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Question 1 Employees in a paint department of a factory use hazardous substances including solvents and cleaning substances.

(a) Outline the health effects that may be experienced by the employees. (4) (b) Outline factors to consider when undertaking an assessment of the risks to health from the hazardous substances, as required (c) Outline factors to consider when selecting respiratory protection equipment (RPE) to give suitable protection against exposure to solvent vapour. B)Factors to be considered when undertaking an assessment of the risks to health from the hazardous substances include: the nature of the substances to be used and the type of hazards they might present including their accumulative and combined effects; the quantities to be used and the likely resultant air-borne concentration; the number of persons to be exposed including individuals who might be particularly vulnerable and the length and frequency of the exposure; and the provision of personal protective equipment such as that for respiratory protection and gloves and overalls C) Factors such as the degree of risk involved following the completion of a risk assessment; the amount and degree of the anticipated exposure and the intended frequency and duration of use of the equipment; the level of protection required with reference to the assigned protection factor (APF) given to the equipment by the manufacturer; the existence of a CE approval; the introduction of procedures both for initial fit testing and for subsequent inspection; the health of the employees who would be expected to use the equipment and the introduction of a programme of health surveillance; and the provision of adequate levels of supervision to ensure its continued use when required. Question2)An employer has installed a new item of machinery in the workplace. Outline the factors to be considered before the machine is put into use. Factors such as conformity to EU requirements through the CE mark or the issue of a declaration of conformity; location and environment; the availability of operating and maintenance instructions; the commissioning and the provision of a practical demonstration by the machine suppliers; the level of lighting and the space provided for operation and for carrying out maintenance; ensuring that protective devices were in place for the dangerous parts of the machine and that precautions were in place to control other potential hazards such as dust, noise and vibration; the selection of competent personnel to operate the machine and the preparation of a schedule for its regular inspection and maintenance. Question 3 The influence of drugs on employees in the workplace can have a significant effect on health and safety. (a) Identify the possible reasons why a person may be in possession of drugs in the workplace. (2) (b) Outline measures an employer could take in order to reduce the misuse of drugs in the workplace. (6) For part (a), persons may be in possession of drugs because they have been prescribed by a doctor, or they could be over the counter medicines purchased at a chemists shop or they are recreational drugs which they have obtained illegally.

Note: There were those candidates who thought persons might be in possession of the drugs because they were dealers whilst some suggested personal factors such as stress and work overload as reasons. Measures which an employer might take to reduce the misuse of drugs in the workplace include first of all carrying out an investigation into the existence and scale of the problem which may become apparent from a study of sickness and absence records or through observation of behavioural changes in individuals. Other measures that could be taken include the provision of drug awareness training for managers and supervisors; consulting with the workforce and with external drug misuse agencies; offering advice and information on contacts and support groups for those employees seeking counselling; and identifying safety critical work and including drug screening and testing as part of the process for the selection of those who would be involved in these activities Question 4 Outline practical measures that reduce risk from electricity when using a portable electrical appliance. (8) Practical measures such as the use of undamaged and properly routed cables; the use of reduced voltage by means of a 110v step down transformer centre tapped to earth; the use of double insulated (class ll equipment) or battery operated (cordless) equipment; the use of the appliance in association with a residual current device protecting individuals by rapidly disconnecting the power in the event of a fault occurring; ensuring earth continuity particularly when class 1 equipment is used; and carrying out regular visual inspections and user checks. NOTE:This was an outline question which too often provided lists or bullet point answers.These mentioned the use of RCDs and double insulation without ever suggesting thatthe authors were aware of the purpose of these measures. Some candidates concentrated solely on pre-user checks whilst one or two relied on the hierarchy of control involving the elimination of the use of portable equipment and ending up with personal protective equipment as a last resort Question 5 A storeman is placing boxes of metal components by hand onto shelved racking. (a) Identify FOUR types of injury the storeman may be at risk of during the work. (4) (b) Outline factors in relation to the task that will affect the risk of injury. (4) Injuries including spinal disc compression or slipped disc, strains to tendons or muscles, hernia, and crushing or impact injuries. Some referred only to non-specific injuries such as back pain and work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) whilst others suggested some rather unlikely injuries such as retinal displacement and electrocution. Answers to part (b) factors relating to the task which could have contributed to the risk of injury such as the manipulation of the load at a distance from the trunk; a high work rate with insufficient periods allowed for rest and recovery; and the need to adopt unsatisfactory body positions because of space restrictions.

Note: Despite the appearance of the word task in the question, there were some candidates who included additional factors related to the individual, the load and the environment which did not gain them any marks. Question 6 Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the sloping roof of a building. (8) Precautions include an initial assessment to gauge the condition of the roof and to check for the presence of fragile materials. It would then be necessary to provide safe means of access, normally by the erection of a scaffold; to use roof ladders or crawling boards; and to erect edge protection with guard rails and toe boards to prevent the fall of persons and materials. If the provision of this type of protection was not practicable then the use of other equipment such as safety harnesses with adequate fixing points and/or nets might be necessary. It would also be necessary to provide either barriers and signage round areas on the roof containing fragile materials or to cover them to prevent persons falling through. Note: Answers provided were to a reasonable standard with most candidates referring to the precautions to be taken both for those on the roof and for those below. If there were deficiencies, it was the lack of consideration given in some scripts to the presence of fragile materials and the use of a waste chute Question 7 Employees are carrying out repair work to wooden floorboards inside a room within a building. A noisy circular saw is being used which is standing on the wooden floorboards. (a) Outline TWO transmission paths the noise could take from the circular saw to the workers. (2) (b) Outline ways that noise levels could be reduced. (6) Transmission paths such as by reflection from surfaces within the room; structure borne, for example, through the wooden floor; and directly through the air. Many candidates found difficulty in outlining transmission paths the noise could take. There are a number of ways in which the noise levels might be reduced. These include using a quieter method of cutting wood such as a hand saw or positioning the saw outside the building. If neither were possible then consideration would have to be given to putting insulating barriers round the saw; fitting absorbent materials on the walls; positioning the saw on damping material; using the correct blade for the saw and maintaining it in good condition; and turning the saw off when it is not in actual use. Note: Answers to the part (b) were to a better standard although some candidates did experience difficulty in differentiating between methods of sound insulation often referring to the same method in different words. The use of ear defenders and a suggestion that job rotation should be introduced were not awarded marks because they would not, as the question asked, reduce noise levels. Question 8 Outline control measures to reduce the risk of accidents from reversing vehicles in a workplace. (8) One of the first measures to be considered would be the elimination or reduction of the need for reversing by introducing a one way system and providing turning circles

or loading and/or unloading areas. In circumstances where this might not be possible, it would be necessary to ensure that safe systems of work were in place and followed.Safe system of work might include the provision of segregation of movements of pedestrians and vehicles, designated reversing areas ,and vehicles be equipped with mirrors, cameras for blind spots while using sensors or banks man and having audible alarms ,while pedestrian be alert with high visibility jackets. Question 9 An item of process equipment which has two large fixed control panels and a computer screen has been introduced into a workplace. One person operates the equipment which includes loading and unloading material by hand. An ergonomic assessment has been undertaken. (a) Give the meaning of the term ergonomics. (2) (b) Identify potential ergonomic problems associated with the use of this equipment. (6) the meaning of the term ergonomics would have been a study of the interface between the person, the equipment and the working environment. Potential ergonomic problems that might arise from the use of the equipment described in the scenario include manual handling issues; the control buttons and panels might be positioned out of reach; it might be difficult to see the computer screen from the control position and additionally the screen might give off glare; and there could be the possibility of environmental issues connected with temperature, lighting and space constraints. Note: Part (b) of the question also caused difficulty with many candidates struggling to identify the potential ergonomic problems in using the equipment. Some did relate to problems arising from the use of display screen equipment and manual handling but not to the wider issues. Others concentrated on the potential health effects rather than the problems that would cause the effect Question 10 An employee is to use a petrol-driven chainsaw to fell a tree from ground level. Outline the hazards faced by the employee in carrying out this task. (8) Hazards associated with the task such as contact with the moving parts or the hot exhaust system of the chainsaw; exposure to exhaust gases; hazards arising from manual handling operations including the possibility of kick back; handling lubricating oils and petrol which might lead to dermatitis; uneven ground or wet grass which could lead to slips and falls; falling objects such as branches or the tree itself; contact with overhead services, and stings or bites from insects or reptiles. There were some good answers provided for this question. There were, however, some anomalies such as, for example, referring to an electrical hazard when the machine was stated to be petrol driven and the hazard from working at height when the activity was to be carried out from ground level. As has been pointed out on a number of previous occasions, the need to read questions with great care is paramount. Question 11 (a) Outline the principle of methods by which heat may be transferred during a fire.

(i) Conduction. (1) (ii) Radiation. (1) (iii) Convection. (1) (iv) Direct burning. (1) (b) Outline practical ways of achieving an adequate level of compartmentation within a building. (4) The principles of methods of conduction which involves the molecule to molecule transfer of heat through conducting solids such as metal beams or pipes to other parts of the building leading to the ignition of other combustible or flammable materials; radiation involves the emission of heat in the form of infra-red radiation which can raise the temperatures of adjacent materials so that they reach their ignition temperatures or flash points; convection allows hot gases to rise so that they become either trapped beneath a ceiling or travel through voids and ducts to remote parts of the building, in both cases raising temperatures; and direct burning which will cause ignition as flames and heat come into contact with combustible materials. Note: Answers were disappointing with only a few candidates showing evidence of knowledge of the principles of heat transfer. For part (b) Ways of achieving an adequate level of compartmentation within a building such as dividing it into discrete fire resisting zones; protecting structural materials such as concrete and steel; sealing voids and enclosing lifts by compartment walls; arranging for the compartmentation of roof voids, for example, by the use of fabric cavity-barriers; and fitting fire dampers in duct work and fire stopping where services pass through compartments. Note: Answers to this part of the question were limited and it became obvious that compartmentation was not well understood. There were occasional references to fire doors which were relevant and others to the provision of alarm systems and smoke detectors which were not, but little else was offered.