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WELDING RESEARCH

SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, APRIL, 1984 Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Matching Ferritic Consumable Welding of 9% Nickel Steel to Enhance Safety and Economy
The brittle fracture initiation characteristics and fatigue properties of joints welded with matching ferritic filler metal are equal to those obtained with high nickel alloy filler metals

BY F. KOSHIGA, J. TANAKA, I. WATANABE, AND T. TAKAMURA

SYNOPSIS. The objective of this investigation was to verify the practicability of a newly developed welding technique for application to 9% nickel steel. The technique involved the use of the GTAW process and a matching ferritic wire filler metal. Mechanical tests and fracture toughness tests, such as tension, Charpy Vnotch impact, COD, deep-notch tension, and wide plate tests, were performed on the weldments at ambient and cryogenic temperatures mostly below 111 K (i.e., - 1 6 2 C or -260F). The matching ferritic weld metal and welded joints made by this technique were revealed to possess the same high yield and tensile strength as 9% nickel steel at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. Fracture toughness test results indicated that the weldments were quite tough at the liquefied natural gas (LNG) temperatures of 111 K ( - 1 6 2 C , -260F) and even at 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C , 321 F). In the final stage of the investigation, the pressure testing of a spherical 9% nickel steel model tank 2 m (6 ft 6 % in.) in diameter and 16 mm (0.63 in.) in thickness, which was fabricated by this welding technique, was performed in

liquefied nitrogen. The pressure test results provided evidence to indicate that the weldments would give satisfactory performance in LNG containment plants and that a design stress as high as 294 N/mm 2 (42.6 ksi) is quite acceptable in the construction of those plants. Introduction A joint investigation was undertaken by a Japan Welding Engineering Society Committee to verify the practicability of using a newly developed matching ferritic filler metal welding technique for 9% nickel steel. The committee consisted of investigators from universities and public and private research institutes and societies as well as from electric power and gas companies and Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha, one of the leading steel and heavy equipment manufacturers in Japan.

The objectives of this investigation were: 1. To establish the feasibility of a newly developed gas tungsten arc welding technique and the use of matching ferritic consumable wire filler metal. 2. To determine the fracture toughness of the weldments at cryogenic temperatures by an approach based on the fracture mechanics. 3. To demonstrate that 9% nickel steel constructions for LNG containment plants which are welded by the new technique are safe from brittle fracture. This paper mainly deals with a summary of the results of this investigation.

Allowable Design Stresses


Commercial matching ferritic filler metal welding for 9% nickel steel, if established, would furnish solutions to wellknown technical and economic problems encountered in the high-nickel type austenitic consumable electrode welding of 9% nickel steel. This would eventually make it possible to use higher allowable design stresses in the construction of LNG containment plants for storage and transportation.

Based on a paper originally presented at the A WS 61st Annual Meeting held in Los Angeles, California, during April 13-18, 1980. The authors are with the Technical Research Center of Nippon Kokan K.K., Kawasaki-shi Kanagawaken, japan.

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 1105-s

Industrial standards of various countries, such as JIS B 8243, ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 and 2, API620, BS5500 and BS5387, contain criteria for calculating the allowable design stresses in structures built with welded construction using 9% nickel steel. According to BS5387, the allowable design stress must be 1/2.35 of the tensile strength or 1/1.5 of the 0.2% proof strength whichever is lower provided, however, that it must be not higher than 260 N/mm 2 (37.7 ksi). For instance, the assumption can be made that the matching ferritic weld metal and welded joint are equal in strength to the base metal and that their tensile strength and 0.2% proof strength, respectively, are 690 and 585 N/mm 2 (100 and 84.8 ksi), i.e., the lower limits set by ASTM A553-1. When this assumption is made, a simple calculation to meet the criteria cited above gives 294 N/mm 2 (42.6 ksi) as an allowable design stress value. This value is higher by about 50 N/mm 2 (7.25 ksi) than the value of 241 N/mm 2 (35.4 ksi) that is used for high nickel type austenitic filler metals. The criteria for allowable design stress do not differ from BS5500 to BS5387, but the latter does not contain the provision that the allowable design stress must be not higher than 260 N/mm 2 (37.7 ksi). Accordingly, there seems to be a very strong possibility that the allowable design stress could be set higher when safety against brittle fracture of structures welded with the matching ferritic technique is established. With this possibility in mind, a spherical model tank of 2 m (6 ft 6 % in.) diameter was fabricated and pressure-tested in liquefied nitrogen in the last stage of this investigation. This was done in order to demonstrate that structures made using

this newly developed welding technique are safe against brittle fracture. Materials and M e t h o d The superior notch toughness of 9% nickel steel at cryogenic temperatures is derived mainly from the steel's excellent properties imparted by its clean ferrite matrix structure; the retained austenite that serves as a sink for impurities plays an auxiliary role in this respect. Accordingly, it stands to reason that the matching ferritic weld metal also acquires superior notch toughness at cryogenic temperatures if impurities in the weld metal are suppressed to low levels and if weld metal is softened by multi-welding thermal cycles to an appropriate extent. Witherell et al. (Ref. 1) investigated the relationship between the notch toughness of weld metal obtained by GMA welding with matching ferritic filler metal and the oxygen content of weld metal; it was found that the notch toughness of weld metal decreased in a sharp curve when its oxygen content rose beyond 100 ppm. In this respect, GTA welding in an atmosphere of pure argon seems most effective in inhibiting the contamination of weld metal with oxygen and in preventing the depression of its notch toughness. In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the mechanization of GTA welding. In point of fact, GTA welding with a machine equipped with an automatic voltage controller and an electrode weaving system that can weld in all positions has come into commercial use. Further, semi-automatic GTA welding machines that automatically feed the wire filler metal into the arc have also been commercialized.

The arc voltage, current and the filler metal feeding rate can be controlled independently of one another in GTA welding. Also, heat input control is easily accomplished in any welding position. This fact suggests that the notch toughness of weld metal can be improved through judicious welding thermal cycle control if normal GTA welding is employed. It follows that all welding required in the construction of LNG containment plant components can be made properly through judicious combination of the t w o different GTA welding techniques mentioned above. In the present investigation all 9% nickel steel test plate samples were picked at random from the production line. Table 1 shows the chemical composition and mechanical properties of 9% nickel steel samples. Table 2 shows the chemical composition of the matching ferritic wire filler metal tested in this investigation. As indicated in Table 2, the filler contained a low proportion of carbon and silicon that act to harden the ferrite matrix structure of weld metal. The presence of phosphorus and sulfur as impurities is also suppressed to a low level, while the filler metal nickel content is 2% higher than that of base metal. Welds were made under t w o different sets of conditions in three positions: flat, vertical-up, and horizontal. Heat input was varied according to the plate thickness and welding position, resulting in welds at three levels of heat input Tables 3 and 4. Mechanical Properties of W e l d e d Joints at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures The relationships between the strength of the matching ferritic weld metal at ambient temperature and heat input is shown in Fig. 1, and Fig. 2 shows the results of tension tests performed on 40 kinds of welded joints of differing plate thickness, welding process, welding position and heat input at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Each point in Fig. 2 indicates the arithmetic mean value for a total of 80 welded joints (2 welded joints each of 40 kinds). The 0.2% proof strength values were obtained, assuming the matching ferritic

Table 1Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of the 9"o Ni Steels Used Thickness, mm'3' 12 Chemical composition, wt% C 0.03 Mn 0.44
Si P S Ni Cr 0.22 0.006 0.005 8.85 0.03 0.03 0.45 0.22 0.006 0.005 8.88 0.03 0.12 0.017 16 23 32

0.07 0.45 0.25 0.006 0.005 9.03 0.05


0.11 0.022 617 706 43.0 215.6 2.19

0.05 0.43 0.22 0.006 0.005


8.81 0.05 0.14 0.026 728 791 31.0 191.6 1.77

Mo sol. Al Tensile propertied


0.2" PS, N / m m TS, N / m m 2 El, % impact properties vE, joules LE, mm
2

0.12 0.016
688 739 28.2

0.05 0.43 0.22 0.006 0.005 8.94 0.05 0.14


0.026 683 768 31.2 177.5 1.96

714 759 34.0


200.7 1.81

Table 2Chemical Composition of 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) Diamete r Matching Ferritic Wire Filler Metal, Wt-%

at 77 Kfc> 148.4 2.00

(a) m m / 2 5 . 4 = in. {b) PS proof strength; TS tensile strength; El elongation; N / m m 2 -S(c) 77 K = - 1 9 6 C = - 3 2 1 F. LE-lateral expansion.

C MnSi P S -

0.04 0.39 0.01 0.006 0.006

Ni Co sol Al Ti B -

11.06 0.34 0.020 0.01 0.0007

106-s|APRIL 1984

w e l d e d joints t o b e a c o n t i n u o u s h o m o g e n e o u s b o d y . As e v i d e n t f r o m Fig. 2, b o t h the m a t c h i n g ferritic w e l d metal a n d w e l d e d joints are as s t r o n g as base metal at a m b i e n t - t o - c r y o g e n i c t e m p e r a t u r e s . Further, the side-bend tests p e r f o r m e d o n w e l d e d joints (in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h JIS Z 3122 w h e r e R = 2t) r e v e a l e d that all specimens w e r e d e f e c t - f r e e Fig. 3. N o t c h Toughness and W e l d e d Joints Figure 4 s h o w s t h e relationships b e t w e e n n o t c h toughness o f w e l d e d joints of plates 12 m m (0.47 in.) thick and heat input, a n d Table 5 r e c o r d s the n o t c h toughness o f w e l d e d joints in 23 m m (0.91 in.) thick plates. These test data clearly indicate that b o t h the w e l d metal a n d h e a t - a f f e c t e d z o n e (HAZ) are q u i t e t o u g h e v e n at 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C , - 3 2 1 F ) w h e n weldings are m a d e u n d e r t h e c o n ditions indicated, a l t h o u g h the a p p r o p r i ate heat input ranges are g o v e r n e d b y the plate thicknesses. T h r e e - p o i n t b e n d i n g C O D tests w e r e p e r f o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o A S T M E399 and BSI D D - 1 9 . Figure 5 s h o w s t h e relationship b e t w e e n C O D values o b t a i n e d b y these tests a n d heat input. In Fig. 5, c T 0 l a n d CT02 indicate t h e critical t e m p e r a tures at w h i c h the critical crack tip C O D values of 0.1 and 0.2 m m (0.004 and 0.008 in.), respectively, are o b t a i n e d . It is o b v i o u s f r o m Fig. 5 that b o t h w e l d metal and H A Z s h o w C O D values o f 0.2 m m (0.008 in.) or m o r e at the LNG t e m p e r a t u r e o f 111 K ( - 1 6 2 C , - 2 6 0 F ) . Fracture Toughness of M a t c h i n g Ferritic W e l d e d Joints COD

Table 3Welding Conditions UJ Thickness, mm Process Position Condition 250A 12V 65mm/min. Vertical-up 300A 12V 55mm/min. 350A 12V 45mm/min. Horizontal 300A 12V 1 lOmm/min. 250A 10-12V 50-60mm/min. Heat input kj/mm 2.8 Edge preparation I

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Relationship between Critical C O D , oc, and Jc Values T h r e e - p o i n t b e n d i n g C O D tests and compact tension tests were perf o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o BSI D D - 1 9 a n d A S T M E399, using m a t c h i n g ferritic w e l d e d joints o b t a i n e d b y m e c h a n i z e d G T A w e l d i n g in t h e vertical-up p o s i t i o n ; the relationship b e t w e e n critical C O D , 8c, a n d Jc values w a s d e t e r m i n e d . The heat input w a s 4.3 k j / m m (109 k j / i n . ) . T h e shapes o f t h e test specimens are s h o w n in Fig. 6. Crack o p e n i n g displacem e n t , 5c, w a s calculated f r o m t h e m e a sured crack m o u t h displacement b y W e l l s ' formulas indicated in BIS D D - 1 9 , and Jc b y e q u a t i o n (1) a d v a n c e d b y Rice (Ref. 2):
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Fig. 1Weld metal strength vs. heat input. <T02 0.2% proof strength (=yield strength); <ru ultimate tensile strength. Symbols: open 0.2% proof strength; closed - ultimate tensile strength Fig. 2 (right) Strength of welded joints (40 kinds). ou ultimate tensile strength; o-02-yield strength (0.2% proof strength); R.A. -reduction of area; El elongation

100

160 200 250 Temperature (K)

tion (1) was substituted by the measured crack mouth displacement. Figures 7 and 8 indicate the relationships between 5c and temperature, and between Jc values and temperatures, respectively. The relationship between 8c and Jc is thought to be expressed by equation (2). Jc = mov, 5c (2) where <ry = yield strength and m = constant. The relationship between 5c and m is indicated in Fig. 9. Average m was on the order of 1.8 in the temperature range near 111 K (-162C, -260F) where 5c was 0.2 or higher. On the other hand, average m tended to rise to 2.0 or more

in the temperature range near 77 K ( - 1 9 6 , - 3 2 1 F) where 5c was so low as to induce a pop-in in the notch tip or an unstable crack that readily led to complete rupture. Levy (Ref. 3) placed 1/m at 0.467 (m = 2.14) from the results of FEM calculation under conditions of plane strain. His value of 0.467 is in good agreement with ours at 77 K (-196C, - 3 2 1 F).

Initiation of Brittle Fracture from a Sharp Fatigue Crack Deep-notch tension tests were performed on specimens having fatigue crack 5 mm (0.20 in.) long at the notch tip Fig. 10. The test specimens were 12 and 23 mm (0.47 and 0.91 in.) thick matching ferritic welded joints that were made in the vertical-up position at heat inputs of 3.0 and 3.9 k j / m m (76 and 99.1

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108-s I APRIL 1984

kj/in.), respectively. The notch was located in the center of the weld metal of each specimen or in its fusion boundary region. The test results are presented in Fig. 11, and the relationship between fracture toughness obtained by equation (3) below and temperatures is indicated in Fig. 12: Kc = c? \ A r C sec W (3)

Table 5Results of Charpy V-Notch Testing at 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C, -321F) Process position Heat input, k|/mm Notch position' 3 ' W 2.8 vE,
LE,<b>

loule 158
194 180 194

mm 1.48 1.95 1.58 1.63 1.63 1.55

W Auto. GTA Vertical W 5.6

211
177 206 205 220 203

where <rf = gross fracture stress, C = half crack length, and W = width of specimen. The values of 5c obtained in the threepoint bending COD tests were converted to Jc by equation (2) (placing m at 1.8) and the values of Jc so obtained were converted to Kc by equation (4). These values are shown in Fig. 12. Kc =

3.9

1.95 1.92
1.85 1.33 1.87 2.15 1.62

173
189 W Auto. GTA Horizontal W Semi-A. GTA Vertical 2.0 241 130

Jc

(4)

157
116 71 137 178 7 203
(b) L.E. lateral expansion.

1.65
0.88 1.27

where E = Young's modulus and v = Poisson's ratio. In the three-point bending COD test, a ductile thumbnail developed at the notch tip in the temperature range at and near 111 K (-162C, -260F), and in the deep notch test the test specimens were fractured after general yielding. Accordingly, all values of Kc at and near 111 K ( - 1 6 2 C , -260F) should be considered invalid. Conversely speaking, this fact provides evidence that the matching ferritic welded joints are quite tough at 111 K (-162C, -260F). Further, the values of Kc were determined to be as high as 5000 N m m " 3 ' 2 in the temperature range near 77 K (-196C, -321F) where the values of 5c were 0.1 mm or lower. On the basis of these test results, the allowable discontinuity size was determined for the matching ferritic welded joints in 23 mm (0.91 in.) thick plates, ln this case the assumption was made that a surface discontinuity as deep as half the plate thickness was in the fusion boundary region and that the test specimen was subjected to a design stress of 294 N /
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WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 1109-s

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mm 2 (42.6 ksi) as well as to a welding residual stress of 365 N/mm 2 (52.9 ksi) which was obtained by measurement. The relationship between fracture toughness Kc and allowable flow size a can be expressed by equation (5)

below:
Kc = o-m M m V ^ I T Q (5) where <xm = design stress + welding residual stress, M m = magnification factor in tension, Q = nondimensional function of elliptic integral, yield strength and

applied stress; and a = half crack length. Let the value of Kc be 5000 N m m " 3 ' 2 that is obtained at 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C , 321F), and allowable flaw size a can be calculated by equation (5) to be 19.2 mm (0.76 in.). The extreme length of the allowable surface discontinuity is therefore 38.4 mm (1.51 in.). A discontinuity of this size is large enough to be easily detected by the nondestructive inspection after welding. In other words, the value indicates that the matching ferritic

welded joints are safe from brittle fracture. Results of Large-Scale Type Brittle Fracture Tests Through-thickness notched- and crosswelded wide plate tension tests and surface notched wide plate tension tests were performed on a large scale. They were carried out using matching ferritic welded joints in plates that were 12 and 23 mm thick (0.47 and 0.91 in.).

3.0

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110-sl APRIL 1984

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The results obtained in these tests are presented in Figs. 13 and 14. As is clear in Fig. 13, the weld metal and weld interface were fractured at temperatures of 101 and 90 K (-172 and - 1 8 3 C , i.e., - 2 7 8 and 290F) or more, respectively, after general yielding. Even at a temperature of 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C , - 3 2 1 F) at which fracture was caused by a stress below the yield strength of base metal, the fracture stress was 2.5 to 3.2 times as high as the allowable design stress of 294 N / m m 2 (42.6 ksi). Similar results are shown in Fig. 14, and the fracture surfaces are shown in Fig. 15. When the effect of notch acuity is taken into consideration, these tests results are in good agreement with those discussed in the preceding section. In the large-scale brittle fracture tests, welded joint specimens made from 12 mm (0.47 in.) thick plates were not fractured at all test temperatures despite the presence of a notch. It was also shown

that the stress leading to fracture was far greater than the yield strength of base metal. The results of large-scale type brittle fracture tests provided evidence to indicate that the matching ferritic welded joints exhibit superior fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures.

ing ferritic welded joints to ordinary constructional steel and joints: da dN = C(AK)n

tr <

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Fatigue Characteristics of Matching Ferritic Welded Joints


Crack propagation tests were performed at room temperature and in liquefied nitrogen at 77 K ( - 1 9 6 C , 321 F) in order to determine the fatigue characteristics of matching ferritic welded joints. The test results are presented in Fig. 16. The values of C and m shown in Fig. 16C were obtained by a calculation of the relationship between the rate of crack propagation and the range of stress intensity factor according to Parris' law expressed by equation (6); it is evident from Fig. 16 that the values so obtained do not differ at all from match-

where a = crack length, N = cycle, AK = range of stress intensity factor, and C, m = material constants. Butt joint fatigue strength test results are presented in Fig. 17.

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Cryogenic Pressure Test of the Spherical Model Tank


That matching ferritic welded structures are safe from brittle fracture was demonstrated from a practical standpoint. Accordingly, a spherical model tank 2 m (6 ft 6 % in.) in diameter with a 16 mm (0.63 in.) nominal wall thickness was fabricated and subjected to pressure test in liquefied nitrogen at 77 K (-196C, -321F). The welding conditions are indicated in

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Temperature ( K ) Temperature ( K ) Fig. 13 Brittle fracture test results; dimensions in mm. Symbols: open Fig. 14 Additional brittle fracture test results. Open symbols experimental values for specimens with notch at the weld metalspecimen experimental values, rroj 0.2'% proof strength (yield closed experimental values for specimens with notch at the weld strength) interface; rr0.2~0.2?i proof strength (yield strength)

Fig. 18, and the model tank is shown in Fig. 19. The welded butt joints for the tank shell plates were made by a mechanized automatic CTA welding machine in the vertical-up position, and the welded butt joints for the crown plates and shell plates, were made with a semi-automatic welding machine. The spherical model tank was fabricated in accordance with the Law Pertaining to Compressed Cas Regulations of Japan. To comply with the law, welding procedure and production tests were performed, and the entire weld lines were tested by x-ray radiographic and ultrasonic inspection after fabrication. The procedure for x-ray radiographic inspection is schematically presented in Fig. 20, and the nondestructive inspection results are shown in Table 6. The welding discontinuities revealed were all merely minute porosities. The results of nondestructive inspection clearly indicated that the occurrence of welding discontinuities was remarkably inhibited in the spherical model tank. Further, the results of hydrostatic test and nitrogen gas airtight test (performed at pressures ranging up to 8.1 and 5.9 N/mm 2 , i.e., 1175 and 856 psi respectively) confirmed the soundness of weldments in this tank. The schematic diagram of the pressure

test is shown in Fig. 21. The pressure of the model tank reached a peak of 15.4 N/mm 2 (2234 psi) at 13 minutes (min) after onset of pressurization and held at the pressure for about 5 min. During this period of time, the tank pressure was reduced to 14.7 N/mm 2 (2132 psi). The stress that acted on the tank shell and crown plates when its pressure was at the peak level was 481 N/mm 2 (69.8 ksi) theoretically, whereas the values obtained by the strain gauges attached to the beads and shell plates ranged from 408 to 456 N/mm 2 (59.2 to 66.1 ksi). These values are 1.39 to 1.55 times as large as the allowable design stress of 294 N/mm 2 (42.6 ksi). The relationship between measured pressure and strain is presented in Fig. 22. In the experiment with the tank, the pressure tests revealed no abnormalities. Also, no discontinuities were revealed by nondestructive inspection after the pressure test. The experiment also confirmed that matching ferritic welded structures are safe from brittle fracture.

Weld Discontinuities
For these tests, welds that were 7.4, 65.5, 55.7, and 18.7 m (24.3, 214.9, 182.7 and 61.4 ft) long were made using 9% nickel steels that were 8, 12, 23 and 32

Fig. 15 Brittle fracture test specimens with resulting fracture appearances. Aat 77 K (-196C, -321 F); B and C- at 111 K (-162"C, -260''F)

112-s | APRIL 1984

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m m ( 0 . 3 1 , 0.47, 0 . 9 1 , a n d 1.26 in.) thick, respectively. Further, in t h e fabrication o f the spherical m o d e l tank, w e l d s that w e r e 24 m (78.7 ft) l o n g w e r e m a d e using the n e w t e c h n i q u e . In e v e r y case, s o u n d w e l d s w i t h o u t discontinuities w e r e o b t a i n e d . In fact, the w e l d discontinuities d e t e c t e d b y n o n d e structive testings w e r e all m i n u t e p o r o s i ties as s h o w n in Table 6. T h e w e l d i n g t e c h n i q u e used w a s , t h e r e f o r e , d e t e r m i n e d t o p r o v i d e a relatively easy means t o m a k e w e l d m e n t s o f high reliability.

Conclusion T o establish t h e feasibility o f t h e m a t c h i n g ferritic c o n s u m a b l e w e l d i n g o f 9% nickel steel, t h e safety o f w e l d m e n t s f r o m brittle f r a c t u r e w a s investigated using an a p p r o a c h based o n fracture mechanics. As a result, it b e c a m e clear that brittle fracture initiation characteristics a n d fatigue p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e joint w e l d e d w i t h m a t c h i n g ferritic filler metal w e r e as g o o d as t h o s e w i t h high-nickel alloy filler

metals. In particular, 0.2% p r o o f stress o f w e l d metal w i t h m a t c h i n g ferritic filler metal w a s m u c h higher t h a n that o f t h e weld metal with high-nickel-alloy materials, a n d equal t o that o f 9% nickel steel plate. T h e r e f o r e , t h e applicable higher design stress results in a decrease in w a l l thickness o f LNG storage tanks. T h e pressure test results o f t h e spherical m o d e l tank in liquefied n i t r o g e n revealed that t h e safety o f 9% nickel steel a n d its w e l d w i t h m a t c h i n g ferritic w i r e filler metal w a s satisfactory.

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It can, t h e r e f o r e , b e c o n c l u d e d that the n e w w e l d i n g t e c h n i q u e a n d w e l d i n g material h o l d a g o o d p r o m i s e o f success in the e c o n o m i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f LNG storage tanks m a d e f r o m 9% nickel steel. T h e n e w t e c h n i q u e has b e e n r e c o g nized as suitable f o r 9% nickel steel b y the )apan W e l d i n g Engineering Society and the )apan High Pressure Institute. Also, t h e value o f 294 N / m m 2 (42.6 ksi) has also b e e n a c c e p t e d as an a l l o w a b l e design stress f o r structures built using the n e w welding technique. Acknowledgment

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8 Table 6Result s of X-Ray Inspection' '

References 1. Witherell, C. E., and Peck, |. V. 1964. Progress in welding 9% nickel steel. We/ding Journal 11(4): 473-s to 480-s. 2. Rice, |. R., Paris, P. C. and Merkle, |. G. 1973. Some further results of Hntegral analysis and estimates. ASTM STP 536, pp. 231-245. Philadelphia, Pa.; American Society Testing Material. 3. Levy, N Marcal, P. V., Ostergren, W. )., and Rice, ). R. 1971. Small scale yielding near a crack in plane strain: a finite element analysis. International journal of Fracture Mechanics 7: 143-156.

GTA process position (b) Auto., vertical Semi-A, vertical Semi-A, Flat

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cooperation in the development of the matching ferritic wire filler metal over the years, and we think the matching ferritic

wire filler metal used in the present investigation merits identification as TGS-9N of Kobe Steel, Ltd.

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Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Weldments
by W. W. Sanders, Jr. and R. H. Day

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This report provides a summary and overview of the fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy weldments. In 1972, a first state-of-the-art report, WRC Bulletin 171, was prepared and a computerized data bank was initiated. This report has emphasized the knowledge gained since the publication of that first summary and indicates the extent of the data added to the bank. Publication of this report was sponsored by the Aluminum Alloys Committee of the Welding Research Council. The price of WRC Bulletin 286 is $12.75 per copy, plus $5.00 for postage and handling. Orders should be sent with payment to the Welding Research Council, Room 1301, 345 E. 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.

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WRC Bulletin 288 October, 1983


Fracture of Pipelines and Cylinders Containing Circumferential Crack by F. Erdogan and H. Ezzat
This study is concerned with the problem of a pipe containing a part-through or a through circumferential crack. The main objective is to give the necessary theoretical information for the treatment of the subcritical crack growth process. The problem of a through crack in the presence of large scale plastic deformations is also considered. The crack opening displacement (COD) is used as the main parameter to analyze the fracture instability problem and to correlate the experimental results. Publication of this report was sponsored by the Weldability Committee of the Welding Research Council. The price of WRC Bulletin 288 is $12.75 per copy, plus $5.00 for postage and handling. Orders should be sent with payment to the Welding Research Council, Room 1301, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.

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