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1. Communication skills are utmost important in managing information and technology in any organization.

List the characteristics of communication and discuss the seven barriers to effective communication. Answer: Communication in simple terms is a transfer of information between people, resulting in common understanding between them. List of the Characteristics of communication are as follows: It is unavoidable It is a two way exchange of information It is process It involves a sender and a receiver of information It could be verbal or non- verbal It is successful when the receiver interprets the meaning in the same way as that intended by the sender It is a dynamic process It enables understanding

Communication fails when the message received is not identical to the message that is sent. There are many other barriers to communication, and understanding and analysis of which are needed before coming up with ways to eliminate or minimize them. The Seven barriers to effective communication are as follows: Environment barriers An environmental barrier is the same as physical noise, which could be in the form of distraction sounds, an overcrowded room, poor facilities and acoustics, all of which may hinder the ability to listen to and understand the message.

Individual barriers A major barrier to interpersonal communication is tendency to judge, evaluate, approve, or disapprove the views of another person. This happens particularly in situations where we have strong feeling about something. In such cases, we tend to block out the communication and form our own viewpoints.

Organisational barriers In organization that are too hierarchical, that is, where there are multiple layers messages may have to pass through many levels before they finally reach the receiver. Each level may add to, modify or completely change the message, so much so that it becomes distorted by the time it reaches the intended receiver. In other words, there is likely to be loss of meaning and the message may not reach the receiver in the same way as it was intended by the sender.

Channel BarriersIn the earlier section, it was pointed out that communication can fail due to any of the different elements going wrong. Wrong choice of channel is one of the main barriers to communication. Using a wrong medium of advertising, or conveying a message orally when a writer would be more appropriate, are example. The written channel is more appropriate when the communication is more formal or for keeping on record, while emotional message such as feeling about co-workers are better conveyed orally.

Linguistic and cultural barriers When the sender of the message uses a language that the receiver does not understand, the communication will not succeed. Either the sender may be using a different of foreign language, or the language used may be too highly technical for the receiver to understand and Cultural differences refer to differences in values and perceptions, which may affect the interpretation of the message by the receiver.

Semantic barriers The word semantics refer to the meaning of words and the way in which they are used. For Example, different words may have different meaning indifferent cultures. Failure to take this into consideration could lead to serious blunders.

Non Verbal Barriers The refers to the non-verbal communication that goes with a particular message. Non- Verbal communication includes tones of voice, body language such as gestures and facial expressions etc.

Q 2. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication and is ambiguous. List and explain the various types on non-verbal communication in brief. Answer: Meaning of Non Verbal Communication: The Types of interpersonal communication that are not expressed verbally are called non verbal communications. The List of types of non-verbal communication is given below: Body Movement (Kinesics): Body movement includes gestures, posture, head and hand movements or whole body movements. Body movements can be used to reinforce or emphasize what a person is saying and also offer information about the emotions and attitudes of person. However, it is also possible for body movements to conflicts with what is said. A skilled observer may be able to detect such discrepancies in behaviors and us them as a clue to what someone is really feeling.

Eye Movements: The eye movements such as wide open pupils express feeling of surprise, excitement of even fear. The importance of eye contact with ones audience was pointed our earlier. Direct eye contact with ones audience was pointed out earlier. Direct eye contact is an indication of intensity and interest, while lack of it conveys feeling of nervousness and guile. As prolonged eye contact can intimidate people, it is not a good idea to stare at people. Different cultures perceive eye contact differently. In Asia, Latin America and Africa people avoid direct eye contact to show respect. Arabs use prolonged eye contact to Measure Trustworthiness.

Posture: Posture, refers to carriage or attitude. Our posture can indicate our feelings. In formal setting such as job interviews or classroom settings, it is essential that you maintain as erect posture to convey that you are attentive, since slouching or a relaxed posture conveys a casual attitude. Similarly, crossing your arms and legs can convey that you are defensive and rigid. Uncrossing your arms and legs can indicate that you are willing to listen.

Chronemics: Chronemics refers to the study of usage of time. This includes our attitudes towards punctuality and willingness to wait. It also deals with the manner in which we structure our time and interactions. Perception of

importance of time varies between individuals and cultures. For Example, in most western cultures punctuality is considered to be important. Arriving late for a business meeting is inexcusable. In other cultures, it is more relaxed and time is not given that much importance. We convey messages to others through the time we spend ona work related activity of by the importance that we give to time. Arriving early at work or for a job interview shows interest, involvement and seriousness. Spending time with the employees and giving them suggestion of how to improve their performance shows interest and involvement in their career growth.

Q 3. Written Messages must be as readable as possible. Discuss the two broad principles of writing. Explain the three stages of writing methodology in detail. Answer: Business affects everyone. If you dont end up in a business- oriented occupation, you will certainly have to engage in business as a client or customer. Skill in business writing is also a valuable asset for job-seekers. Business is almost every field need skilled writers. The two broad principles of writing are: Write to express, not to impress. Keep it short and sweet.

The Three Methodology of Writing is as follows: Prewriting:Prewriting is a structured thinking process that helps you to explore and understand what you have to write. The techniques of prewriting help you to determine the approach to choose and plan to implement it. Usually, a prewriting plan enables you to explore a topic from different perspectives. It also helps you to discover new and original ideas for writing the topic. In the pre-writing stage, you analyses your audience to determine your audience requirement, anticipate the audience knowledge and design the strategy that can beadapted to communication. For example, what language you have to use to convey the message to the audience, whether it will be formal or conversational?

Writing:After knowing the audience and developing strategies you can research the topic and gather essential data. Once you gather the required data, you can organize your content i.e. decide the flow, group similar facts, identify the important facts to be mentioned, etc. Later, you begin to

compose to write i.e. construct sentences and paragraphs. First you write a draft. While drafting, you write the information that you have researched in your own words. You build sentences and paragraphs even though they are not 100 percent perfect. You read what you have written and check whether what you have written is what you mean. You then get the document reviewed by others and ask for suggestions to improve the content.

Reviewing: In this stage, you revise, proofread and evaluate the message. You check whether the sentences are complete and if your content is correct. You check for spelling,capitalization, punctuation, grammar and parallelism. You will check for clarity of the content written and ensure that no errors are present in the content.

Q 4. There are various techniques of reading out of which SQ3R is most popular. How will you apply it while reading and research? Answer: Meaning of SQ3R: SQ3R is tried and tested study strategy. It not only helps us to understand and remember but can also help us to identify the information we need to write an assignment. SQ3R is an active reading exercise that is designed to help us get a fuller understanding of your reading materials. SQ3E is an acronym which stands for: Survey Question Read Recall Review Q R R R S

Application and Explanation of SQ3R: Survey:Survey refers to a quick glance through the title page, preface and chapter heading of a text. By surveying, you will be able to gauge the main ideas of the text. The first step Survey of skim advices that one should resist the temptation to read the book and instead glance through a chapter in order to identify headings, sub- heading and other outstanding features in

the text. This is in order to identify idea and formulate question about the content of the chapter.

Question: The Second step in the SQ3R in the step SQ3R technique of reading is question. A survey of the text will surely raise a few questions in your mind regarding the text. Formulate question about the content of the reading. For Example, convert heading and sub-heading into questions, and then look for answer in the content of the text. Other more general question may also be formulated: a. What is this chapter about? b. What question is this chapter trying to answer? c. How does this information help me?

Reading: After surveying and questioning, you begin the actual reading. You need to develop a critical approach to reading anything for that matter. Read the text over and over again, each time with a different question and a different purpose in mind. I read in once and understand everything kind of attitude is nothing but a myth. Hence, while reading for the first time, you must just focus on the main points or ideas and supporting details. Make a note on the important points that you have read.

Recall:The second R refers to the part known as Recite or Recall. Using key phrases, one is meant to identify major points and answer to questions from the Q step for each section. This may be done either in an oral or written format. It is important that an adherent to this method use his/her own words in order to evoke the active listening quality of this study method.

Review: Reviewing is the process of checking whether we have followed the earlier stages promptly and efficiently. Have we surveyed the book, article of magazine properly? Have we read it critically and have we recalled the most significant details or information required for our study? These are question that must be asked in the final stage of reading. Review will sharpen your critical ability, enable you to form own opinions on the topic and express them to others.

Q 5. Advertisements are used by the organization to communicate with prospective customers. What is the meaning and objectives of corporate advertising? Discuss with examples. Answer: Meaning of Corporate Advertising: Corporate advertising can be defined as advertising that sells the organization to its various public. Corporate advertising is a promotional strategy that is designed to not only interest consumers in products and services offered by the company, but also to cultivate a positive reputation among consumers and others within the business world. Objectives of Corporate advertising with example: To Create Positive attitude towards the organization: Sometimes consumer may have negative perceptions towards an organization, based on the belief that the organization is not a responsible corporate citizen. For example, public may believe that the organization is responsible for environment pollution or destruction of forest and other natural resources. In such a situation, corporate advertising aims to create a more positive attitude towards the organization, by correction these beliefs.

To Project the personality, culture and values of an organization: As Indians Leading industrial groups, the Tatas and Birlas have been the oldest and the most frequent users corporate advertising, to communicate about their entrepreneurial ability, culture and values. Even countries may use this form of advertising to achieve similar objectives. For Example, Dubai advertises to project an image of itself as a land of investment, sports and investment opportunities

To make an organization better understood: Sometimes organization for in for this form of corporate advertising, in order to make themselves more visible and to make consumer aware that they have a presence in several areas. For example, The United Breweries (UB) Group ran a corporate advertisement to highlight the fact UB was not in breweries, but also had interests in healthcare (hospitals) and education.

To safeguard corporate reputation: This form of corporate advertising is done when the company is going through crises. For Example, during the pesticide controversy, Coke released advertisements featuring Hindi film actor, Aamir Khan going to the Coke factory and laboratory, along with the Managing Director, declaring that Coke was safe to drink and free of pesticides. This helped to an extent to restore their damaged reputation.

To Project the organization as socially responsible: This refers to corporate advertising for a social cause, highlighting the companys role in social development. The objective is to communicate the companys corporate social responsibility. For Example, the UB Group ran an advertisement with the message Drinking and driving dont mix, to educate public that drinking alcohol and driving is not safe.

Q 6.In order to get a job you need to approach an organization with resume. How does a resume affect your employability? What are the components of resume? Answer:Meaning and purpose of Resume: A resume is a document that summaries your background, educational, qualifications, experience and interest. A resume is a written compilation of your education, work experience, credentials, and accomplishments and is used to apply for jobs. There are several basic types of resumes used to apply for job opening. Depending on your personal circumstances, choose a chronological, a functional, combination, or a targeted resume. The purpose of a resume is to provide a summary of your skills, abilities and accomplishments. It is quick advertisement of who you are. It is a Snapshot of you with the intent of capturing and emphasizing interest and secures you an interview. It is not an autobiography. Since your resume is a primary tool in your job search, it needs it be carefully written and critiqued. The rest of this website is designed to guide you through the process. Components of Resume: Basic data: This includes the name, address, and telephone number and email id. The information provides must allow a prospective employer to reach you easily. If you are still in college, it is better to provide both the home and college address. If you are already employed, list either a business phone number or a mobile number where you can be reached during work hours.

Career objective: An objective must be very specific, stating clearly the position you are seeking and the area in which you want to work. The objective statement must consist of two parts. a. Your general goal, mentioning some skills that you feel will qualify you for the job b.One or more specific area in which you wish to work. For example, the objective for an entry level position is written as, An entrylevel position in public relations, with an opportunity to use my skills in writing and researching. Special interests in publicity, radio and television programming.

Education: Employers are interested in knowing about your academic qualification after high school. Education qualification must be listed in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent qualification first. The degree earned, name of the institution and data of receiving the degree must be mentioned. For Example, Master of Business Administration in Retail Operations, Sikkim Manipal University, August 2008.

Experience: Like educational qualifications, work experience must be listed in reverse chronological order. If your experience is limited, you may also list part-time jobs, internship and voluntary work, under the title work experience. More than the job designations, employers are interested in knowing what you can do. Therefore, a brief description of each job and the duties performed by you must be included. Short phrases may be used, instead of complete sentences. Technical terminology may also be used describe the work done by you. For Example, Production Supervisor, Western University Media Productions, 1996-97. Assisted in video tape productions, digital and online videotape editing using studio and portable cameras.

Skills/Other knowledge:In this section, capabilities such as languages known, computer skills and special writing skills may be listed.

Organisations and activities: Membership of student and professional associations, clubs and committees, offices held, as well as extra-curricular

activities such as sports, music and photography, must be listed in this section. This information gives prospective employers an idea of your aptitudes, attitudes and personality.

References: References could be oriented from anyone who is familiar with either your academic or profession work, such as your professors or immediate supervisor. Prior permission must always be sought before listing anyone as reference. Generally, it is sufficient to include the statement References available on request in your resume and to furnish the names only if you are asked to. Employers ask for references only if they wish to do a background check n you. When listing references the name of the people, designation, Institution, and contact details must be provided.