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Environmental Justice: An annotated bibliography Baden, B. M., Noonan, D. S., & Turaga, R. M. (2007).

Scales of Justice: Is there a Geographic Bias in Environmental Equity Analysis. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 50(2), 163-185. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. The authors examined the main methodological challenges in environmental justice (EJ) research concerning location of waste sites and community demographics. The study summarizes 110 empirical EJ studies with respect to scale and scope effects. Mainly, the article discusses the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) of choosing the proper areal unit to analyze aggregate data sources. The authors determined if the results for the variable of interest is statistically significant or not at the confidence level of 95 percent. The dependent variable is a hazardous facility on the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) and the independent variable is income and race and the test is multivariate regression analysis. Barker, D. C., & Bearce, D. H. (2012). End-Times Theology, the Shadow of the Future, and Public Resistance to Addressing Global Climate Change. Political Research Quarterly, 66(2), 267-269. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. The authors use nationally representative surveys of public opinion and ordered probit regression to measure the hypothesis that citizens who believe in Christian end-times theology are less likely to see global warming as a policy problem that requires immediate government action compared to

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

citizens who do not hold end-times beliefs. The authors designed specific survey questions with ordinal values to measure the dependent variable of support for government action to curb global warming and the independent variable of end-time beliefs or the Second Coming. The researchers also discuss four categories of alternate explanations that could influence global warming policy attitudes, which they controlled for in their prediction models. Their research found that belief in a Christian end-times theology significantly predicts resistance to governmental action aimed at curbing global warming. No other religious variable achieved statistical significance. Bedsworth, L. W., & Hanak, E. (2010). Adaption to Climate Change: A Review of Challenges and Tradeoffs in Six Areas. Journal of American Planning Association, 76(4), 477-495. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environmental Complete database. The authors summarize the results for six studies that used qualitative and quantitative data collection through surveys, interviews and literature review. Primarily, the source for this study is from another study conducted in California by the authors and nine researchers. That study drew from primary and secondary sources to assess climate change impacts, adaption tools and barriers to opportunities for successful approaches. The case study found that California has lead an exemplary effort to develop information on climate impacts and have been collecting data for over two decades. It also found that many of the challenges California faces in adaptation planning would be similar across the country.

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

Bell, M. L., & Ebisu, K. (2012). Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(12), 16999-1704. Retrieved July 8, 2013, from the Academic Search Complete database. The authors investigated whether exposures air toxins differ by race/ethnicity, age and socioeconomic status. They estimated long-term exposure with 215 U.S. census tracts from 2000 through 2006. The researchers used univariate logistic regression to test the estimated exposures by race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, employment, age, and earnings, which are the independent variables and the dependent variable of exposure to the toxicity of fine particulate matter in the air. Their research found whites generally had the lowest exposures. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher exposures than did whites for 13 of the 14 air borne toxic components. Hispanics generally had the highest exposures. (Young persons (0- 19 years of age) had levels as high as or higher than other ages for all exposures except sulfate. The study also found that exposures to air toxin components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES and certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens. Bostrom, A., Turaga, R. M., & Noonan, D. (2011). Hot Spot Regulation and Environmental Justice . Ecological Economics, 70, 1395-1405. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environmental Complete database. The authors simulated spatial distribution of air toxics under regulation at different spatial resolutions. The sample is includes 15 sources of air toxics from seven facilities that emit six different toxins. The test used is three nested

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

spatial resolutions to determine the probability of negative environmental consequences or adverse health outcomes on communities and reference communities for comparison. The data was generated using GIS interface. The study found that changing the resolution on of regulation could have mitigating affect on the risk but this will not necessarily change the distribution of the risk across color lines. Choy, L., Ho, W. K., & Mak, S. W. (2011). Toward a low carbon Hong Kong: A proposal from the institutional perspective. Habitat International, 37, 124-129. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. The authors hypothesize that energy consumption is the primary factor for greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong and propose two solutions they believe will be most effect. First, they suggest a pricing arrangement that adds a fee to large consumers of energy or a flat rate to the entire population and secondly, they suggest a cap and trade program. They created a model of energy consumption from 1990 and 2008 with 19 yearly observations. The dependent variable was carbon dioxide emissions and the independent variable was energy consumption. The research found that the only statistically significant relationship was nearly a 2 percent reduction carbon dioxide when energy consumption fell by 1 percent during the investigatory period. Gen, S., Shafer, H., & Nakagawa, M. (2010). Perceptions of Environmental Justice: the Case of a U.S. Urban Wastewater System. Sustainable Development, 20(4), 239250. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. The authors use the San Francisco wastewater system to measure individuals

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

perception of environmental outcome equity with an ordinal survey. The dependent variable was the communitys ability to perceive environmental inequities and the independent variable was testing the communitys perceptions with tangible and harms. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was used to test the data and then the two sets of data were geocoded for spatial analyses. At first only 39 percent of the respondents were familiar with the term environmental justice but once that term was defined, there was clear perceptions of its prevalence and strong support for its advancement. Schweitzer, L., & Zhou, J. (2010). Neighborhood Air Quality, Respiratory Health and Vulnerable Populations in Compact Sprawled Regions. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(3), 363-371. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environmental Complete database. The authors used data from the EPA and the decennial census to determine whether neighborhood level population exposure to ozone and particular matter were higher in more compact metropolitan area than in sprawled regions. A multilevel regression analysis was used to find an empirical relationship between the independent variable of regional urban form and the dependent variable of neighborhood air quality outcomes. The research found although concentrations of ozone are significantly lower in compact regions, the ozone exposures are higher. It also found that both ozone and fine particulates are higher in areas with a high proportion of African Americans, Asian ethnic minorities and poor households. Shadbegian, R., & Wolverton, A. (2010). Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants:

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

Theories, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 4, 1-49. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. The authors explain earlier theory and evidence around the issues of environmental regulation and their effects on location decisions of polluting plants. Also the overview explores the theory that states compete for these plants because of the variance in regulations from state to state and the theory that firms chose to locate in disproportionally poor and minority neighborhoods as a practice. The researchers use discrete conditional logit testing to compare actual locations choice to more than one alternative on the basis of choose and plant specific attributes. The study finds that more stringent regulations causes plants to relocate in areas that are more relaxed. It also found little evidence to suggest this happening in the United States and mostly applies to other countries. Lastly, modern literature found much more mixed evidence about plants in poor neighborhoods, than early. Xenarios, S., & Bithas, K. (2012). The Use of Environmental Policy Instruments for Urban Wastewater Control: Evidences from an International Survey. Environmental Policy and Governance, 22, 14-26. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from the Environment Complete database. Experts from developed countries were asked to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of regulatory and economic instruments in wastewater policy, the dependent variable, through a number of criteria. The authors then assessed independent variables of the respondent's country of origin, organization type

Mutajah Hussein UST 504: Professor Weizer July 9, 2013

and professional ranking through an ordinal regression analysis. The research found that European respondents dominated the sampling group although contribution from North America and Australia was noteworthy. It also found that taxes, standards and a combination of the two were favored by a majority of the respondents. APA formatting by BibMe.org.