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# MODEL QUESTIONS [HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE (CE705)]

SHORT ANSWER TYPE 1. What are the limitations of Blighs Creep Theory for sub-surface flow below a weir on permeable foundation? What are the fundamental aspects in which it differs from Khoslas Theory? 2. Explain the differences between a barrage and a weir. 3. Sketch a neat diagram of a layout of a diversion head work and show the different components on it. 4. What are the different causes of failure of weir on a permeable foundation? Discuss the different remedial measures that can be adopted to avoid such failures. 5. Explain the differences between aqueduct and super-passage with neat sketch. 6. Briefly highlight on the function of a launching apron. 7. Explain the wave pressure distribution on the upstream face of a gravity dam. 8. What are grout curtains? How do they affect the stability of a gravity dam? 9. What criteria would govern the selection of a gravity dam? 10. What are the causes of failure of earth dams? Also list out the different failure modes of earth dams. 11. Explain with neat sketches the different types of embankment dams. 12. Briefly discuss the different conditions for drawing the flownet diagram. 13. Name the different types of spillways that are normally used in practice. 14. Briefly explain what type of spillway would be appropriate for different concrete gravity dams and embankment dams. 15. What are energy dissipators and how are they helpful? 16. Short Notes: a) Canal falls and their function. b) Elementary profile of a gravity dam. c) Undersluices and their function. d) Rockfill dam. e) Silt pressure on a gravity dam. f) Relief wells.

## g) Energy dissipation below an overflow spillway.

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS 1. Determine the force exerted by the waves on the upstream face of a concrete gravity dam due to winds blowing with a velocity of 70 km/hr over a fetch of 80 km. 2. The particulars of a concrete gravity dam resting over a rocky foundation are given below: a. RL of top of dam = 145.0 m b. Freeboard = 3 m c. Upstream face inclined at a slope of 0.25(H): 1(V) from RL 120.0 m up to the base. d. Downstream face sloped at 0.8(H): 1(V) from RL 140.0 m up to the base. e. RL of base = 110.0 m. f. Top width = 6 m. i. Calculate the forces acting on the dam due to self weight, hydrostatic thrust and uplift pressure. ii. Determine the stability of the dam when the reservoir is full. iii. Determine the stresses induced in the dam in reservoir full condition. 3. A hydraulic diversion structure is founded on sand to withstand water of 4 m depth. The floor length is 22 m with two piles of depth 6 m and 8 m at the upstream and downstream ends respectively. The structure is constructed at a distance of 6 m from the upstream end of the floor. The specific gravity of floor material is 2.24. i) Calculate the average hydraulic gradient. ii) Calculate the uplift pressures at distances of 6 m, 12 m and 18 m from the upstream end of the floor. iii) Find the thickness of the floor at these points. 4. A 200 m long Ogee spillway has an experimentally determined discharge coefficient of 0.7. The crest is at a height of 25 m from the floor of the stilling basin. i) If a discharge of 2500m3/s passes over the crest then what is the head of water above the spillway crest level? (Neglect approach velocity) ii) What is the depth and velocity of water over the floor of the stilling basin before the occurrence of hydraulic jump? 5. An earthen embankment dam made of homogeneous material has the following data:

Coefficient of permeability of dam material = 4 10 4 m / s Level of top of dam = 200.0 m Level of deepest river bed = 170.0 m H.F.L. of reservoir = 197.0 m Width of the top of dam = 7 m Upstream slope = 2.5(H) : 1(V) Downstream slope = 2(H) : 1(V) A horizontal filter of length equal to 30 m is provided inward from the downstream toe of the dam.

i) Determine the phreatic line for this dam section. ii) What would be the discharge through the dam?

MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE 1. River training works are done for training the flow of river. Which of the following does not come under the river training works carried on during the construction of a barrage? a) Guide bunds b) Marginal bunds c) Canal head regulator d) Groynes 2. A discharge of 8.5m3/s per unit length flows over the crest of an Ogee spillway and the depth of flow near the base of the spillway is measured to be 0.3m. The flow passes over a skee jump located near the toe end of the spillway which acts as an energy dissipater and modifies the flow depth downstream of the spillway. What would be the modified flow depth? a) 7.01m b) 6.86m c) 7.16m d) 6.72m 3. If no downstream cutoff is provided, then the exit gradient calculated according to Khoslas theory is a) infinity b) a function of the effective head

c) unity d) zero 4. Phreatic line in seepage analysis is defined as the line on which the pressure is a) greater than atmosphere b) equal to atmosphere c) less than atmosphere d) varying 5. The Idukki dam across Periyar river in Kerela, India is an example of a) earth cum rockfill embankment dam b) concrete gravity dam c) buttress dam d) concrete arch dam 6. The most suitable material for the central impervious core of an earth dam is a) clay b) coarse sand c) clay mixed with fine sand d) silty clay 7. Silt excluder is provided on a) the river, just upstream of the undersluices b) the canal, just upstream of the canal head regulator c) the river, some distance downstream of the undersluices d) the canal, some distance downstream of the canal head regulator 8. The vertical stress is assumed to vary linearly from 150 KN/m2 (tensile) at the upstream end to 3450 KN/m2 (compressive) at the downstream end of a concrete gravity dam of bottom width 25m. If the water level at the upstream end is 35m then at what distance from the upstream face would tension cracks develop? a) 1.114 m b) 1.534 m c) 1.331 m d) 1.042 m 9. The hydrodynamic pressure due to horizontal earthquake acceleration according to Von Karman formula acts at a distance of a) 4H / 3 above the base b) 3H / 4 above the base

c) 4H / 3 below the top surface d) 3H / 4 below the top surface 10. Barrages constructed across alluvial rivers help in a) controlling floods b) restoring river regime c) ensuring monsoon storage d) all of these 11. The Indian Standard Code used for designing concrete gravity dams is a) IS: 6512 - 1984 b) IS: 11973 - 1986 c) IS: 12070 - 1987 d) IS: 15284 (Part-1) 2003 12. The term piping used in connection with diversion structure on permeable soil is associated with a) drainage of seepage water b) measurement of uplift pressure c) failure initiated by boiling d) consolidation of foundation