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Vocational Education & Training for Migrant Women in China September 2013

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Migrant Women Workers

Migrant population: 150-200 million (50% women) Migrants are disadvantaged vis--vis non-migrants Migrant women are disadvantaged vis--vis migrant men

TVET Models

General Secondary Sector-Specific Entrepreneurship

General Secondary TVET

Funding: Microsoft, Walmart, Macys Inc., Two Ten Foundation Courses/Majors: IT/Computer, Accounting, Human Resources, Advertising, Business Administration, English, E-Commerce, Mechanical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Health Care, Auto Repair, Secretarial, etc. Duration: 2-3 year (degree); 60-100 hours (certificate) Benefits: Tertiary Education, Diverse Careers, Increased Income

General Secondary TVET Beneficiary

Lin Shuiyu

Started as a sock factory line worker. Studied e-commerce and accounting. As of 2010, she has been working as a financial management software sales consultant.

Planned to register for part-time collegelevel account course.

Income: RMB1,200 (USD$180) RMB 4,000 ($500)

Sector-Specific TVET

Funding: Two Ten Foundation

Courses/Majors: Footwear Design, Pattern Grading, Quality Inspection of Shoes, Production/Logistics Management Duration: 2-3 years Benefits: Promotion, Increased Income

Sector-Specific TVET Beneficiary

Tan Zhendi

Started as Frontline Worker at shoe factory in 2009. Studied (part-time): footwear production techniques, production materials management, quality control, production/logistics management. Promoted to Team Leader in 2012. Promoted to Office Assistant (mid-level manager) in 2013.

Income: RMB 1500 ($238) RMB 4000 ($651)


Entrepreneurship TVET

Funding: Boeing, HB Fuller, GSRD

Courses/Majors: Accounting, Banking & Financing, Market Access & Marketing, Registration & Taxation, Business Plans

Duration: 60-80 course hours

Benefits: Flexibility, Family Status

Entrepreneurship TVET Beneficiary

Qu Hongru

Former shop assistant (clothing, beauty salon, home furnishings)

Received a $8,000 microloan and entrepreneurship training.

Income: $150-400 $1,000 (primary breadwinner)