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3H1 IV

[No.
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II.]

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IRELAND;

POPERY AND PRIESTCRAFT
THE CAUSE OF HER

MISERY AND CRIME.
BY
J. C.

COLQUHOUN,
OF KII.LERMONT.

ESQ.

object of these pages may be briefly stated. I am aware that the attention oft-very reflecting man is now turned to the disorders and m Ireland. have received, from interested parties, conflicting sum-men; the causes of these. But we have had a large body of facts collect

THE

We

Parliamentary Committees which have sat on the state of Ireland'.-' I H Jo, and have published five folio volumes of Evidence. that in these the true causes of the present state of Ireland would IK hibired. I have not been It has seemed to me, disappointed. to enumerate the results of this evidence to my countrymen. T will observe that these documents prove the following positions First, That Ireland is, and has long been, in a state of disorder; d; ous to life, and opposed to industry.
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:

nd, That this state of disorder is increased by the influence of lloCatholic political agitators, and of Roman Catholic pricThird, That a special attack has been, and is now, made by those parn the Protestants of Ireland; and that, in consequence, the lives and property of the Protestants are in dan. Fourth, That in the parts of Ireland where the Protestants prevail, in e, and in these only, order and tranquillity prevail: that peace and inry arc co-extensive with Protestantism, and are overthrown by 1V| I draw no conclusions from the.-e positions. have It i> '.we. I lea\< proved them, and proved them on tin; hi the reader's judgment. Hereafter I may feel it right to call attention to the practical which maybe deduced from them; and it will then be my dut .'i;d trast the policy recommended by tin in, sanctioned by by common sense, with the policy now en lorn d bv tin

man

1

-

on by Government. I would make one further remark.
out citing

In ever
<

may be held a> cimiing t'rmu the volumes of Parliamentary Evidence, from which my auth<>. drawn: either from the Committee of the [.on!- on the state of Inland in 1825, or from the Committee of the Lords on Tithes in Irelnnd in

my

authority, the quotation

or from the Committee of the Commons on the state of Ireland in 1852, or from the Committee of the Commons on Tithes in Ireland in 1832, or from the Committee of the Commons on Orange Societies in 1835. When I do

not cite any special authority, I pledge myself that the witnesses quoted or the document referred to, are the witnesses or documents given before the
rule

I cite, for example, the differed from me in my conclusions. testimony of Roman Catholic priests and agitators to prove the points established above. In the Orange Committee I throw aside, except for one notorious fact, the undeniable evidence of the Rev. Mr. O'Sullivan, and take that of Lord Gosford, the friend of the policy which I condemn. This rule, it will at once be perceived, adds the utmost weight to the authority of the witnesses, and removes from them all suspicion of partiality. With these remarks, I beg to commit the subject to the judgment of my countrymen, and to intreat from them the attention to which its importance and the high character of the evidence seem to entitle it. The subject of this tract shall be divided into the following sections namely,
:

who

above Committees. In making quotations from them, I have observed one to draw my proofs, in every case where it was possible, from witnesses

Section I. State of the Peasantry of Ireland. Section II. Crimes of the Peasantry of Ireland. Section III. Political Agitators of Ireland. Section IV. Roman Catholic Priests of Ireland. Section V. Protestants of Ireland.

SECTION

I.

State of the Peasantry of Ireland.

LET me invite the attention of my countrymen to the state of the peaI bring this question forward now, because much missantry of Ireland. apprehension prevails on it ; and yet, as we are engaged in active legislation on Ireland, it becomes us thoroughly to understand the state of the people to whom our laws are applied, I desire to make no remarks upon the errors (as we think them) of the Roman Catholic faith. I do not forget that it was in the Catholic Church that the virtues of the Port Royal Christians arose, that Fenelon's piety was exhibited, and the unblemished life of Pascal. These thoughts would check all harsh denunciation of the

Roman

But I have no Catholics, if indeed I were disposed to fall into it. wish to touch on this my business is not with the religious creed of the men, it is solely with the political tendency of the system, and its effects
;

upon Ireland. Let us first understand the actual
this

state of the peasantry

their state at

moment
it

scribe

what was their moral condition. He said, " There exists, as we unhappily know, a strong propensity to violence and outrage, not merely among a few lawless and ill-regulated persons, but among all, or nearly all, classes of the community." What a state is this for a country But it is accounted for as arising from English misrule the oppression of a dominant the rebellion of a people aggrieved, and rising against the grievparty ance. Down to 1829, we were told that these outrages were from the want of Emancipation, and would cease with this. So said Mr. O'Connell and Dr. Doyle in their sworn evidence so said many others. The year 1829 brought Ireland emancipation a lull ensued, and we called it What it was in 1832, In 1831, Ireland was again in disorder. peace. 1833, and 1834, we know from the list of outrages submitted to Parliament by Lord Althorp and Lord Melbourne. What it is in 1835, we know from the evidence of Lord John Russell. Emancipation had arrived, but the
!
;
;

In a few words I might deas Lord John Russell did, on the 30th of March, when asking
their state, alas
I

for centuries.

0117 of those who would connect Irish outrages with jt<iti(ira/ witnesses who said this have been belied by venta which ha\e confii the evidence of Mr." and lead at " every fair to rights and savage brutalities. and all but glorying in the deed. ." These factions or clans. He says that County Kerry. in the disorganization of society. when blood. then all the witnesses for the defence Mr. and the Hurleys against the Mahoneys they one another with deadly weapons at fairs. terminate the barbarous fight pitched battles against and markets. from Mr. or at the alehouse. I shall give some specimens of the state of Ireland. \ Inch " create far more bloodshed than any political association. all of the same name are ready to swear as witnesses in behalf of their clansman. feature which struck him at their as>i/es of Knnis. in a court of law. into any thing political the views of the peasantry. and broken bones. scarcely ever meeting together at christenings. Croly. Inglis's Travels. in that neither the question of Emancipation. when he visited it." and u>ing. I have heard it talkt but among the higher grades I have not heard it at all from any of the t I . Kiely. which would end. by \\hich At L'. arising from those factious.nuis lie had seen the re>uli." But. and drowned. leads to a general affray. if not checked.. Croly. but there was in one-half of it 199 violent assaults and outrages. and knocked on the head. and goals . like so many dogs. as the substitute for weapons." Mr. nor any political i|ii stion. scene. Mr. A quarrel at a fair between two persons. then every if witness who comes up to be sworn for the prosecution is an O'Grady the name of the prisoner be O'Neill. and the observations of Mr. a Roman Catholic priest. have a constant antipathy. a Roman Catholic priest. and the other a Cunncmara boy. Croly speaks of their total disregard of an oath. peasantry. hud " As to any connection with the outrages. that a battle does not take place. or weddings. aud when the law interferes to punish the outrage. hrt well. " The O'Sullivans are as distinct a people from the O'Neills. who said. because free from insurrectionary movements. and the place ot the and denied by the pattern was claimed by the one as the Joyce's country. he >a\>." and there stand the men "ready to heat another's brains out. and fairies are mercilessly cruel. and are O'Neills.A strung suspicion. the devotions of which concluded in a pitched battle and this for no iva-on but tha and the Cunneniara : t 1 boys. and bruises. other. Inglis says that the their savage indifference to human life. nearly two score persons were driven into the Shannon.<>f thcniM-lves on the opposite faction. instead of quoting opinions." Of these he gives one example at Baly" when bunian. They believe in gl. Joyces man was a Joyee. setting no more value on the life of a fellow-creature than on the life of the most worthless brute believing that they ought to hate and exterminate all such as differ from them in religion : and among themselves are divided into hostile factions or parties the Mahoneys against the Hurleys. or a religious change. " If the name of the man who was killed be O'Grady. . as superstitious in the highest degree. was "their perfect contempt of human suffering and their utter disregard even of the value of of the most human life. and patterns. speaks of the character of the Irish " peasantry. false oaths." : Mr." and whenever they meet they fight. Inglis gives a specimen of this from his own observation. In Cnnnemara he witnessed the di>play of them at a holy these crimes. and staves that might crush the head of a horse. was considered tranquil. description were brought into deadly Weapons court as evidence sticks and whips loaded with lead. therefore outrages remained. as the Dutch from the Belgians .

whose position they affect but will the O'Neills or the O'Sullivans cease It is. the- Let 'us now gather together tion of the Irish peasantry. i i Four Baronies in Westmeath round Mullingar.000 How enormously. house and loom are burnt four men's houses entered. on industrious peasants. of which there are two. a mockery. however humble. one against are all specified in the Returns. In the Parliamentary Returns. which do not touch the state of the peaThe acts of legislation may please or soothe the upper classes. has Ireland exceeded the rest of the empire in crime how rich is the harvest that grows in that soil of blood But these crimes. it is said. if there had been the same ratio between crime and population. In Scotthere were but 2. In England. and what a state of a people. which ought not to be held as political.! f* (*. in King's County. land. as proofs of the necessity of this Act. whose word is a law. The outrages which had led to this artdetailed in the Returns. to assert that such a condition of society can be corrected by acts of Parliament. there are but fifteen Let us look further into the Repolitical to seventy-five savage crimes. girl and take back those whom they had dismissed a farmer warned not to plough and sow his fields a widow driven from her house a herd and a carter stopped and hi-. The Barony of Garrycastle. was subjected to the Coercion Act in the spring of 1834. from : : ! ! . One is against a tithe-proctor. are owing to tithes. for evidence. of which there are twelve or outrages on those who had taken land. and whose executors are the fire and the sword I indeed. to terrify them from their farms. of which there are nine or interference with the sale of All these. turns. which persons were committed to gaol. the host of all In 1838. . were proclaimed as disWithin these within two small parishes forty turbed. and the inmates beat another man nearly beat to death. of which we have eleven or acts of violence. labourers. the defenceless widow. were committed by desperate peasants. / .--T) \ information suppluMl respecting the condiIVrlimwntary documents. . a list is given of There were fourteen committed ninety of the most aggravated outrages.000 crimes there were bat 20. there were 17. there should have been 4. or disputes about the possession of land. These cases require no comment. A another stoned to death in a servant beat for fidelity to his employer open day near a town. These r Hit outrages were perpetrated between January and April. excepting three poor peasant's produce. there should have been 34. santry. One outrage only is connected with the Church of Ireland all the rest are private acts of violence. . and to political causes. are subject to the tyrannizing interfering of desperate gangs. and examine two parts of Ireland in detail. but the remaining fifty-two had no concern whatever with politics they were either acts of plunder. There were from 1st January. in which the business of life and its occupations. What a country must that be.800 crimes perpetrated in Ireland. several other workmen driven from their places all who would work piece-work threatened with death cart cut to pieces . Three of these were acts of revenge connected with tithes.000. because tithe collection from the peasantry is not a necessary part of the Church system of Ireland. presented in May 1834. a gentleman but the remaining forty-six are all against the middling or humble classes farmers.000. Many escaped altogether. of which there are seventeen or attacks on labourers to drive them from their employment. till the end of fifty-five of these in three months March. the tradesman's house is attacked and burnt a weaver's unprotected peasant. . 1834. f \ j - !i ll [. . in April. on tithe-proctors. or brawls from factions. 1834. or from their humble cabins. Including even tithe. and ordered to dismiss his servant a farmer and a steward warned to dismiss the servants they had taken. tradesmen. therefore. . or from their places of employment. Ii T\ ill these fifty-five crimes. in this single Barony. . 1834.

of which others had been dispossessed cases of armed parties committing burglaries and robberies on the poor As to tithe. for taking a farm which another person had been dispossessed of the attack on another < : Maloney. in the possession of land." As to political outrage. " rents \\ere. Every one is familiar with the name of Whitefeet and Black ft t. at Cratloe. roused a tenant of the name oi'Dillane." says Mr. -'and brouj-ht to keep farm-. that the people had when they wen. and Mr. as a government. the Thrashers and Riskavallas. in Clare. " The peasantry have al" had ways. " attic imha a reduction of rent. to the number of and ravaged the country. In 1821." savs one witness.their contest ? Shannon be less red \\ith the blood of its victim-. have heard of Captain Rock and his followers. These fact have existed all over Ireland they have existed for centuries they :}>: up as soon as the open wars of clans ceased. " I have never known a single case of direct hostiMr. and I iind that they generally arise from the attachment to. whose o! was plunder. Frankland Leui>. the peasantry P." farmers. and indicated feuds whieh law and government were unable to subdue." says Mr. tenantry. Kerry.'? Ennis be less crowded with savage faces. driven to despair. the \Vhitelo\s and the Peep-o'-day-boys. was that of a Kerry-man going to get work in Clare his house was attacked and prostrated. In isli*. Keily. they cared emancipation political li that connected with the reduction of rents. rose in Galway. then a wide combination in the south-west of Ireland. the Crown Solicitor on the Minister circuit. the dispossession of. for his father's enforcing rent without the promised abatement a great number of cases for compelling persons to quit numerous the farms they had taken. I ha\ e traced the origin of almost every case I prosecuted. position. to compel him to set ground at a low rate the attack on the Kerry-men for going into that county to work the murder of Mr. the Lady-Clares and Terry-Alts. "In 1820. Kelly." corroborated by all Irish history. This man \\a-the celeb] Captain Hock. " The outrages prevalent from these have existed. for the last sixty years. in the county of Limerick. and he c\cit< <l a general opposition to rent over Clare. over Ireland. or the ch. and Cork. tin- or the fairs and markets cease to be scenes of lawless bloodshed ? T are crimes whieh arise from the state of the peasantry. to reduce the nnl of land. 1788. i punishment of Carding. 1 u> ^>le. The murder of Maloney. not paying masse their object Mas pounded. The murder of Mr. the peasantry prevented the ejection of tenants. places in Mun>ter about years. when asked what \\as felt at that time the reforms. and that kind of Ifockite dis.'' " with little variation. Those who know more particularly the history of Ireland. while Caprices had fallen. and by confession of all the most unimpeachable authority. Blood was by a gang of robbers.) "the middlemen pres>ed on the. objects connected with the land. In 1811. and they. Barrington. All who remember the year 1821. Harrington's evidence is lity to the Government. and lated the price of con-acres. unpaid for Limerick." (I quote from the Evidence of Mr. Barrington. and can only when that is improved. " not a case in Munster since the Compo>iUon Act. M \nv exaction of rent on the Courienay 1 estate. a Roman Catholic priest." In sbjB. ha\e read of the Cardeis and Kighters." In \^2'2. there wzi< a general combination against rent. In 1775. the perpetratoror the or the Cunneinara boys ami the Joyces lay down or their fen . and enforced their orders with the fearful . the Blackhens and Hibbonmen." Mr. One of the outrages at Clare. rs in possession of tin ir grounds rent for them. the rents being still high. but no person dare 1/nJ . reform and says. Hopkins. the ShanaVats and Caravats." Their causes it is well clearly to understand. the outrages arose from In 17S7 and ciations of peasants formed to regulate the prices of land.

The Whitefeet. Stapleton." All the witnesses before the Committee of 1832. Roman Catholic priest of Abbeyleix. and Kilkenny. " I have seen crowds of these people brought to trial and convicted the objects of these associations were levying increased wages. were It was the same the grievances" of which the Whitefeet complained. a Roman Catholic witness. and spread subsequently over Clare. which. and who. Blood was owing to his dispossessing many tenants on Lord Stradbrooke's land the disturbances in Clare. I never found any thing so difficult as to induce people to forgive those persons who took their lands." Another. have been connected with land the opposition to tithes. and from a proprietor dismissing three of his tenants. I to have known the possession of lands recovered. but the wish to get possession of land." In like manner. however. " The sole obiect of the WTiitefeet was employment. all the cases of outrage subsequent to fusion.for them. very sure there is nothing that they would not forgive sooner than turning them out of their farms every string of their heart is twined round every twig upon them. Tipperary. from persons of the name of Hanlon a from which farm. but no one dared become the tenant. and Mr. Whitefeet were asked in Queen's County what were their grievances? they The stated them to be low wages. taking they attempted to dislodge a number of subWhen the tenants ." says the O'Connor Don. and more to the workmen we must not let them be turning the poor off the ground. and reducing the rents of their grounds. Mr. therefore. who sprang up in 1829. Catholic priests of Maryboro. feelings which were evinced in the disturbances in Roscommou " burned and " Those who disturbed that county. They gained an accession of a " great number in the Colliery district. Keogh. Dillon. Their first dispute was with the Blackfeet. cite evidence directly denying this. that tithes were the cause of the disorders of the peasantry is disproved by these facts. and another let in. and seeing that no one is ejected from his land. and Sir J. the three Roman . from the in want of Caseys being potato ground. want of employment. and of con-acres in particular." Part of the Wliitefeet oath is " to assist a brother when dispossessed of lands. The outrages in Limerick. " inspector of police." . in 1831. and not give so much to the landlord. Kerry. from which some had been ejected. had they not been promptly checked." Another witness says." The priest of Maryboro " I am says. Singleton. The Whitefeet began in 1827. were (Mr. Cassidy. and to exclude strangers from land. and disorders which threw the whole county into con- Sir J. an agitator. was as to a tax on land the murder of Mr. Harvey. want of work. I will. levelled the walls and ditches of many landlords. turbances to have any connection with the political feeling of the country. Mr. We have got priest of Maryboro says. no good by emancipation let us notice the farmers to give us better food and better wages. destroyed property. . insisted on their raising the hire of their labourers. says that they were a part of an unlawful combination." Mr. Mr. would have involved the whole of Limerick in disorders. involved Queen's County in disturbance.Alts and Lady-Clares. Queen's County. Mr. says of them and the Blackfeet. Mr. . all concur in stating that " high rents. Mr. and turn off an intruder. concur in stating that it was no political causes which excited the Whitefeet. Wray. in 1831. in 1831. of the Collieries. Delaney. but their final object was to eject from land all who had taken it within ten or fifteen years. and of Abbeyleix. and making a large assembly for digging up ground. in Queen's County. having in view to regulate rents. and low wages. says) but a variety of the same gangs with like objects. Police Inspectors. a repealer. " that in all his experience he has never found these disBarrington says. Harvey. were owing to some men crossing from Clare. Roman Catholic priest of the Collieries. Barrington 1822. and ejection from land. Hence sprung the Terry. " the words of the Whitefeet were." The statement.

" Mr." said one of the Whitefeet. but it was not against tithes " for " were tithes. In several cases the tenants remain on the land and pay no rent. Foster gives us an tenants of land in the south of Ireland. from . "has nothing to do with the Whitefeet association the\ say to make that a focus embrace ready that. on part of which fifty-four families \ver Rrad Mr.carts lay MI the field and no one dared to touch them. and in some parts of Minister were unpaid for three years they were refused in Kerry. as in the Colliery district the ejected tenants associated all over Queen's County they attacked all who had taken land for tin ten or fifteen years as in Minister previously. says Mr. and saying. threatening death to every man who should pay more than a certain rent. Every burden upon land they feel. on several estates." " If tithes Mere done away with to-rnorrov Caasidy. Rents were withheld more recently on the Duke . Rents were attacked in 1811. and they will do any thing rather than be turned out of their holdings. again in 1820." says Mr. particularly in respect to land regulating and reducing the rate of rents. beat his -t< \\ard---hi." . though grateful for being forgiven the arrears. Rents were attacked by Captain Rock in 1821. . by a system of intimidation." "We have made the clergy. Price. would do no manner of good. in Donegal." he adds. and labour to remove. vent people from taking land over the heads of otherbe. which he dare not go nigh himself. -\\ore tinlabourers not to work for Mr. between 1800 and 1830. . his fcners were all levelled. the successor of the dispossessed tenant was attacked. and estabthemselves upon the proprietor's land." Rents. Dwyer. At one meeting the rents of absentees were taken under consideration. have been of late years a greater cause of of discontent than tithes. it was rents which were attacked. a repealer. combined with the Whitefeet. and Limerick. low wages." Nothing can exceed the misery Mr. the great object." says another witness. says. and the landlord dare not eject them. At Loghlin Bridge the Whitefeet posted up a notice. .: Mr. " Their object is. Hackett. his estate in Kerry." <>t! Stapleton mentions the remarkable instance of Mr. Foster. the number of acres that have been reported by his sub-constableLand. Foster's account nf gated in a state of the 'utmost destitution. in hoperf of ameliorating their condition." but rents and the possession of property were attacked so much so. "They will offer any rent to get land. Cork." Rents were. satisfactorily paid. in County Clare. refused in some cases in County Kilkenny. in fact." says Sir J. Now we will cut and parcel out this land and they have been found disputing and " I have dividing the land amongst themselves. Harvey. not permitting the intrusion of strangers in taking land. " as their extinction was likely to lead to an abatement of rent. "on a sheet of paper in the hands of the Chief Constable. " is to regulate rents. in the winter of 1831. and land that none dared repair them "and there are now alxnr are a complete waste. The combination of the Whir. like savages. of Buckingham's estate in Westmeath. to Roman Catholic as well as Protestant proprietors. rents were more attacked than tithes. and possession of land The fact is. and tithes only. Hackett turning three tenants who owed him large arrears and these mm. the south and south-east were in open insurgency. as it is the sole support of the peasantry. "Their object. they cared nothing about tithes. that I have seen. In Galway. to enforce the measures which they consider to be desirable. as they would any other they opposition to the law. nor can h of the any one to protect it for him. now we must try the landlord. of the. peasantry putting up wigwams. iactually taken possession of by the insurgent peasantry. If turned out they will attack those who have lishing . In the four great risings of the Irish peasantry. in Galway. "take what is reasonable. "a number as possessed them. as one witness says." myself witnessed.

48. Day. You tread on a volcano." So says Dr. Dillon. that the state of the occupier of the land. Barrington. and should never have been sought. Carroll gives us one in his parish of . therefore attribute their outrages to high rents. Delaney's account of the Colliery district. Harrington. where. of Cork. Keiley's and Mr. which was quiet in 1831. and we have two instances in the south. but a difference in their own character. Palmer. Stapleton. and Mr. " have " All the great disturbances of Ireland. cannot. that the of a class below the farmer the Whitefeet especially." says Mr. yet is the state of the farmer superior. and generally over Ireland. But on the other hand it must be remembered. Mr. But whatever be the immediate cause of the outbreaking of violence in Ireland. In Ulster rents are higher than in the other provinces.8 the condition of the peasantry on his estate read Mr. Kerry. It is quite true that exorbitant rents have been too often demanded. The whole country is one mass of disorder. I. whether from distress or otherwise. and that not from any difference in the rents. W We Kilmore. Wade. It is a partial description of the fact." is one of the utmost misery bearing all burdens. in County Wexford. after all. of Tipperary. Montgomery are disposed to attribute much of the evils of the peasantry to such rents.) air 10 SECTION II Crimes of the Peasantry of Ireland. Welsh. of Queen's County Limerick another witness. while all the county was in disorder . " and I mean to represent this. as has been well remarked by Mr. " as the state of this class. Doyle. Burnett's description of the Cork and Limerick peasantry in J822 read Mr Harrington's narrative of the general state of the peasants of Munster read Mr. Mr. and living for four or five months on dry potatoes. were it not that a kind has been found to grow without manure depending on a wretched cow for milk. turn to facts and evidence to illustrate this. But this is not all the truth. it is not surprising that outrage should prevail among a people so distressed as I have shown them to be. but the state of the people is peaceful. Sir W. and at every moment under your feet breaks out the fire which is gathering for an explosion. Barrington remarks. rents are not. where the rents are equally high. in Tipperary. and a little spark. in the midst of surrounding poverty." made on an individual he resisted in a few weeks the county was in disorder in a few months the greater part of Munster was plunged in the Kockite insurrection. as they paid no rents at all . a repealer. of Kilkenny Mr. and Lalor. the people arc in comfort. if not at once arrested. Limerick was in peace in 1821 an exaction was kindles it into a flame. Mr. BarT hitefeet and Rockites were generally rington and Mr. Mr. and that landlords have taken advantage of the necessities of the poor to extort rents which never could be paid. of the farmers and peasants of Carlow so says Mr. with scarcely any thing after the rent left to subsist upon paying all exposed to the distress of all himself starving his cultivation always getting worse the potatoes deteriorating the state of the land becoming more wretched unable to raise as many potatoes. and my representation is not overcharged. (Inglis. that in Munster. In Clare the Caseys were in want of potato ground the country was then it they attacked and murdered an individual ' i . It is not merely that there are occasional outbreaks of disorder. We sprung from some local cause and trifling local circumstance the country is in an inflammable state. in a state of destitution reserving to himself the worst possible description of food and clothing. and so savage. Inglis gives us another case in the Barony of Forth. Lalor. so high as in England." he says. Mr. O'Connor's description of the peasants of Maryboro read Mr. and Mr. and then say whether the summary given by another witness is overcharged. in Queen's County. and Mr. of Meath Mr.

told me they were earning from 2s. a wrong. \ ere execution cheeked its remained in perQueen's progress. by giving them seven acres of land. and swear them to join r visit they compel others these refuse. to 4s. Houses are attacked at night. peaceful and insubordination was universal. " is stronger than the law of the land. Many sons of fanners we . and it was regarded as one of the most tranquil and But some lands were cleared of cottiers in the orderly in the South. in Queen's Count tenants were ejected a combination arose. " At the time they entered into '. in a Colliery district some tenants were ejected for non-payment of rent peace few months the county was convulsed. the colliers.Vivian Sir says." if . gain. and the consequence is. even among farmers. "there was not the slightest this combination. or flogged. ' for there are always many desperate characters their houses at night. nobody knowing where the blow will fall rages A few begin to revenge.loud Johnson. from necessity. they would set the whole county in a flame if not checked." says Colonel Rochl he gets in some people (luarrelling with his family. are obliged to join. One farmer refused to attend a \\ hitefeet who meeting. stating what land the individual wished to have. in all cas distressed circumstances. Captain Hock. or plunder to One of others from terror." or vice. drawn fi . Barrington. or if their wives and families should in any way prevent them. addressed to the Whitefeet. or recover possession of next.1 found in thr>c Another witness t > us that a informs us. in Ireland." The leaders of these gangs are by no means. a day. "form themselves in any county of the poorer people are either ready. having no means of As no one knows who are engaged in the resistance. th< says Mr. In Queen's County several farmers bribed the Whitefeet not to attack them. If there were t\ situation. otherwise punishment follows.in a few weeks it was under the domination of the Tern-Alts. a panic spreads and general suspicion. and who recovered it from the purchaser by knocking out his In another case. they are wounded. to decide what houses should be attacked. from the kind of houses they inhabit. or some sex ere punishment inflicted on them. but pure devilment who was not fully employed." desperate gang. either to obtain arms or to punish an enemy. or to terrify a wavcrer. County fect till 1829. ' they ground for their doing so. bad men in a barony. part of the Whitefret in Queen's County were who were in the receipt of large wag. as Barrington gangs. or are compelled to join. Mr. If you armed them. i>m up to the arms against each other in family or local feuds. and the Whitefeet had r>tal>li>hed their reign of terror over it. " If a one witness. employed there was not a man in that county and two men whom I committed to gaol. and it runs The greater number join from terror or like wildfire through the county. that the whole peasantry of a county. join is -little feeling of regard for H. " Committees sit at night in the public houses. In 18^4. -s. a statement was found in the shape brains with a mallet. combination. they would use their property. . until overcome by the entreaties of his terrified family. and their retired No one not living in a slate house is safe." Every man is in alarm. for he who is not an accomplice is a victim. were ucll To these. and was when rapidly spreading. sets the evil a-going from the next county they issue a Rockite notice. and threaten outintimidation commences. Whatever these desperadoes order must be executed. joins willingly the first outrages in Queen's County Mas perpetrated by a man who had sold his land. of a petition. The fanner dares not resist the peasant must unite. that there peaceful. "A single man. " The law of trembled at the danger he would incur. or property to acquire. The law is against them they take the law of force others join." land. Every one who has revenge to gratify.-:. perhaps. all of desperate circumstances or unruly habitthese associated desperadoes lord it over the more and themselves.

" " are afraid to give information says Mr." old wife and myself are too old to think of emigrating." which they dare not rebel. and the man's ear was cut off. * : When should afterwards forfeit my property. he laid his complaint before a magistrate. Stapleton . man and his wife were attacked in their house at night. Nolan. they both swore that they did not know them. of the name of was attacked at night in his house fled almost naked. " the greatest recklessness as to destroying But it must be observed. and my skull is not it up. " The parties to the murder of Mr. that many detest the tyranny against life. in Tipperary. speaking of the neighbourhood of Maryboro. because they had not at once agreed to a demand made on them by the Whitefeet. Singleton." In several cases the farmers petitioned for the Insurrection or Coercion Bill. Bray) and they said to and the words give us a most touching picture of their " Will there be sufferings any law given to keep these people from coming to our houses and visiting us at night ?" In Kildare the farmers cordially So they did in the parish of Kilmore. and lodged informations against the miscreants. For it may be well conceived that the state of all respectable farmers.) by a gang of twenty-six persons. was such. Sir. while I will be within the walls of Maryboro gaol my person will be for the present. and brought them to conviction but.' threatened with gaol if he did not answer. ing to prosecute the offenders. if he gave me that information his life would not be safe for twenty-four hours. my place to wish to give " The people. Some of these farmers told me they were delighted to hear of their execution they frequently made them join when they went out at night. and are anxious to be at peace. but was himself knocked down. "But when the trial came on." In Queen's County the farmers were most anxious to form an association and lives (Mr. says " that the upper and middling classes are satisfied. and my I have lived too long in broke. Cahill. and nearly beat to death. fired at. all of whom he knew. with such forbearance did he give his evidence. wrongs. but the industrious and the peaceful live a life of suffering. that they were recommended to mercy. priest of Maryboro. Mr. and all honest labourers. was furiously attacked and maltreated suffering under the injury. We shall give some specimens of this. : . u showing me his ear." says Mr. but I * free from assassination. Captain Rock (Dillane) told me that he has been obliged to threaten to fire at his own men to make them attack a house. and then darcreants. Blood. as necessary for their protection and this was done by the Catholic as much as by the Protestant farmers. (Major O'Reilly's evidence. In Queen's County. that he was compelled to prepare An old to expatriate himself from a home where he was no longer safe. It is the lower class who form the Whitefeet* and perpetrate the outrages.. He and children in the hands of the mis- name of Miller. Another witness. must be fearful in such a condition of It is society. leaving his wife Perrott. his fears overcame the sense of his " if he knew " When I asked him.10 Whitefeet. This him. in thus defending his own person and that of his neighbour." " went to the houses of says Mr. They were beat. many poor farmers to compel them to go with them. joined and put down the Whitefeet. to surrender a part of their land. When asked their reasons for this perjury. But when he was questioned as to the persons who had beat him. They prosecuted next day. favourable to the ruffian and the robber. he said Commit me if you please. I have still got one ear. a small proprietor of land. Mr. There is.' " A Catholic farmer. the old man. Miller prosecuted the offenders. said. I told him I would send a party of the police for his protection he said that may do for the protection of their property : Mr. any of the persons ? he refused to give me any answer he said. to the house of a Protestant farmer of the man defended . Still the crime which Miller had committed. O'Connor. Barrington." he adds.

said that him." says Mr. Another that any witnesses should be found. says. the state of assizes of Kilkenny in 183:2. or between the families of the Burnets and Bowies any one of these things. that this state of systematic outrage is one of occasional occurrence that it only is to be found at intervals. and which requires but the collecting of these at one point Thus in Limerick. of disturbances which would in three months have involved the beginning had not the most prompt measures been used to put it down. sub-inspector of Police in Queen's Count v. In Limerick. in liSi'l." Well might this gentleman say that lie had witn< with horror the insecurity of person and property. stant elements. for the horses." V few dare prosecute: equally few dare give evidence.the coning. Barrington and all the witnesses concur in statgeneral disorder. and has produced. whole district. in some of the " At all times" counties of Ireland. and hundreds groaning under outrages. Many Dillane being removed from his farm Li Limerick the Hanlons being ththe sub-tenants in the Collieries ejected in Queen's County in want of potato ground some idle Clare-men passing into Limerick a feud between the factions of the Whitefeet and Blaekfeet. Harrington. >oin< to burst at any time into an explosion. Barrington pursued. and prevented from bursting into a Maine.11 they suffer the punishments sometimes ends inflicted. In ll<><-omm<>n. in death. or for But no stronger case can be given than that of security lodged in gaol. in vigorous measures which Mr. in IK'] I. but.) for fear they should be murdered if tie which information. both Protestants and Catholics. but it took all the vigour of a special commission to extinguish them. the to Mill-street in County Cork to buy potatoes their people refund to sell them to the Kerrymeii. that his woinl instances are ijiven of witnbargaining to be removed from the county as soon as their evidence given till then they were either protected by a guard of police. and entreated him to use his influence that they might not be placed on the jury." many respectable farmers. because few could be induced to prosecute or give evidence. men crossed the Shannon for Clare. get a \vitm-<* agaitosl while hundreds will be found to smear an alibi. Mr. the calendar was crowded with cii but the dock was scantily filled with prisoners. as they feared that if they gave a verdict against the Whitefeet. may produce. their > it. an abatement of ivnt. but of which heat and fire an. which may have its violent eruptions. (we recur to the unchallenged testimony of Mr. applied to him." It is the common occurrences of life which occasion disorders. Lord C'ourtei. probably had a right to expect. Some Kerry-men came This was not granted. . tenants expected. and that not till tinwhole county was convulsed. ''You will find " to very difficult. the circumsta: In this country " it'd . with a county co\ eivd \\ ith disorders. 1831. But the idea often is. or any thing el-e in Mr. and cut oil' the ears of This outrage would have kindled the two counties. The whole of society is a volcano. where. It is the ejectment of a tenant who will not pay the removal of sub-tenants from the land the disIt is missal of a bad servant the refusal of work to a careless labourer. and dug up ground: this in England In Ireland it \\as the or Scotland would have been a triHing trespass. (which are generally boating. and the witness box was almost emptied of witnesses. that it is only by the most unwearied vigilance that the conibu>tible materials of Irish society can be at all kept down. of which the agitators boasted as a complete triumph over law. and property would be in danger. which are of daily occurrence in Ireland. \Vray. Harrington) "twenty persons combining together in one barony or parish would set a whole county in a flame. it was a trifling cause which excited disturbances.

" says Mr. a murder on the other side. there occurred." them. the Ballyheagh murders. They have an antipathy to " " can subdue the law. and they can only be taken by These are strong specimens of the state of Ireland. In Ireland it led to an immediate disorder and an insurrectionary war. deciding on these applications. is described as perfectly lawless. they wait till the next fair. and it rests on the concurrent testimony of all the witnesses. persons to attack the house of an enemy. in County Kerry. this is the " It is a sort of chivalrous signal for a general combination in his favour. but they stratagem. If an outrage is committed on an individual " if. the law of Captain Rock the law of the \Vhitefeet the law." In County Kerry. Inglis mentions. in July. are samples. by But if a regular compact. which. savages do. not in one part. In a district of 800 square miles. and the law attempts to punish him. It was proved to our satisfaction that he never saw the man before. . is one. a homicide occurs at a fair. he might find room for ample occupation. They will fix. " The people/' says Colonel Johnson. no writ of law could ever be attempted. in fact. An instance came before me in Maryboro. Barrington they do not like to see a man prosecuted. Not even in those unhappy countries. committees. in a similar state. but throughout the South and South-west of Ireland. in County Clare. Thurles. Go and knock that man down. and where. On -:reat occasions. iu County Tipperary. in retaliation. a state of society which it is fearful to imagine. and the man was nearly killed.12 and have been condemned. 1834. if his object were to improve the condition of the peasantry. was. he said to him. tion from a gang of outlaws.) but law they utterly despise. for example. instead of raising himself. and putting an immense loaded whip in his hand. we shall quote.' Mich as that of which we arw alxntt ( . at present. as a sample of the things which take place in Ireland. for a long time. from another county." They will join their family or their clan in revenging themselves on another family or clan. They will hire. south of the Shannon. (as all feelings with regard to law. " are ripe for any thing. and he went and knocked him down immediately. as they stand recorded in the trial. " feeling. and purchasing it by a gift of his land the tenant applying to them to reinstate him in his farm the labourer petitionthe outlaws holding their ing them to compel his employer to replace him attention." he adds. of violence. person commits an outrage. where the law dare not pursue offenders. or to waylay a farmer. such a weapon as you have no conception of. O'Connell spends his hum's of leisure. and the peasantry in a most ferocious state. is far stronger and far more prompt in its inflictions than the law of the land. that the lower classes of Ireland are entire savages in all their The power of force they recognise. and to make them feel that punishment will surely overtake crime. and they will assist him to escape if they can. The principal witness depones that he never remembers the fair and race of (which occurs annually on the ii4lh of Jon? Ballyheagh June) without there being a fi^hf between the two elans of Lawand Cooleens. that county where Mr. as Mr. and vigorous administration of the law as to inspire them with a salutary terror. but such a persevering Nothing. which indicate. a fight which is to take place at the next fair. The parish of Feacle. and attacking persons and houses in open day the outraged victim afraid to complain the witness of the outrage silent through terror men of wealth terrified into accomthe poor subdued under a tyranny plices of crimes which they detest which they loathe these are some of the facts already cited. of a man going up to a young fellow in the street. where law has never been established. instead of the people coming forward to prosecute. are life and property less secure than in a The farmer asking protecgreat part of three of the Provinces of Ireland. Glenbegh. not peculiar cases. The fact appears to be." Whereas. by which three counties were convulsed. it would appear. and then commit.

but not from an assassin. 1000 strong. i - .absence of landlords is repeatedly alluded re-establish them. in the House of Commons. if they attempt to preserve. when he says. the disorders by the agitators was to overturn the influence of the country gentry. many. with their aprons full of ston might ask if we are reading an incident in the Anglo-Saxon history in the sixth century. heart of Tippcrary. and such a people.run.. tin. and were in th to death Kerry procure recruits from Clare and I. ! We a troop of horse. found his life so insecure. and about persons saw the murder. on a smaller scale. Several witnesses state. have seen how the prosecutor and the witness fare let us observe what happens to the magistrate. the inhabitants of which were at home. hut all their exertions could not prevent the ti.if dan law or the magistrate to enforce ii the natural influences of society are suspended. A\as of rare occurrence. which render. men of tJnsc an lul In/ the by the Lawlors. the fir>t thing do great number of respectable gentry reading in it. therefore. for. in open day-light. while there stood on the shore 300 farmers It may be said that this exhibition spectators of this monstrous tragedy. O'Connell. about six o'clock on a summer evening was in his gig when his brains were blown out. by five men who stopped it. may agree. Mr. in the The ferocious condition of Thurles is attribute.. fair and market present. Amongst such scenes. the ha/ard which landlords . magistrate quite as much as the Protestant." On the occasion alluded to. and the Catholic. tlie ineitement to all larger farmers of fighting. . stones hurled at them by the Cooleens. law cannot be enforced. and. and defeated them. Carroll's personal superintendence which preserved Kilmore. came up deliberately. to the absence of its landlords..' order." And. with the sentime: one witnex.pt rs^ a commission of the peace in Ireland.The Lawlors were more numerous.st and accompanied by the women. in this lawless state of the people.f p'. . On the contrary. "which wa* characteri/ed as ha\ing a residence. armed with sticks and . Inglis. and it seems iinpossib! Tin. that in accc.li<. that assassination has become so prevalent in Irecountry. as one of the causes of the savage state of the peasantry.imeri-k. land that no magistrate in my neighbourhood feels himself quite secure when going a distance from home he can protect himself in his house.l military attended. and then walked away unmolested. I conceive. to leave the " The fact is.. in February. that if magistral it is at the peril of their lives." for the sufferer to apply to the t . that he was obliged. A boat-lo the fugitives went down in sight of every one. L witnesses. one witness terms it annual riot of Ballyheagh. gr." Therefore.!. "There scarce a market-day in the town of Listowell without a liLjht. whilst there were several cabins on the side of the road. The Cooleens. said Mr. " I am only surprised that the middle orders of the gentry should accept a commission of the peace at all. who has cited several cases of the same kind. though unarmed.ht. who can be hired for a small sum" What a fearful Mr. who were represented. \ was against a Catholic magistrate. such are the s< . . ?*Ir. Gregory was murdered on the turnpike road from Athy to picture he "lecomer. or the account of the savages of the South Sea Islands. Hopner.m . is enough to deter them from In Queen's County. both by them and the prisons of the people. Stapleton received several notices not to be so officiously active as a magistrate and. they took u. They are waylaid and attacked." refer also to the observations of Mr. for a time. for his exertions. I run a much greater risk of my life than in accepting a commission as a captain of is which every We . as one witness observes. 15 ut. The last outrage of the Whitefeet.. Sir W. to apeak. and as men who ought to be hunted out of the country.

each preceded by their bands of music. offers a focus for them." says Mr. Let no one suppose. Wyse. They Be . When a topic of political agitation is proposed to such men. (we may recollect how Mr. hud arms concealed in the mountains mvnThe people. and the most frequent appeal on these to public opinion. is thrown off. the factions laid by their animosities. Political Agitators of Ireland. and in many instances. But not only are the natural disorders of Irish society great they are inflamed and perpetuated by political disorders. Many of the peasants.- and. Mr. Sheil. O'Connell they displayed before them green banners with the name of their respective parishes or townlands. that I am objecting to the keenest discussion of political questions. they are delighted to find themselves led on. and have ever thought. it apreserved for the coming occasion !" the town feuds in which they were pear. could not be convinced that they had recommended the suppression of all former divisions and discords with any other view than to prepare the peoWhen.*. and call God solemnly to witness. as one of the Catholic priests says. O'Connell and his coadjutors boasted of this. to embrace. to popular At the time of the Catholic Association. and all the other circumstances of military array. Mr. vain. and frequently answered with the finger on the mouth. one of the few holds on society given up to its own inherent disorders. during the great funereal meeting of last August. The meetings. even went farther. the crowds. an appeal is made to the reflecting sense of an intelligent community. did not abandon the savage factions and * ! . ^/br the good of their soul and the cause of their country. whose hatred had " lasted for centuries. contributed money for. Wysu dwell together in amity and peace. On the contrary. The people had r . this to be most valuable and favourable to But the case is different in Scotland or England. the leaders who they may. Mr. the processions all these are delightful to them. . therefore. and in great crowds flocked to the chapels. they would Let Mr. where it is a topic of excitement hurled into the savage elements of which we have proved Irish society to consist.) they gave up their factions clans. where the cause of truth. that henceforth. matter what . such as feathers. green handkerchiefs bearing the portrait of Mr. therefore. greatly misapprehended the objects of the Association. then.14 It is. It w as certainly a striking sight to see the chiefs on either side advance up the steps of the altar embrace each other in the presence of their priests and their respective factions. O'Connell." But why was this ? " There was speak: something more in this than met the ordinary The people assumed a regular uniform of green calico their chiefs were distinguished by some fantastic but characteristic addition to the costume of their caps. tithes. and they gather around it. and a significant smile and wink from the bystanders. us out? was more than once heard in the streets of Clonmell. and in Ireland. their most inveterate foes. the people willingly agitation. " the commissioners of the Association appeared in the turbulent districts. Wherever. is of no consequence enough that it leads to and Emancipation. to expect that the moral advantage of resident landlords will be secured while residence in Ireland is attended with so much danger is gfj. I do think. or the work what it will. they looked forward to some great though undefined good to themselves. the harangues. The first of these is the evil inflicted on the country by political agitation. and countenanced by public men. in the spirit of forgiveness. and SECTION III. Lawlesss no matter who. trill lu> call ple for a general and united insurrectionary movement. too. the repeal of the union no justifies excitement. What the subject is. all the rude and desperate This persons who have been engaged in strife and feuds coalesce. met and embraced.

pation would plant peace in Ireland. indeed. after Emancipation. when left to ti At this selves. but a large proportion of those who attended the antitithe meetings. too. was popular. It was not. that in J829. in but occupied and parcelled out the land. and the demand for Irish investments in a great degree ceased. had no interest in land. this was the people themselves. and set themselves to reduce rents. O'Connell's evidence. in which their appetite for blood might be effectually sL They embraced and gave up party differences. This. In 1829 all was peace. in We mers did not all resist tithe until excited by the agitators. that all hope of an insurrection was put down by the conduct of the As-odation. miserable in their sI . factions and clans. When emancipation was passed. and to the tenant of con-acres. but which shows. Hence the peace. We had 1828. joined in the anti-tithe war. became as popular as Emancipation. indeed. a> among the Indians. mer. Keily. even farin comfort. to quarrel and break heads as before. like the others. Nay.* they left tithes untouched and assailed rents alone. and as with greater pleasure they would have joined in the war against n-nt>. " a focus they embraced that make the attack on title For. a hope of what was equivalent to an abatement of rent. and they believed their priests. If these were removed. Would that it had they said. that peace was to be henceforth established in Ireland . there were great demands by English capitalists tor Irish investments. and for the same reasons. The Repeal agitation of 1830 was followed by the Tithe agitation of 1831 and 1832. they were readily denounced by the people. Still. and they profeed it was to the reduction the while that tithe was a very minor question of rent that they looked for real relief. and paid no rent. In 18-30 came the tocsin of Repeal. This was the charm which charmed them into peace. says. Price. But it meant was that to be somehow of use to them. The test came. even after the brighter hope of an insurrection was at an end. All parThis formed the new focus. The people. and all Ireland was in uproar. the peace ceased. to tithes. Miserable as they were at home. which precedes the wild shout and savage burst of passion. and 'tfte people rallied round it. engaged. the >mi!es and Minks of savage joy. because they In. and they found their condition untouched by it. a new subject of hope had to be found. continued to cling to the hope of emancipation. They could not see something how. The English capitalist*. says Mr. in a darker colour. the lull before the hurricane. Emancipation did not mean rebellion. The removal of Tithe presented. indeed. Mahony. a solicitor in large practice in Dublin. they had joined in the war of Repeal." no less neceoary for required popular excitement for their ends. then. in \#H. but the priests assured them that it was. who told them that Emancipation had no connection with Irish outrages. and they despised the homely warnings of Mr. Mr. Doyle's and Mr. found that this was no place for them. very time in Galway and Koscommon they made no opposition In Queen's County. they left tithes alone. \\ hen tithe.15 Repeal. until they believed that there was coming a greater and more tight. thereThis prefore. the order. the deadly calm. K The people \\ere read-. and embraces. These men had been persuaded by Dr. and we were foolish enough to believe it. sented plausible grounds of hope. O'Connell boasted. The agitators. It was English tyranny and English misgovernment which oppressed them. that Emanciwere soon undeceived.: Mas to be a general rising. the character of the people and the moment. to the farso popular as Repeal. they would rise piinary ! been told. and men returned to their factions. brought forward the question of the Repeal of the Union. that peace of \\hicli Mr. as the same history tells us. denounced by the agitators. Hence. Mr. Mahony. and prophecies of quiet. while (lie agitators as they would any other opposition to law. fanner and peasant.

There they would have been content to stop. the laws. of April. that if they carried " Emancipation it would he the better for them. by the cold craft of the agitators. O'Connell cry. 1834. and the repeal of the union with Great Britain. but yet high-spirited people. we read with suspicion of public meetings and processions that is one thing but we may read in the next paper afterwards of a great number of crimes that is another thing. " an increase of comfort they found none they have often said to me. which leads to outrage. in his des" The agrarian outrages have been in patch to government. and they inflamed the spirit of excitement to a high pitch. . Then they bid them go home to their houses and be at peace. influence to parliament." says one of the agitators. no wonder that they should catch at any promise which gave hope of improvement. the poor . Miserable. Lord Wellesley. and the benefit of it was hailed. Observe that in pandering to this cry. it remained after the political of combination had spread meetings had The attacks on the government. on the laws. miserable in their ignorance and vice. and by a tranquil but in 1828 the agitators introduced into it the spirit among the peasantry question of emancipation. and to bring from the county further petitions and demands for tne measure. county of Ireland. Wyse tells us truly. and the latter always runs in the train of the former. on the authority of before the year 1828. were ceased. of Ireland. " They had expected. and increase immeasurably its crimes. with politics they were attacks on farmers and the labouring classes . The outrages had no connection. and hope led them on. and then wonder that when it comes it produces desolation. on England. is agitated in a their natural effects. Despard in 1833. Hurrah for Repeal wild Irish cry hurrah for destruction must ever be the Irish says Mr. this tranquil county did not return to tranquillity. we may add. They might as well call for a whirlwind. Once roused on The lore this subject. therefore. Queen's County was one of the most peaceful facts. the priests told them. They became emboldened by success they struck terror by one outrage . They told them. that the person who would enjoy popularity in Ireland must be prepared to go always forward forward. and they will not disperse without When a political question." an unfailing connection between the system of agitation and the system of combination. Do I say this on my own authority ? I say it biit on the authority of the Lord Lieut. panic spread attacks increased. and therefore they bring together government immense masses of this illiterate peasantry.16 families. . Dillin. ." Hope was thus kindled. but there the matter did not stop. You have promised something to we hare got nothing we are as wretched as ever" But still. whether moral or physical. any change was a blessing to them. in blood and ruin. Mr. before the Committee of 1832. When they call the people together assemble them in a public meetin^ ! ! address to them violent harangues inflame them against the government.) indeed. organized committees. The bad had learned to unite they saw one class of as ciations they felt the facility of another class for other objects hener sprung illegal combinations. Their end was. They succeeded in awakening interest on this point. distinguished by a number of resident gentry. the magistrates." I say it further. to spread excitement on the topic. they mean that the matter shall stop there but Their object is to carry a petition to frighten there it does not stop. ( Evidence of Mr. they are ready for fresh deception. in Ireland. . the agitators prevent the peace of Ireland. Mr. If he stops. remembered.. though deceived. inflamed excited and instance by the combined projects for the abolievery " There is tion of tithes. the stream will roll over him. and for two years its state was one of insubordination. until at last they overspread the whole of Queen's County. Most instructive and most touching is the history of the deceptions which have been practised on this sunk. and funds collected. Call together the elements.

it fell on Kilkenny it embraced Queen's County.. Queen's County was restored^ to tranquillity. so that no man can vcutur his house. or to tenai. such a state of t. d causes. Doyle's altar." At this meeting. quiet possession of their farms. notices became frequent. Tithes selected as the object of attack the drum of Repeal was mullled. the Roman Catholic clergy acted with simultaneous energy . intimidation was prevalent. An association to pi. but. and to stigmatize as cruel aristocrats. and observe the effect produced on the latter county. in 1830. on levied fines of violent arms unoffending persons beating " hundreds be had. and to consider means to b< condition of the people. Cassidy.' Mr. and by declarations made at chapels and elsewhere. the farmers.' \-c. But this was not all. in 1833. the gentry. O'Reilly. "the exertions of Mr. O'Connell. with notices. To were added Dr. that agitation should again commence. for three \mv\ named. somewhat suddenly. Whiteboy offences increased. for it was found necessary. tended to promote tranquillity. at any hour in the four-aud-twent. with speeches." many of the middling classes joined them." the magistrates of Queen's County to come to this resolution." Such was the effect of this first agitation. and others like it. Reform. violent were made. the agitators sought every opportunity to declaim them against the Church. immediately appeared O'Reilly.y. i: beat to arms for the extinction of Tithes. but was i M property proposed amongst Out: the priests and agitators denounced it." says The Whitefeet became emboh! influenced by these representations. For the propagation of that doctrine. inflicted on the Attacks on farmers to compel them to dismiss workmen. and emanating from some invisible authority. farmers and the labourin rapidly increased. and thus in King's Coun . 1831.. county Thus also it was in Carlow. Mr. disorder and derangement of all social relations proceeded rapidly. for the purposes of the po/ nx&of Mr. when. it was neces>ar\ to throw fri-sh fuel on the fire. in order to live either refusing work. the effect of the convictions. Wray had re-established peace.disputes about land and wages: but they d from the period of political excited they received their impulse take another illustration of the -aim truth from tin nt\. with addresses from the The agitation began in Dr. and the attempt failed. was the which.h. which prto Queen's County. O'Reilly:" In the year 1830. " and very seri<be to Mr.plunder of anus continues to be exercised at all hours. and the magistrates. Parliament. 1 1 1 Nor was thi into disorder by the political excitement The state of crime in Kilkenny. "held at Maryboro in February. a general objection Waterford to tithe arose. unguarded. and violent attacks on all the gentry and magistrates. The political heat was not sufficient. and a suspension of agitation. though work might for being allowed to continue in on fanners levied fines or by by robbery In a word. " I signed a requisition for a meeting. In by severe measures. county it spread from Carlow to Kildare it passed into Wicklow and i . The farmers and peasants again breathed and enjoyed quiet but it \\ calm. until about the month of August. so alarming a picture. tinpeople became persuaded that they could do away with tithe altogether." Mr. Doyle's letters on the State of Ireland. Out came Dr. had been n >tored to tranquillity. in 1832: " That the disturbances and the general state of insubordin have risen to a most alarming height that a systematic. people. in which the " The temper and conduct of the tracy was held up to public obloquy. which I give in the language of an intelligent witness. Repeal of the Union. Doyle's lettflT'of forth earner fulmination out poured pamphlets and placards and agitators the country rung with meetings. who were anxious for it.

there are many simple and honest men. Barrington greater or less degree of outrage. blood in his traces. I have spoken of the effect of political agitators on the state of Ireland there is another class whom we must consider a class possessed of great influence over the peasantry. not so in the affairs of the In matters of religion it is paramount limits. It is therefore a mockery. and fairies who tremble who visit holy wells. O'Connell told them. and during all the disorders we have referred to it remained tranquil. as Mr. the most zealous clerical body in the Christian world. and witches. Munster was kept free from political excitement. could not resist the force of popular opinion which is on its side." as Colonel Rochfort says. or the magistrates pistolled from behind a hedge. instead of waiting for those occaprostrated under his influence. If there be crime in the course of the desperate peasant. is monstrous and more monstrous still to express wonder when they hear of the gentry being fired at." To expect that they should obey their hypocritical advice to respect the law. at the hour of death. I say that they. as the priests urged them. and who only left us to mourn that such characters should not have found a church better worthy of them. in the highest degree. cruel penances at the command of their Church But yet this influence has its authority can neither be light nor wavering. tells us. and for the explosion which ensued they alone are responsible.18 indeed. . for the agitators to denounce the crimes of the " " After. Yet when Mr. among the Roman Catholic priests. the purest. It is not from history alone that we learn that. lie authority is absolute and if any one had strength then to dispute it. Croly tells us. and they of this I do not only. that. In the moments of sickness. and trust in a charm over such the pri. I shall presently refer them to their proper sources. are. Shiel tells us that " the Roman Catholic priesthood of Ireland are the best. the Roman Catholic priests possess a great influence over the Irish people. or rather. But for the outbreak of violent outrages. Of these it is my wish to speak with the utmost candour. or the police attacked. which did not show the effect. superstitious who believe in hobgoblins. as Mr. Priests of Ireland. and the English laws were fangs of scorpions after they have " to use their utmost influence to urged them. and a heartless mockery. they have taken in every grievance which they thought would inflame the people" after they have told them. that " the magistracy were the very curse and scourge of Ireland. and into the tendency of whose influence we must inquire. not at the door of the misguided peasantry should we place them. and submit to at an evil eye. fire in his midnight walk. I allude to the priests of the Roman Catholic Church. evade the law. into which the firebrand of agitation was hurled. Among a peasantry who." we must take leave to call other testimony before we pronounce in their favour. There is one fact quite clear. that the English Government was a curse. was there a county in that part of Ireland." and warned them. what shall we say of those who first provoke and then denounce it ? SECTION IV. as Mr. for we have ourselves met with some of whose conviction of the truth of their religion we have been satisfied. are to blame. : . Doyle warned them. peasantry. they hurled a thousand firebrands. So that the priest well knows that there are seasons when the firmest heart will be But if. . whether for good or for evil. as Dr. The elements were ready for ignition accuse them but they threw the spark. These crimes flow necessarily from their own language at their door. this is their doing. and if we condemn the deed. I do not say that the agitators are responsible for the ignorance and disorderly spirit of the peasantry. by bursting into a On the other hand. the priest's world.

he said. that the Whitefeet shook off all n for clerical authority. they have great power. and a man was mortally wounded near the altar the priest could not prevent it. and are < . and w< one of then: debt. the Independent inin! inction between the influence of a priest in spiritu. " that it would be and. that if the priests had tried to interfere. resist liis interference. . the priest would have thought it hi> duty to inter" If I fere. he attempts to interfere in the 1 passions of the people." says Mr." T are so sensible of this that they will not interfere to ckeek even the n It was not for a length of time that the priests and atrocious crimes. 1 . there he finds that his autl. In Queen's County. and the i. Burnett. and what was the effect? not that the disorders were put down. and they would lose their influence over the people in other respects. says. people. finding their influence diminished by the progress of the Whitefeet. they would have been as badly treated as the Protestant clergy. in< at last come forward to denounce the illegal combinations in Queen's County. He knew all the facts he had been a wi. useless for the priests to oppose the people on a point on which they arc Colonel Rochfort says. Harvey says that some of the priests in his neighbourhood were anxious to reclaim the people to order during the c of the anti-tithe agitation. they declined. which has led to their present position of political airitatois. This position ti stand their character as who knows it best in " are generally men. then they would not succeed. "did not. when asked the. indeed." says one witness. and of the Never did crimes more loudly call for the reprobation of coolest atrocity. attempting to take the field against the Whiteboys." The priests. "The Catholic clergy. in 1832. and not withoi. Burke. some of the priests denounced the Whitefeet ." In l<S3i?. The clergy did. if they please. posifi other sub.sions. and that influence I find that upon my opposed it. reason. Edge. but that the p. influence in temporal things in the former it is absolu." says Mr. Bet' re describing them. in County and there the priest was murdered. . therefore. Sir J. "told me that they have lost their iiiflu over that part of the people. might be very weak. At Ballyheagh we have menbishops dared to denounce the Whitefeet. that 1 o priests ar. with his flock. 1 gave them no such advice. fallen into reluctantly.>us of this. " because it would have diminished his influ. except in one case at Kilmallock. a priest. that. but at last. of them but he refused to give the authorities any information. tioned the murders which took place murders on a great scale. to rc<\^ popular pa^inns. however. exciting i : : . but they said their interference would be of no Mr. have great power " In along with the passions of the multitude to excite them. with pol'ti." It is this inability of the priest. Priest Burke says. exert themselves to check the disturbances. were taught that their authority had its limits. says Mi-." On one occasion a riot sprung up in a chapel. and involving all from the fanner to the peasant and therefore the priest of Ballyheagh refused to interfere." " The Catholic clergymen in my parish. : i disturbances. classes . to exercise their influence they have very little power in allaying disoi. in such an attack. when th act of disturbance. 'might the clergy. there was an illegal combination in Wcstmeath One would have supposed against the rents of the Duke of Buckingham. they interfered. No." says Mr. " But they were crimes among large factions. and. " There have been cases where they have opposed the people in resisting the payment of tithe . at the commencement. Edge. the only effect was. If any disturbaiK liis flock. Burke.

presides at political clubs. their dwellings. " they endeavour to overreach and undermine one another. He must make some return of his receipts." At baptism " the money is often demanded previous to the administration of the rite. \Vyse that this would not answer their purpose. little higher than the common farmers. " In former times. con- and sits cheek-by-jowl. But the state of the Catholic Church The is altered the humility of the former times has entirely disappeared. Often. when they have wrung forth their dues. Shiel terms the best and purest of the Christian clergy. Croly. he says. and want. agitation. nor the curates to one another. Croly. When the Catholic Association began its acti. gets at length into a rage. men and gentler manners. Every man looks to his oAvn private emolument. similar to those at marriages. and is abused in turn. too.ity. abuses the M-hole company.iG orr tests elections. fond of excitement. . .exact them with the utmost rigour. of more cultivated mi 'ids priests. At absolution. their manners. at the cradle of the infant. and for the sake of diffusing on their side. regardless of all agreements. whose wish it was to avoid politics and there were the younger priests. vol. educated for the most part abroad. has paid us back this return. It was necessary." Such is their clerical work. at marriages. schemes. Common honesty is out of the question nothing but lies." About 1824. . if not paid. but it is an arbitrary return every man striving to seize upon a large share for himself. nor the priest to the curate. false returns. 1 i als-o Tngll?. educated at Maynooth * (Maynooth.) whose disposition was very different keen politicians. as Mr. All the statutes of the church. Let us now turn to the daily life of those whom Mr. with Peers of the realm and members of ParMr. the priest labours to get employment in saying mass in private houses. exemplifying There were the older in their lives the contrast drawn by Mr. sickness. duplicity. and. bitter words take place in the very hearing and presence of the poor dying person. country priest now copes with the country squire. Wyse mentions the very time when this change among the liament. ii. Association was spreading. at the bed of the dying. respecting the amount of dues. The priest drives as hard a bargain as he can." and he and the friars compete with each other in this branch of gain. when the agitation of the Catholic priests took place. until the whole house becomes one frightful scene of confusion and uproar." In extreme unc" a rite administered often amid tion. which. a large proportion of the priests refused to countenance witnesses before it. utters the most bitter invectives against individuals. The curate does not make a fair return to the parish priest. for our contributions to Popery. scenes of abuse and recrimination ensue. bition of his Church. at public dinners and public assemblies. and far preferring to For a long time there their clerical duties the storm of political meetings. when it is not to be had. at baptism. . are a mere dead letter. that the influence of the clergy should be enlisted ssrfan toflisgja isJtel ^'sl^oQ . Masses. both for the sake of pecuniary funds. they stood style. keeps sporting dogs. destitution. money is demanded and instances occur of money being pocketed by the priest which had been given as alms for the relief of the dying. nothing is done by them without money. and the disposition of some of them (as is stated by the But the agitators found the Committee of 1825) was to keep aloof from it. Demands of money are made upon those present at a marriage they refuse the clergyman. after begging and^entreating for some time to little purpose. was u struggle between these two classes. " the Catholic clergy lived in the most homely In their dress. their tables. and strives to make the most of the occasion." says Mr. Thus. declares. there were two classes of priests. at mass. Marriages are sometimes broken off in consequence of the exorbitance of his demands. and money exacted from them without shame. are priced in spite of the prohi.

that a priest this course. of tremendous consequence as a political party. The treatment they met with showed what others Mr. Their appeal was next made to the people. in order to not go the whole length with gain his fees. - . and upright individuals of the clerical body were made in IS:M. Croly tells us. n \\ as in agitation. the priest who preceded Mr. to were to be drawn into co-operation. ings. they became very generally the collectors for the Association. obliged to follow the bent of their flock. A witness speaking of J " The impression on my mind was." injustice. in the course of time. the priests were found the excitement When 18^0. the priot. "the multitude hold the strings of the cleriand woe betide the unfortunate priest who would set himself in cal purse. pi had no desire whatever that there should be a disturbance. headed by Dr. rush into his parish." " are witness. all thoe scruples had opinion." therefore. Dr." and whoever refused. " It wa> now held that priests should second. Lalor elected. frightened. Burke was obnoxious to his parishioners who said of him. but the bishops. if they do not appear. First. be. In the parish of Castle Pollard. or sta: into compliance.wen. Croly says. a suffragan was quartered on him. but zealous agents." The was leaders of tins a certain party. who parishioners. have found Catholic prie>ti. Doyle's letter again>t tithes was the prime cause of the excitement. that if they took a decided part against the people. Hence. but a bad man for his The friars. that even his influence. would not uphold any priest who would not back them in their pn uricd into be produced \\herc this thr. some of the bi gave way. are always watching for the unpopularity of the parish priest. j count It time past in the co-operation of the Roman clerical co-operation. and many of them kept then arose. at which Sir H. by degrees. Priest Doyle was the person \\lio . and instances could the obexecution. The common cry among them was. is denounced and called a Protestant priest. the patriots of the day." as Mr. In the despatches sent to the Lord Lieutenant. with all their influence. if he does the people: or. were to expect who who lives pursued on good terms with his Protestant neighbours. Doyle long resisted. " that he was a very good man. their power was used to coerce the refractory and when a priest persisted in refusing. to levy contributions. and Mr." says another might be sufferers themselves in consequence. been led into politics. The younger priests who joined were exalted to popularity those who declined were suspected. or stimulated. after the struggle in 1824. that multitude the more completely at their disposal that enabled them to . that they opposition to their wishes. though against their wishes. we find them mentioned as stimulating Unpeople to join the Association and pay their contributions. They would have been perfectly satisfied with procuring their income in a quiet way. and 2600 priests enrolled themselves its members." says Mr Croly. could not restrain it. The <!. they " The priests. the whole kingdom in a state of commotion. a sufl'ragan is sent to draw his due-. Doyle. the bishoppealed to. every species jects when the Catholic quest i<. and of of though persecution. but they found. by this they have ." because he would not encourage agitation. When.divided in back from politics. while twenty bishops and four archbishops joined the Association. in short. was denounced as an enemy. were strongly op| to this. ivc. by assuring them that it would be for their good to do so. County \\ Vstmeath." Accordingly. or rather clerical sub-en iency. Dr. W^e find scattered through the Evidence instances of priests whose better measures into feelings shrunk from this alliance with politics. Parnell \\adefeated. who drew hiThus the priests were. that at first the Roman Catholic. and their clues were withheld. at the election for Queen's County. in disappeared no longer backward. and from the which it drew them. but he had the mortification of finding. "In a word. though it could excite a movement.

" harangues. Mr. " one great anti-tithe meeting which " Political and factious the priests have not attended. They showed it more clearly in the Clare election. the people cannot expect justice: it This is a moderate specimen of is tainted at its . Napper. when the lowest grade of them can imbrue their hands in innocent blood with impunity. Burke abetted the feelings against the Duke of Buckingham. and so long tered as they were at the last assizes. meetings were held at the suggestion of the agitators." 1828. Mr. The priests in Carlow put themselves at the head of the vast assemblages of people who met to hurl out tithes so they did in County pay tithes." speaking of the gentry. Kilkenny -so at Castlecomer and Ballyragget. Wyse. us the justest specimen of their sentiments: will the to people. in various places. the opposition in Graigue. when Fathers Murphy and Maguire canvassed with Mr. The Rev. at Castle Pollard. became frequent. first. but which then rung with fierce curses against men. 1832. but against those who did not vote for the popular candidate. in upwards of 1500 Catholic churches." says Mr. might be seen the novel exhibition of the priest and the agitator walking arm-in-arm to the chapel. O'Conneil. Doyle. which were at first rare." We G ' i . and in addressing to them political harangues at Bagnalstown the priests ad" and took in dressed the people in most violent speeches. every grievance which they thought would inflame them. but perhaps that rattan's election in Meath. or Mr. at Mr. and at every political meeting. Lawless. Lawless. my friends. from the ermine on the bench ?" " who have bared the if you abhor the bloody and its bones to country inhuman massacres of your innocent and ignorant countrymen that t< as the laws continue to be adminisplace. violent priests came from a distance. says that the priests have taken an active part in politics. may remember the published language of Dr. Shiel. They commenced this in 1824. and openly to canvass the electors. and at every election. Shiel and Mr.22 commenced church. not against crimes. and the administration of them in this country. haranguing the people from those altars which professed to be the altars of God. and. delivered at the husof priest Burke. when Bishop Kelly headed the priests of his diocese in an active canvass. even before Catholic Emancipation. Then. (EviThe language which. Doyle's letter was publicly read antitithe placards were put up by priests over every county in the south of Ireland. Singleton. advising the people to pull down the At Loghlin Bridge. " were made from their altars at the celebration of divine worship. abused the Duke of Buckingham's agent in the chapel. and are sure to receive protection It is such men. and ordered the tenants to pay no more rent to him. We see what occurred at the anti-tithe meetings. and their churches were surrendered to be used as political club" In " on the same houses. Croly. With the solemnities of religion were mixed the passions of politics." Mr.) wards the gentry and the magistracy was of the most violent character. Every altar was occupied by priests denouncing tithes Dr. and have contributed materially to the excitement. the priests were the active agents. the priest gave orders to the people not to At Bagnalstown. the priests used todence. . the priests had began to take a decided part. give tings " What kind of for the laws feeling can be entertained by you." says Mr. at Loughcrew. and in Meath that he gloried in being the leader of the people." says Mr. and for those functionaries who administer them.source. the priests harangued the people against them. " There was not. Burke says that he attended political meetings in his own county of Westmeath. day. But these things. and priests drove their own flocks to the polling booths. and Mr. and denounced tithes from the altar." In the elections. and anathemas. priests were to be found. and at the same hour. Mr. in a few cases where the parish priests declined to interfere. Priest Milner wrote a pamphlet. in the Waterford election.

holding them up to the infuriated and excited passions of the mob. who. ordered. by hooting. that the food should melt in their hands whilst a fourth swore that if they went . he would. while another body of mix-rcaiits proceeded to the chapel. N family grossly ill treated. In no part of the Queen's County have the mandates of the priests and agitators been more brutally exercised than at Clonaslie. often from the altar. who voted at the Carlow election for Colonel Bruen and Mr. no person to sell. A worthy and estimable gentleman narrowly Castledermot Chapel escaped being attacked by the rabble. After last mass on Sunday Michael Finn. and brutally ill-treated by the rabble.poll. who voted for Sir C. and. r de<>m scription of the means used by the priests to intimidate tin" One voting for him. Kavanagh. give to. and. breaking the seat and pew in pieces belonging to a respectable man. on Sunday last. Several persons were hooted and driven out :f this Synriland Chapel chapel on Sunday last. and were thrown at the car of Mr. at the different avenues and leading to Carlow Chapel. Coote. Feb. and broke the pew of Mr. Rathviliy Chapel a mob. at the late election for Carlow : priest threat that the very moment a freeman. knocked county. I -rted out \va obliged to save her life by flighi of town by the police. was entering this ehapeU he was attacked by >i lt*d that The $# down. open canvass. i tioned themselves. as Michael h elector for this i . Repeated attacks have been made on a number of persons who attend divine worship at the chapel of Castledermot. ' Kahama Chapel On Sunday. Ballinabrana Chapel Black lists were posted up. worship way groaned Creator. are pointed at as they go along no one dare hold the slightest intercourse with them.23 which these ministers think it their duty to address to election last winter produced >imilar specimens denunciations iroin the altar." I shall give some further specimens of the treatment which electors reSeveral women staceived who ventured to vote contrary to the priest. one man was shut out. Gorman. Another protested that. and alluded to from the altar.) in an address to his constituents. third gravely told them. for the purpose of exclusive dealing. and put them on their bellies for the rest of their lives !" " In the parish of Sancroft. and his proceeding' to this chapel. Pierre Iyrne On" Monday l&t. if he had not forgotten his crucifix and breviary. on pain of excommunication. who voted for me. (Carlow paper. Several men \\ the streets. as on the Sunday previous. st Bennekerry Chapel Several persons were abused on Sunday. several nun. the persons who voted for Ponsonby. and a \\oi. hooted their to their some of our on at Catholic townsmen. 25th January. Mr. shouting. A against him. gives the follo\\ iii<.' and severely hurt. in one instance. Captain chapel^ n in the Chapel yard. were assailed in the street of Clonaslie. he was'attacked in the yard by named Keddy. for the last four or five Sundays. Nolan. after having received much injury. So furious was the conduct of the rabble in his Leighlin Chapel with a party of police. on the spot turn his rebellious parishioners into flaggers. under the penalty of the withering malediction of the priest. and the priest leading the people to tin. he would turn them into four-footed beasts. and his children. was obliged to patmle that Stewart. t few specimens of the use the priests make of their intimidate men in their political rights. returned lmm< 1 shall give a i influence to would clap a pair of horns on his head. at the late Kildare election. or admit one of the recreants into their houses.

" influence. deposited them in a rendezvous. Of them. that he did not vote for O'Connell and Cahill. who did not vote. In Tuam. have been the instigators of a misguided multitude. that in all the above cases the priests were eye-witnesses of the scenes. indeed. let us imagine what it must be to find an influence great as of ininds can the peait the make over exerted superstition constantly santry. This exercise of justice offended the Catholic Forth came the bishop. must go deeper into the relations of daily life. but to exasperate mixing with every village feud inflaming every local grievance sowing every where the seeds of We checking no crimes. months' imprisonment. who had not a vote. and after collecting them. two Roman Catholics. At the late Carlow election. because her relations were friendly to the Bruen and Mr. to appear on the hustings. and by their conduct have left this impression on the mind. In Cork a priest urged an individual. and ordered his parishioners not to work for him and Mr. Nor is it only in the heat of an election that the priest uses his in- Every one who does not submit to his orders is the victim of his attacks. and that he would be smuggled through. " that while their congregations have engaged in sedition and insubordination in burning and maiming in murder and massacre. Walker found that the men. the feuds and disorders of which are so many. Burke he complained of him to the Duke. At Ballymahon. who. was for his voting against the wishes of the priest at the late elec- his last. and the man himself. who attempted to drag him out of the chapel the only reason assigned for this outrage is. The priest of Ballymahon. and denounced the magistrate. gave him offence he harangued against him in the chapel. On the same day. was sentenced to two fluence. the altar. under the care of a chief From this place each man was accompanied to the hustings by two agent. and preaching the doctrines of the gospel. recommended a subscription in favour of the convict.) It would be impossible. in County Longford. in 1835. not to soothe them. There. deserted him. no Roman Catholic dared to work. what they do as political agitators. We may show. and he had the utmost difficulty in getting his potatoes dug. and his calumnies were rejected. The Duke of Buckingham's agent displeased Mr. M'Cann. while Mr. (Evidence. Walker. to produce adequate proof of the influence which the priests are now exercising in Ireland. were attacked before the service was completed. to whom he had given constant work for years. and their seats broke to pieces.acted. and abetting suspicion unsocial antipathies making the rich using religion to goad Mio passions . but poisoning kindly feelings. and panderers to popular passions. and did not interfere. Luke Nolan was sitting with his brother in Rathloe Chapel. the Roman Catholic bishop headed the canvass from 1 80 to 200 priests brought up the voters. Croly. induced the thief to prosecute the constable the constable was acquitted. in this capacity. dates. he was assailed by about twenty ruffians. in consequence. they. . He revenged himself by forbidding the tenants to pay rent Mr. who did not quit him until he voted. Higgins. 1832. for assaulting him. tion. . a person for a theft was apprehended and imprisoned by order of the magistrate. Then we find them the willing tools of the demagogue. On Monday pew in . Let it not be forgot. from clergy. priests. Mr. two priests were the proposer and seconder of the Radical candi. a young woman was thrown off the gallery of Borris Chapel by some misinterests of Colonel creants. a quiet country gentleman. and his priests. in the broken elements of Irish society. we may say with Mr. At Ballyroan Chapel. Kavanagh. instead of setting their faces against these things. as we have attempted to do. that to these actions the priests give their full and But it is not there only that we can discover their unqualified sanction. for whom.

the landlord by let us remember that th tenant. But. which professes to offer sacrifice to Heaven. if they were attached to the state by a state provision. will W 7 . tunity of judging of the likelihood of this. gives the lie to Their whole religion is full of denunciations auain>t these assertions. lately. therefore. and a warning to the true sons of the Church. power. It has been attempted however to be said. therefore. vigilant. and where the priest is the tool of their passions. the Protestant by his Catholic neighbour influence is unwearied. their influence has-taro special effects. exertions of their priest. with these they are connected and. If you would you may riot in their ingratify your vindictive feelings. you must fly from the country where crime and superstition are leagued in one desperate fraternity. But every day. depend they on their command over the people . there has transpired a it shall be Catholic ajiain. but a >tronu evid< of heretics in their utmost rigour. rises the cloud of bitter hatred and stormy dissensions. they were driven in Pollard. and Mr. Boys. at their head. command. county. can we manvl it Protestant emigrate from a place where his life is wretched.hr of a fact which require. a book containing the This is. rism to Ireland. Burke rises at their altars that does not mark them with tin. Ireland was once Catholic It is true that. and then say whether the expression of the inhabitants from a peaceful state.no proof at all. they throw The gent' ml into the hot fire of politics the fuel of a hotter superstition. and both of them must be stated before we can arrive at a just conclusion. if you would live at peace. the tottering fabric of heresy is falling. and such hatever. where the wicked govern. for which is dearer than fees. that the priests in Ireland may be useful in maintaining peace. therefore.u< r or. they have become. and the in respectable Catholics fly from such scenes. or might be made so. " that they believed it \\a> the devil who sent him among them. besides these. and universal. while the Catholic fact of which we were kept in profound ignorance us that. on which all may repose with confidence. have now given every one an opporTreat the priests as you will. by which they can maintain their . ho\ve\-r.every parish. have bosoms open to all. by the poor. Cio anion. and we have seen that there is one way only. the employer by hi* labourer. in in CN We Political incendiaries. was too strong. O'Connell testant inhabitants of Ireland. " of triumph in his chapel. but. and must their for fees. that of political agitation. Not heretics as a horror. that they give themselves up to the priest." said that reverend gentleman. try to persuade us that nothing can be more benign and fraternal than the present spirit of the Roman Catholic Church." And if this demon of discord is work in every parish in the South and West of Ireland.fin " in one of his bu.the h. The first is the effect which they produce on the condition of the ProThe Catholic members. are the evils of political incendiathey remain. r . in order to be at peace. and the Catholic Church is rising in glory. by trampling them under foot a true description of Ireland. reprobation. and are content to propitiate his favour by submitting to his will? The poet has described Pandemonium as the place where the bad vex their fellows. go to Ireland dulgence . a Mr. where superstition is used to excite and encourage crime and from the altar." that. and over the dark and benighted minds of the people come the blasts of a still darker superstition to rouse them to passion and hatred. are obvious. of Boys. their religion was changed. There is not a catechism or a sermon which does not point out heretics. they were Ireland of assuring Bishops were all the while reading amon^ their cleruv. effects of their influence. The prii they would have us believe. when. moreover. and every hour. and inculcating on them as doctrines of persecution and extermination theology. or. and they revenge themselves on others more wicked.

It is so in Ireland. there is a strong Out of Queen's County the Protestants feeling against the Protestants.26 the Catholics in any country. The Protestants employed by the gentlemen of the country have been attempted to be murdered some unfortunate wretches have been actually murdered one at the collieries another attempted to be murdered near Coolcullen another was fired at coming from church three were fired at in their fields when at their work ell another at his own door. to fight and wade knee-deep in the oppressors' blood and that neither the groans of men. they dwell among Catholics. people fired at them frequently." might the witness infer that it was their object to expel the Protestants from the country. and you will see there the real spirit of their It is of little moment what the priests tell us the question is. Now. tells us are widely spread over Ireland. In Queen's County. what they tell their people. Archbishop Murray tells us that they (the Catholic clergy) prohibit and dissolve all marriages of Catholics with Protestants. thereby holding out The people are not slow to shed Protestant blood as abjured and tainted. and of hatred by the people. It is so in Spain and Portugal it is so in Italy. shall daunt him. . . when tions. in which several persons were murdered. . says Mr. in 1830. and others coming from divine worship. have emigrated in great numbers. O'Connell In every movement.) " and to resist the payment of tithes and to support and uphold the Holy Mother Church of Rome. Whenever the popular passions combine in one union of fury. In Kilkenny. then settled down (says Major General Crawford) into an attack on the " The Protestants. for they are Protestants. is one binding them to exterminate the Protestants." (meaning the Protestants. The lazzaroni of Naples are the fiercest bigots. whenever occasion required. some at their work.) that the priests of Queen's County never interfered with the Whitefeet. and a similar oath is taken by all the Ribbon Asso" Never to ciations which have existed for above half a century spare. in the same evidence. and another on the bridge of Castlecomer. therefore. if necessary. but persevere and wade knee-deep in Orange blood not to serve the king. for the protection of Ribbonmen and. whether it be under the name of Ribbonmen or Whitefeet. the Protestants are the first object of attack. and therefore are they the objects of anathema by the Church. to give it greater significancy. which Mr. . in all Catholic countries the lower orders believe they show their love for the Church by hatred of heretics. arose at Castlecomer the assemblages The priests headed these. Every oath by which the lower orders associate themselves together. except it was more for his advantage than dealing with their brethren. and not to deal with Protestants. they cannot be safe . This excitement led the affray. peacefully. it is on these unhappy victims that they fall. (before the Committee of 1832. says another witness. religion. and. The it to dip their hands in the blood thus cursed by their Church. Live therefore as these may. Here is the Whitefeet oath. . blamelessly. They have tied : . and the Catholic schoolmasters against tithes. to walk in the blood of the heretical class. Ribbonmen's oath is " To appear in a court of justice. . and swear. . Croly charges the priests with sanctioning these associaIt is not surprising that such hatred of Protestants exists. ." Such is the oath deponed to by a Ribbonman before a magistrate. if we would know this. until (says one witness) they saw that these associations were sapping their authority that the priests in the diocese of Down and Connor refused to interfere with the Ribbon Associations. Despard. unless compelled and when the day comes. it is established. and. as taken and read aloud every quarter in the associations of Ribbonmen. we must know what their people believe. for the ingratitude shown to his brothers of the Catholic Church" Such is the oath of the Catholic Associations. . W . and connived at them that Mr. nor the moans of women.

Evil has attended it sometimes violent p: >nal . and Dr. They asked him to return to them. not even in Spain. In Sheil carried into Orange Lodges. again. under Wolfe. Ulster. less a zealot. which they find of Vv'aterford. They profited by his successful. He wrote to the gentleman who allowed the use of his barn. A Bible attractions to its ministers. But the inquiry which. at mar!. and poured blessings on him.hint the altar. the mainland. has exhibited their real causes. Nangles. the Defenders became tranquil. and have been compelled to seek employment elsewhere. (I give a speciin. missionary. which originate in hatred of Protest' ism. Cooke. no. Hear Mr. than they sent some of their parishioners. In 1790 they attacked Protestants in order to deprive them of their arms. Mr. and they valued it. trained up in the doctrines of persecution. but called these violent Catholic by Roman Catholic persecution. and hunted him out of the island. The Ulster associations 1 am far from admiring political associations.:t houses. Tone. nor hi. 3 \ good. The parish pr heard of it. Inglis. to their returned the Catholics again failed.from a Catholic soil. and they attacked and stoned Mr. less a hater of Protestantism than is consistent with the present spirit of Catholicism in Ireland. The people heard him with in. Roman their persecution attacking them in their incessant and relei. In no country in Europe.. for their blood. and so on attacks Protestants." it is this spirit which is burning hot as fire through all the parishes of this wretched country. It is the Maynooth priest who is the agitating priest and if the ant I foreign educated priest be a more liberal-minded man. United Irishmen. They were all stript of their trade and livelihood. no man's life was safe. He f . No sooner was this known to the priests on teaching. has shown that evil has resulted from party warfare. I of a tho >i i a barn to clergyman from London pipreached no controversy. when Dr.. of the last century 1 joined with many others in reprobating. Peep-of-day Boys unjustifiable in their conduct. thirst. They hung around him as he leaving them. He read from the altar the names of the///?// indirirlmils who were thus won by the preaching of truth. in this session. then. after various local feuds from 1760 to 1780. He has no taftte lor conti no attacks on any creed his wish is to teach his own.. that the Protestants threw tions (which. straightway an assistant. and he forbade any Catholic to hold any intercourse with them. And so allied were that in 1793. in 1784 the Catholics combined and began to persecute the Protestants. he preached what he believed the gospel. have been increased by the Maynooth education of the Catholic priesthood. a liberal and a Whig "I entertain no doubt that the disorders. clergy. to protect The result of this union lias been far from unmixed property and lives. Nangles. on the road. Mr. under the name of Defenand hence sprung a rival association of Protestants under the name of ders into exigence. is appointed to the parish. (a Protestant gentleman. And the spirit of Popery so intensely anti-Protestant as in Ireland. red-hot from Maynooth. and to this hot fire are all unhappy Protestants is yet subjected. first the members of the Church joined. unless he promised never to lend his houses for such purp. themselves into Orange mily at peace. tried for a short time to draw both But when that Protestants and Catholics into a combination of treason. iied tears. went there last year to teach the gospel. in his evidence before the Committee of 1825.) and told him that he iroiild ikntmnn. Here is another case. Troy and the associations \\ith their own The Catholic clergy interfered^. Religion was not introduced because the people were too few to otter any No priest had set his foot on it. He was The people cherished and loved him. The island of Achill was left unvisited by any minister.

that this fear pervades the minds of many of the lower orders of the people.28 disturbances. were always the sufferers in every disorder feet. wrong on those whom all Catholics hated. to whom Mr. with all its Orange disorders. when Orange associations were seen their causes were forgotten. they should unite to pro." It was even more so in other parts where the Protestants were less protected. in the testimony of Dr. by uniting them in a strong body." What the Protestants. The proof of the advantage is. and whatever was the object of their association. The hot zealots. Cooke. their evils Ireland many Protestants. that. " and they. From these quarters the stream of Protestant emigration ran deeper and more rapidly." Now. or Threshers. has had since that time no Insurrection Acts. the milder priests. and Whitefeet. This fear arises from the unprecedented influx of that association called Ribbonmen. by a party at night. by the confession of all witnesses. in comparison with the evil against which it was a It preserved the lives and properties of protection. and as their natural enemy. Inglis alludes. a United Irishman and a Roman Catholic. doubt. efforts against the Protestant became bolder and more inWhatever was the name under which the Catholics associated. the Maynooth priests. they always bound themselves by the anti-protestant oath which I have given and in dealing out wrong on others. or rather I should say of the Catholic priests. as I do my own. Not a Ribbonman lives but all his operations are known in confession to the priest. they dealt out. and of whom Mr. without which they would have been run down and driven out in detail. therefore. The elder class of priests. that with these causes operating on them. (says a witness) are the chief advisers or consulters of these bodies. Blacktherefore. Wyse speaks. "are . M'Niven. by the way. All liberal men in this country learned to condemn them. of sound principles. these are insignificant. In the meantime. But. Hence. and pointed at their heads by the priests' anathemas. ready to re-establish the Inquisition/' were muv fi\-d mvr Ireland 3000 . when I say we regarded them with dislike. who was examined in 1798. had died out or were removed." he is asked. Instead of wondering that the Protestants by the last census are found to be so few. jurious. Ribbonmen. abstained from joining them. It was not wonderful. " How can you account." says Dr. There have been a succession of petty assaults. The minds of the people have thus been kept continually on the alarm. In the Evidence before the Committee of 1825. the attacks on the Protestants became tnore concentrated. so many of them have been able to endure and to remain. The Protestants. I believe they would but the lower orders of Catholics consider Protestants and English settlers as synonymous. have stated. . so furious against Protestants. all dealt a blow and wreaked vengeance upon them. in addition to what we part of Ireland. that in the North of Ireland there had been far beyond the natural proportion of emigrations among " I have no manner of the Protestant part of the population. and whom their priests denounced. about^bwr years ago. night after night there has also been the murder of a Protestant at his own door. " that if a number of ships were sent to County Derry. Mr. on the part of the Catholics. who. Ulster. I am sure I speak their sentiments. at last. whole I know districts of Protestants would remove for fear of the Catholics. Inglis fcays. let us remember that these associations. or Peace Preservation Acts. In arisen . " for the cruelties lately exercised by the rebels on the ProtestantsT " If the Directory could have prevented it. inflamed by religious hatred. had to feel were the vindictive passions of the peasantry. But. that where they were sufficiently numerous. this is established. had But years elapsed from 1795. the Protestants of Ulster. were under the control of the priests. tect themselves. among the Protestants emigration went on rapidly. while these have been applied to every other The proof of the necessity we find. I wonder.

rivers Avill be enough to terrify them. he says. I . working in their parishes and goading on the people to the habitual persecution ot tinBf . and his father. in the words of Mr. any moment to rise and on their enemies. Shell's and Mi.lleeted their H< above 3000 chapels. Mr. " to be hunted out of the country" the Protestant policemen were marked and magistrates v\ei-e denounced "as a curse and a to be execrated of activity escaped denunciations Protestant No many magiscourge. Burke. a priest from his altar denounced an individual who would not vote for Mr. We'll not be beat but if we are. and they political demagogues. they are fellows whose names were not known when your ancestors possessed the land they now usurp the right over. Now emboldened by success. and their attacks became more open. as very lambs and doves boasting before Commit of Parliament of their benign spirit were all the whiU. and ready at. in 1832. fled to America. tion strong t ' Protestants. upon the heads of the victims who were in tin These priests representing themselves through Mr. altar ." "I then to point to the remedies necessary. Emigration amongst Profarmers and lubooairs landlords became non-resident testants increased A witness. nell's declamations. the heretical church falling. assured of victory. r they ment planted fall ." The landlords were held out by a Roman Catholic bishop as miscreants. but a time will soon come that will call upon them And to prove what right and title they have to their usurped possessions. ami over all In-hind. he declares to be one who a renegade and an apostate Them is tampering with his landlord extending his fury to all the Protestant landlords. Catholic emancipation gave them a vast accession of power. saw. in a very populous is not safe for them to reside? security that it To strike more unisecure. given. hope it will not be nefor I hope the very sight of the scabbard cessary for us to draw the sword. 3UOO priests on the.-. Ottfe . these tyrannical despots ? Why. at the last election at Carlow. apostate lickspittle. Burke turned Athboy into a scene of strife in Castle Pollard h. as Mr Wyse tells us.Wociatum.29 with great influence and equal fury. they all over the country. s:n il'r thnfight." themselves find not do district Catholic "Does any This \\a. Previous to this a proof of the same jmu er had been at the bidding ot 'the Catholic . when. . "Who are these bloody landlords. In County Longford the priests excited the ]> in Meath the priest turned the people against the Protestant fan to fury in Wustmeath he turned their fury against Protestant landholders Political causes came to animate and encourage them. and contempt :" and every one that does not come at once to the poll. you are a a ruffian and a misdetestable. Hear the language in which. . O'CormeiTs candidates. cert/ fe/r This removal of Protestants is produced by a general feeling of intrict. blo\\ . Yes. and their own rising in glory. in the priests summoned a meeting from the. their priests. and made them necessary to Uni The prospect opened as they advanced. the Protestant resit! general apprehension prevail among Certainly.l tireof . of blood will flow broader and deeper than are the waters of the Barrow." strates were tired at many individuals fell. is asked respecting Queen's Comity. of that the whole Catholic population were under the complete discipline b<>a-h-'. apostate lickspittle creant to be held by the finger to scorn. M c ssrs. " Do you know who I mean ? I mean the hypocritical proselyte.ptrseeuit. he says. a great number (of that they an. were million and a half of men.hh-w the flames of variance. hypocritical.x to show versal terror. and detestation. Raphael and Vigors. themselves as one of that were.not in a state of security? Itucc remained in the disProtestants) this year have quitted. I say. they kept no terms with the Protestants \vhoeverdid not yield to their orders was denounced with fury. &c. the idea of the lif/ltted /////was contrived.

nor yet do I give them a willing and unqualified approval. Whigs and Liberals saw that. . when these signs were gathering on all sides. The rapid movements of parties along all the roads. and men were sleeping in peace. these symbols were borne. they returned to their Protestant Associations. perhaps in none" (this witness is speaking of Tyrone. bitter and unrelenting. and expressed my surprise that a man of his good sense would lend himself to the raising of such alarms in the country.30 few hours' notice. that no one. and most consistent with their public principles. and the fingers of a savage people were pointed at them. daily persecution. of which Lord Gosford informs us. . by which they are in . to disobey when the priest had given him an order to perform this duty. against the unhappy Protestants in the at a preceding years. where the Catholics and the Protestants are mixed together. public in England and Scotland believed what was reiterated it was then that. and while the curses of the priests were rained like flakes of fire upon their heads. It was not possible for him. if they were Protestants. while not a word is said of the Ribbon Associations among the Catholics not a word is spoken of that persecution. and too often executed." This display of perfect order and concentrated power in the hands of the priests. Hume. ready to be dipped in their blood. passed across pulation. and the oppression. Many who had long kept aloof from ti: now joined them. There was another mode of assembling the people. and then there was a person despatched from that house to carry on the lighted turf. the door of the Roman Catholic was knocked at individuals were heard hastily rising. exhausting. O'Connell should denounce the Protestants of Ireland quite natural that those who long to extinguish our Protestant faith. But the Lighted Turf. It was at this time. I spoke to one of my Roman Catholic parishioners about these signals. They had no friends. They felt that if they remained isolated. time. and Mr. the Red Cross of Papacy. there was no safety but in association. which are poured out from the altar against the men of our own faith of the annoyances. "in the summer of 1832. It is well. should denounce these Protestant For my own part I can truly affirm. Denounced by eloquent speakers in Parliament belied and slandered by the press traduced abroad in terror at home suffering under a daily persecution weaanathematized at the altar pointed at in the married out by terrors ket waylaid on the road their homes unsafe their minds worn by rumours of vengeance they fell back on themselves. the order with which. in the dead of night. took place in 1832. they would fall unpitied . by which they are beset of that wearing. which is now carried on against the not a whisper reaches us from these patriots. Their doors were scarcely in any instances knocked at. But. while in Ireland they were the victims of a most intolerable while Government frowned upon them as enemies. and re-established their Orange Associations. of the cui Protestants thick and black.) "The consequence was universal alarm. kept the alarm of the Protestants alive. various and constant. and it added fresh power to the threats and denunciations made. when all was still in every country except Ireland. by lighting fires on the tops of mounThis might be used at any moment to raise the whole Catholic potains. and to let loose the dogs of superstition and infidelity upon us. rousing themselves from their despondency. Ireland with a warning yet more fearful. O'Connell and his party were in England. at one Associations. he said. In the house of every Protestant in the country some one person kept watch during the night. that Mr. indeed. representing the Protestants as oppressors. when Mr. At midnight. or some mysterious message was conveyed. looked with greater suspicion upon them than myself. they were all the while held out to this country as the persecutors of others. and apprehensions were felt that there would be an attempt at a general massacre.

It is in now applied. I do not rest it on his authority. lies in the danger to which It is the sense of a common Catholics. the Protestants of Ireland are exposed 'argument. to the interests of the Protestants of Ireland that they should all be confederated into one great body for the purposes of self-defence. and have rendered sai'e. it feuds with religious hatred." This is the and that justification. charge against. And while Government stand calmly by and express not one feeling in their favour. this session. who have eaus. that I sat down Protestants. witness. not to the witnesses in favour of Orange Lodges. Sheil moved. The evidence of that committee. 1 looked upon it that the critical circumstances time demanded of me the joining myself with this body. the more will this ensue. O'Sullivan. after these proofs. The weapon which they use are different. and the bigot and tyrant of Ireland. and men of blameless truth are hunted down. the demagogue of England. to revert to our justification of such associations. where we gOVfcWlnient and a cruel priesthood. or Proshould that peace impossible . we ought to join in their f. and I rise from it fully satisfied that the union of the ProOne testants in such bodies was indispensably necessary for their safety. and speaks the feelings of all who will impartially examine this evidence. and I had reason to believe that its r and the combination of the peacefulness was mainly owing to the conduct of the Orange Societies. the enemy of evidence alone proves the necessity and the use Orange Lodges. when. the Catholic and the Infidel. Mr. to its perusal with the strongest conviction of the impropriety of Orange Associations. For they. not in the' secret chamber. But the time is now come when Scotland will see the real position of our Protestant brethren in Ireland and it is satisfactory to feel. whose hearts are a* Claverhousc. their undefended victims. correctly states the case. the Roman of the persecution by and imminent danger which has driven them into union and. and they wield them in another field <>t > forbid that we should riot hail the spirit of other men.the tort'. In have. himself driven lately to join them.-d it. whose hatred is as deadly as Dalzelfs. It is not to the boot they are submitted. has had the opposite effect. and I felt it to be essential until it was perhaps too late to protect them . I would refer any one who would understand the question. I saw that the North of Ireland was tranquil. while \\ e adwe have a urave mit this danger as. > - Parliament. who shall deny it ? . apply to them. His " From the time of the passing of the act for the of these associations. "it became more manifest that the destruction of Protestantism in Ireland fare. the passions of testantism be the. and might never become thoroughly sensible of the perils to which Protestants were exposed. but to the hitter accusation and the opprobrious lie. (whose testimony of course should be taken with caution. peasantry. for which.) but to that of Lord Gosford. But though I state this in his words. I became convinced that England was greatly deceived as to the state of Ireland. in order to blacken the I can truly say. that the more the question is inquired into. at least. removal of the Roman Catholic disabilities. do nor desert themselves. stimulated local exist in Ireland. It is by these that char torn to pieces. . was contemplated by Roman Catholics. the steel of their cold and false calumnies. God all when deserted by land. win).31 jeopardy every hour." says Mr. that it may enter into their souls.there are men at this day who are cheering on the furies of the rabble against the Protestants in Ireland. the Roman Catholic priests have embittered and inflamed by denouncing heretics and cursing heresy.suri'ered like evils under an intolerant t.

SECTION V. to learn the fate of the Irish Protestants.) says that their good in Ireland had been incalculable they were societies for the preaching and teaching of the truths of the gospel the truths taught at the ReformaIf the Catholic clergy say that these are an offence and an injury to tion. in such a case. and quietly withdraw Protestantism from Ireland. but to withdraw it altogether as they now do. them. Protestants of Ireland. and then stated to government that as the preaching of the gospel was the cause of disorders. a mode by which peace may be purchased for Ireand it is the mode which Mr. It was applied in the case of the island of The priests Achill. are to be regarded as injurious. Neither emancipation. They said it was owing to the crusades and missionaries of the land. Let us then anticipate the convulThe object of all sion. with Mr. Burnett (not a churchman. sticks and stones are to be the answer. and leave Ireland to the . Repeal of the Union is only valuable because it tends to this result. extinction. the million and a half of Protestant souls." objection to this? justice. There is no other mode. become peaceful and prosperous only as a Catholic country.. and right. and if the attempts made now. the time for . prepare the same fate for others. Nangles introduced the gospel there. not merely that the Protestant Church should be removed that is nothing but that the Protestant people. and we have only t<> read the history of the age of Louis XIV. priests. Now. Hibernian. under a Catholic democracy. which do not touch their property. For if we leave the Protestant faith in Ireland. Doyle and the Catholic Bishops were prohibited. would the condition of Ireland be improved ? that Is the question. however. Now. Irish. the priests have the same powers over their own religion. what is this but telling us that that if we dare to throw light on that we must not preach to their flocks ? them we must be put down and that there can be no peace unless we permit the poor Catholics to remain the slaves of the priesthood but that if we presume to enlighten them. to take back our Scottish and English settlers. the Catholic priests would persecute it There is no way. If it can parties is to make Ireland a peaceful and prosperous country. and the Catholic party. then. religious societies. their emissaries to excite disturbances. to discover that. which. O'Connell and the priests urge as the remedy for all difficulties. it should be On another occasion Dr. are those of which Mr. of late and by force it is plain that they intend years. . . nor tithe ing. frequently had recourse that Protestantism in Ireland shall be put down. They point at this as the time that is fast " coming. and of the extermination of the Protestants in France. these religious societies the Bible. to which they alluded. they were the same offence and injury to their ancestors. are unopposed. There would be no religious dissensions no Orange All these nuisances. or affect their churches. we aiv lodges no Protestant Associations. Let us buy peace from the priests in Ireland by driving away heresy. There is. nor church extinction. But perhaps this. it is worth makNothing short of this will succeed. and Reformation Societies. as under a Catholic desand pot. is the better plan. examined as to the reasons why peace had not followed emancipation in Ireland. when Mr. should be swept away as a nuisance from the soil. What then is tininquiry into titles and resuming usurped possessions. Force is indeed the weapon to which the priests of Ireland have. we agree. but a dissenter. Repeal the Union. O'Connell as their leader. though it had not a sixpence of the public money. and law might offer some but what If its peace are these if they stand in the way of the happiness of Ireland ? and future well-being are to be consulted by this sacrifice. after all.

between the Caas disturbed. and the Protestants 3(i. in the three provinces. But Armagh comprehends several counties of Leinster. must enter more minutely into this. . tin other three provinces of Ireland have but 400. In Tipperary theiv are but t\vo Orange lodges in many other counties of Minister there are none.diil'eivne. The population of Ireland. in Leinster. that while Ulster has 1.573 million are Protestants. Tranquil not seem then to arise necessarily when religion. whole province of led to proclamation.33 assured by Mr. in other words. -233 Protestants of the population in Minister. other. of Minister. . Limerick. Bat throughout \Ve in operation. In the one province Orange lodgs-s are m.000. parts of two . in Connanght. In the ecclesiastical province of Armagh. These last ar. therefore. is . Tipperary is never at peace Minister notorious for its disturbances.-stants. On the :M December. it will be remembered. In round terms. the Catholics are 1. ! . where the population million and a quarter and in Minister. and Clare. on the other hand. Cork. therefore.335. out of every hundred there are only 115. by the Report of the Commissioners of Public Instruction. there are only half a million of Protestants. and manufactures exist. But there is one of the four provinces of Ireland which is tiainjuil. Tipperary. and has been tranquil for f< the other t!i. tho Defenders and Peep-o'-day-boys. .155. proclamations have no* and. small part of Ulster. is dotted tii with Orange Associations but Ulster is the only part of Ireland where life is safe. of the population. unequally distributed. is the necessity to apply tin. where it is above two millions . Six millions and a half of them are Catholics one million and a half are Protestants. wns imt j .955. 20(>. in a population of '2. would be abated. are \Vaterford. we follow the steps of these Acts. we shall find where they have lighted. there are few in the. 179G. On . (which is and out of this identical with Minister. ant disturbances. the Protestants and Catholics in Ulster may be said to be nearly equal. where the popuis a nearly two millions. or the \'< rvation Act.000 Protestants. . a small par. are thousands of Orangemen. As the Report of the Commissioners divides Ireland into the four ecclesiastical proviir we cannot say with accuracy the proportion of Protestants to Catholics in each of the four civil provinces. We .795 the Catholics. with part of two parishes in the Conn. Ulster. containing a population of nearly six milIn Minister the proporlions. though we believe the Catholics form the majority that is. and we may which are flie most disorderly districts in Ireland. Hint it -m Dublin. viand. the ordinal". there are only^V-e Protestants. lation the other hand. The eon. and land is well tilled. But it v -it attached 1 !< to a and on 1'. O'Connell. r. so that the proportion of the Protestants is smaller in the Ecclesiastical province of Arm than in the Civil province of Ulster..nd bane of the country.1:23 the Protestants are 1. and Lord Gosford MOD. disturbance Few years h.) there is a population of :>. tion of Protestants is the smallest in the Province of Cashel. to the disturbed parts.000 Protestants. which Government were under best tests of the disturbances in Ireland.100. The e tin! proclaimed dispute's tholics and Prot-. is very nearly eight millions. I. are 62 per cent. this occasion. about a < : . Kerry. Insurrection Act. only tluriny In century. If. * to strike (ii until crii:. nre tin* . that is.

the Insurrection Act never has been applied. They produce Orange dis. O'Conncll's view bo cor it must be a most On the contrary. (a most reluctant witness) is obliged to confess. led. the evidence and the signals of advanced and general outrage. that in the counties where there are most Orangemen there are fewest disorders. when this extraordinary power was called into existence. except. while in those counties which have been perpetually the theatre of its application) there has been very little religious dispute. I believe. Crawfurd. Hume in Parliament Mr. If Lord Gosford and Mr. are the cause of disorders in Ireland. they were passed in 1800. 1815. By this black telegraph. O'Connell and Mr. however. 1822." says Mr. we read which are the have had the Insurrection or parts of Ireland abounding in crimes. Mr. in his evidence in 1825. and in parts of two other counties lished the Irish tenures. Of course. has stated the bad effects to which their processions have. let us admit their view in spite of the disorders which these Protestant Associations engender. in Ireland but for an Act. and others. and there only." I am far from saying that Orange Associations have led to no disorders. Connaught. such is the beneficial tendency of the residence of Protestants. Leslie Foster. never. 1810. ligious differences We . 1804." have heard much of the mischief of Orange Lodges. of . these have Yet. and Munster. we are told. Into Ulster. There have been of very few Orangemen in the counties to which the Insurrection Act has been applied. 1814. inconsistent is this with the fact. "It is very observable that in those counties which have been the seat of religious differences. and 1833. that ders. that. was applied to far more than 15 parts of Ireland applied to many districts. " that in the eleven counties which were the subject of the settlement of James the First. lics. the stronger becomes my argument. has it been carried ? Into all the three provinces of Leinster. And to what 1808. and the religious So hostility which they engender. would have us believe that these parties. and d. therefore. with all this. 'ween the Orangemen and the CathoOrange Associations. In Munster there is one place with a large number of Protestants BanThis place has been disturbed. in County Cork. (a settlement which broke up the whole fabric of Irish abosociety in the province of Ulster. O'Connell assert that Orange processions have caused so many disorbut then. when passed.34 proclamations are. to quote the words of Mr. that where they reside. But the higher you rate them. 1801. Lord Gosford. province. in some cases. that Lord Gosford himself. admit that this is an evil. So far. 1807.1 tranquillity. 1803. I do not underrate the evils of rebut where there are Protestants and Roman Catholics. Dr. are these differences of religion from producing civil disorders. and where there are fewest Orangemen there are most disorders. They occasion for religious disputes. in evidence before Committees. is peace to be found. arisen. that is clearly an evil. provinces. We . then. . Insurrection Acts and crime. 1824. Not once has it set its foot within the borders of that "It is a remarkable circumstance. where the Catholics and Protestants are nearly equal. Into every county in each of these. 1823. Cook. Dublin. Peace Preservation Acts. and habits led to the native population being pent up within their mountains. well. orders . Leslie Foster. Uiso: It has a prrpondoraue. while all that was fruitful and valuable was taken possession of by the English and Scottish settlers) in these eleven counties the Insurrection Act never has been applied. how striking becomes the fact. religious differences must exist. But to enumerate merely the periods when the Acts were passed. and the disorders consequent on Orange processions. there is peace in Ireland with Protestantism without it. 1816. then. if Lord Gosford and Mr. by don. and laws. They draw after them Orange combinations well. . fifteen times in these 35 years. with all its religious disorderly town.

and Fermanagh. 20 in Down. in the other two three Catholic counties the lowest amount of crime is 25 20 as compared with it is 46 and 50. et a In Gal way there were 62 crimes in Westmeath.-iprovinces of Ireland. besides. Monaghan. Such is the course. .' give you the comparison of crime in the Protestant. because capital is exposed to risk. is so sensitive as capital. In Connaught. 11 now to the Keturns of the actual criin. In Minister we have 262 for various iv hy Mr. We . have taken crime as one test. or to borrow money on a prop he finds no difficulty. is offered for money advanced on land practice in Dublin. The interest of money lent on land is at prefallen with peace and order. in May. Compare 11 with 62 25 with 95. In our own country in former ti It has in ill-governed countries now. is a -till stronger in places superseded the old staple i We .000 less than in Ulster.-. it is in the North of Ireland that he is employed to sell a property. v. many . and in it. It f'ies from l' What doeit Hows into Ulster. and the boundary of distur! over all the re>t of Ireland. 31 to 4 per cent. this province was tranquil. is tranquillity :'. says Mr. then. in the funds to the risk of so lending their money. and other towns we look for manufactures on any con. In Ireland.000 souls. vine] But the progress of the Cotton the Linen. But compare the counties of Ulster with one another. the Protestants far exceed in number the Catholics. i 1 We . but an almost insurmountable difficulty it' the property is in the South or West of Ireland. As these counties differ in population. find. where the population is tl these crimes. 11 as compared with 25 50 these are the measure of the difference between the order and peace of the Protestant counties of Ulster over the Catholic counties. In some the In Antrim. the amount of crimes committed in the different counties of all the Provinces stated in Parliamentary papers.. In Cavan. In Ulster. where shall derable scale ? <ure in Ireland. we know. Nothing. in Ki County. r 478 crin and in Leinster. but the Irish capitalists prefer having 2 or 3 per cent. the population of which is 300. and there!'. with lation not much above one half of that of Ulster. and of crime in the Catholic counties of Ireland.slants. The returns of five months give us 2000 insurreetio:iarv crimes in Ireland. Let us take another guide. Mahoney. and by its sombre light we have been guided to one conclusion. turing capital do? \\\\\ in of Ulster. Armagh. the interest of capital is enormous. . and follow the steps of manufactures and capital. In Fermanagh there were 25 er in Antrim. he says. were 963 crimes. 11. Barrington. Down. at this moment. of agricultural capital. it is from sent low in EngtanS and Scotland. we find. 19 in Armagh. In Scotland. southern pro fin <rs of Ireland is collected in masses. and 1'elfast. 5 or 6 per cent. It is therefore the best index of the political atmosphere. Protestants are far more numerous than in others. I shall state the number of crimes for every 100. 1834. in tin. and mcasun In India interest is high its rise and fall the state of the political world. " to the treneral state have taken the Insurrection An walking out the line of order. Therefore. 95.000 of the population in Derry there are only 11 whereas. Antrim. all. ot'Mun- a 1 v< i Foster. 22 in Tyrone. . 70 in Kilkenny. and Derry. 1834. Derry. These From the other provinceare some of the counties of Ulster. the Catholics far exceed in number the In the four first counties there are 20 crimes for e Protestants.iees which mark the course and the punishment of crime. 66 few. If. 100. a solicitor in e\t.

spun ing. Foster says. Foster. that the counties where the Cotton manu- gradual and timorous advance. and entered Derry. the linen manufacture having raised up a population acquainted with the practice of weavThe manufacturers in England have begun to send over cotton. is there. Lewis. . and by its settlement mark out the quiet parts. then. on which manufacture locates itself one island in the midst of those " There troubled waters.S6 tion. They risk very little there is nothing of large establishments. Here. Fermanagh Ireland it crept along the coast. says which . it then assumed a more fixed character in Belfast. as the only spot free from those disturbances which agitated the rest of Munster. have shown what Province the Cotton manufacture turns to. but Louth has been always free from In Louth. set to work capitalists England. is security. we shall see how it way to the safe parts of Ireland. Donegal. and it is immediately brought back into England to be finished. . angry collisions take place. that it is extremely thriving and prosperous anil that it is remarkable. in gal. where there is a strong Protestant population in the midst of a Roman CaNow in Bandon alone. Antrim. there are only 12 crimes to every 100. Frankland Lewis. . does manufacture take the map of Ireland. in the County of Cork and I have been told by persons who have observed upon it. nor does it spread into the Catholic counties of Cavan and Fermanagh.000 of the population. facture has thus settled itself are the Protestant counties of Ulster. far beyond all others in security and peace. 1825. . are the Protestant counties of Ireland far beyond all others in number of Protestants and. and Bandon alone there "a strong in quiet. But where the Protestants and Catholics are nearly balanced in numbers. and Down. says Mr. these contests take place. and they no longer feared to make a fixed investment of their capital." Bandon then was selected by the manufacturer. But there is yet another fact not less remarkable. We don. which is the lowest amount next to Derry. out of tholic population." Thus. and Antrim. the second stage of its progress was reached. is in Leinster. . it follows the north-east coast to Derry in Antrim it is carried on very considerably . and Louth. and manufacture just because. during all the disturbances which have agitated the County of Cork and its neighbourhood. no spot where a great deal is accumulated together there is nothing that can be destroyed by any sudden act of violence. and mills for the spinning of cotton-twist equal to those of Glasgow and Manchester arose. spread itself over the counties of Down. Lewis. and Derry. commencing at Drogheda." One instance moiv. as the Cotton manufacture Into graphically tells us. in 1834. felt its It' \ve follow its and what these parts were." . " I should say." Being asked to what parts this Cotton. spread." Mr. " established at Banis a Cotton manufacture. and those alone. is an exception . Louth. But in the other Provinces of Ireland there is one spot in the midst of them. all Munster. to be woven in Ireland." and in Derry. where the manufacture is located. Ireland has hands that are able to weave. are its great seats in Down there is the greatest com" It does not " into Donepetition for weaving. Leslie Foster. Frankland Lewis. " The " in of Mr. he replies. then. where." says very cautiously. and Antrim. But it will be observed. the manufacture does not pass. from Drogheda to Dunleer.weaving was spreading. that that district never lias been disturbed in such a way as to interfere with the operations of the manufactures. on which it plants its foot as on a dry ground. and we pray attention to this. and in what parts of that Province it fixes its seat." says Mr. The capitalists have found the country in these parts secure. and they part with it for a very little time. . adds Mr. in Louth. nor it does much into extend and Cavan. and those parts are found to be the Protestant districts. in England. according to the returns of crime disturbances. Protestant. which is a more Catholic county. says Mr. . there " I have heard that in the town of Bandon. population. Down. as Mr.

and little ornamental gardens . in the town of Tarbet. but the direct contrast to the southern and western counties. and reading more. only. and they are willing to live hard. ihi-r." Ti in Leinster but it is a colony of South Wales a in the south of Ireland Protestant colony. having higher notions of comfort. and " these places are. if leaving the north. And." distinction of character. There are two places in Minister. we and that in find that the Protestant province far surpasses the Catholic the Protestant province. more general." says Mr. or whether we compare its different classes. I have before described. because they oti'er rents. " ma. d condition of the farmers of Minister and Leinster. able class. He has risen in the general elevation of the society around him. we shall be struck by remarking. I saw universal tillage. After passing through a considerable part of Con. . Protestant places. the Catholics are content to subdivide it into wretchedly small allotments but the Protestants. " the Catholics outbid the ( Presbyterians in competition for land. IniJis' ETtMDtll in Ireland." Such. And if we take Mr. Mr. it is mapped and marked in the scale of comfort by the limits of the Protestant population. is in a very different position as to order and comfort from a Catholic of the south. are the characteristics of the farm. and two Protestants. therefore. n :. l. have produced among the farmers an improved husbandry. ami a more regular employment to labourers. But still he is in a very different position from the Protestant." Dr.^ " may remark." These. that. and exist. as one witness says. in the midst of the filth and misery of a moral desert. Let us turn now to the condition of the farmers. he assigns this besides the fear of Catholic persecution.nt.. and perhaps a somewhat larger capital and this again has been the means of givii. and there are a few.37 There can be no Orange combination* without a con^. misery. the Protestant class is the thriving. In the three Catholic provinces. and a comfortable The farm-houses substantial the cottages clean and comfortable people. Lewis says. in their miserable icar/. where. from the South to the North of Ireland. ." as Mr. Foster. speaking of the Barony of Forth. one province with another. It is true that a Catholic of the north. Foster says. "Then. being more educated. there are Orangemen. and trace his pro. in the County of Cork. . . r and peasant " The state of Ulster.. will not pay. rents which the Protestant population. are violent n in Bantlon. . on the produce of the land. we compare prefer sending their sons to America. then. the general state of Minister. you find a green spot in the farthest south in the County of Wcxford. they knew more of America and. and that in every town or estate in Connanght uhere Protestants exist in considerable numbers. speaking of Ulster. are the indications given by capital and manufactures of the state of the Protestant parts of Ireland. in the County of Kerry. when the families of farmers are large. the M retell. and poverty. the crops excellent laboured. filth. is not merely different. and clean And what is the cause of this contrast? distinction in condition. and follow a track through it. and ." But proceed into Ulster is it all alike ? on the contrary. " without any natural beauty. but with every thing else to recommend it." he says.. kt A few unable to find employment. we plunge into the south of Ireland. the simx of civilization increase. Being asked the reason. not a Sujn'rior intlutln/* and f/rrt/ftr prori. " I found a country. from ample evidence. good husbandry.. Whether. the Catholic the degraded. Cook incur' that greatly more of the Protestant population have emigrated from Ulster and can pay than of the Roman Catholic. that just in proportion as the Protestants thicken in numbers. there a rise the unwonted simi> omfort and order. Inglis. F. the land well at the doors flower-pots. who are a higher and HUH.

since leaving Limerick. Inglis advances in Ulster the improvement becomes more striking. This." ception of two or three months in the year. Is there religious harmony ? On the contrary. I think." he says. Wyse's " This estate near Sligo. indeed. I perceived stricken appearance of the Irish towns was fast disappearing. of Fermanagh is superior to the same classes in most other parts which I had visited. are evidences of the prosperous condition of the surrounding agricultural population. that within a few years. that I was verging towards the north. In the south and west I have If I wanted fifty men on constant employfrequently asked this question A : . &c. Inglis comes to Sligo. and in the appearance of their houses. . I every where noticed excellent crops. siderably Protestant. Strabane I cultivated country. The County of Fermanagh is contheir families. which mark intelligence. and some show of comfort. gentleman has been at great pains to establish a Protestant tenantry on his estate. upon the whole. and peasantry. which show benevolence its three lib" These were the first libraries I had seen raries. I saw a population without rags improvement is every where discernible. with several streets. there was a reThe povertyspectable look about the people." Speaking of Mr. than any town I had seen since leaving Limerick. Inglis passes into the " The condition of the land occupiers in the baronies County of Fermanagh. Now comes the explanation of all this activity." Next \ve come to Enniskillen. As Mr. he says. of which he thus speaks Sligo has the look of a town of some consequence more so. Inglis then d\vells upon the lower orders in Londonderry and' its neighbourhood better. found a remarkably neat tow n.38 " naught. near Strabane. the clean and tidy appearance of the women and girls was a very agreeable The farm houses too are of a superior order. which is considerable its fever hospital and dispensaries." " I found the condition of of Londonderry. He says that the Protestants and Roman Catholics are nearly balanced in numbers " the Protestant population of Sligo and the neigbourhood is large. and getting among a different race r I heard few complaints of want of employment about Straof men. with the very improved appearance of the ragged. than I had yet any where seen it. and the generally improving condition of the town. he mentions. " I found it one of the most respectable looking towns I had seen in Ireland. From Connaught Mr. In the general aspect of the population I perceived an improvement. The prosperity venly. and the epithet. bustle. and tenpence is the usual rate of wages. Sligo holds a respectable rank. I saw fewer tatters than I had been accustomed to. there is employment for the people. religious and political animosity prevails to a considerBut the cause which Mr. . which contain excellent houses and capital shops. leads able extent in Sligo. Inglis assigns for this. The population of Enniskillen is about one-third Protestant. are and shops. when all wear shoes and stockings who can. I was greatly struck in the bane. and fewer bare feet on market day. Mr." Now comes the reason of this. I saw little or nothing of rags . was rather a rarity. course of this day's journey." He then enumerates the extent of its trade. In one of the parishes in which Mr. there is more neatness. " I found a " In pleasant and pretty well Tyrone." : . slosight. rather than a whole coat. and as much milk and butter as were required for Now for the cause." There are two Protestant churches in Sligo. I did not observe many symptoms in the town of a pauper population. The latter. could rarely find any subjects for its application. the Protestant congregation has increased more than one-half. and in the adjoining parish it has increased one-third. In streets. I found all the farmers admit that they could afford to eat meat three times a-week. Inglis rested a few days. us to the sources of this local prosperity. and every thing else. houses. " With the exscarcely surpassed even by those of Cork or Limerick. Mr.

things amongst the people and their habitations. Mr.- repeatedly made it a charge. in the early part of your evidence. and a great body of the middle classes. on j:iri.ml it wns only testants were on juries. Harrington's evidence. and Kilkenny. on putting the sunn. Singleton) the Protestants alone had the courage to prosecute and give evidence. suitteiently proving that labour \\. O'Conm L 11 h:. Catholic farmers do not come forward with that willingness to bring Do you attribute this to any offenders to justice that a Protestant does. on leaving Londonderry. rn:. are Protestants. distinguished in every wav from the surrounding neighbourhood. In like manner. elevenpence. &c. Within the town and without the town. atrocious crimes r. I have. Singleton is asked. usual evidences of prosperity are so much more abundant. and that of Mr. what would they hire tor? and the Hero. I attribute it mo indisposition to the constitution of the country? Mr. that Belfast has little or nothing in common with the rest of Ireland. not a single Protestant was concerned the Catholic farmers of wealth were driven into the Whitefeet Associations . 6d." should be r-aid that the Car- in lev I. Stapleton is asked. that l . that you have found that the prosecutors upon all occasions all. when a wrong was inflicted. -ufti- of find the reason. dared not prosecute or give evidence (see Mr. the proofs of prosperity are equally striking.holics? districts." fairly considered a rising town.q or Is. No mud cabins these Iliad 1 > behind me long ago no poor cottages and neither in the streets nor suburbs is the eye arrested by objects of compassion. Wherever you go Mr. no trace of an Irish population among any class. were Protestants have you ever found that there was any reluctance on the part of Roman Catholics to prosecute? The Roman Yes. S f :-' " . and so much more striking in Belfast than even in the other most flourishing t<n\ Ulster. 1'ut. and noticed throughout a very improved "Colerain. ! Mr. and that in more than one case. " You have stated. In all the outrages which covered Queen's County. are not ragged. Ingli-s. ineludin shop-keepers. At Coleraine the overwhelming majority are Pn. . "I In intimidation. says. Again. to av<> : .i the and entreaty they were afraid t . because unemployed. in The lower orders fact. that I am justified in saying. then. . th.is employment for labour in and about Coleraine." We add not a word of comment to this striking commentary of 1'acN. and starving. There is. Mr. or a murder committed by the Whitefeet on a farmer or a labourer." very large preponderance of Protestants in the popr." Protestants in almost all ca rally Protestant or linman Cat. Singleton cites several cases of thi* in Queen's County and in Galway. in 1830 and 1831.39 ment.) not a single Protestant farmer was induced to join in them. (Mr. as in an Irish morass are scattered the few green spots on which a man may plant his foot. Generally speaking. in their rudest the Protestant population stand out alone. "he passed through a fru itful corn country. and wages in the country aver.latio: all the upper classes. King's County. the Catholic labourers or farmers. in Belfast the preponderance of Protestants is notorious. in Londonderry. t!i. and idle. artifice number Roman Catholics The Ho. for wrongs inflicted on their Roman Catholic neighbours. left in the in the Catholic provinces of Ireland. Now comes l! higher wages were ptiid. though groaning under oppression.

mountainous district in Ennishowen he located there a number of ProI would refer any one who knows or has read of the sintestant families. in looking for fit and efficient men. and am litical effects. to extirpate the Protestants from Ireland. Wray. or prosecute.!:i. would bring peace. of the connection between Protestant principles and civilized habits. It is for the same reason that the police and constables are drawn from the Protestants a topic of frequent declamation by Mr. and that because. if we desire the progress of civilization in Ireland. They are and will be co-extensive. in one of his bills last session. and said. Grant that there are 6000 persons interested in the present state of Ireland 3000 priests and 3000 agitators. If the Roman Catholic religion shall continue there. to form his judgment from this. But in their pothe difference between them is marked. C. poverty. proposed to sweep them out. It is vain. and by our policy we may secure one together. I waive all higher considerations I put aside all quesI place the Protestant and Catholic tions of religion religions on the same . we must seek for the spread of Protestantism. content to regard them as of equal value. But these cannot. O'Connell. to hope that the remedy proposed by the priests. A : monstrous anomaly. and the confesThe well-tilled sional empty. says Mr. or convict and therefore the law altogether fails. and make our choice between them. it is and it is only as they spread. They are. and the houses of that district. though they dared not prosecute or give evidence against the parties to the murder of Mr. people plunged in the mire of ignorance wading in the blood this is a of violence yet lavishing half a million to feed the priests field. mit that the two are incompatible. Blood. the cheerful labourers. the interests of superstition and merinterests of those whe feed on them cenary politics of the priesthood and the agitators. we procured Protestants from the North. that the altar should be overthrown. than that the labourer should be wretched. I should think. that evident. surely. And. . Let us weigh these in the better worth than the interests of 6000 men. and inI am aware that in correcting these we must oppose the tolerable crimes. the hum of active business. namely. We cannot have both. . gular difference made in the appearance. which shall we prefer? 1'iintfxl L-y \V. Priestcraft and peace cannot be found But we may have one. who. vice and disorder will prevail. the cultivation. the misery of the poor.County came to him in 1831.:>^ C\>. in the case of Lord Caledon's estate. be put in comparison with the interests of the people of Ireland. I know that with Protestantism But the happiness of eight millions is their power would be destroyed. and put Catholics in their stead. I may give one instance more of the contrast between the character of Protestant and Roman Catholic inhaHe wished to reclaim a bitants. when a sufficient number of Protestants for the police was not to be found. (ihugowr. the only sound parts of society order will spread. the smiling cottage these are more cheering objects than splendid chapels and gorgeous masses. Barrington also tells us that in Minister the farmers. he dare not give evidence. popular ignorance will be perpetuated. then. It is only among the Protestants that there is found courage and principle sufficient to make them appear as prosecutors and witnesses." inflicted on him by the Whitefeet. "Will there be any law given to keep those people from coming to our houses and visiting us at night?" Mr. I adscale. In Queen's County. " yet told him that they were delighted to hear of their execuBut though the Catholic farmer is writhing under the cruelties tion. Better. farm. we could find none to be depended upon among the Catholics.

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