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Longitudinal Static Stability

Set aspect ratio of wing ARw = 12


Given wing span b = 2.8 m

Wing area

)
At sea level take-off:

Sizing of horizontal tail


Take off speed V = 1.2

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume elliptical lift distribution,


(

for finite wing is as follows:


(

To enable the UAV has enough stick fixed degree of longitudinal static stability, static margin is
set to be 0.15.

Assume chord of horizontal stabilizer to be 45% of wing chord,


(

From Xfoil plotter,

( )(

Length of fuselage

Assuming the wing aerodynamic centre is located at quarter of the fuselage measured from nose.
Assuming the fuselage is a symmetrical hemispheric tube. The fuselage contribution to
longitudinal static stability is analysed using Multhopps method as follows:
station
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

wf
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155

x
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245

)(

)(

wf2*(d/d) x
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.008
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.0298

)
(

( )

d/d
1.250
1.300
1.400
3.200
0.084
0.251
0.418
0.585
0.752
sum

x
0.357
0.306
0.255
0.102
0.123
0.368
0.613
0.858
1.103

)
(

)(

)(

))

Most forward CG limit using servo limit


From Xfoil plotter,
;
(
(

)
(

station x
wf
a0w
1
0.207 0.155
2
0.207 0.155
3
0.207 0.155
4
0.207 0.155
5
0.207 0.155
6
0.207 0.155
7
0.207 0.155
8
0.207 0.155
9
0.207 0.155

)(

)(

wf2(a0w+it) x
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.064
-0.577

-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
-12.86
Sum

From figure 2.12(Nelson), k2-k1=0.944

Plot the above

)
and

)(

equation to get

)
(

)(

)(

Cm vs CL
0
Cm

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.2
y = -0.15x - 0.0486

-0.4

CL

From graph:

Moment equation:

( )

In trimmed flight, :
(

)(

)
(

Assume 1 deg of elevator deflection changes the horizontal tail angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4
From figure 2.21 (Nelson),
For =0.4,

; therefore
(

)
( )(

)(

)(

From the data of the servo used, operating travel is 60deg, therefore maximum available
elevator deflections
Most forward cg location
(

Therefore, permissible cg range: between 0.168c and 0.467c from wing leading edge.
Without servo control
0.317c

Most forward CG

With servo control


0.168c

Cruising at 2000ft at 60 km/h:


Sizing of horizontal tail

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume elliptical lift distribution,


(

for finite wing is as follows:


(

To enable the UAV has enough stick fixed degree of longitudinal static stability, static margin is
set to be 0.15.

Assume chord of horizontal stabilizer to be 37.775% of wing chord,


(

From Xfoil plotter,

( )(

Length of fuselage

Assuming the wing aerodynamic centre is located at quarter of the fuselage measured from nose.
Assuming the fuselage is a symmetrical hemispheric tube. The fuselage contribution to
longitudinal static stability is analysed using Multhopps method as follows:
station
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

wf
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155

x
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245

d/d
1.250
1.300
1.400
3.200
0.082
0.245
0.408
0.571
0.734
sum

x
0.357
0.306
0.255
0.102
0.123
0.368
0.613
0.858
1.103

)(

)
(

(
( )

)
(

wf2*(d/d) x
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.008
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.0295
)

)(

)(

))

Most forward CG limit using servo limit


From Xfoil plotter,
;
(
(

)
(

station x
wf
a0w
1
0.207 0.155
2
0.207 0.155
3
0.207 0.155
4
0.207 0.155
5
0.207 0.155
6
0.207 0.155
7
0.207 0.155
8
0.207 0.155
9
0.207 0.155

-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
-13.12
Sum

)(

)(

wf2(a0w+it) x
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.065
-0.588

From figure 2.12(Nelson), k2-k1=0.944

)(

Plot the above

and

)
(

)(

)(

equation to get

Cm vs CL
0
Cm

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.2
y = -0.15x - 0.0448

-0.4

CL

From graph:

Moment equation:

( )

In trimmed flight, :
(

)(

)
(

Assume 1 deg of elevator deflection changes the horizontal tail angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4
From figure 2.21 (Nelson),
For =0.4,

; therefore
(

)
( )(

)(

)(

From the data of the servo used, operating travel is 60deg, therefore maximum available
elevator deflections
Most forward cg location
(

Therefore, permissible cg range: between 0.170c and 0.456c from wing leading edge.
Without servo control
0.306c

Most forward CG

Cruising at 5000ft at 80 km/h:


Sizing of horizontal tail

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume elliptical lift distribution,


(

for finite wing is as follows:


(

With servo control


0.170c

To enable the UAV has enough stick fixed degree of longitudinal static stability, static margin is
set to be 0.15.

Assume chord of horizontal stabilizer to be 30.48% of wing chord,


(

From Xfoil plotter,

Length of fuselage

( )(

Assuming the wing aerodynamic centre is located at quarter of the fuselage measured from nose.
Assuming the fuselage is a symmetrical hemispheric tube. The fuselage contribution to
longitudinal static stability is analysed using Multhopps method as follows:
station
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

x
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245

wf
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155
0.155

d/d
1.250
1.300
1.400
3.200
0.080
0.241
0.401
0.561
0.722
sum

x
0.357
0.306
0.255
0.102
0.123
0.368
0.613
0.858
1.103

)(

wf2*(d/d) x
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.008
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.0293
)

)
(

( )

)(

)(

))

Most forward CG limit using servo limit


From Xfoil plotter,
;
(
(

)
(

)
)

station x
wf
a0w
1
0.207 0.155
2
0.207 0.155
3
0.207 0.155
4
0.207 0.155
5
0.207 0.155
6
0.207 0.155
7
0.207 0.155
8
0.207 0.155
9
0.207 0.155

-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
-13.51
Sum

)(

)(

wf2(a0w+it) x
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.067
-0.606

From figure 2.12(Nelson), k2-k1=0.944

Plot the above

)(

and

)
(

)(

)(

equation to get

Cm vs CL
0

Cm

-0.1

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.2
-0.3
y = -0.15x - 0.0437

-0.4

CL

From graph:

Moment equation:

( )

In trimmed flight, :
(

)(

)
(

Assume 1 deg of elevator deflection changes the horizontal tail angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4

From figure 2.21 (Nelson),


For =0.4,

; therefore
(

)
( )(

)(

)(

From the data of the servo used, operating travel is 60deg, therefore maximum available
elevator deflections
Most forward cg location
(

Therefore, permissible cg range: between 0.189c and 0.452c from wing leading edge.
Most forward CG

Without servo control


0.302c

With servo control


0.189c

Summary for size of horizontal tailplane and most forward CG position with servo control
Wing aspect ratio AR

12

Wing area S

0.653 m2

Wing span b

2.8 m

Wing chord

0.2333m

Flight condition

Sea level take


off

Cruise at 2000ft

Cruise at 5000ft

at 60km/h

at 80km/h

Horizontal tail volume ratio VH

0.731

0.720

0.708

Aspect ratio of horizontal tail ARt

7.74

10.69

15.98

Area of tailplane St (m2)

0.0854

0.0831

0.0808

Chord of tailplane ct (m)

0.105

0.0881

0.0711

Span of tailplane bt (m)

0.813

0.942

1.136

Area of elevator Se (m2)

0.0171

0.0166

0.0162

Chord of elevator ce (m)

0.0210

0.0176

0.0142

XNP/c

0.467

0.456

0.452

Xcg/c (without servo control)

0.317

0.306

0.302

Xcg/c (with servo control at

0.168

0.170

0.189

maximum deflection of elevator)

Directional Static Stability


At sea level take-off:
Take off speed

= 1.2

Use AXI4130/20 motor with 1311 prop and 30RC1700 battery.


The motor has the following characteristics:
Effeciency = 0.86;
Pout=782W
The dynamic thrust supplied is calculated as shown:

Set the spanwise between two engines = 1.4 m


One engine is off, therefore it creates yawing moment.
Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust:
(

Assume chord of vertical tail to be 50% of wing chord:


(

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume 1 deg of rudder deflection changes the fin angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4

Assume fuselage is hemispheric tube,

By referring to figure 2.29 in textbook (Nelson),

By referring to figure 2.30 in textbook (Nelson),


(

)(

(
(

)
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Substitute equation 2,3, and 4 into 1 yielding:


(
(

) (
(

)(

)
(

)(
)(

)(

)(

)(

))

Cruising at 2000ft at 60km/h:


=

Use AXI4130/20 motor with 1311 prop and 30RC1700 battery.


The motor has the following characteristics:
Effeciency = 0.86;
Pout=782W
The dynamic thrust supplied is calculated as shown:

Set the spanwise between two engines = 1.4 m


One engine is off, therefore it creates yawing moment.
Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust:
(

Assume chord of vertical tail to be 40% of wing chord:


(

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume 1 deg of rudder deflection changes the fin angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4

Assume fuselage is hemispheric tube,

By referring to figure 2.29 in textbook (Nelson),

By referring to figure 2.30 in textbook (Nelson),


(

)(

(
(

)
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Substitute equation 2,3, and 4 into 1 yielding:


(
(

) (
(

)(

)
(

)(
)(

)(

)(

)(

))

Cruising at 5000ft at 80km/h:


=

Use AXI4130/20 motor with 1311 prop and 30RC1700 battery.


The motor has the following characteristics:
Effeciency = 0.86;
Pout=782W
The dynamic thrust supplied is calculated as shown:

Set the spanwise between two engines = 1.4 m


One engine is off, therefore it creates yawing moment.
Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust:
(

Assume chord of vertical tail to be 32.35% of wing chord:


(

From Xfoil plotter,

Assume 1 deg of rudder deflection changes the fin angle of attack by 0.4 deg, =0.4

Assume fuselage is hemispheric tube,

By referring to figure 2.29 in textbook (Nelson),

By referring to figure 2.30 in textbook (Nelson),


(

)(

(
(

)
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Substitute equation 2,3, and 4 into 1 yielding:


(
(

) (
(

)(

)
(

)(
)(

)(

)(

)(

))

Size of vertical tailplane with one engine out and crosswind of 20km/h
Flight condition

Sea level take


off

Vertical tail volume ratio Vvt

Cruise at 2000ft

Cruise at 5000ft

at 60km/h

at 80km/h

0.0572

0.0410

0.0237

Aspect ratio of vertical tail ARvt

5.93

6,53

5.72

Area of vertical tailplane Svt (m2)

0.0807

0.0569

0.0326

Chord of vertical vertical tailplane

0.117

0.0933

0.0754

0.692

0.610

0.432

cvt (m)
Span of vertical tailplane bvt (m)

Longitudinal Dynamics
Sea level take off
Assuming the flight is at low speed (M
and level).

(
(

)(

) and the flight is in zero angle of attack (straight

)(

)(

[(
(

]( )

[(

)(

](

(
(

)
)

)(

)
(

)
(

( )(

( )(

)(

)
)

)(

)(

)(

( )(

)(

)( )

)
( )(
( )(

(
)(

)(

)(

)(
)(

)
)

)(

( )(

)(

)
)

(
(

)(

(
(

)
)(

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:

Phugoid mode:

Short period

Cruise at 2000ft at 60km/h:

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:

Oscillation characteristics:

Cruising at 5000ft at 80km/h:

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:

(
Oscillation characteristics:

By approximation
Parameter Obtained:
m
q
sea
10
108.8
level
7
200 10
160.6
0 ft
2
500 10
260.0
0 ft
7

U
13.33
2
16.67
22.22

Thrust
58.655
87
46.910
62
35.193
52

1.225
1.007
0.736
4

S
0.6532
4
0.6532
4
0.6532
4

Cla

Cma

Lf

Iy

4.319

-0.616

0.233

1.87

2.91

4.5189

-0.64627

0.233

1.87

2.66

4.5972

-0.65838

0.233

1.87

2.34

Sea level:
Phugoid mode
Xu = -(CD + 2CDO)/Um
= -(0.824 + 2(0.879))/(13.32*10)
=-1.3784
Zu = -(Cl + 2Clo)/Um
= -(1.379 + 2(0.6))/(13.32*10)
= -1.3759
Wph =

= 1.006
Sph = -Xu/(2Wph)
=-(-1.3784)/(2(1.006))
= 0.685
Short mode
Zw=-(Cla+Cdo)(q*S)/(U*m)
=-(4.319 +0.879)(108.87*0.653)/(13.32*10)
=--2.7732
Mw=Cma(q*S*c)/(U*Iy)
=(-0.616)( 108.87*0.653*0.233)/(13.32*2.91)
=-0-0.26

Cd
0.8247
87
0.5132
49
0.2963
59

Cl
1.3794
3
1.0733
11
0.8260
84

Cdo
0.8796
43
0.5464
59
0.3160
32

Clo
0.6
0.6
0.6

Mq=-lf*Cla(lf/U)*q*S/Iy
=-1.87*(4.319)(1.87/13.32)(108.87*0.653)/( 2.91)
=-27.7
Wnsp=
=
(
)
=8.966
Ssp=-(Mq+U*Mw+Zw)/(2Wnsp)
=-(-27.7+13.32*-0.263+-2.773)/(2*8.966)
=1.896
2000ft
Xu = -(CD + 2CDO)/Um
= -(0.513 + 2(0.879))/(16.67*10)
=-1.01
Zu = -(Cl + 2Clo)/Um
= -(1.073 + 2(0.6))/(16.67*10)
= -1.431
Wph =

= 1.0917
Sph = -Xu/(2Wph)
=-(-1.01)/(2(1.0917))
= 0.551

Short mode
Zw=-(Cla+Cdo)(q*S)/(U*m)
=-(4.518 +0.5464)(169.62*0.653)/(16.67*10)
=-3.188
Mw=Cma(q*S*c)/(U*Iy)
=(-0.64)( 160.62*0.653*0.233)/(16.67*2.66)
=-0.502

Mq=-lf*Cla(lf/U)*q*S/Iy
=-1.87*(4.518)(1.87/16.67)(160.62*0.653)/( 2.66)
=-37.3

Wnsp=
=
(
)
(
)
=11.17
Ssp=-(Mq+U*Mw+Zw)/(2Wnsp)
=-(-37.3+16.67*-0.356+-3.1882)/(2*11.17)
=2.0776
5000ft
Xu = -(CD + 2CDO)/Um
= -(0.296 + 2(0.3160))/(22.2*10)
=-0.70985
Zu = -(Cl + 2Clo)/Um
= -(0.826 + 2(0.6))/(22.2*10)
= -1.545
(

Wph =

= 0.826
Sph = -Xu/(2Wph)
=-(-0.7098)/(2(0.826))
= 0.4291
Lateral-Directional Dynamics
(

)
(

)
(

)
(

)(

)(

)
)

(
(
(

)(
)(

)(
(

)(
)

)
)(

)(

( )(

)(
(

(
(

)(

)(

)
)

(
(

)(
)(

)
)

Since the UAV is symmetrical, therefore


(

(
)(

(
(
(

)
)
)
)

)(

(
)(

)
)

(
)(

)
)

(
(

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:
(

Cruising at 2000ft at 60km/h

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:
(

Cruising at 5000ft at 80km/h

det(sI-A)=0
The solutions yield the eigenvalues:
(

,
,
,

Summary
Sea level take-off

Cruise at 2000ft at
60km/h

Cruise at 5000ft at
80km/h

Longitudinal
motion
0.293
4.02s

eriod

10.73s
0.375

Lateraldirectional
motion

eriod

,
,

,
,