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WTO

(WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION)


Project made by:
MANISH DIWALE SHRUTI GODBOLE PRASHANT JADHAV POONAM KAMBLE Yogendra Patel PRASHANT PAWAR

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank KAMLA madam for providing us with an opportunity to work on the project and also for her help and guidance.

We would like to thank the library staff and the librarian for their advice and help.

We would also like to thank friends and family for their valuable inputs and suggestions.

Last but not the least we thank our team members for their active participation and co-operation without which the project would be a distant reality.

INDEX
SR. NO.
1.

TOPIC
WHAT IS WTO? FACT SHEET HISTORY OF WTO OBJECTIVE OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

PAGE NO.

2.

3.

4.

5.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

6.

FUNCTION OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

7.

ADVANTAGES OF WTO
8.

DISADVANTAGES OF WTO
PRINCIPLES OF THE WTO

9.

10. 11.

STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION MISUNDERSTANDING ABOUT WTO


SWOT ANYLASIS OF WTO INDIA AND WTO CONCLUSION

12. 13.

14. 15.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WHAT IS WTO?
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the worlds trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. The International trade is based on multilateral trading system. It is a system involving trade amongst various countries. it is therefore, necessary that the rules and regulation of such system are properly define. In the year 1947, an attempt was made by 23 countries in the world to define the basic norms for conduct of international trade. The trade negotiation amongst these 23 countries in multilateral treaty called general agreement On Traffic and Trade (GATT) in the year 1948. The GATT was established to secure the conduct of international trade based on the principles of nondiscrimination, transparency and liberalization. The GATT 1994 is being implemented with effect from 1 of January 1995 when the very first agreement regarding the establishment of world trade organization (WTO) was established. At present 151 countries are member of World Trade Organization (WTO).

FACT SHEET

LOCATION

GENEVA, SWITZERLAND

ESTABLISHED

1 JANUARY 1995

CREATED BY

URUGUAY ROUND NEGOTIATIONS (198694)

MEMBERSHIP

153 COUNTRIES (SINCE 23 JULY 2008)

BUDGET

194 MILLION SWISS FRANCS FOR 2010

SECRETARIAT STAFF

637

HEAD

PASCAL LAMY (DIRECTORGENERAL)

The history

On November 30th, United States Trade Representative Ron Kirk will be in Geneva, Switzerland for the 7th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization. This is the first of two ustr.gov installments on the history of this organization. Although the World Trade Organization (WTO) is only 14 years old, its history can be traced back to a period just after World War II. In 1947, the world's major trading countries signed the general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT) which laid the ground rules for the multilateral trading system. After efforts to establish an international trade organization failed in 1948, the GATT also served as a provisional forum for members to address international trade matters. Over the years, GATT members conducted a series of multilateral negotiations known as "rounds" to lower trade barriers between them. The first five GATT trade rounds after 1947 focused on lowering tariffs. The Kennedy round in the 1960s expanded discussions from tariff cuts to more general trade rules, leading to the negotiation of the GATT anti-dumping agreement. In the 1970s, participants in the Tokyo round of talks lowered tariffs further and concluded agreements -- which only some members joined -- on non-tariff trade barriers, such as technical standards. The following round, launched in 1986, built upon the progress made in the Tokyo round and in previous negotiations. Known as the Uruguay round, it was, up to that time, the largest and most comprehensive trade round. In the Uruguay round, GATT members agreed to lower tariffs, address non-tariff barriers, and extend trade rules into several new areas, including trade in services and intellectual property. At the conclusion of the Uruguay round, representatives from most of the 123 participants signed a declaration in Marrakesh, morocco creating the world trade organization and bringing the agreements and commitments concluded during the round under the new organization. On January 1, 1995, the WTO officially replaced the GATT and the informal forum it provided for more than four decades.

Today, the WTO is a vital international institution. It has 153 members and, collectively, they represent 95 percent of world trade.

OBJECTIVE OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)


To ensure the conduct the international trade on non-discrimination

basis.
To raise standard of living and income, ensuring full employment To expend production and trade Protecting environment Ensuring better share for developing countries

LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)


Protection through import traffic

Reduction in traffic and binding against further increase Conduct of trade according to M.F.N. clauses Commitment to national treatment rule.

FUNCTION OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

Administering World Trade Organization (WTO) trade agreement Forum the trade negotiation Handling trade disputes Monitoring national trade policy Technical assistance and training for developing countries Co-operation with other international organization (like help from World

Bank and IMF).


Raising standards of living;

Ensuring full employment; Ensuring large and steadily growing real incomes and demand; and Expanding the production of and trade in goods and services.

ADVANTAGES OF WTO
World Trade Organization helps member states in various ways and this enables them to reap benefits such as: Helps promote peace within nations: Peace is partly an outcome of two of the
most fundamental principle of the trading system; helping trade flow smoothly and providing countries with a constructive and fair outlet for dealing with disputes over trade issues. Peace creates international confidence and cooperation that the WTO creates and reinforces.

Disputes are handled constructively: As trade expands in volume, in the numbers


of products traded and in the number of countries and company trading, there is a greater chance that disputes will arise. WTO helps resolve these disputes peacefully and constructively. If this could be left to the member states, the dispute may lead to serious conflict, but lot of trade tension is reduced by organizations such as WTO.

Rules make life easier for all: WTO system is based on rules rather than power and
this makes life easier for all trading nations. WTO reduces some inequalities giving smaller countries more voice, and at the same time freeing the major powers from the complexity of having to negotiate trade agreements with each of the member states.

Free trade cuts the cost of living: Protectionism is expensive, it raises prices, WTO
lowers trade barriers through negotiation and applies the principle of non-discrimination. The result is reduced costs of production (because imports used in production are cheaper) and reduced prices of finished goods and services, and ultimately a lower cost of living.

It provides more choice of products and qualities: It gives consumer more


choice and a broader range of qualities to choose from.

Trade raises income: Through WTO trade barriers are lowered and this increases
imports and exports thus earning the country foreign exchange thus raising the country's income.

Trade stimulates economic growth: With upward trend economic growth, jobs can
be created and this can be enhanced by WTO through careful policy making and powers of freer trade.

Basic principles make life more efficient: The basic principles make the system
economically more efficient and they cut costs. Many benefits of the trading system are as a result of essential principle at the heart of the WTO system and they make life simpler for the enterprises directly involved in international trade and for the producers of goods/services. Such principles include; non-discrimination, transparency, increased certainty about trading conditions etc. together they make trading simpler, cutting company costs and increasing confidence in the future and this in turn means more job opportunities and better goods and services for consumers.

Governments are shielded from lobbying: WTO system shields the government
from narrow interest. Government is better placed to defend themselves against lobbying from narrow interest groups by focusing on trade-offs that are made in the interests of everyone in the economy.

The system encourages good governance: The WTO system encourages good
government. The WTO rules discourage a range of unwise policies and the commitment made to liberalize a sector of trade becomes difficult to reverse. These rules reduce opportunities for corruption.

DISADVANTAGES OF WTO
The WTO Is Fundamentally Undemocratic: The policies of the WTO impact all
aspects of society and the planet, but it is not a democratic, transparent institution. The WTO rules are written by and for corporations with inside access to the negotiations. For example, the US Trade Representative gets heavy input for negotiations from 17 "Industry Sector Advisory Committees." Citizen input by consumer, environmental, human rights and labor organizations is consistently ignored. Even simple requests for information are denied, and the proceedings are held in secret. Who elected this secret global government?

The WTO Will Not Make Us Safer :The WTO would like you to believe that
creating a world of "free trade" will promote global understanding and peace. On the contrary, the domination of international trade by rich countries for the benefit of their individual interests fuels anger and resentment that make us less safe. To build real global security, we need international agreements that respect people's rights to democracy and trade systems that promote global justice.

The WTO Tramples Labor and Human Rights: TO rules put the "rights" of
corporations to profit over human and labor rights. The WTO encourages a 'race to the bottom' in wages by pitting workers against each other rather than promoting internationally recognized labor standards. The WTO has ruled that it is illegal for a government to ban a product based on the way it is produced, such as with child labor. It has also ruled that governments cannot take into account "non commercial values" such as human rights, or the behavior of companies that do business with vicious dictatorships such as Burma when making purchasing decisions.

The WTO Would Privatize Essential Services: The WTO is seeking to privatize
essential public services such as education, health care, energy and water. Privatization means the selling off of public assets - such as radio airwaves or schools - to private

(usually foreign) corporations, to run for profit rather than the public good. The WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services, or GATS, includes a list of about 160 threatened services including elder and child care, sewage, garbage, park maintenance, telecommunications, construction, banking, insurance, transportation, shipping, postal services, and tourism. In some countries, privatization is already occurring. Those least able to pay for vital services - working class communities and communities of color - are the ones who suffer the most.

The WTO Is Destroying the Environment: The WTO is being used by


corporations to dismantle hard-won local and national environmental protections, which are attacked as "barriers to trade." The very first WTO panel ruled that a provision of the US Clean Air Act, requiring both domestic and foreign producers alike to produce cleaner gasoline, was illegal. The WTO declared illegal a provision of the Endangered Species Act that requires shrimp sold in the US to be caught with an inexpensive device allowing endangered sea turtles to escape. The WTO is attempting to deregulate industries including logging, fishing, water utilities, and energy distribution, which will lead to further exploitation of these natural resources.

The WTO is Killing People: The WTO's fierce defense of 'Trade Related
Intellectual Property' rights (TRIPs)patents, copyrights and trademarkscomes at the expense of health and human lives. The WTO has protected for pharmaceutical companies' 'right to profit' against governments seeking to protect their people's health by providing lifesaving medicines in countries in areas like sub-Saharan Africa, where thousands die every day from HIV/AIDS. Developing countries won an important victory in 2001 when they affirmed the right to produce generic drugs (or import them if they lacked production capacity), so that they could provide essential lifesaving medicines to their populations less expensively. Unfortunately, in September 2003, many new conditions were agreed to that will make it more difficult for countries to produce those drugs. Once again, the WTO demonstrates that it favors corporate profit over saving human lives.

The WTO is Increasing Inequality: Free trade is not working for the majority of the
world. During the most recent period of rapid growth in global trade and investment (1960 to 1998) inequality worsened both internationally and within countries. The UN Development Program reports that the richest 20 percent of the world's population consume 86 percent of the world's resources while the poorest 80 percent consume just 14 percent. WTO rules have hastened these trends by opening up countries to foreign investment and thereby making it easier for production to go where the labor is cheapest and most easily exploited and environmental costs are low.

The WTO Hurts Poor, Small Countries in Favor of Rich Powerful Nations
The WTO supposedly operates on a consensus basis, with equal decision-making power for all. In reality, many important decisions get made in a process whereby poor countries' negotiators are not even invited to closed door meetings -- and then 'agreements' are announced that poor countries didn't even know were being discussed. Many countries do not even have enough trade personnel to participate in all the negotiations or to even have a permanent representative at the WTO. This severely disadvantages poor countries from representing their interests. Likewise, many countries are too poor to defend themselves from WTO challenges from the rich countries, and change their laws rather than pay for their own defense.

There are Alternatives to the WTO: Citizen Organizations have developed


alternatives to the corporate-dominated system of international economic governance. Together we can build the political space that nurtures a democratic global economy that promotes jobs, ensures that every person is guaranteed their human rights to food, water, education, and health care, promotes freedom and security, and preserves our shared environment for future generations.

The Tide is turning against Free Trade and the WTO!:International opposition
to the WTO is growing. Massive protests in Seattle of 1999 brought over 50,000 people

together to oppose the WTOand succeeded in shutting the meeting down. When the WTO met in 2001, the Trade negotiators were unable meet their goals of expanding the WTO's reach. In Cancun, Mexico and Hong Kong, China, the WTO met thousands of activists in protest, scoring a major victory for democracy. Developing countries refused to give in to the rich countries' agenda of WTO expansion - and caused the talks to collapse!

PRINCIPLES OF THE WTO


The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes. That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games. Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO: Non-Discrimination: It has two major components: the most favored nation (MFN)
rule, and the national treatment policy. Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas. The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same conditions on all trade with other WTO members, i.e. a WTO member has to grant the most favorable conditions under which it allows trade in a certain product type to all other WTO members."Grant someone a special favor and you have to do the same for all other WTO members." National treatment means that imported goods should be treated no less favorably than domestically produced goods (at least after the foreign goods have entered the market) and was introduced to tackle non-tariff barriers to trade (e.g. technical standards, security standards et al. discriminating against imported goods).

Reciprocity: It reflects both a desire to limit the scope of free-riding that may arise
because of the MFN rule, and a desire to obtain better access to foreign markets. A related point is that for a nation to negotiate, it is necessary that the gain from doing so be greater than the gain available from unilateral liberalization; reciprocal concessions intend to ensure that such gains will materialize

Binding and enforceable commitments: The tariff commitments made by WTO


members in a multilateral trade negotiation and on accession are enumerated in a schedule (list) of concessions. These schedules establish "ceiling bindings": a country

can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. If satisfaction is not obtained, the complaining country may invoke the WTO dispute settlement procedures.

Transparency : The WTO members are required to publish their trade regulations, to
maintain institutions allowing for the review of administrative decisions affecting trade, to respond to requests for information by other members, and to notify changes in trade policies to the WTO. These internal transparency requirements are supplemented and facilitated by periodic country-specific reports (trade policy reviews) through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM).[ The WTO system tries also to improve predictability and stability, discouraging the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports.

Safety valves: In specific circumstances, governments are able to restrict trade.


There are three types of provisions in this direction: articles allowing for the use of trade measures to attain noneconomic objectives; articles aimed at ensuring "fair competition"; and provisions permitting intervention in trade for economic reasons. Exceptions to the MFN principle also allow for preferential treatment of developed countries, regional free trade areas and customs unions.

STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

The Ministerial Conference: This is composed of international trade ministers from


all member countries. This is the governing body of the WTO, responsible for setting the strategic direction of the organization and making all final decisions on agreements under its wings. The Ministerial Conference meets at least once every two years. Although voting can take place, decisions are generally taken by consensus, a process that can at times be difficult, particularly in a body composed of 136 very different members.

The General Council: composed of senior representatives (usually ambassador


level) of all members. It is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day business and management of the WTO, and is based at the WTO headquarters in Geneva. In practice, this is the key decision-making arm of the WTO for most issues. Several of the bodies described below report directly to the General Council.

The Trade Policy Review Body: is also composed of all the WTO members, and
oversees the Trade Policy Review Mechanism, a product of the Uruguay Round. It periodically reviews the trade policies and practices of all member states. These reviews are intended to provide a general indication of how states are implementing their obligations, and to contribute to improved adherence by the WTO parties to their obligations.

The Dispute Settlement Body : is also composed of all the WTO members. It
oversees the implementation and effectiveness of the dispute resolution process for all WTO agreements, and the implementation of the decisions on WTO disputes. Disputes are heard and ruled on by dispute resolution panels chosen individually for each case, and the permanent Appellate Body that was established in 1994. Dispute resolution is mandatory and binding on all members. A final decision of the Appellate Body can only be reversed by a full consensus of the Dispute Settlement Body.

The Councils on Trade in Goods and Trade in Services: operate under the
mandate of the General Council and are composed of all members. They provide a

mechanism to oversee the details of the general and specific agreements on trade in goods (such as those on textiles and agriculture) and trade in services. There is also a Council for the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, dealing with just that agreement and subject area.

The Secretariat and Director General: of the WTO reside in Geneva, in the old
home of GATT. The Secretariat now numbers just under 550 people, and undertakes the administrative functions of running all aspects of the organization. The Secretariat has no legal decision-making powers but provides vital services, and often advice, to those who do. The Secretariat is headed by the Director General, who is elected by the members.

The Committee on Trade and Development and Committee on Trade and


Environment are two of the several committees continued or established under the Marrakech Agreement in 1994. They have specific mandates to focus on these relationships, which are especially relevant to how the WTO deals with sustainable development issues. The Committee on Trade and Development was established in 1965. The forerunner to the Committee on Trade and Environment (the Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade) was established in 1971, but did not meet until 1992. Both Committees are now active as discussion grounds but do not actually negotiate trade rules.

MISUNDERSTANDING ABOUT WTO

1. THE WTO DICTATES POLICY The WTO does NOT tell governments what to do:The rules of the WTO system are agreements resulting from negotiations among member governments. The rules are ratified by members parliaments, and Decisions taken in the WTO are virtually all made by consensus among all members. In other words, decisions taken in the WTO are negotiated, accountable and democratic. As for the WTO Secretariat, it simply provides administrative and technical Support for the WTO and its members. In fact: its the governments who dictate to the WTO.

2. THE WTO IS FOR FREE TRADE AT ANY COST The WTO is NOT for free trade at any cost:Yes, one of the principles of the WTO system is for countries to lower their trade barriers and to allow trade to flow more freely. After all, countries benefit from the increased trade those results from lower trade barriers. But just how low those barriers should go is something member countries bargain with each other. Their negotiating positions depend on how ready they feel they are to lower the barriers, and on what they want to obtain from other members in return. One countrys commitments become another countrys rights, and vice versa.

3.COMMERCIAL INTEREST TAKE PRIORITY OVER DEVELOPMENT The WTO is NOT only concerned about commercial interests. This does NOT take priority over development:Underlying the WTOs trading system is the fact that freer trade boosts economic growth and supports development. In that sense, commerce and development are good for each other. At the same time, whether or not developing countries gain enough from

the system is a subject of continuing debate in the WTO. But that does not mean to say the system offers nothing for these countries. Far from it. The agreements include many Important provisions that specifically take developing countries interests into account 4. AND OVER THE ENVIRONMENT

In the WTO, commercial interests do NOT take priority over environmental protection:The preamble of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization includes among its objectives, optimal use of the worlds resources, sustainable development and environmental protection. This is backed up in concrete terms by a range of provisions in the WTOs rules. Among the most important are umbrella clauses (such as Article 20 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which allow countries to take actions to protect human, animal or plant life or health, and to observe Exhaustible natural resources.

5. AND OVER HEALTH & SAFETY The WTO does NOT dictate to governments on issues such as food safety, and human health and safety. Again commercial interests do NOT override:Key clauses in the agreements (such as GATT Art. 20) specifically allow governments to take actions to protect human, animal or plant life or health. But these actions are disciplined, for example to prevent them being used as an excuse for protecting domestic producers protectionism in disguise. Some of the agreements deal in greater detail with product standards, and with health and safety for food and other products made from animals and plants. The purpose is to defend governments rights to ensure the safety of their citizens.

6. THE WTO DESTROYS JOBS, WORSENS, POVERTY The WTO does NOT destroy jobs or widen the gap between rich and poor:The relationship between trade and employment is complex. So is the relationship between trade and equality. Free-flowing and more stable trade boosts economic growth. It has the potential to create jobs, it can help to reduce poverty, and frequently it does both. The biggest beneficiary is the country that lowers its own trade barriers. The Countries exporting to it also gain, but less. In many cases, workers in export sectors enjoy higher pay and greater job security. 7. SMALL COUNTRIES ARE POWERLESS IN THE WTO

Small countries are not powerless in the wto :In recent years, developing countries have become considerably more active in WTO negotiations, submitting an unprecedented number of proposals in the agriculture talks, and working actively on the ministerial declarations and decisions issued in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001. They expressed satisfaction with the process leading to the Doha declarations. All of this bears testimony to their confidence in the system. 8. THE WTO IS THE TOOL OF POWERFUL LOBBIES

The WTO is NOT the tool of powerful lobbies :This is a natural result of the rounds type of negotiation (i.e. negotiations that encompass a broad range of sectors). The outcome of a trade round has to be a balance of interests. Governments can find it easier to reject pressure from particular lobbying groups by arguing that it had to accept the overall package in the interests of the country as a whole

9. WEAKER COUNTRIES ARE FORCED TO JOIN THE WTO Weaker countries do have a choice, they are NOT forced to join the WTO:The reasons are positive rather than negative. They lie in the WTOs key principles, such as non-discrimination and transparency. By joining the WTO, even a small country

automatically enjoys the benefits that all WTO members grant to each other. And small countries have won dispute cases against rich countries they would not have been able to do so outside the WTO.

10. THE WTO UNDEMOCRATIC The WTO is NOT undemocratic:It would be wrong to suggest that every country has the same bargaining power. Nevertheless, the consensus rule means every country has a voice, and every country has to be convinced before it joins a consensus. Quite often reluctant countries are persuaded by being offered something in return. Consensus also means every country accepts the decisions. There are no dissenters.

SWOT ANYLASIS OF WTO


STRENGTHS
HUMAN FACTOR SUITABLE FOR INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY AND

KNOWLEDGE-BASED PRODUCTION
HEALTHY ECONOMY WELL-TRAINED & LOW-COST HUMAN RESOURCES AVAILABLE DEVELOPED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS & INTERMEDIARIES INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT TO SME DEVELOPMENT

Weaknesses
INSUFFICIENT LIBERALIZATION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INSISTENCE ON FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY

MEMBERS
THE FACT THAT RUSSIA, THOUGH IS WILLING TO JOIN THE WTO, IS

UNABLE TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMBERSHIP


NO MECHANISM FOR WEIGHTING THE INFLUENCE OF A MEMBER

OPPORTUNITIES
DEVELOPMENT OF LABOUR-INTENSIVE SECTOR AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS INDUSTRIALIZATION PROCESSES BASED ON FDI, GLOBALIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES POSSIBILITY TO ESTABLISH POSITION IN THE TRANSPORT SERVICE

MARKET

THREATS
NATIONALISM REGIONALISM IN THE FORM OF TRADE BLOCKS THE WTO HURTS POOR, SMALL COUNTRIES IN FAVOR OF RICH

POWERFUL NATIONS

INDIA AND WTO

India is one of the founding members of WTO along with 134 other countries. India's participation in an increasingly rule based system in governance of International trade, would ultimately lead to better prosperity for the nation. Various trade disputes of India with other nations have been settled through WTO. India has also played an important part in the effective formulation of major trade policies. By being a member of WTO several countries are now trading with India, thus giving a boost to production, employment, standard of living and an opportunity to maximize the use of the world resources.

CONCLUSION
Although nobody was particularly eager to engage in a long, nerve-wracking debate in the post. Delegates-dance session, delegates in the WTO committee still had fight over a good deal of open questions. It were few, single clauses of the resolution that caused disagreement between the participants, but this disagreement was severe. The ego-issue, how the chair called it, kept the committee occupied for the greater part of the morning, although the delegates were obviously exhausted. Comments like shall I elaborate on point number (all:)No!, or We can make clause seven far more precise. (Chair :) Please, dont. may show the overall motivation to continue a debate about a topic which has already reached a majority of supporters anyway. In the end the resolution passed not with consensus but with a majority, which worked come to a conclusion.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.wto.com
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact4

_e.htm

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Advantages_and_disadvantages_

of_wto

WORLD BANK,IMF&WTO-P.D. PUSKELE www.mangementparadise.com www.eco.com

Thank you