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Regional Seminar on Gender Equality in Secondary Education, ADB TVET Skills for Grantand 0211-LAO STVET Project Employment

and annual GS Consultation meetings


11-17 September 2013, Beijing, PRC

Mainstreaming Gender in the TVET-Project

Prepared by: Phouvieng PHOUMILAY, DDG, TVE-Department STVET-Project Manager


The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

Outline of the presentation

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General problems and issues/ challenges of TVET in Lao PDR

2. Brief information about the STVET Project 3. Gender action plan including actions and indicators 4. GAP implementation challenges 5. Lesson learned and way forward
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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project Issues and Challenges of Lao TVET

1. Vocational training does not provide access for all target groups, especially in rural and remote areas. 2. The education system in general, TVET system in particular does not longer match the demand of the socio-economic development, especially the needs of the labor market. 3. The image of TVET remains still poor, mostly prefer the higher education as well as white collar job, while there are very few applicants for none-traditional jobs. 4. The training quality remains still low due to many factors like poor infrastructure, machines and equipment and low qualified teaching staff.
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PROJECT BACKGROUND

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

Project Impact:
More highly skilled and diverse workforce in Lao PDR, number of workers in the labor force with formal TVET qualifications increases by 25% (50% for females) from 2011 to 2021 Project Outcome: An accessible formal vocational training system that is more responsive to labor market needs Timeline: Sept.2010 March 2015
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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

5 Project Outputs Output 1: Improved quality of TVET : improve curriculum based on national skills standards;

strengthen pre-service and in-service TVET teacher training; introduce career counseling and vocational guidance; promote TVET with social marketing campaign; upgrade equipment and facilities in TVET institutions. provide training assistance vouchers enhance access to women and ethnic groups

Output 2: Increased and more equitable access to TVET


Output 3: Increased private sector involvement in TVET strategy and delivery strengthen industry involvement in skill standards and
curriculum introduce contracting programs with private firms and TVET 5 institutions

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project 5 Project Outputs (Cont.)

Output 4: Strengthened governance and management of the TVET system strengthen the policy and regulatory framework

improve information on labor market and TVET sector

Output 5: Effective project management and implementation establish facilities and systems for effective project
management and implementation develop project monitoring and evaluation system

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

Key Gender Issues Identified in Project Design


1. Limited access of females to nontraditional high demand skill areas for training and employment (automotive, construction, and furniture-making).

2. Limited access to TVET: lack of dormitories, and cost of training and living expenses;
3. Academic barriers in accessing formal TVET training due to formal academic entrance requirements and lack of bridging programs; 4. Inflexibility in curriculum models and training schedules, which exclude students in employment or other duties; 5. Inadequate incentives including quotas and scholarships to encourage more females in nontraditional sectors.
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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GENDER ACTION PLAN (GAP): OVERALL ACTIONS AND INDICATORS Actions and Indicators Progress /Achievement - 20% female - Furniture - 0%, (0 female/53 male), enrolments in - Construction - 1.1%, (21 construction, furniture, female/1813 male) and mechanics. - Mechanics 0.9% (11 female/1135 male) T - Total 3 priority skill areas : 1% (32 female/3001 male)

- 40% female enrolments in business trades by 2016.

- 66 % (2,260) females enrolled in Basic Business trades out of a total of 3,425 enrolments.

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 1 Increased Quality of formal labor market related TVET

Actions and Indicators


All skills standards and manual are gender and ethnicity sensitive. All new TVET curriculum frameworks provide positive images of women working in the 4 priority skill areas. All competency based assessments are gender sensitive.

Progress /Achievement
Achieved The new manual on Competency Based Curricula Design, Development and Implementation include gender balanced positive images for the 4 priority skill areas. The competency-based assessments will be developed in a gender-neutral manner, stressing equal access to assessment. Activities related to the assessors will start in Q3 2013 with assurance of at least 10% female assessors. Workshop (17-18 October 2012) with project institution administrators and teachers was carried out to collect feedback on existing practices relating to codes of conduct

10% of skills assessors are women

Develop materials and train teachers and staff on Code of Conduct on Prevention of Sexual Harassment/ Exploitation and reporting mechanisms.

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 1 Increased Quality of formal labor market related TVET Actions and Indicators
10% of teachers trained in the 3 priority skill areas. At least 50% of teachers trained in basic business are female. Develop strategies for increasing female teachers in the 3 priority skill areas with low female representation.

Progress /Achievement
29 female teachers participated in electrical installation skills upgrading (10.3%). 6 female teachers received skills upgrading in basic business (85.7%) This to be discussed among PIU staff, NTC and TVET institutions within TVED will be conducted before mid-term review.

Implement a social marketing campaign to: promote female participation in nontraditional (NT) skills and trades;
publicize the voucher training assistance program, dormitory facilities and training programs provided by TVET institutions to promote female enrolment in NT TVET;

recruitment is ongoing for a firm to manage a national and institution based social marketing campaign w/TOR indicating the promotion of females into the 3 NT trades.
First round of the Voucher Program is implemented with enrolment of female students.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 1 Increased Quality of formal labor market related TVET Actions and Indicators
mobilize the private sector to hire more women in the 4 priority skill areas;
Conduct information workshops and counseling sessions with prospective female students to familiarize them with the range of subjects and employment opportunities that are available to women in the 4 priority skill areas

Progress /Achievement
Limited efforts have been made to promote female enrolment into the NT TVET fields.

- An action plan prepared by the TVET Access Specialist on how to address the shortcomings in the first round during the second round. It will be part of the career guidance counseling (CGC) related activities to be initiated in Q3-Q4 2013. Will be part of the career guidance counseling (CGC) activities in Q3-Q4 2013. Will be assured in CGC related activities to be initiated in Q3-Q4 2013. Only equipment for basic business has been delivered so far, consisting mainly of computers allocated in class rooms where both male and females have equal access.

All counseling and guidance materials target women. At least 30% of those trained as TVET job counselors are women. Equipment is suitable for both male and female students -

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 2 Increased and Equitable Access to TVET Actions and Indicators
At least 25% of voucher recipients are female students

Progress /Achievement

1. Construction: 53 recipients, with 6 females (11%) 2. Automotive Mechanic: 326 recipients, 11 females (3%) 3. Furniture making: 36 recipients (no female) 4. Basic Business: 243 recipients, with 176 female (72%). 29.3% (193) of total voucher recipients (658) are females 11 dormitories have been built, of which 6 dormitories (54.5%) are reserved for female students. In total the 11 dormitories provided space for a total on 2,200 students, or which 1,200 are exclusively provided for females Separate bathing and washing facilities. Each dormitory housing 200 students has 14 toilets, 14 lavatories, and 8 showers. The M/F ration is the same. The outline of the Code of Conduct has been drafted and presented during a workshop conducted in 2012 and will conduct more training.

At least 50% of dormitory spaces reserved for female Ensure dormitories have separate spaces and facilities for males/females.

- Provide training on "Code of Conduct" to all Dormitory Management, security guards and all dormitory staff.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 2 Increased and Equitable Access to TVET Actions and Indicators
- Course schedules should be flexible and compatible w/household demands of females - Provide information/counseling services for females on day care services available locally and TVET program time commitments to assist them in balancing household chores and TVET. - Wherever possible, ensure a critical mass of female students in the 3 skill areas with low female representation to reduce female isolation in the male dominated training classes. -

Progress /Achievement
In the discussion process

In the discussion process

Still subject for advocacy. Critical mass of female students in the three non-traditional trade areas will be stressed through the TAVP and the Social Marketing Campaign, and as part of the CGC.

- Provide a role model/mentoring program for female students with female faculty and/or with women in related fields.

Will be assured in CGC actions. Will work w/LWU through the establishment of gender focal points in project schools Q3-Q4 2013.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 3 Increased Private Sector Involvement in TVET Strategy/Delivery
Actions and Indicators
30% female representation on the National Training Council (NTC). Provide sensitization training on female enrollment in NT TVET to all NTC permanent staff. -

Progress /Achievement
The NTC has total 39 members, with 8% (3) women with no project influence over appointments. A gender-training workshop conducted in March 2012 included NTC-PO staff, but NTC-PO was still understaffed and thus, only few participated.

At least 40% female participants in the regional study tour


25% female members on TVET advisory boards At least 50% female facilitators supporting the TWGs in the 4 priority skill areas At least 20% of TWG members in the 4 priority skill areas will be female.

Two study tours has been conducted, with total 21 participants 5 female (23.8%).
The advisory boards are not yet established. The establishment regulations will require 25% females. There were four TWG facilitators that supported the development of competency standards for 17 jobs in 4 priority skill areas, two (50%) were women. Four Trade Working Groups that developed competency standards were established in January 2012 with 4 females (16.6%) out of 24 participants

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 3 Increased Private Sector Involvement in TVET Strategy/Delivery

Actions and Indicators


Develop and provide training on gender, TVET and corporate social responsibility (CSR) to private sector/ employers. Females will constitute 20% of TVET teachers and 40% of students to be provided training under Specialist Skills Contracting Program (SSCP), and 50% of trainees under the Skills Contracting Program. Establish a CSR/gender recognition award for top performing private employers who have increased female recruitment in non traditional priority skill areas. Define criteria for award in collaboration with Lao National Chamber of Commerce and Industries (LNCCI) to give certificates of recognition.

Progress /Achievement
This activity will be implemented after selection of companies for the contract training (PPP). Out of 466 teachers under the SSCP, 30.4% (142) are females. Out of 1319 students registered to be included under the SSCP, 36.3% (480) are females. Will be done after the project selects the companies.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 4 Strengthened Governance and Management of TVET System

Actions and Indicators


In review of policy and funding frameworks for TVET, incorporate gender/ social equity issues. -

Progress /Achievement
Gender/Social Equity issues incorporated in the Unit Cost system and policies on providing flexible teacher work schedules.

The professional development training program for TVET managerial staff has a module on gender sensitization and promotion of girls in NT occupations.
30% females in all management and other capacity development programs. Recruit females into managerial positions in institutions being supported under the project (especially in NT skill areas). TVET information systems will report sexdisaggregated data on enrollment, drop-outs, graduates and other TVET indicators. Gender balance in training for TVET operation and data management

The specific modules on gender have not been incorporated in TVET management training yet.

Capacity development/HRD programs had 1365 participants, w/198 females (14.51%). EMIS is being developed to ensure genderdisaggregated data is collected and reported. Being implemented in line with established government procedures EMIS training in 2011-2013, for key TVED and provincial MoES officers and school personnel with a total of 65 participants, 12 were female (18.5 %).

Tracer studies and LMIS will include gender disaggregated data and report on the results

Tracer Study is ongoing and the results reporting will include sex disaggregated data. 16 LMIS data will be sex-disaggregated.

ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project GAP ACTIONS AND INDICATORS: OUTPUT 5 Effective project Management and Implementation Actions and Indicators
The DMF developed for the project will incorporate M&E for GAP. Train all PIU staff and TVED staff in gender and ethnicity issues, including gender analysis. Gender targets are included in project HRD Plan. Project to include gender disaggregated data on institutions being supported under the project (e.g. enrolments, drop-outs, graduates, etc.), and for all human resource development initiatives Project to include genderdisaggregated indicators for M&E. All PIU reports to include reporting and analysis on GAP progress.

Progress /Achievement
The M&E System includes gender indicators to monitor project progress on the DMF and GAP. A workshop on project gender awareness, targets and outputs was provided for relevant TVED units and PIU with 30 participants 15 were female (50%). GAP targets are represented in the Project Annual Work Plans and in the DMF follow-up. Data and information relevant to the M&E of the project activities is gender disaggregated, including data from EMIS, LMIS, Tracer Studies, TAVP monitoring etc. Moreover the quantitative project reporting, relating to training, study tour and workshop attendance are sex-disaggregated. Gender-disaggregated data will be collected and reported upon once the EMIS is fully operational. GAP monitoring Table updated regularly

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

GAP IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES


Major challenge to increase numbers and shares in the nontraditional trade areas, mainly because the specific outreach to target females to take on the three priority trade areas has not yet been imparted Difficult to achieve enrolment targets for the 3 priority skill areas of construction, furniture making, mechanical trades (20%) due to lack of employment prospects, since jobs in these areas are traditionally male dominated; 40% participation of women in regional study tours, because of the limited female base population in positions and at levels required to attend and absorb knowledge from the study tours.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

LESSONS LEARNED / WAY FORWARD


1. Strengthen the implementation of the social marketing campaign to promote female participation in non-traditional skills and trades through: publicizing the voucher training assistance program, dormitory facilities and training programs available to women; conducting information workshops with prospective female students to familiarize them with the range of subjects and employment opportunities available to them; and, maximizing linkages with the private sector to promote employment of women in the non- traditional sectors) 2. Strengthen the Gender Focal Point at the TVED, to work with presidents of LWU of each project institution, and to create Gender Focal Point network at institution level. The Gender Focal Point at the TVED introduce the project GAP to Gender Focal Point network members, and to closely follow up activities
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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project LESSONS LEARNED / WAY FORWARD 3. The TVED takes the target the number of women in the NTC into consideration, and suggest to increase female representation. 4. Re-schedule the remaining inputs of the Gender consultants 5. Since many of the gender actions are still to be completed, that the project reconsiders the hiring of the International Gender Specialist for a longer timeframe intermittently through to the end of the project.

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ADB Grant 0211-LAO STVET Project

Thank you
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