stages of
tions undertake to pressure for designing an advocacy strategy.
changes in a specific problem: The stages are listed below
a policy or behavior. An ad- in a typical order of imple-
vocacy campaign can focus mentation, however the
on change in an organiza- process of developing and
tion, a government, a multi- implementing an advocacy
national institution or even strategy is very fluid and
a corporation. Lobbying can often does not occur in
be defined as influencing this order. The plan will
specific legislation, generally need to be revisited during
in Congress or the admin- the advocacy campaign to
istration. Though lobbying respond to reactions by
can be part of an advocacy the targeted individuals
campaign, much advocacy does not involve lobbying. and institutions:
Over the next few months, the Monday Developments Ad- 1. Selecting an issue is the first step in developing an advo-
vocacy Series will present the elements useful for developing cacy campaign.
an advocacy strategy. However, each advocacy effort will have 2. The goal is a statement of the desired change in a specific
distinct characteristics and needs to be adapted for a specific policy or behavior and should be agreed to by the partici-
cultural, religious and political situation. The purpose of ad- pants in the campaign.
vocacy is to win victories by increasing the power available 3. Strategic alliances are important to build sufficient power
to organizations and alliances. This model is one example of to achieve the goal and can exist only during the advocacy
several possible methodologies that can promote institutional campaign.
change. However, changes in an organization’s policy will not 4. Power analysis, the identification and evaluation of key
necessarily lead to changes in behavior. Additional pressure decision-makers, is an examination of individuals with the
is usually needed to ensure that changes in an institution’s most influence over the goal.
policies are translated into changes in behavior. 5. Objectives are statements of desired changes in the short-
term that directly contribute to reaching the goal; they are
Principles steps towards the goal.
1. An advocacy campaign is a series of planned activities, not 6. Activities and events are the methods used to influence
an isolated event. It is a process that involves educating and the key actors identified in the power analysis and thus to
Photo: Robert Lerich—Fotolia.com

training leaders on substantive issues and advocacy skills. bring about the desired change.
The initial advocacy strategy needs to be adjusted to take 7. Research is undertaken during both the design and im-
into account the reactions of the targeted organization. plementation of an advocacy strategy as it is important to
2. The development of leaders is key to long-term success have accurate information and knowledge about the issues
and the leaders should reflect the diversity of the mem- and opponents.
bership of the campaign including gender, ethnicity, race, 8. Evaluation. Each event or activity should be evaluated to
religion and class. improve the next activity in the areas of leadership, im-
3. An advocacy campaign should work to model the values pact, logistics and security when appropriate. MD



Make a
Difference on
Advocacy Day
Members of Congress face tough choices
this year... and your voice matters!
By Barbara wallace Advocacy Day is crucial
Vice President of Membership, Interaction to the relationship that our community
builds with members of Congress, and the number of people

resident Obama has expressed a clear com- that participate is very important. It sends a message that
mitment to increasing attention on the world’s poor. On our community is relevant, the work we do is valuable, and
the campaign trail, he committed to doubling Foreign As- the need around the world is urgent.
sistance over the next few years, and he used his inaugu- You do not have to have any prior experience to participate!
ral address to reiterate a strong message of outreach to and Each team will travel with an experienced advocacy expert from
partnership with people around the world, including those in InterAction’s staff or from our member-based public policy
greatest need. working group. What is most important is that you can speak
Yet the competition for resources and prioritization of ef- with your own voice about the work that matters to you. You
fort will be intense, given the state of the global economic can share something about your organization’s work in the
crisis and continuing focus on terrorist challenges. In spite of field or your own first-hand experience. The simple and pro-
the new administration’s commitment, there is urgent need found effectiveness of stories from those who work for change
for action to ensure that humanitarian assistance and long- around the world is what really inspires and motivates our
term development (issues about which we are passionate and legislators and their staff when diverse issues, policy choices,
committed) remain on the radar screen of legislators. and resource needs compete for their attention.
Advocacy Day, which will be held on July 7 during In- The day begins with issue-oriented workshops followed by
terAction’s Annual Forum, will give participants a powerful a plenary luncheon. After preparation for our visits, partici-
opportunity to share their experiences and commitment with pants gather for a short bus-ride to the Capitol. A few hours of
members of Congress and their staff. During this event, we meetings with Congressional staff (and occasionally a member
travel in teams to Capitol Hill to visit with nearly 100 con- of Congress) will be followed by a reception on the Hill where
gressional offices in a coordinated effort to remind our legis- participants can socialize informally with Congressional staff
lators of the importance and urgency of our work. and other participants of InterAction’s Advocacy Day.
Advocacy Day is:
You do not have to have any prior • Fun and exciting!

experience to participate! • A good learning experience!

• A direct and participatory way to learn about issues and
operate on the Hill as part of a team!
• An opportunity to make contacts and engage with like-
minded colleagues from other organizations!
The new Administration and Congress are making impor-
tant decisions concerning the people we serve throughout the
world. Will you speak for the millions whose voices are
not heard in the halls of Congress? Join us and say that
they matter, that effective work is being done every day in
their communities, and that improving their lives makes for
a better, more stable world for all of us
The InterAction Annual Forum will be held at the Crystal
City Gateway Marriott, July 6-9. Registration will open the
first week of March. For more information about Advocacy
Day, contact Evan Elliott at eelliott@interaction.org. MD



“Global Gag Rule” Rescinded

President Obama used an executive order Friday, January Incoming Administration Committed to
23, to strike a rule known as the “Global Gag Rule” or the Rebuilding Partnership with NGOs
“Mexico City Policy” from the books. The rule prohibited U.S. InterAction and its members were actively engaged with the
government funds from supporting international family plan- Obama-Biden transition teams, from their deployment in November
ning groups that promote abortion or provide information, after the presidential elections until the transition work was com-
counseling or referrals about abortion services. It was first an- pleted. InterAction led seven briefings with member organizations’
nounced at a population conference in Mexico City, initiated staff for the transition teams: three with the USAID team, one with
by President Reagan in 1984, canceled by President Clinton the National Security Council (NSC) team, one with the Millennium
in 1993 and reinstated by President George W. Bush in 2001. Challenge Corporation (MCC) team, one with the Department of
State team and one with the Department of Justice team. InterAc-
Appropriations tion staff also attended issue-specific meetings on gender integration
Much remained unclear at press time regarding appropria- (USAID team) and debt relief (NSC team), which were led by other
tions work over the next several weeks. Legislation for an organizations. InterAction and its members have been assured that
economic stimulus package has been passed by the House of the incoming Administration is committed to rebuilding the frayed
Representatives and is being marked up by the Senate; the relationship and strengthening the partnership between the U.S.
FY2009 appropriations bills await action; and a supplemen- government and the NGO community.
tal with additional war funding will be under development at The transition teams that covered USAID, MCC and the Office of
the Department of Defense. The order in which this all will the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) were tasked to prepare two
make its way to the floor seems still to be up in the air. Prior deliverables: a strategy piece for the new appointee(s), and a “nuts
to this issue going to print, Speaker Pelosi said that Congress and bolts” guide for someone who will come in and run the foreign
will not leave for the President’s Day recess on February 14 assistance agency or agencies (this guide would cover staffing is-
until the stimulus has passed. House Appropriations Chair- sues and the like). Within these documents, the teams identified
man Obey said that the House could consider an omnibus challenges and opportunities for the Obama-Biden Administration.
bill containing all the remaining FY2009 appropriations bills The USAID transition team discussions included climate change,
early in February with the goal of clearing it through the gender integration, civil-military relations, agency staffing, the role of
House and Senate and having it ready for the recess as well. coordinators and development sector “tsars.” An InterAction member
No formal request for supplemental funding has been sent to called for lengthening the development horizon for planning, stating
Congress, but on December 31, 2008, Secretary of Defense that a five-year plan does not provide sufficient understanding of the
Gates sent an informal “estimate” of war costs for the re- generational, attitudinal, social and economic shifts that need to take
mainder of FY2009, clarifying that it was his alone and was place for sustainable change to occur in developing countries. A dis-
from neither the outgoing nor the incoming administration. cussion took place around the Millennium Development Goals and
Current war funding reportedly will last until June, so the their usefulness as a framework both to assess impact and to coor-
dinate and collaborate with international partners and governments
Obama administration may take some time before sending
on development challenges. There was also a probing and in-depth
its formal supp request to Congress.
discussion with the USAID and Justice Department transition teams
specifically on the Partner Vetting System and the Anti-Prostitution
Secretary Clinton Announces New Special Envoys, Policy of USAID.
as Obama Emphasizes Importance of Diplomacy InterAction members at the MCC transition team meeting made
On Thursday, January 22, with President Obama and Vice a strong argument for the MCC and its funding. The MCC was ac-
President Biden at her side, newly confirmed Secretary of knowledged for its strong adherence to gender integration and
State Hillary Clinton announced two new appointments: for- monitoring and evaluation which were embedded in all of its pro-
mer Majority Leader George Mitchell will be the special envoy gram development and implementation.
to the Middle East, and Ambassador Richard Holbrooke will InterAction President and CEO Sam Worthington, in his meeting
be the special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan. Mitchell with the Department of State transition team, made the case for aid
negotiated the Good Friday agreement ending the conflict in reform and the primacy of civilian agencies in development and sta-
Northern Ireland, and will now work for a durable peace be- bilization scenarios, messages that were reiterated by InterAction
tween Israelis, Palestinians and their neighbors. Holbrooke, staff and members at many of their meetings with the teams.
formerly the lead broker for the Dayton peace accords and There was no clear indication from any of the meetings on ei-
a veteran Foreign Service officer, will focus on coordinating ther the thinking or the recommendations that would go forward
U.S. efforts in Afghanistan and Pakistan across government on either the future status or structure of USAID, MCC or OGAC or
agencies, particularly the State Department, USAID, the Pen- the re-write of the Foreign Assistance Act. However, InterAction and
tagon and National Security Council, to achieve U.S. goals in its members have had extraordinary access and the opportunity to
the region. The envoys, who do not require Senate confirma- meet with high level advisors to the incoming Administration and
tion, begin their work with visits to their respective regions to have our views and positions incorporated in the memos that
in early February. went forward to the President-elect and his staff.
continued on page 33


Photo: Renee Jansoa—Fotolia.com

By David Beckmann, President, Bread for the World



ow can we persuade average Americans to support global
development efforts? Recent studies on communicating international
issues to the general public confirm a notion that simply rings true to
me: Americans will support international development initiatives that we
believe are both the right thing to do and effective.
People in this country consistently report that they want to help end hunger, pov-
erty and disease. Our long charitable tradition shows that we will put our money
where our mouth is. Showing people how development programs bring good results
can turn them into both donors and advocates.
I talk with a lot of Americans about these is- and the antiretroviral (ARV) medications mainly
sues—in churches, on campuses, with partner financed by U.S. taxpayers.
groups. I always tell them about some of the It was profoundly moving to me to meet with
incredible work people are doing in developing mothers and fathers who would not be alive to-
countries. This past December, for example, I met day were it not for the President’s Emergency
Pedro Kumpila in the village of Mtimbe, on the Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and Mozambican
shore of Lake Niassa in northern Mozambique. volunteers. PEPFAR now supports more than
Born in 1961, Pedro grew up amidst his coun- 100,000 Mozambicans with ARV medications.
try’s war of independence from Portugal, fol- Pedro is a grassroots community activist mo-
lowed by a civil war fueled by Cold War interests. tivated by Christian faith. His work in Mtimbe
Several times, his family was forced to flee and complements the efforts of people of faith and
live as refugees in Tanzania. After peace came in conscience in the United States. Working tire-
1992, Pedro and his wife Veronica were able to lessly, they lobby our government to secure
build a normal life for their four children. funding for international programs like PEPFAR
Then a terrible disease began to kill Pedro’s and ensure that they are carried out effectively.
neighbors. At first, no one knew what was caus- There are tens of thousands of people like Pedro
ing it. More and more parents were too sick to working in poor countries around the world.

aks for Itself

work in the fields, and then more and more chil- Fran Quigley of Indianapolis is another advo-

dren became orphans. HIV/AIDS was destroying cate I know who shares his firsthand experience
their community. with people in his church and with grassroots
Pedro’s family was not directly affected, but activists around the country. Thanks to his work
he knew he needed to act. He became a vol- with AMPATH (Academic Model for Providing Ac-
unteer with Equipa de Vida, a program of his cess to Healthcare), there is now a system of HIV/
church that provides training on HIV/AIDS to AIDS care and treatment centers in western Ke-
teams of activists in 160 villages and towns. The nya funded by our tax dollars. Fran speaks from
all-volunteer teams go door to door to talk with experience when he stresses that effective devel-
people potentially affected by the disease and opment assistance must be flexible and holistic.
urge them to get tested. Good nutrition can delay the development of
They also provide support to those weak- HIV into full-blown AIDS. However, Fran and his
ened by the disease, elderly people and AIDS colleagues found out that too often, healthy food
orphans. The Mtimbe community has united to is not available to their patients, most of who live
save many lives—through the combined efforts in extreme poverty. So AMPATH now includes nu-
of Equipa de Vida teams like Pedro’s, the church, trition prescriptions—or food—in its treatment.



Next, as patients regain their strength,

they need a way to support themselves
Our need to participate ing substantially more milk, and Nubia
has begun to produce and sell cheese
and their children. Hence the need for in shaping our as well. When the funding ends, Nubia
livelihood programs such as training in
business or agriculture. For example, communities and and her fellow farmers will be well on
their way to economic sustainability.
some clients are learning to grow pas-
sion fruits with the idea of setting up
institutions is also Extensive consultations helped the
Nicaraguans decide that they needed
a factory to make passion fruit juice, a shared by citizens of roads to be able to bring their pro-
popular treat in Kenya.
“We learned from our patients that
other countries. duce more easily to the markets. With
this sense of ownership came a sense
drugs alone are not enough, just as of empowerment, and the assurance
food alone is not enough,” says Fran. Our need to participate in shaping that long after U.S. foreign assistance
“Many Kenyans need a hand-up, not our communities and institutions is is gone, the participating Nicaraguan
a hand-out, to learn new skills or get also shared by citizens of other coun- farmers will continue to prosper.
some farm inputs or get started on a tries. For example, Nicaragua’s arm of Too often we have been told that dif-
small business that will lead them to the Millennium Challenge Corporation, ficult economic times in the United
self-sufficiency.” Cuenta Reto del Milenio, consulted with States carry the risk that our country’s
As Americans, we want to partici- members of the Consejo de Mujeres support for development will contract. I
pate in decisions about our commu- (Council of Women) such as farmer hope not. By giving our grassroots ac-
nities and our businesses. Grassroots and rancher Nubia Baca. Feedback tivists and the U.S. public some clear
activists around the country supported from these local women led to signifi- reasons to support effective develop-
efforts to establish and fund the Mil- cant improvements in the project. ment assistance—and feel confident
lennium Challenge Account. This rela- Nubia and other dairy farmers re- that they are doing the right thing—we
tively new U.S. development initiative ceived training in how to improve their can support them as they work to help
requires that the people who benefit land so that the cows have more nutri- mitigate the effects of the global eco-
from the programs have meaningful in- tious alfalfa, Cameroon grass and sug- nomic crisis on the world’s poorest
put into its design. ar cane to eat. They are now produc- people. MD



Driving Change
Understanding the rules for permissible
lobbying activity for 501(c)(3)s.
By Jasmeet Sidhu, Senior Counsel—Nonprofit Advocacy
Project, Alliance for Justice

he rise of a community organizer to Presi-
dent of the United States has electrified the nonprofit
world, inspiring an unprecedented number of 501(c)
(3) organizations to think differently about the ways
they approach advocacy. As they prepare to act, it is impor-
tant that these charities understand the rules that regulate
permissible nonprofit lobbying activity.
The good news is that 501(c)(3) public charities are allowed
to lobby and should actively engage in these activities to pro-
vide a lasting voice for their communities and the important may have to pay an excise tax on the excess expenditure, it
issues they represent. But there are limits as to how much will not lose its tax-exempt status under the 501(h) Expendi-
can be done. Organizations can choose between two methods ture Test, unless the organization exceeds its lobbying limit
by which to measure their lobbying limits: the Insubstantial by over 50 percent in a four-year time frame.
Part Test or the 501(h) Expenditure Test. Under the Expenditure Test, lobbying is divided into two
The Insubstantial Part Test is the default test under the different categories: Direct and Grassroots. A public charity
tax code; unless a public charity takes an affirmative step, measuring its lobbying under the 501(h) test cannot spend
the IRS presumes it is operating under the insubstantial part
test (IPT). Under the IPT, no more than an insubstantial part
of the organization’s overall activities can be dedicated to lob-
bying. It is an activities-based test, although what counts
as lobbying and what is considered “substantial” have never
been defined. Organizations measuring their lobbying limits
under this test should consult their attorney or board to set
an internal lobbying limit for reporting purposes.

There is no right answer when it

comes to deciding which reporting
method nonprofits will use, but
there is a wrong alternative—not
lobbying at all.
The 501(h) Expenditure Test, or “501(h) election,” is the
alternative method. Under the 501(h) Expenditure Test—an
organization must count toward its lobbying limit only what
Photo: Tomasz Trojanowski—Fotolia.com

it spends on lobbying in a given year. Additionally, there are

clear dollar-based limits for how much lobbying can be un-
dertaken, calculated as a percentage of the charity’s exempt-
purpose expenditures, as well as clear definitions of what is
and is not lobbying activity. Public charities file IRS Form
5768 to make the 501(h) election. Organizations that make
the 501(h) election may not spend more than one million dol-
lars a year on lobbying; therefore, very large organizations
may not want to use this option. Additionally, while a 501(c)
(3) organization that exceeds its lobbying limit in a given year



more than 25 percent of its overall lobbying limit on grass- to action. The communication must be about specific legisla-
roots lobbying. tion, but it is directed at the general public (e.g., through a
Direct lobbying is a communication with a legislator ex- website or billboard) and requires a call to action. A nonprofit
pressing a view about specific legislation. A “communica- must have at least one of four distinct types of call to action
tion” could be a meeting or letter, or it could be a symbol included in the communication for it to be counted as grass-
or physical items such as ribbons or even cake. Similarly, roots lobbying:
a “legislator” can be a Congressman, state legislator, city 1. Requesting the public to “call” or “contact” their legisla-
council member, or other individual that participates in the tors.
formulation of legislation. The President and governors are 2. Listing the contact information for the legislator.
considered legislators when they sign a bill into law or ex- 3. Providing a mechanism by which the public can contact
ercise their veto power. Additionally, Cabinet-level officials their legislators.
may be considered legislators if a 501(c)(3) is communicating 4. Listing the members of a committee who will be voting on
with them about legislation that falls within the purview of a piece of legislation.
their official duties. Individuals who do not participate in the There is no right answer when it comes to deciding which
formulation of legislation, but who set policy (such as school reporting method nonprofits will use, but there is a wrong
boards, housing authorities or zoning commission members), alternative—not lobbying at all. Charities have a responsibil-
are not considered legislators. “Specific legislation” includes ity to be the voice of those on the margins and to speak up to
bills that are introduced, proposed legislation that is not yet address the important issues of our day. Fear and uncer-
introduced, and potential legislation that may not yet be ful- tainty cannot stifle this critical work. As any community or-
ly fleshed out or drafted. Activities that are not considered ganizer will tell you, we must embrace this opportunity to
specific legislation include commenting on regulations, seek- influence the public and drive the change that will shape this
ing enforcement of existing law, asking for executive orders, unique moment in history. MD
or engaging in litigation. Communications with legislators For more information about nonprofit advocacy issues, pub-
about broad policy issues that do not meet the definition of lications, workshops, and technical assistance on advocacy is-
specific legislation and that are not voted on by a legislative sues, please visit Alliance for Justice’s Nonprofit Advocacy Proj-
body, generally do not qualify as lobbying activity. ect website at: www.afj.org/for-nonprofits-foundations/,
Grassroots lobbying is a communication with the general call us toll-free at 1-866-NP-LOBBY or send email to advoca-
public expressing a view about specific legislation with a call cy@afj.org.



als to send personalized online messages to women and girls

who survived sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of
the Congo. Over a period of three months, visitors came to
our Web site and wrote thousands of messages to survivors.
Now we are translating these messages into French so they
can be shared with staff and beneficiaries in the Congo.
• Our colleague Karin Wachter mentioned these personal-

ized messages in recent testimony before the U.S. Senate
on sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
“There are few words that can express the nature of the hor-
rible wrongs which you face every day,” wrote a woman from
New York. “I hope that the U.S. can become a force to help
Do 50,000 clicks make a difference? you in the Congo,” wrote a man from Virginia. “I am remem-
bering you when I vote and write Congress.”
By Tim Lash, Online Advocacy Program Officer, We still have questions on the extent to which an e-mail
International Rescue Committee campaign can have impact on Capitol Hill, but congressional

staffers have assured us that online petitions endorsed by
istory reminds us that many of the land- large numbers of constituents do grab attention. We’re con-
mark policy changes in the field of humanitarian advo- tinuing to figure out what works and what doesn’t, and how
cacy were bolstered by grassroots activism: the treaty to make sure a new campaign is mentioned as widely and fre-
to ban landmines, the anti-apartheid movement and quently as possible—on our Web site, in e-mail newsletters
the debt-relief campaign, to name a few success stories. and other similar channels.
Three years ago, when former President Bill Clinton ad- Effective policy change is usually the sum of many parts,
dressed our organization at an annual dinner in New York, including e-advocacy. As we work to build on recent online
he spoke about the power of the Web for activism. “No other successes, we know that clicking to sign a petition is only the
time in history has there been more opportunity for the private beginning. To echo President Clinton’s remarks, each time we
citizen to do public good than right now,” he said, “and that’s launch an online action we offer a new opportunity, however
because of the Internet.” These words have encouraged us in small, for private citizens to do public good. MD
recent years as we have taken our first steps to activate people
through e-advocacy.
When we launched our first online campaigns, the results
exceeded our highest expectations. It turned out that many of
our supporters were excited about getting involved in advo-
cacy, even if it was something as simple as sending an e-mail
to Congress. We had underestimated them. Their enthusiastic
response made it clear to us they want to be seen as activists,
not merely ATMs. Much of our recent online work has been
focused on raising awareness and influencing U.S. policy re-
garding sexual violence. Ending violence against women con-
tinues to be one of our most urgent advocacy priorities, and
e-advocacy has played a key role in our efforts. Our steps have
included the following:
• We launched an online petition calling on members of Con-
gress to support the International Violence Against Women
Act (I-VAWA). More than 50,000 citizens clicked and joined
this petition, and more than half of them were new online
activists who had not taken prior action with us. Within
days of delivering the I-VAWA petition on Capitol Hill, our
policy team held follow-up meetings to discuss the matter
with congressional staff.
• We used the official blog on our Web site as a tool for pro-
Photo: Aramanda - Fotolia.com

moting e-advocacy and other ways to take action. For exam-

ple, through the blog we invited people to host screenings
of The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo, a stirring docu-
mentary that appeared on HBO. Though our staff wasn’t
involved in the making of the film, we promoted it through
our blog in partnership with advocacy groups such as the
ENOUGH Project.
• We launched a simple, heartfelt campaign inviting individu-



Exclusive Interview: strategic areas that will impact food se-

curity on a larger scale. We have shared

A Conversation with
these ideas with Congress and are
working to rebuild support for financing
agricultural development. Signs look

Henrietta Fore
positive in the broader development
community and with partner countries
for this renewed commitment.

The former Director of USAID shares her views with MD: How can USAID integrate U.S. govern-
ment responses to climate change with the
the development and humanitarian aid community. need to invest additional resources in agri-
cultural development?

HF: Clearly we are concerned about

the impact of climate change on pro-
ductivity of staple foods. We recently
launched a new alliance with private
companies, the international research
centers of the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research
(better known as CGIAR), and the Bill
& Melinda Gates Foundation. This
partnership will focus, in part, on the
development of drought tolerant rice
and wheat for South Asia. In East and
Southern Africa, we are supporting
CGIAR and African public and private
partners to deliver more drought toler-
ant varieties of maize. We are also fund-
ing research to understand the impact
of climate change on pastoral livestock
systems in the horn of Africa.
In 2007, USAID released Adapting To
Climate Variability And Change: A Guid-
ance Manual For Development Planning.
This manual lays out a process for de-

velopment planners to understand how
he following is a tran- are using both existing and supple- climate change might affect projects
script of a recent Q&A exchange mental resources to focus on improv- and how to work with stakeholders to
between InterAction and out- ing staple food production. Analyses identify ways to adapt their programs.
going Director of U.S. Foreign show that staple foods boost individual USAID conducted four pilot projects in
Assistance and USAID Administrator incomes and food availability, two criti- developing the manual, one of which
Henrietta Fore on some of the chal- cal elements of food security. focused explicitly on agriculture in Mali
lenges that USAID has faced and oth- We are also developing a country as- and one that focused on water availabil-
ers that lie ahead. sessment tool to better link humanitar- ity for agricultural, urban and natural
ian assistance with development assis- uses. Additional projects are expected
MD: How can USAID re-balance its devel- tance. We recognize that humanitarian in the future.
opment priorities and funding to address assistance alone will not drive the eco- USAID, along with NASA, supports
the urgent problems of worsening food nomic growth process that is necessary the SERVIR regional visualization pro-
security and the long-term neglect of agri- to lift people out of chronic poverty; it gram in Central America and East Af-
cultural development? must be complimented by development rica. SERVIR, which is Spanish for “to
tools at the country level. serve,” provides public, Web-based ac-
HF: The recent food crisis has caused Over the summer we began develop- cess to hydrometeorological, environ-
us to take stock of the growing problem ing a longer-term strategy for food secu- mental, land use, and hazard informa-
of food security and our under-invest- rity that expands upon these efforts and tion to assist government officials and
Photo: USAID

ment in agriculture development. We focuses future resources on high prior- others to make decisions about issues
have already taken steps to address ity countries that have a strong commit- such as disaster management, agricul-
both issues. In Africa, for example, we ment to agriculture development and in tural development, conservation and



climate change. A recent addition to

SERVIR is the Climate Mapper, a tool
“There is no fundamental in place to bring more programs under the
management and direction of one foreign
that provides map-based access to his- divergence of purpose assistance manager?
torical weather information and climate
projections for the Earth’s continents.
between military and HF: The International Development
Climate Mapper also offers informa- civilian actors, no matter and Humanitarian Assistance Policy
Coordination Committee (PCC), which I
tion on soil moisture, runoff, and other
variables of use to agricultural plan- how different their roles chair, serves as a whole-of-government
ning. Further tools will be developed.
Because agriculture is a significant
may be.” forum for discussing policy issues and
sustaining momentum on change.
contributor to greenhouse gas emis- in Congress, and it is broadly shared Through the PCC we have developed
sions, we are backing efforts to create by the American people, that U.S. tax- well-coordinated U.S. government poli-
tools that assess emissions and mitiga- payer dollars should not fall into ter- cies that enable us to speak with one
tion options, and practices that reduce rorist hands. On the other hand, we do voice in international forums such as
the carbon footprint of small scale ag- not want to put an undue burden on the United Nations Development Co-
riculture producers. Among these is our partners in the field. operation Forum, the Third High Level
an existing biotechnology application The crux of the debate within USAID Forum on Aid Effectiveness, and the
that greatly reduces the need for ni- on PVS has been how to strike a bal- Financing for Development Review in
trogen fertilizer, a significant source of ance between ensuring that money Doha, Qatar. In addition, the PCC de-
greenhouse emissions in regions such does not go to violent individuals or veloped and approved the new Country
as Asia. We have also been develop- groups, while making sure that money Assistance Strategy concept, a strategy
ing carbon monitoring tools to mea- goes to those areas where these groups that describes the top four or five U.S.
sure the impact of different land use may operate. We are trying to strike a government foreign assistance priori-
practices on carbon sequestration and reasonable balance. Without making ties for a particular country. We are
greenhouse gas emissions. USAID also these requirements too onerous, we finishing up a pilot in 10 countries.
serves on the U.S. delegation to climate are trying to institute reasonable rules And as a first step to achieve a whole-
negotiations. As we expand upon these to ensure that aid money is not going of-government view of the foreign as-
activities, we will look to leverage the to assist terrorists or terrorist groups. sistance dollars being programmed by
enormous work done by other federal I should point out that USAID al- various agencies, we have entered into
agencies on climate modeling, data col- ready requires all non-governmental discussions with agencies such as the
lection and technology. organizations that apply for assistance Departments of Treasury and Defense,
to self-certify that they do not furnish and the Millennium Challenge Corpo-
MD: Would you share with us the range support and resources to terrorists. In ration about the feasibility of using the
of issues debated within USAID on the addition, all USAID solicitations, con- foreign assistance framework for inter-
Partner Vetting System? Why is it applied tracts, grants, cooperative agreements agency reporting.
to some but not all USAID implementers? and other comparable documents Moving forward, there is much more
How would you assess its impact on the contain clauses which remind USAID the U.S. government can do to ensure
ability of USAID to conduct business in cri- partners of their legal responsibilities our assistance resources make the
sis torn areas? in this area. But the established pro- greatest impact possible. I believe that
cedures have not been without contro- many of the achievements we have re-
HF: The proposed Partner Vetting Sys- versy. As a result, between July 2007 alized can be expanded and built upon
tem (PVS) reflects USAID’s continuing and January 2009, USAID published in the next Administration.
efforts to be a prudent and responsible several notices in the Federal Register
steward of U.S. taxpayers’ resources. concerning PVS. MD: The Project on National Security Re-
One of the most important aspects of The rule-making process has been form has proposed that USAID and other
this responsibility is to take all neces- completed. I have left the decision on development agencies and offices be fully
sary steps to ensure that taxpayers’ going forward to the new Administration consolidated under a Department of For-
funds entrusted to USAID—and made as and the new Administrator of USAID. eign Relations which would encompass
grants and contracts to further our hu- State, USAID and many other foreign assis-
manitarian and development work—are MD: The F Process was meant in some ways tance actors of the U.S. government. What
not inadvertently diverted to terrorists, to bring greater cohesion and coherence to is your view on this and why?
supporters of terrorists or organizations USAID and State Department foreign assis-
aligned or affiliated with terrorists. tance programs. What role have you played HF: Two years ago, Secretary of State
As you in InterAction know, USAID with the other 25 U.S. government agen- Condoleezza Rice reviewed the chal-
works in difficult environments—West cies and departments that conduct devel- lenges of effectively delivering foreign
Bank/Gaza being one—and a key ele- opment and foreign assistance programs assistance and recognized that our as-
ment of our programs in these places is overseas? What recommendations would sistance programs must become better
intended to undermine the cause of ex- you have to the incoming Administration organized. Therefore, in 2006, Secre-
tremism. There is a legitimate concern on possible systems and methods to put tary Rice launched an effort to improve


by A ter
InterAction’s 15t pril
Each year, InterAction’s photography contest focuses on the
incredible work done by our members in the field. The amazing
images we receive help us to raise awareness of our members’
efforts and to introduce the American public to the lives we help to
transform throughout the world.
As InterAction celebrates its 25th anniversary, we are seeking
submissions that capture the impact our community has made
during the past quarter century.
We encourage you to capture the essence of innovative, effective,
and inspiring programs (or program recipients) by sending us
provocative pictures that offer a glimpse into NGO activities in
international relief and development. All images should be of work
in the field, outside the U.S.
Entries are limited to 3 photos per person. Submissions will be
judged by an independent panel of professional photographers and
media experts.
One Grand Prize Winner will receive round-trip airfare to
Washington, DC (flights originating in the U.S. only), where they
will receive their award at the Gala Banquet of InterAction’s 2009
Forum (July 6-9). The winner will also receive a complimentary one-
year subscription to Monday Developments Magazine and one free
half-page advertisement. The Grand Prize Winner’s photograph will
also run as the cover of the special Forum recap issue of Monday
Five Outstanding Winners will receive a complimentary copy of
an InterAction publication of their choice, as well as a quarter-page
advertisement in Monday Developments. All winning photographs
will be displayed throughout the special Forum recap issue of
Monday Developments, in addition to an online gallery at

1. Submit online: www.interaction.org/media

2. Submit up to three photographs
3. DEADLINE: April 15, 2009

the coherence and effectiveness of U.S. for their investment. closely or less closely aligned with the
foreign assistance through the creation Before significant organizational U.S. government, we are all dependent
of the Director of U.S. Foreign Assis- changes are made, these discussions upon armed forces to provide security
tance. As an important first step, we must occur and a “grand bargain” so we can carry out our programs. We
have started to implement and refine should be reached as these issues are at USAID do not enter into partnership
the basic management tools necessary critical to improving the effectiveness with the Department of Defense lightly,
to ensure assistance programs across of our foreign assistance regardless of and we are keenly aware of the issues
the U.S. government are linked to our organizational structure. that surround our NGO partners’ rela-
foreign policy goals. We have made sig- tions with the populations we serve. We
nificant progress in this regard over the MD: Do you have any concern that USAID’s all need to ensure that our intentions
past several years, although more work humanitarian role will be compromised by are understood by the beneficiaries
is needed. the more intimate relationship with the on the ground. The ultimate success
Recently, there has been a great U.S. Armed forces envisioned in USAID’s of our development and humanitarian
deal of discussion over the need for a Civil-Military guidelines? efforts depends on our ability to work
“grand bargain” between the Adminis- together in conflict-ridden zones.
tration and Congress that would aim HF: No, I do not. In many countries today This is a balancing act that will be
to: (1) establish a set of clear objectives where violence and instability prevail, required in a number of countries in
and priorities for foreign assistance; the U.S. military and development and which USAID implements its programs.
(2) reduce what has become a set of humanitarian actors are working at the In Afghanistan, for example, it is impor-
unwieldy and burdensome restric- same time and in the same space. We at tant to get the balance right between
tions that reduce our flexibility to act USAID believe that the overarching ob- meeting humanitarian needs and pro-
smartly in crises, plan for long-term jective of the U.S. government’s efforts viding development assistance so that
development in stable states and be is the enduring well-being of the coun- the country can eventually stand on
responsive to country-owned develop- tries in which we are engaged. There is its own without U.S. assistance. This
ment strategies; and (3) strengthen ac- no fundamental divergence of purpose requires that all actors—USAID, the
countability and evaluation to better between military and civilian actors, no military and NGOs—understand and
allow Congress and the American tax- matter how different their roles may be. appreciate each other’s roles.
payers to assess what they are getting Whether an NGO chooses to be more continued on page 32


Development 2.0

outcomes (as would be the case in a
traditional market), because the power
to drive results still ultimately rests

Development 2.0:
with donors rather than the intended
beneficiaries. As a result, there is no
guarantee that increased competition
will necessarily deliver improved out-

An Expanding Ecosystem While there is much to celebrate

about the burgeoning aid landscape,
there is also much to learn and do to
ensure that more development players
If new and traditional players collaborate effectively, create lasting and widespread improve-
their efforts could be more than the sum of the parts. ments to the lives and prospects of the
world’s poorest people. Risks of dupli-
By Noam Unger, Policy Director, U.S. Foreign Assistance Reform, Global cated effort and inefficiency abound.
Economy and Development Program, the Brookings Institution, and For example, on the official side alone,
Abigail Jones, Research Analyst, Global Economy and Development Program, the average number of donors per re-
the Brookings Institution cipient country grew from 12 in the

1960s to more than 30 in the period
he international devel- from 2001–2005, which suggests that
opment community has under- multiple actors are trying to address
gone a radical reconfiguration the same challenges. Similarly, more
over the past sixty years. No potential funders may put greater bur-
longer the exclusive purview of devel- dens on recipient countries through id-
oped world officials, the business of
global poverty alleviation has both de- The nascent Obama
mocratized and intensified. Now mega-
philanthropists, the private sector, administration has a
social entrepreneurs, newly emergent
bilateral donors such as China and
ripe opportunity to
Russia, celebrity advocates, and the recalibrate foreign
global public itself are operating along-
side and occasionally at odds with tra- assistance in a way
ditional development players. Estab-
lishing hybrid for-profit/not-for-profit
that adapts to this
entities, pioneering multi-stakeholder new ecosystem and
initiatives, and galvanizing the pub-
lic, new players are bringing fresh en- better positions official
ergy, resources and ingenuity to bear
on entrenched poverty worldwide. And
U.S. efforts within
though some of these actors have been the 21st century
a part of the development landscape
for many years, the global explosion of
global development
wealth coupled with new media and so- landscape.
cial networking capabilities of the last
decade together enable a considerable utes vast amounts of that assistance, iosyncratic reporting and assessment
shift in the way foreign aid is both ad- as estimates suggest that their giving procedures and differing donor-led
ministered and distributed. in 2006 approximated all official de- priorities. Impact assessment is inher-
During the immediate, postcolonial velopment assistance from traditional ently difficult as there is no common
era of giving in the 1960s and 1970s, donors. William Easterly has described agreement on the right bottom line
roughly 38 official bilateral and multi- the traditional development establish- when fighting poverty with a diverse
lateral donors annually disbursed an ment as a “cartel of good intentions,” array of actors. Furthermore, assess-
average of $43 billion in assistance (in but today’s ever-more-crowded field ment is both costly and time intensive.
2006 dollars). Today, hundreds of de- might also be described as a market- Advocacy campaigns may inadver-
Photo: Fotolia.com

velopment entities are spread across a place that is increasingly competitive tently concentrate funding on single is-
larger group of countries, annually dis- and entrepreneurial. Yet in the devel- sues leaving other worthy issues cash
bursing $159 billion (net of debt relief). opment market, more producers do not strapped. For example, in Rwanda,
The throng of new participants distrib- guarantee more effective antipoverty $48 million annually is available for


Development 2.0

HIV/AIDS, which affects roughly three calls for strengthened foreign assis- catalytic challenge funds to address
percent of the population age 15 to 49 tance programs with greater resources these issues while leveraging support.
years, while only $1 million is avail- and better coordination is an opportu- It could also do much more work with
able for less trendy maternal and child nity to take into account, and partner the broader development community
health programs. Of further concern is with, newly prominent players in the to identify, replicate and scale up suc-
that established incentive structures field of global development. Reforms cessful innovations and to support
and terms of conditionality might be should enhance the effectiveness and social entrepreneurship. A window
undermined as recipients have a larger responsiveness of foreign assistance of opportunity now exists to use the
pool of assistance providers from which and enable the government to leverage momentum of the new administration
to choose. those resources put forward by both to effectively tap public enthusiasm
For traditional players, this new land- new and traditional development play- for international service. Such efforts
scape offers an opportunity to reexam- ers. The current shortage in staff and should extend to corporate associa-
ine their role and raise their game. In technical skills within USAID impedes tions of retirees who have a desire to
the United States, the nascent Obama the government’s capacity to even en- actively apply their business skills in
administration has a ripe opportunity ter into public-private partnerships. the service of global development and
to recalibrate foreign assistance in a Beyond straightforward resource is- U.S. national interests.
way that adapts to this new ecosystem sues, however, the new administration If both new and traditional players in
and better positions official U.S. efforts should think creatively about using its international development learn to col-
within the 21st century global devel- bully pulpit to convene international laborate effectively in cross-sector part-
opment landscape. Amidst pledges for businesses, foundations, NGOs and nerships and networks, their efforts
broad reform in both the Democratic other key stakeholders into a stand- could amount to more than the sum of
Party platform that committed to “mod- ing network focused on key themes the parts. But to do so will require
ernize [U.S.] foreign assistance policies, such as agricultural productivity, girls’ bridging differences in objectives, ex-
tools, and operations in an elevated, education, climate change adaptation, ploiting comparative advantages, adopt-
empowered, consolidated, and stream- global health, Middle East youth devel- ing common methods for impact as-
lined U.S. development agency” and opment, or other areas of priority con- sessment, and engaging actively in
in Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s cern. The government could commit coordination. MD



Assessing the New Congress Obama included language in his inau-

A new Congress, working with a new Administration, gural address that seemed to reinforce
offers new possibilities for foreign assistance. that commitment. How these oppos-
ing variables will balance out over the
By Ken Forsberg, Manager for Legislative Affairs, InterAction course of the next four years is difficult

to predict at this early juncture.
n January 6, 2009, the promised to appoint as his replacement Another facet of the new Congress
111th Congress swore in its a Republican or an Independent who to consider is leadership changes on
new members and started would caucus with the Republicans, key committees. In the Senate, Sena-
work, with twelve new sena- ensuring that the partisan balance in tor John Kerry (D-MA) assumes the
tors (thirteen if the Minnesota seat the Senate would not be affected. At helm of the Foreign Relations Commit-
goes to Al Franken, fourteen if Senator press time, New Hampshire Governor tee, taking over from now Vice Presi-
Judd Gregg (R-NH) becomes Secretary John Lynch was expected to name dent Joseph Biden. Early signals from
of Commerce, as it appears is possible) Bonnie Newman, a former Chief of Staff Kerry staff and the Senator’s public
and 58 new representatives. What can for Senator Gregg, to fill Gregg’s seat for statements at confirmation hearings
we expect from this Congress with re- the remaining two years of his term.] suggest that his priorities include: a
gard to international development and Just what this increased Democratic focus on fighting terrorist forces in
humanitarian programs? power will mean for foreign assistance Pakistan and Afghanistan; oversight of
The first and most obvious charac- remains to be seen. On the one hand, the war in Iraq; curtailing the spread
teristic of the 111th Congress is the there is a pent-up demand for spend- of nuclear, chemical and biological
expanded Democratic majorities that ing on domestic programs among Dem- weapons; climate change; the global
will hold power in both chambers. Of ocrats and their supporters that may financial crisis; re-engaging with Latin
the 440 Members and Delegates in the tend to squeeze international spending, America; and expanding our relation-
House of Representatives, 58 percent especially given the economic crisis and ships with Russia and China. He has
Photo: morganimation—Fotolia.com

(255) are Democrats. In the Senate, if the resulting ballooning federal budget spoken clearly in support of a multilat-
Al Franken wins, Democrats will con- deficit. On the other hand, Democrats eralist foreign policy and of a “new era
trol 59 of 100 seats (counting the two in Congress will be influenced by and of American diplomacy,” and, to that
independents who caucus with them), are trying to work with a new Demo- end, of combining “all the elements of
just one shy of the 60 needed to cut off cratic President who has publicly and our power into a unified effort,” and
filibusters. [Note that if Senator Judd clearly committed to doubling foreign strengthening the State Department to
Gregg were to be nominated and con- assistance and playing a more active give it “the tools it needs to put civilian
firmed as Secretary of Commerce, New and cooperative role internationally, functions back in civilian hands.”
Hampshire’s Democratic governor has especially in civilian spheres. President Those eager to see a stronger and



more independent relief and develop- be fully engaged in a supportive way member on at least one other subcom-
ment agency may see reason for con- on the relief and development commu- mittee. Possible replacements, in order
cern in the above comments, and in nity’s priority issues. of seniority, are Senators Specter (PA),
the seeming lack of prioritization of Turning to changes on the appropria- Bennett (UT), Bond (MO), Brownback
development in Senator Kerry’s public tions committees, the most noteworthy (KS), and Alexander (TN).
comments. Yet in his statement for the change is the fact that Senator Daniel On the House side, Representative
confirmation hearing for Susan Rice Inouye (D-HI) has become the Chair Kay Granger (R-TX) has assumed the
to serve as the U.S. Permanent Rep- of the Senate Appropriations Commit- ranking member spot on the House
resentative to the United Nations, he tee following the resignation of Senator Appropriations State/Foreign Opera-
lauded the UN for playing “a critical Robert Byrd (D-WV) from that position tions Subcommittee, as Representative
role in advancing causes that everyone (although remaining on the committee). Frank Wolf (R-VA) has opted to move to
should be able to agree on: the fight It is Chairman Inouye, along with Chair- the ranking spot on the Commerce-Jus-
against global hunger, global poverty man Obey (D-WI) on the House side, tice-Science subcommittee. Granger’s
and for global health.” And he refers to who will decide how much money (out history and her announcement of her
the need for greater attention to “facets of the total allocation set for him by the new position suggest that she brings a
of our security picture” such as “global Budget Resolution) the State/Foreign military lens to bear on the subcommit-
health challenges like HIV/AIDS.” Fi- Operations Appropriations Subcommit- tee’s work, reflecting the robust defense
nally, Senator Kerry committed himself tee will have to work with each year. industry presence in her district (includ-
“to working with the new administra- ing Lockheed Martin and Bell Helicop-
tion to explore whether the Foreign Chairman Berman ter). Granger has served as a co-chair of
Assistance Act can be strengthened,” the Anti-Terrorism Caucus, and she is
and stated further that he believes it has clearly set his co-chair of the Iraqi Women’s Caucus.
can be strengthened. So while watch-
ful attention may be warranted, there
sights on rewriting While Granger is considered a moderate,
a 2007 National Journal rating judged
is also some reason to be hopeful about the Foreign Assistance her more conservative on foreign policy
Chairman Kerry’s tenure.
Over on the House side of the Hill, Act to modernize and than 73 percent of her colleagues.
Turning to other relevant commit-
Representative Howard Berman (D-CA)
continues his relatively new chairman-
rationalize our foreign tees, the House Armed Services Com-
mittee (HASC) has undergone signifi-
ship of the House Committee on For- assistance architecture. cant changes on the Republican side
eign Affairs. Chairman Berman has with entirely new ranking members, led
clearly set his sights on rewriting the First elected in 1962 and now in his by Rep. John McHugh (R-NY) on the
Foreign Assistance Act to modernize eighth consecutive term, Senator Inouye full committee. In a statement, HASC
and rationalize our foreign assistance fought in World War II and was awarded Chairman Ike Skelton (D-MO) outlined
architecture. Committee staff have the Medal of Honor for his bravery dur- major challenges facing the Obama Ad-
been working hard on that effort since ing combat. He served as Chair of what ministration, including the articulation
last fall, reading the many reports on was then called the Foreign Operations of a national security strategy, renewing
the subject and consulting with out- Subcommittee for several years (as did focus on Afghanistan, and reforming
side stakeholders, and that effort con- Chairman Obey before he became full the inter-agency process for a stronger
tinues in the new Congress. committee chair on the House side). role for civilian agencies. A significant
While the Chairman has not tipped Senator Inouye has signed a number of handful of the new committee members
his hand on the specifics of his reform letters over the years expressing sup- have recent military or field experience
ideas, he has talked about the need to port for the international affairs budget. in Afghanistan or Iraq, including Reps.
rebuild “core development functions”— His experience on the subcommittee Mike Coffman (R-CO), Eric Massa (D-
such as basic education, child survival and support for the international affairs NY) and Glenn Nye (D-VA) who also
and agricultural development—that account provide some reason to be op- happens to be a former Foreign Service
have been neglected relative to presi- timistic about his attitudes toward for- and USAID officer.
dential initiatives such as the MCC (the eign assistance as full Appropriations It is difficult to weave these various
Millennium Challenge Corporation) Committee chair, but he will have many, changes and inclinations into a coher-
and PEPFAR (the President’s Emergen- many competing demands to balance. ent picture of the landscape the new
cy Plan for Aids Relief). He has also ex- Another late-breaking Senate Appro- Congress poses for policy advocates
pressed concern about the expanding priations change is the probable depar- for the relief and development com-
role of the military in U.S. development ture of Senator Judd Gregg, ranking munity. However, with time, as the
assistance activities, noting his desire Republican on the State, Foreign Oper- inclinations of new leadership and the
that America’s public face around the ations Subcommittee, to be Commerce relationship between Congress and the
world be our diplomatic and develop- Secretary. It is difficult to predict who Obama Administration begin to reveal
ment agencies and their implementing would step into that spot, given that all themselves, the overall landscape will
partners, not the military. Chairman the other Republicans on the subcom- become clearer. At this juncture, there
Berman, in short, can be expected to mittee are currently already ranking is some reason to be hopeful. MD



Joanna Manu attends a community meeting in

Dumasi, Ghana. After taking several workshops
Manu and other activists were able to identify
two cyanide spills in local water sources in their
community in 2004 and 2006.

Moving from beneficiaries to citizens shaping a world
with enough for all.
By Rajyashri S. Waghray, Director, Education and Advocacy for International
Justice and Human Rights, Church World Service

ecently a program part- in advocacy on water, the most signifi-
ner, who has been active in de- cant change she noted was the empow-
velopment and more recently in erment—both of herself and of mem-
advocacy with local and nation- bers of the communities with whom
al governments in Africa, shared some she had worked. At the heart of the ad-
great news: she was nominated for her vocacy experience, was a shift: re-cast-
country’s 2008 Head of State Com- ing her role and their role, from partici-
mendation Award for her instrumental pants in a development intervention to
work with women and water. citizens holding the state accountable
Though a dedicated development for the community’s long-term welfare.
practitioner for nearly two decades, it Even if limited to their local context, by
was only in the last few years that she beginning to engage their political and
had begun to engage the political and public policy processes and leaders,
public policy processes; this engage- they had begun to experience a par-
ment even led her to take on a leader- ticipation transformation from being
Photo: Jane Hahn

ship role as the chairperson of the local development aid-beneficiaries to being

municipal water and sewerage services. actors directly contributing to a future
Reflecting on the changes she had with the possibility of enough for all.
experienced through her engagement Advocacy is defined in the Webster’s



Dictionary as, “The process of advocating or pleading in favor is empowered to engage its political context as active citizens
of … an issue.” It is a deliberate process of influencing policy to protect the watershed also ensures the longevity of the well
outcomes, agendas and policy implementation. In the con- springs that ultimately keep the wells active in the long run.
text of sustainable human development, advocacy works to They thereby enhance, considerably, the life of the develop-
secure the dignity and rights of communities with the goal of ment investment and its benefits to overcome poverty.
inter-generational poverty alleviation. The ultimate success As a result, development investments practically and prag-
of any development intervention lies in breaking the vicious matically benefit from the vision of an accompanying advocacy
cycle of poverty for the immediate beneficiaries and securing strategy. Such a strategy is not only prophetic, addressing in-
continued development for the next generation. Therefore, ter-generational poverty alleviation, but is also pragmatic, in
advocacy must inter-lock on several points: advocacy must that it builds citizen engagement and citizen mobilization to
be done from the local to the global level alongside with de- hold leadership accountable for sustainable development out-
velopment interventions in order to ensure that inter-genera- comes. It should be said, however, that many factors ultimate-
tional poverty alleviation is indeed secured. ly play a critical role in sustaining development into the next
For example, in the case of the communities that the pro- generation and not all development interventions lend them-
gram partner spoke about, at the local level, beneficiaries ac- selves to being aligned with an advocacy strategy that is tar-
tively engaging in development initiatives such as community geted at the local/municipal, national and global layers. In key
wells for water provision also become advocates for appropriate sectors such as water, natural resources and food security,
watershed management policies for their region. In this case, crafting and implementing a methodology that supports com-
the community managing its water points gains awareness of munities in going beyond ownership of the outcomes of an
the larger context and processes: national water laws and law- intervention to emerge as managers of resources and act as
making, the politics of budgeting and allocation of resources, representatives in local and or national contexts, truly ensures
influencing policies that either sustain or limit the success of the long-term sustainability of development. In building and
the development interventions they have secured. In so doing, sustaining the political will to align with the development in-
the process of advocacy begins to transform a community. In terventions lies one of the keys to securing lasting change, or
accompanying a development intervention, advocacy moves a inter-generational poverty alleviation. In this case would it not
development intervention beyond the household point of inter- be a joy to secure not only this award winner’s future, but also
vention to a wider context. In this example a community that the futures of her children as well? MD



your business to the same insurance

provider, as you will have power in
numbers to negotiate for your needs at
a cost you can afford. Many brokers are
even able to track the grants you receive
for operation of each branch, so that you
can allocate costs efficiently.

Factors such as financial resources
can come into focus when an organi-
zation is evaluating choices for insur-
ance providers. Occasionally, a group
will turn to a local provider for cover-
age in order to save money on the pre-
mium, but before you opt to purchase
locally, you should be aware of some of
the obstacles you could face with this
decision. Most developed countries’ in-

Proper Insurance
surance providers operate under a regu-
latory body, which guarantees claims
are paid for covered losses. In addition,
each agency follows specific guidelines

Equals Peace of Mind

for business. However, many countries
where relief and development organiza-
tions are located do not have consistent
laws, and often these laws are not en-
Consider factors carefully when researching insurance forced. As their client, your organization
will be subject to these variances.
coverage for your organization. For example, a relief and development
organization in a sub-Saharan African
By Emilie Udell, International Business Development Representative, country purchased auto insurance for
Clements International their fleet of 30 cars from a local agency,

and then lost 10 of these cars due to a
EACE OF MIND COMES IN Centralized vs. Decentralized fire. The local provider could only afford
many forms: a seatbelt you Decision-Making to pay the organization for three of the
fasten before driving a vehicle, Often organizations with numerous damaged cars. Since the local regulatory
a reliable staff to keep your branch offices will leave the decision on body was inefficient and did not enforce
organization running smoothly, and insurance up to each individual office. local laws, it was impossible to force the
proper insurance to protect your as- This approach is not recommended. insurance provider to honor its policy
sets. While the first two ideas are easi- First, there will be large inconsistencies in with the organization, and as a result,
ly implemented, finding the insurance the coverage. Each office is an extension the claims for the other seven cars were
coverage you need for your interna- of headquarters, so the exposure to risk denied. A loss of seven vehicles meant
tional relief and development organi- at each branch is equal or even greater. loss in productivity and financial assets,
zation can be a confusing task. Insur- However, if each office purchases as the organization had to expend their
ance is an important addition to any insurance from different providers, the own funds to replace them.
successful organization. It serves as coverage limits may be inconsistent. For these reasons, it is advisable for
a promise that when an unfortunate Working with one insurance provider your organization to obtain insurance
event occurs, your organization will means your broker will know the from an international insurance pro-
not face financial downfall, and your claims history, potential risks and local vider located in a country with a strong
Photo: Galyna Andrushko–Fotolia.com

productivity will be restored quickly. requirements for all of your branches, insurance regulatory authority, such as
Since that is a substantial promise, and be able to organize your coverage the United States or United Kingdom.
you need an insurance provider you accordingly. Any questions or concerns International insurance providers can
can trust. However finding the right can be routed to one point of contact provide coverage worldwide, meaning
provider can bring many challenges. for a dependable answer, rather than that if you open another office, certain
Whether you are insuring your fleet, many different providers who will not liability coverage is automatic. You may
property or employees, here are a few be familiar with your entire organization also consider locating an international
items to consider when choosing the and history. Additionally, there is a cost broker with whom you feel comfortable
best provider for your organization. benefit associated with sending all of working. Ultimately, a broker will serve



as your advocate, and represent your

needs on all issues related to your policy Many brokers are able other car is killed, and the driver, the
organization’s employee, is held liable.
and claims when dealing with an insur-
ance carrier. A broker is an expert on
to track the grants you The local insurance policy more than
likely only covers the organization when
your policy and can therefore pursue receive for operation of suits are brought in that country. How-
your claims to make sure they are set-
tled in a fair and timely manner.
each branch. ever, this leaves the organization open
to suits brought to the headquarters,
meaning if the family of the passenger
Coverage Gaps on the street and were vandalized, but decides to sue the organization in the
Other important aspects to discuss the claim was denied because the cover- United States, the liability policy will not
with your insurance providers are ex- age was only effective when the vehicle pay the associated expenses. It is rec-
clusions and coverage gaps. When buy- is in motion. These types of exclusions ommended that you buy a liability poli-
ing from a local insurance office, there are not typical in policies purchased cy that provides worldwide coverage, so
may be exclusions that are not typical from an international insurance car- wherever a suit is filed, you will be able
from an international insurance pro- rier. The fine print can be confusing, but work with your insurance company to
vider. For example, an organization in a working in conjunction with a trusted settle the legal costs.
country in Africa purchases coverage for broker will help you understand your These suggestions should help you
its fleet of vehicles and then drives them policy coverage. find the best coverage to ensure the
across the border to another country continued success of your organization.
for a relief project. One of the vehicles is Jurisdiction As you begin your search, it is always
stolen. When the organization files the Liability policies can be the most dif- advisable to ask around for reputable
claim, the claim is denied because the ficult to understand, yet they are the referrals. Your colleagues with other or-
vehicle was outside of the country bor- most vital to an organization. Suppose ganizations have probably made this de-
ders at the time, and the coverage ex- the relief organization in Africa is head- cision before, and can offer advice from
cludes any events outside of the coun- quartered in the United States and there their experiences and even recommend
try’s borders. Another example would be is a car accident at the African branch. a broker. Then enjoy the piece of mind
if an entire fleet of vehicles were parked In the accident, the passenger in the that comes with knowing you have com-


February 26-February 16-March
Reporting from Uganda: 3:00-5:00
18-February U.S. Media Cover Health, Environment, The Senate Confirmation Process: Can
4:00-5:30 and Security Congress and the President Do Better?
Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan: 5th Floor Conference Room, 5th Floor Conference Room,
Compensation, Aid, and Relief Efforts Woodrow Wilson Center, Woodrow Wilson Center,
5th Floor Conference Room, at the Ronald Reagan Building: at the Ronald Reagan Building:
Woodrow Wilson Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
at the Ronald Reagan Building: www.wilsoncenter.org www.wilsoncenter.org
1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
www.wilsoncenter.org 27-February 26-March
12:00-3:00 2:30-4:30
19-February Burns: The Forgotten Global OFTA/PRM/InterAction
9:00-11:00 Health Crisis Monthly Meeting
Tensions, Territory and Terror: InterAction Offices National Press Club 7th Floor
Understanding Violence Against Contact: Danielle Heiberg Contact: Elizabeth Bellardo
Foreigners in South Africa dheiberg@interaction.org ebellardo@interaction.org
5th Floor Conference Room, Brown Bag
Woodrow Wilson Center, 27-March
at the Ronald Reagan Building: 27-February 11:00-1:00
1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW 11:00-1:00 OCHA/InterAction Monthly Meeting
www.wilsoncenter.org OCHA/InterAction Monthly Meeting UN Secretariat Building New York, NY
UN Secretariate Building New York, NY Contact: Linda Poteat
23-February Contact: Linda Poteat lpoteat@interaction.org
2:00-3:30 lpoteat@interaction.org
Agriculture Working Group 30-March
Julia Taft Conference Room March New Member Orientation
InterAction Offices InterAction Offices
Contact: Hillary Nalven Contact: Danielle Heiberg
hnalven@interaction.org 5-Mar dheiberg@interaction.org
A Powerful Noise Live
25-February Various Theaters APRIL
4:00-6:00 www.apowerfulnoise.org
Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens On Thursday, March 5th, CARE and 30-April
in the Age of Obama NCM Fathom present A Powerful OFTA/PRM/InterAction
Alumni Reception Center Noise Live, in partnership with ONE Monthly Meeting
Hastings School of the Law and the UN Commission on the 2:30-4:30
200 McAllister Street, San Francisco Status of Women. In many countries National Press Club 7th Floor
www.wilsoncenter.org women are still marginalized and Contact: Elizabeth Bellardo
given few rights. The documentary ebellardo@interaction.org
25-February “A Powerful Noise” tells the stories of
4:00-6:00 three extraordinary women creating
Development in Your Pocket:
change in Bosnia, Mali and Vietnam.
Improving Lives with Immediately following the documen- 6-9-July
Mobile Phones tary, a live town hall discussion with InterAction Annual Forum:
World Bank InfoShop Christy Turlington Burns, Dr. Helene 25th Anniversary
701 18th Street, NW Gayle, Nicholas Kristof, among others, Crystal Gateway Marriott, Crystal City, VA
Washington, DC will be simulcast from New York City Contact: Sivaram Ramachandran
www.sidw.org to 450 movie theatres nationwide. sramachandran@interaction.org
The Live discussion will focus on the
26-February broader problems—and solutions—
2:30-4:30 facing women in the world’s poorest Promote your
Monthly Meeting
countries. Visit www.apowerfulnoise.
org for updates and ticket informa- upcoming events!
National Press Club 7th Floor tion on this one-night event in honor Send event details to:
Contact: Elizabeth Bellardo of International Women’s Day. publications@interaction.org


Conversations level implementation of aid effectiveness. MCC has reviewed
continued from page 22 its entire portfolio with an aim toward strengthening its sup-
port for aid effectiveness at the country level, including use
MD: We believe the Accra Agenda for Action coming out of the 3rd of country systems.
High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF) would not have hap- For the Accra HLF, I had the support of a strong interagency
pened without your leadership. Yet, when it comes to aid effective- team drawn from PCC members. For AAA implementation, the
ness, in the eyes of many stakeholders, the U.S. is seen as unwilling PCC has formed several interagency task groups to look at aid
to comply with the Paris Declaration Principles on Aid Effectiveness. effectiveness commitments where a common, government-wide
Given your commitment to international partnership, what is your approach is desirable, especially to reduce the burden to the
take on this situation and how would you advise the U.S. govern- host country of our decentralized aid management system.
ment address this issue? We should work with several stakeholder groups—U.S.
civil society, the private sector and the Congress—to make
HF: Thank you for your vote of confidence in the part I played U.S. aid more effective. The Paris Declaration is an impor-
in reaching agreement on the Accra Agenda for Action (AAA). tant guide, but we have taken actions that go beyond it. For
An important lesson from the HLF is the benefits of building example we are emphasizing country performance through
relationships with counterpart donor and host country devel- the MCC eligibility assessment and U.S. Foreign Assistance
opment ministers and heads of development organizations. Framework, and organizing joint ministerial field visits—all
This forms a foundation of partnership, communication and to ensure that our collective efforts have the maximum devel-
trust to engage on aid effectiveness. opmental impact. I would hope that we would continue to be
We learned both in Accra and in Doha that there is a big open to all ideas to make our aid smarter and better.
gap between what others think the USG does or does not
do and the reality. So, one thing that we’re already doing is MD: A key element of development effectiveness is integrating gen-
making more information available about the U.S. govern- der into all phases of program planning, implementation, and evalua-
ment’s activities in this regard. The reality of USG efforts is tion. How has gender integration been strengthened during your ten-
reflected in the work of the Millennium Challenge Corpora- ure and what advice would you give to your successor, in this area?
tion (MCC) and USAID. USAID has formed an agency com-
mittee to work with missions to provide guidance, share best HF: During my tenure at USAID, we have achieved significant
practices and develop new policies to strengthen country progress toward the integration of gender equality and wom-
en’s empowerment in our programming. We have established,
in collaboration with the U.S. Department of State, the One
InterAction’s Woman Initiative, a five-year, $100 million effort that will com-

Online bine public and private sector resources to support justice,

economic empowerment and leadership for women in coun-

Job Board!
tries with large Muslim populations.
Modules on the integration of gender were added to orien-
tation programs for new USAID hires, including staffers with
the Development Leadership Initiative. Gender has also been
integrated into Foreign Service Institute training. And, we
have developed training manuals on reducing gender-based
Visit: careers.interaction.org violence in schools that are being widely disseminated.
USAID has completed an analysis of the degree to which
gender is being integrated into the strategy and programming
process throughout the Agency. This analysis is now being
Talk about interacting! extended to review actual project implementation.
To compliment Monday In addition, for the first time in our history, USAID estab-
Developments’ popular monthly lished an award for outstanding performance in the area of
women’s equality and empowerment in March 2008. The
job section, InterAction’s new Laura W. Bush Award for Excellence in the Advancement of
online job board instantly Global Women’s Equality will recognize exceptional contri-
connects you to the latest butions from USAID staff in both developing countries and
international development Washington, DC.
jobs as they become available. What I would tell the new Administrator is this: Leadership
from the top on integrating gender into all phases of develop-
Search by job sector, level,
ment programming is necessary to sustain the momentum
region and country—or post and successes achieved by individual staff and operating units
your resume and let the hiring throughout the Agency. It is important that priority for gender
managers come to you! equality and women’s empowerment be firmly and consistent-
ly communicated to senior executive staff and passed on to
individual Agency officers in the field and in Washington. MD


MONDAY Developments

Recruitment Specialist
Washington, DC
CNFA, an international development organization dedicated to in-
creasing and sustaining rural incomes in less developed countries
by empowering farmers and rural entrepreneurs, seeks a Recruit-
ment Specialist to be based in the Washington, DC headquarters.
The position will lead all international and domestic recruitment;
develop strategies to achieve required staffing levels for head-
quarters and international projects, and collaborate with the New
Business team to ensure recruitment needs are addressed in a
proactive manner. Requirements: Bachelor’s degree in Human Re-
lations or related field; minimum 3-5 years experience, preferably
in non-profit international development environment; Microsoft
Office proficiency; excellent writing and communication skills. To
apply, please submit a candidate profile to http://www.cnfa.org/
availablepositions. CNFA is an equal opportunity employer.

Regional Vice President Ukraine/Belarus/

Kyiv, Ukraine
Eurasia Foundation (EF), a US-based public charitable organiza-
tion with its missions to foster civil society development in the
Eurasia region, and the founder of the EF Network, is accepting
applications for Regional Vice President (RVP) for Ukraine Belarus
and Moldova, based in Kyiv, Ukraine.
The RVP oversees the work of all EF programs in Ukraine, Be-
larus, and Moldova. The EF program in Ukraine is administered
through the Ukrainian based East Europe Foundation (EEF), a
member of the EF network. The RVP is also seconded to the EEF
as its President and reports to the Board of Directors of EEF in
that capacity. The RVP leads the strategic programming for the Washington Update
region, serves as the chief representative and key decision maker continued from page 11
of EF/EEF and broadly represents the interests of EF/EEF with do-
nors and partners, including its key donor, the US government, This visit by President Obama to the State Department was
international institutions, European governments and multina- his first visit to a cabinet department, and he used it to re-
tional and Ukrainian corporations. flect on his “commitment to the importance of diplomacy and
Send resume and cover letter referencing “Regional Vice Presi- renewing American leadership.” In remarks to the assembled
dent” to resumes@eurasia.org. See www.eurasia.org for a com- State Department employees, he said, “Sometimes I think the
plete job description. American public doesn’t fully understand the sacrifices that
you and your families make, the dedication that is involved in
Multiple Positions with Relief International you carrying on your tasks day in, day out … and part of what
RELIEF INTERNATIONAL (RI), a global non-profit and non-sectar- we want to do is to make sure that everybody understands
ian relief and development agency is growing rapidly and seeks that the State Department is going to be absolutely critical to
experienced, enthusiastic and dedicated professionals for ongo- our success in the years to come, and you individually are go-
ing positions in multiple countries: ing to be critical to our success in the years to come.” MD
International Positions: Global Emergency Response Director,
Global Emergency Response Officers, Regional Program Directors, If you have any questions, or would like to be added to the
Country Directors, Security Officers, Finance Managers. Washing- email list for the weekly public policy update, please contact
ton, D.C. Based Positions: Program Directors, Program Officers, Margaret Christoph at mchristoph@interaction.org.
International Recruiter. Los Angeles Headquarters Positions: HR
Administrator, HR-Payroll Associate, Philanthropy Coordinator
To learn more about these positions, please visit us at http:// Did You Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including
reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic
ri.org/job.php or send us your resume, references and salary his- Know? holidays with pay.
tory to hr.dsy@ri.org. Please indicate the job title of interest in Article 24: Universal Declaration of Human Rights
the subject line of e-mail.

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