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been observed that the reactive dye exhaust into the cellulosic fibre poorly unlike other dye classes & an average exhaustion value of 60-65% has been recorded by the dyer

It is reported elsewhere 15 , that dyeing cellulosic fibres with anionic reactive dyes is a major contributor to the problem of coloured effluent owing to the poor exhaustion of the former to the cellulosic fibre . A further important problem is the requirement , when dyeing cellulosic fibre s with anionic reactive dyes to use large amount of electrolyte (common salt) to suppress the negative charge at the fibre surface (Membrane potential of cellulosic fibre 16 ) . those electrolytes are used for colouration of cellulosic fibre are reported to be left in the dye bath at the ended of dyeing & are found to be present in the waste liquor. These electrolytes when discharge in inland surface water affects the bio-chemistry of the aquatic organism in consequent to build up salinity; when discharged in soil. It also pollutes the ground water can cause high blood pressure and hypertension. It can also causes problem with eater balance in human body. The surface water pollution by salt can cause change of pH of water which disturbs the aquatic life and kill the microorganism, fish.17-18 In view of the above all dye manufacturers are tending to offer multifunctional reactive dyes as a means of securing the highest possible fixation efficiencies, thus reducing the problem of colour in effluent. The possibility of minimization/ elimination of electrolyte making the dyeing process are also being explored recently. The approaches made by the different workers for improvement in reactive dyes are summarized below.

Multifunctional reactive dyes:

It is reported that by using reactive dyes containing two reactive groups rather than one reactive group per dye molecule the fixation can be increased from an average of 60% to 80% ( appox.) 4 . it is therefore not surprising that reactive dye manufacturers have increasingly opted for reactive dye with 2 or 3 reactive groups in the molecule. Table 1 & table 2 summarize the present market status of Multifunctional reactive dyes from the main dye manufacturers . table -1 covers the so called homo bi- functional dyes while table 2 lists those bi-functional reactive cdyes having different reactive groups on the same dye molecule . systems containing mixed reactive groups for exhaust dyeing are popular and gaining ground especially where relative insentivity of fixation to temperature variations in the region opf 60-

80c are called for 21 acid bleed resistance of final dyeing is also an important well recognized advantage of the mixed vinyl sulphone / Halo trizinyl dyes.

Crosslinking Systems:
The commercial success in this area achieved by BASF with its Basazol system22 . In this case dyes containing pedant nucleophilic grops were fixed to cellulose hydroxyl residue using a trifunctional crosslinking agent, 1, 3, 5 tryacrylaminohexahydro-s-triazine. Dyes employed contain sulphonamide residues which were sufficiently nucleophilic above pH 10.5 to undergo Michael addition with the activated double bonds of the crosslinkiner. The system was highly inactive, but mainly because of its restriction to padding and printing process, probably due to the non-substantive character of crosslinker, the dyes were withdrawn from the market. Baumgrate22,23 has described up to nine different products based on such a system. Crosslinker system for sulphonated reactive dyes based on aminoalkyl groups and cyanuric chloride were also found in the literature24 . Sandoz has developed Indozol systems where copper complex direct dyes were used in combination with N-methylol resins for crosslinking of the cellulosic fibre to achieve easy care finishing in addition to colouration of the substance25 .

Fibre modification:
The fixation of reactive dyes on substrate containing amino groups such as wool is found to be much higher than that of cellulosic fibres. Using a dye bath pH of 5-7 wool can be dyed in moderate dep[th of shade with almost 95-100% colour yield as reported in absence of salt4 . Based on the above fact a number of attempts have been made to introduce amino residues on cellulosic in order to improve their dyeability. COTTON was made readily dyeable with reactive dye by pretreating the same with cationic resins5 . however the shade obtained was duller then those produce by the conventional salt- alkali process with lower light fastness rating of coloured substrate. Cellulosic substrate was also attempted to modify Glycidely ammonium chloride 6,7 where the modified Cellulosic substrate acquires positive charge at ph 7 and anionic sulphonated reactive dye is initially absorbed on to the fibre by powerful ionic hydroxyl group present in the modifying agent . typically dyeing was done through out at ph7 in the absence of salt with achieved exhaustion value 85%. Other attempts using modifying agent based on quaternary ammonium compounds without hydroxyl group 3 have also been tried and extent of fixation in such cases were found to be poor around ph7. Lei & Lewis8 used an alternative method to introduce amine group into cotton based on pre-esterification with chloropropionyl chloride to dye the modified substrate under the

weakly acidic condition in absence of salt. In such case the retention of dye substrate under alkaline soaping condition was found to be very poor .

by the

In case introduction of amino residues the dyes were reported to be fixed on to the neucleophilic sites of the modifying agent as evident from the red analysis of the dyed substrates3. Dyeing of wool with all types of reactive dyes have been reported in the literature26 to be better performed with the use of tri-chloro acetic acid which gives a dye bath ph value less than 2 at the start of dyeing. Upon attainment of boiling temperature the said tri-chloro acetic acid decomposes to volatile carbon -di- oxide and chloroform thus enhancing the ph of the dye bath to a value of nearly 7, thus giving a favorable ph finally for the fixation of reactive dye.

It has been reported27 , when cotton is pre treated with nicotinyle thio glycollate, it could be successfully dyed with a mono-chloro triazine dye b in absence of salt at a dye bath of ph 3. At this ph nucleophilic tertiary amines are sufficiently protonated to favor uptake of anionic reactive dye . According to the report the exhausted dye is fixed only when the dyed fabric was treated with alkali. it is of further interest to note that dyeing of nylon with certain reactive dyes iss started under acidic condition when they behave like normal dispers dyes and give good coveragew which is followed by an alkanine(ph 10-11) fixation stage to yield dyeing of relatively high wash fastness26

REFERANCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. D.M. Lewis And J. Yao, J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists , 116,285, 2000 D.M. Lewis , Rev. Prog. Colouration. 29 23 , 1999 D.M. Lewis And X.P. Lei, J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists ,107, 102, 1991 D.M. Lewis , J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists , 109, 357, 1993 D.M. Lewis And X.P. Lei , Text. Chem Colourists,21, 23, 1989 M. Rupin , G.Veaute & J. Balland ,Texiyilveredlung, 5, 829 , 1970 J.A. Rippon, J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists 100, 298, 1984 X.P. Lei And D.M.Lewis, Dyes And Pigments, 16, 273, ,1991 Www. Spcouncil.Org D.D.Gagliardi And F.B. Shippee, Amer .Dyestuff Rep. 52,(8), 1963 ,300 S.P. Rowland Et Al. Text.Reserch J. 37. 1967, 933 Clark M. Welch, Rev. Prog. Colouration. 22,32,1992 Clark M. Welch, Text.Reserch J , 58,480, 1998 Clark M. Welch, & B.K. Andrews, Usp 4, 820, 307, 1989 Laing, Rev. Prog. Colouration, 21,56, 1991 F.Saddov, Chemical Tech . Of Fibrous Materials, 366 The New Maxico Ltap Approach, Dec. P4-5, No-14,1996 Easy Samples Term Papers For Students M.J.Bradbury, P.S.Collishaw & D.A.S. Philips, J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists ,108, 430,1992 N.Morimura & M.Ojima. Amer .Dyestuff Rep, 74,28, 1985 S. Fujioka & S.Abta, Dyes And Pigments, 3, 282 , 1982 U.Baumgarte, Milliand Textilbar., 49 , 1432,1968 Handbook Of Textile Testinvg ,Bis, New Delhi, 15 - 1981 M.M. Kamel, & M. Kamel, J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists 108,450, 1992 J.A.Hook & A.C. Welham J.Society Of Dyer And Colourists , 104, 329,1988 T.L. Dawson, J.Society Of Dyer And colourists 97,115,1981

INDEX Page no.

Bleaching Department Grey Opening Singeing Desizing ,Scouring&Bleaching Mercerization Caustic Recovery Plant Dyeing Department Color Kitchen Pad Dry Normal
Pad- Dry Thermosol

5 9 12 16 26 31 33 33 36 44 46 48 50 51 60 66 68 70

Cold Pad Batch Pad Steam Finishing Department Stenter Machine Sanforizing Sueding Pilot Plant Inspection & Packing Department