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Computer Mediated Communication for Promoting Inter-Cultural Competencies

Alex Walsh

Contents
Purpose of Study ........................................................................................................................................... 1 Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................... 2 1) Characteristics of Computer Mediated Communication ...................................................................... 2 2) Classifying Computer Mediated Communication ................................................................................. 2 3) Use of Computer-Mediated Communication in Language Teaching.................................................... 3 i) Motivation .................................................................................................................................... 4 ii) Active, Collaborative & Communicative Learning ....................................................................... 4 iii) Intercultural Competency ........................................................................................................... 6 iv) Language Development & Skills .................................................................................................. 7 The Project .................................................................................................................................................... 8 1) 2) Participants ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Structure ........................................................................................................................................... 8

Findings & Discussion.................................................................................................................................. 10 Data Collection ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Results ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 1) Motivation & Participation ................................................................................................................. 10 2) Active, Collaborative and Communicative Learning ........................................................................... 12 3) Intercultural Competency ................................................................................................................... 13 4) Language Development & Exam Preparation ..................................................................................... 14 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 16 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 18 Appendix 1 Student Survey ...................................................................................................................... 21 Appendix 2 Statement of Research Ethics (Masters Programmes)......................................................... 24

Purpose of Study
Due to the rapid development of technologies and wide spread access to high-speed internet, computer mediated communication (CMC) is forging an important place within educational settings (Beatty & Nunan, 2004). This study evaluates, from a students

perspective, the potential for utilizing CMC projects in South Korean public schools to aid in exposing students to communicative opportunities, increasing levels of student motivation, encouraging peer collaboration, improving intercultural competency and developing students language skills in line with the Korean National English Curriculum (2008). Research suggests that CMC can be successful in meeting the goals set out above, yet it is rarely, if ever, used within the Korean public education system. One possible reason for the lack of CMC is the Korean education systems focus on a grammar based reading and listening exam which requires a very specific, exam based, skill set. This exam governs a students entrance into the university system which, in turn, controls the level of university one can attend. Recently, however, a transition has begun to take place with the aim of moving Korean English classes towards a more communicative oriented English language system. This transition is being spearheaded by a new examination system, known as NEAT (National English Assessment Test) due to be implemented in 2016. The NEAT will operate alongside the current SAT examination system (described above), and will focus purely on communicative language skills. Currently, the responsibility for exposing students to communicative language skills lies with native speaking English teachers, however, due to budget restrictions, their numbers are being rapidly reduced by the South Korean Ministry of Education. If the Ministry of Education is going to continue to strive towards the long term communicative goal set out below, they are going to need to provide students with new means of communicative opportunities. Page | 1 of 30

[Students will have] the ability to communicate in English, [to] act as an important bridge connecting different countries, and [] be the driving force developing our country by forming trust among various countries and cultures. (Ministry of Education 2008:41)

With CMC having been touted as offering countless new possibilities for teaching and learning (Boone, 2001), this research will identify whether CMC has the potential to offer a viable option for providing students in the Korean education system with both intra and cross cultural communicative opportunities and, in doing so, help achieve the educational goal set out above by South Koreas Ministry of Education (2008).

Literature Review
1) Characteristics of Computer Mediated Communication

It is hard to pin any one definition to computer mediated communication (CMC) as, with the advent of new technologies, it is a constantly evolving medium. One of the first attempts at defining CMC was that by Hiltz & Turoff (1978), who provide a technical-oriented view of CMC that has continued to be endorsed into the 2000s. Luppicini (2007:142), for example, defined CMC as communications mediated by interconnected computers, between individuals or groups separated in space and/or time. From the late 1990s, CMC began to be looked at from a process oriented perspective. Kern & Warschauer (2000:11), for example, see CMC as allow[ing] language learners with network access to communicate with other learners or speakers of the target language. To borrow from both these perspectives, CMC can be seen to provide the technological aspects needed for a communicational process that includes a message, a sender and a receiver.
2) Classifying Computer Mediated Communication

There are a number of classifications that are used to clarify the nature of CMC being employed. First of all, CMC can involve synchronous communication (SCMC), asynchronous Page | 2 of 30

communication (ACMC) or a hybrid of the two. Simplified, SCMC involves real-time communication, for example chat rooms or instant messaging, this synchronicity makes the communication similar to face-to-face discussions. SCMC has been shown to help increase learners self-monitoring of language use (Sykes, 2005). ACMC, meanwhile, utilises nonsimultaneous interactions, such as via e-mail and blogging. The benefits of ACMC are that it allows students more time to read and understand messages, as well as affording students time to plan responses (Nguyen, 2009). Lee (2004) suggests ACMC can be used to encourage participation in creative activities such as collaborative writing and brainstorming, and in fostering critical thinking skills. Computer mediated communication can also be classified as being either text or audio/video based. Research on CMC has primarily focused on text-based projects due to the available technology making text-based projects more easily administered. However, as live audio/video has developed and become more readily accessible, its utilization in CMC has become increasingly more common (Paulus, 2007). Due to this advancement in technology, CMC models are often formed from a hybrid of SCMC, ACMC, text and video/audio (such as this project) to provide as diverse range of benefits to students as possible (Nguyen, 2008). Due to the wide range of benefits a hybrid approach can potentially offer, this study will look to analyse the effectiveness of applying this to a Korean English language classroom.
3) Use of Computer-Mediated Communication in Language Teaching

Within language teaching literature the theoretical reasoning and pedagogical benefits associated with CMC are both extensive and diverse. To provide a concise summary of the relevant literature this report will identify and discuss the aspects that are of most relevance to the goals and objectives of this study and its context. This is by no means a comprehensive

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review of all the potential benefits CMC can offer language learners, but rather an exploration of the reasoning behind the choice of objectives and tasks in this project.
i) Motivation

One of the most widely touted benefits of CMC is the positive effect it can have on students levels of motivation. Warschauer (1996) identified four commonly referred to

motivating aspects of CMC, these are; (a) the originality of using a computer for language learning instead of your usual classroom instruction (b) the individualised nature of computerassisted instruction (c) the increased learner autonomy afforded (d) opportunities for rapid, frequent non-judgemental feedback. The benefit of non-judgemental feedback was originally identified by Waldrop (1984), yet is still as relevant as ever, especially within the Korean context, where the cultural fear of loss of face can inhibit students willingness to communicate in English in front of peers, often due to fear of being judged as either trying to sound foreign (for high level students) or judged as not being smart (for low level students) by fellow class mates. For this project, one of the most important benefits of CMC is its potential to increase students motivation while reducing the threatening aspect of speaking English in front of peers. This potential was built into the project by providing students time, with their peers, to prepare (primarily in English) for communication (SCMC) with a linked classroom (ACMC). It was hoped that the common goal of communicating with a linked classroom would give students the motivation to provide each other with autonomous (from the teacher), supportive, non-threatening, peer feedback before conducting the interviews. This collaborative aspect of CMC is discussed in more detail in the following section.
ii) Active, Collaborative & Communicative Learning

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A common obstacle in employing communicative activities with students in Korea is the cultural expectations concerning the direction of knowledge transfer. Traditionally in Korea, knowledge is transferred from older to younger people, this has resulted in a teacher centred learning environment. Previous studies have highlighted CMCs ability to promote a more cooperative, student centred learning environment. For example, in an email exchange program in Hong Kong, Greenfield (2003) found cooperative learning was one of the most successful aspects, as well as the students favourite aspect, of the CMC project. This project will look to establish whether CMC can be utilized in Korean classrooms to provide a more active, collaborative and communicative learning environment. An active, collaborative, communicative nature was instilled in the project by providing the students with group tasks that moved them towards the final goal of communicating with the linked classroom and making the online magazine together. Examples of these tasks include preparing interview questions for the linked classroom, understanding responses and writing online articles for the linked classroom to read. From a sociocultural perspective, the active, social and collaborative learning process that can be stimulated through CMC is important in creating a language learning environment that will guide students through their zone of proximinal development (ZPD), that is the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what they can accomplish in cooperation with others (Warschauer, 1997). From a Vygotskian perspective, CMC, if structured correctly, can provide both the psychological tools and other human beings needed to develop students cognitive processes. More recent sociocultural models have built on the work of Vygotsky (1978), these include Bayers (1990) collaborative-apprenticeship learning model. Bayer (1990) sees the teacher as a guide, helping students collaboratively make connections between old information and new ideas to develop language and thinking competencies (Vygotsky 1978:7). Wells and ChangPage | 5 of 30

Wells (1992), meanwhile, see language learners development as being reliant on student talk time (as opposed to the modelling perspective of Palinscar & Brown, 1984). Warschauer (1997), highlighted five features of CMC that enhance collaboration and, in doing so, benefit students language learning potential within a sociocultural framework. These features were (a) textbased and computer mediated interaction, (b) many-to-many communication, (c) time/place independence, (d) long distance exchanges, and (e) hypermedia links. In the design of this CMC project, Warchauers (1997) five features were interwoven into the framework along with the Korean National Curriculum (2008) requirements, to provide as greater learning potential for students as possible. Further details highlighting the structure of this project can be found in Section 3. Ramzan & Saito (1998), meanwhile, identified how CMC can be utilised to complement and support a communicative approach to language teaching, an approach that has been stressed by the Korean National curriculum since 1995, but has struggled to make its way into Korean English language classrooms (for details as to the reasons for this see Nunan, 2003, Ho & Wong, 2004). Brown (1994) identifies how, in communicative language teaching, pedagogical techniques are designed to engage learners in pragmatic, authentic and functional uses of language for meaningful purposes. CMC can facilitate this by providing meaningful, authentic and collaborative tasks in the language classroom, for examples of such projects see Ramzan & Saito (1998), Greenfield (2003), Warschauer (1996), Beauvouis (1998) and Tallon (2009). In this project the communication with the linked classroom and creation of an online magazine provided the authentic, meaningful, opportunities for language use.
iii) Intercultural Competency

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As previously discussed, the Korean National Curriculum (2008) emphasises the necessity for students to be able to communicate in English with people from other cultures (including both native and non-native speakers of English). Given this objective an important goal of this project was to increase students intercultural competencies. CMC can facilitate this goal by making long distance exchanges faster, easier, less expensive, and more natural (Warschauer 1997:475). Bakhtin (1986) provides a neat summary as to the importance of inter-cultural communication in language learning.
A meaning only reveals its depths once it has encountered and come into contact with another, foreign meaning: they engage in a kind of dialogue, which surmounts the closedness and one-sidedness of these particular meaning, these cultures. We raise new questions for a foreign culture, ones that it did not raise itself; we seek answers to our own questions in it; and the foreign culture responds to us by revealing to us its new aspects and new semantic depths. (Bakhtin 1986:7)

Several research studies have highlighted the benefits Bakhtin (1986) describes. Ramzan & Saito (1998), for example, conducted a study in which students of Japanese in an Australian university communicated via computers with students from a Japanese university. They concluded that CMC helps students to overcome the personal and transactional barriers presented by the two cultures in contact, and the relationship of cultural learning to foreign language learning (p.590). Within the standard Korean English language classroom there are very few, if any, opportunities for cross-cultural communication, this research will look identify whether CMC can offer a solution to this problem by providing students with the opportunity to communicate with a classroom outside of Korea.
iv) Language Development & Skills

Given Korean students intense focus on exams it is important that any time consuming project (such as this) also develops exam related language skills and knowledge. Previous research has suggested that this can be accomplished through CMC. One particularly influential Page | 7 of 30

study was conducted by Kern (1995), this CMC based project showed a significant improvement in learners linguistic and grammatical development. More recently, Shang (2007) used CMC t o improve learners written accuracy and sentence complexity. Looking at CMC conducted orally, Jepson (2005) used CMC to encourage higher levels of self-correction compared to text chats alone, meanwhile, Greenfield (2003:56), found a statistically significant increase in students general confidence in the four English skills after a cross-cultural computer-mediated email exchange project. With previous studies demonstrating the ability of CMC to help develop written accuracy, self-correction and the four English skills, this study will evaluate the ability of CMC to improve Korean students exam related skills as well achieve the Ministry of Educations (2008) goals surrounding communicative competency.

The Project
1) Participants

The project was conducted by a native English speaking teacher, with 9th grade Korean middle school students, as part of their intermediate level English conversation class. The class met for one, 45 minute session per week, over a 6 week period.
2) Structure

The project was designed to meet three official objectives; firstly, to help students progress towards the language development requirements of the national syllabus and relevant exams, secondly, to help guide students towards improving their cross-cultural abilities and, finally, to help students develop real life English skills. The objectives laid out above were met by providing students with tasks that guided them towards the final goal of creating an online magazine. This magazine would feature aspects of Korean culture and life that, following the inter-classroom computer mediated Page | 8 of 30

interviews, the students wanted to share with both the linked classroom and other students within their school. The online magazine was designed to make the project both authentic and meaningful to the students. Table 1. Project Structure Tasks Phase a. Teachers meet through a teacher networking group on the social media site twitter. Phase 1: Introduction b. Teachers arrange a meeting via skype to negotiate the general outline of the project, Phase 2: Student Idea Generation

Phase 3: Preparation for Culture Exchange Phase 4: Delayed Oral Interviews

general expectations and goal creation. c. The project is introduced to the students. The students are split into small groups to discuss and generate ideas for possible articles about their home country that will interest the linked classroom. d. Students work in small groups to narrow down the ideas and begin researching content. e. Students produce an outline of the article they would like to write and begin to discuss its layout design in the online magazine. f. Students produce the first draft of the article they would like to share with the linked classroom. g. Students revise the article, focusing on peer error correction. Students work in small groups to find suitable pictures to represent the article in the online magazine h. Article is uploaded to the online magazine and sent to the linked classroom and vice versa. i. Students work in small groups to brainstorm possible themes for the interviews they will send to the linked classroom. j. Students finalise the theme of the interviews and note down the questions they would like the linked classroom students to answer. k. Students use computers to record the interview questions they would like the linked classroom students to answer. l. Students send the interviews questions to the linked classroom via dropbox. m. Students listen to the interview responses and transcribe the answers. The students peercheck each others transcriptions. n. This process is repeated with the students recording responses to the follow up questions from the linked classroom and recording further questions to send back. o. Students work as a group to prepare a full transcript of the interview with the groups questions and linked class responses integrated. p. The interviews are uploaded to the online magazine for students in both schools to access and read.

Phase 5: Online Magazine Production

Integration of CALL The majority of the project was undertaken in the classroom, students were provided with access to laptop computers when and where they needed them. The responsibility for completing computer work was set to groups, if one student had weaker computer skills they were strongly encouraged to ask another student to assist them. Computer training was not Page | 9 of 30

deemed necessary as the tasks were relatively straight forward for the students. The interview questions were recorded using mobile phones, they were then shared with the linked classroom via a file sharing service. The linked classroom then recorded their response and shared that recording via the file sharing service. The recordings were played on the computer via a media player, it was then the groups responsibility to transcribe the recording, using a word processor, ready to be uploaded to the online magazine. The articles to be uploaded to the online magazine were also produced via a word processor and then emailed to the teacher. The teacher assisted in formatting the documents ready for being uploaded.

Findings & Discussion


Data Collection

The data was collected via closed question surveys filled in by the students after the project had been completed. Gaining student feedback via closed question surveys is part normal classroom practice with the educational institution involved. Ethical approval to use the data for this project was obtained from the school and BERA ethical guidelines were followed.
Results

To provide a concise discussion I will pick out the aspects of the survey results that I feel are of most relevance to the research questions posed in this paper. Due to academic limitations it is not possible to provide a review of all the findings gathered from the collected data.
1) Motivation & Participation

The results in Table 2 indicate that, unanimously, the students found the cross-cultural CMC project an interesting, useful and meaningful way of practicing both productive and

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receptive language skills. This suggests the students were motivated by and interested in the CMC project.
Table 2: Students Feelings towards the CMC Project

15 10 5 0 Interesting Boring Useful Pointless Meaningful Meaningless What did you think of this project?

The students also indicated they felt more comfortable speaking English in front of their peers through CMC than communication tasks in normal classes (see Table 3).
Table 3: Students Feelings towards Speaking English in front of Classmates

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Speaking English in front of classmates through CALL Speaking English in front of classmates in normal scenario

These findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that CALL can be used to increase student motivation and participation in communicative tasks in Korean English language Page | 11 of 30

classrooms. This supports similar findings by researches such as Kern (1995), Sullivan (1993), Kelm (1992), Wang (1998) and Warschauer (1996). It is important to note that every student showed positive feeling towards the project, this is despite them being accustomed to English class as being teacher centred and exam preparation based.

2) Active, Collaborative and Communicative Learning

The students feedback does not does not reveal as much information regarding their feelings towards the collaborative aspect of CMC as was hoped. The students did not indicate the collaborative aspect of the project was in itself a major benefit for their future language development and use (see Table 4).
Table 4: Students Perceived Usefulness of Skills Utilized in the CMC Project

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Communicating with non-Koreans Computer skills Group Work Skills Listening Skills Ability to Understand a Persons Meaning What skills gained from this project will be useful in the future?

Although the students did not indicate that they saw the collaborative nature of the project as being of particular importance, the results did highlight the potential for using CMC as a method of encouraging communication in Korean classrooms. The results in Table 2 indicate high levels of student engagement with the CMC project. Table 4, meanwhile, indicates that students found the communicative aspect of particular importance, supporting previous findings by Greenfield (2003). These results suggest the project met Browns (1994) requirements of Page | 12 of 30

communicative language learning being authentic, functional and meaningful. The results also suggest the collaborative tasks provide a structure that allows students to effectively utilise their zone of proximinal development to improve their language skills (Vygotsky, 1978). The students interest in the project suggests that, from a students perspective, CMC can potentially be utilized to help meet the communicational goals of the Korean National Curriculum (2008). This research also corroborates with previous studies that have demonstrated the potential use of CMC in developing speaking confidence and abilities, such as that by Stockwell (2003) and Abrams (2003). Confidence is often a major stumbling block in Korean English conversation classrooms, the results (Table 7) suggest that CMC projects such as this could be a useful tool in helping students to overcome confidence issues.
3) Intercultural Competency

Table 4 indicates that CMC can provide an opportunity for the development of intercultural competency in South Korean classrooms, a goal emphasised by the Korean National Curriculum (2008). The students overwhelmingly saw the skill of communicating with non-Koreans (see Table 4) as being the most useful for their future, and identified listening to non-Korean speakers and communicating with non-Koreans as the two activities they like the most (see Table 5)
Table 5: Project Activities Students Liked

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20 15 10 5 0 Transcribing Computer Questions Listening to nonCommunicating Answering Korean speakers with Foreigners Questions Creating Responses Practice

What activities did you like?

These results corroborate previous research, such as that by Ramzan & Saito (1998) and Greenfield (2003), both of which highlight the potential for using CMC in developing intercultural competency. It is also important to note that the linked classroom the Korean students were communicating with was not a native English speaking classroom, rather other English as a foreign language students. This suggests that CMC can be an important tool in exposing and preparing students for using English as a lingua and cultura franca.
4) Language Development & Exam Preparation

The results indicate that, from a student perspective, this project did not improve language knowledge or skills other than speaking (see Table 7). One possible reason for the discrepancy between the results of this project and previous research is that Korean students are accustomed to an education system in which both language skills and rules are taught explicitly. This project did not contain any reflective element to help the students recognise the skills and knowledge they were practicing and developing. Despite the above, students did feel that the project was useful in preparing them for future examinations (see Table 6 below). Further research would need to be carried out to establish what aspect of the project the students felt would help them with their exams.

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Table 6: The Perceived Usefulness of the CMC Project Towards Future Exams

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Absolutely A little Not Sure It was unhelpful Will this project help you pass your exams?

Table 7: Student Recorded Strengths of the CMC Project

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 It helped you It improved gain confidence in your speaking ability What were the strengths of the project? your writing Skills It improved It helped you It improved your grammar knowledge listening ability skills It improved awareness It improved your computer skills improve your your reading your cultural

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Conclusion
This study indicates that, from a students perspective, CMC can provide authentic, motivational opportunities for Korean students to develop their intercultural communicative competency, a skill highly desired by the Korean English Curriculum (2008). It supports previous research, such as the highly influential work of Warschauer (1995), that indicates CMC projects can be flexible enough to be part of a larger curriculum and, if structured correctly, still provide meaningful, real life tasks, skills and challenges that will engage and interest students, in this case even those that are accustomed to a teacher centred, exam oriented educational system. It is important, however, not to overstate the scope of this research. This was a small scale project conducted with a relatively small sample of students, over a very short period of time, in one middle school in South Korea. Furthermore, although this research supports previous studies highlighting the potential benefits of CMC in English language classrooms, it focuses solely on analysing students opinions and feelings towards the project; there was no objective analysis of the extent to which students communicative abilities and exam related skills improved in actual, measurable terms. Also, due to time constraints (the beginning of the school vacation period) it was impossible to conduct follow up interviews with the students. Follow up interviews could have provided further, important details, on the strengths and weaknesses of the project. Further research dealing with both these issues would be necessary before the expansion of similar projects to classrooms throughout South Korea. If the South Korean Ministry of Education is to seriously consider the implementation of CMC projects on a larger scale there are a number of issues that would need to be overcome. This project was hugely time consuming, both for the teacher and the students. With the reducing number of native English speaking teachers it is unlikely that the majority of Korean English teachers would have the time available to initiate such a project without large amounts Page | 16 of 30

of centralised support. This severely limits the potential for CMC to offer alternative access to communication with other non-Korean speakers of English in the wake of decreasing contact with native English speaking teachers. Also, if similar projects were to be introduced to more schools, they would need more linked classrooms with teachers dedicated to such a project, which would likely be a difficult task. Even with teachers completely committed to this project, there were often miscommunications, missed deadlines and other issues completely out of the teachers control. Furthermore, the teachers involved in this project were already well accustomed to the use of computers as a tool for collaborative projects. Other teachers, both in South Korea and the linked classroom, may require special training in preparation for such CMC projects. To conclude, this project supports previous research that has indicated the CMC projects can provide meaning, motivational, authentic tasks that support communicative and sociocultural approaches to language learning. The students were motivated and interested in the project and felt more comfortable speaking English in front of their peers than in a normal classroom context. The project was successful in exposing the students to non-Korean cultures and speakers of English. However, further research would need to be carried out to attain a greater understanding of whether or not such a time consuming project helps develop a students language skills. There are also multiple issues that would have to be overcome if such projects were to be transferred to other schools in South Korea.

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Appendix 1 Student Survey


Do not write your name on this sheet. Fill it out and give it back to your teacher.
. .

The purpose of this questionnaire is to assess the value of the linked classroom project you have been doing in class. , . This is not a test. There are no right and wrong answers; we want your own ideas and impressions. . . Circle any box you think describes your feelings about the project. You can circle more than one box. For example: Ex) How did the project make you feel? Happy Tired

Angry

Sad

Excited

1) What did you think of this project? ?

2) How comfortable did you feel speaking English in front of classmates before the project? , ?

3) What were the strengths of the project? ?

4) What were the weaknesses of the project? ? .

. .

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5) What activities did you like? ?

6) What activities didnt you like? ?

7) Will this project help you pass your exams? ?

8) What skills gained form this project will you use in the future?
?

(turn over for page 2)

9) Do you now feel more comfortable using computers for studying English than at the start of the project?
?

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10) Would you like to use computers for a school project again? ?

11) How comfortable did you feel using a computer to record your questions for the linked classroom? ?

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Appendix 2 Statement of Research Ethics (Masters Programmes)


Name of student: Course of Study: Title of assignment / dissertation: Alexander Walsh M.A TESOL Supervisor: Date: Alex Ding 23-01-2013

Computer Mediated Communication in Korean Public Schools: A Case Study of a Middle School Project in Busan, South Korea

Sections 1-4 are to be completed by the student; Sections 5 / 6 are to be completed by the tutor / supervisor.

Section 1 Briefly outline your research questions or aims Hypothesis CMC can provide an important tool in encouraging CLT in South Korean Public Education

Section 2 Briefly outline your proposed methods and sites of data generation and your proposed methods of sampling Using feedback routinely collected from students as part of English program. Feedback is collected via closed question feedback forms.

Section 3 Briefly explain how you plan to gain access to prospective research participants Principle and head of English department have granted permission.

Section 4 (a)

1.

I have read and discussed with my supervisor the British Educational Research Associations Revised Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research (BERA, 2004) and/or guidelines of the appropriate professional association where relevant. I have read and discussed with my supervisor the Code of Research Conduct and Research Ethics of the University of Nottingham:

x x

2.

http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/fabs/rgs/documents/code-of-research-conduct-and-research-ethics-approved-january2010.pdf
I am aware of and have discussed with my supervisor the relevant sections of the Data Protection Act (1998): x

3. 4.

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980029.htm
Data gathering activities involving schools and other organizations will be carried out only with the agreement of the head of school/organization, or an authorised representative, and after adequate notice has been given. Written permission (e.g. email) will need x

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to have been seen by your supervisor.

5. 6.

The purpose and procedures of the research, and the potential benefits and costs of participating (e.g. the amount of their time involved), will be fully explained to prospective research participants at the outset. My full identity will be revealed to potential participants. Prospective participants will be informed that data collected will be treated in the strictest confidence and will only be reported in anonymised form, but that I will be forced to consider disclosure of certain information where there are strong grounds for believing that not doing so will result in harm to research participants or others, or (the continuation of) illegal activity. All potential participants will be asked to give their explicit, normally written consent to participating in the research, and, where consent is given, separate copies of this will be retained by both researcher and participant. In addition to the consent of the individuals concerned, the signed consent of a parent, guardian or responsible other will be required to sanction the participation of minors (i.e. persons under 16 years of age) or those whose intellectual capability or other vu lnerable circumstance may limit the extent to which they can be expected to understand or agree voluntarily to undertake thei r role. (BERA, 2004, para 14-16). Undue pressure will not be placed on individuals or institutions to participate in research activities. The treatment of potential research participants will in no way be prejudiced if they choose not to participate in the project. I will provide participants with my contact details (and those of my supervisor), in order that they are able to make contact in relation to any aspect of the research, should they wish to do so. Participants will be made aware that they may freely withdraw from the project at any time without risk or prejudice. Research will be carried out with regard for mutually convenient times and negotiated in a way that seeks to minimise disruption to schedules and burdens on participants. I have considered carefully to what extent, if any, my research might expose me to any kind of risk to my personal safety. I have also discussed this with my supervisor, and appropriate steps taken to respond to any risks identified. Where such a strategy has been agreed, a record of it is attached to this submission. At all times during the conduct of the research I will behave in an appropriate, professional manner and take steps to ensure that neither myself nor research participants are placed at risk.

x x

7.

8.

9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

x x x

x x x

15.

16.

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17. 18. 19.

The dignity and interests of research participants will be respected at all times, and steps will be taken to ensure that no harm will result from participating in the research. The views of all participants in the research will be respected. Special efforts will be made to be sensitive to differences relating to age, culture, disability, race, sex, religion and sexual orientation, amongst research participants, when planning, conducting and reporting on the research. Data generated by the research (e.g. transcripts of research interviews) will be kept in a safe and secure location and will be used purely for the purposes of the research project (including dissemination of findings). No-one other than research colleagues, supervisors or examiners will have access to any of the data collected. Research participants will have the right of access to any data kept on them. All necessary steps will be taken to protect the privacy and ensure the anonymity and non-traceability of participants e.g. by the use of pseudonyms, for both individual and institutional participants, in any written reports of the research and other forms of dissemination. Where possible, research participants will be provided with a summary of research findings and an opportunity for debriefing after taking part in the research. Does your research involve (please tick ALL that apply):

x x x x

20. 21. 22. 23.

x x x

24.

Schools?

Vulnerable Adults?

X (16 years old)

Children?

None of these groups?

a) Will your research be conducted in (please tick ONE BOX only): UK only? 25. b) If outside the UK, please name the country(ies) involved: South Korea

b) UK and outside the UK?

x Outside the UK only?

26.

FOR ALL STUDENTS UNDERTAKING RESEARCH INVOLVING SCHOOLS, CHILDREN (UNDER 18) AND/OR VULNERABLE ADULTS AT A LOCATION WHERE THE STUDENT IS NOT CURRENTLY COVERED BY AN EXISTING ENHANCED CRIMINAL RECORDS BUREAU (CRB) DISCLOSURE I have received Enhanced Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) disclosure through the University of Nottingham and the School of

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Education Postgraduate Office has the reference number. This applies even when data are collected outside of the UK. NB: All students must remember to apply for their University of Nottingham CRB disclosure when they are visiting the UK. FOR ALL NON UK STUDENTS 27. I have received a Certificate of Good Conduct (where one is available)* and the School of Education CRB Coordinators have a copy of this**.

* Countries that produce a Certificate of Good Conduct are: Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Irish Republic, Italy, Jamaica, Latvia, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden & Turkey. ** UK students who have lived in one of the above countries for 6 months or more may also need to apply for one of these.

Section 4 (b) Please provide further information below in relation to any of the above statements which you have not been able to tick, explaining in each case why the suggested course of action is not appropriate:

26. I am using date collected rountinely. 27. Does not exist in South Korea.

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When you have completed Sections 1-4 email the form to the relevant supervising tutor, together with:

(1) a draft information sheet to be provided to prospective participants; (2) a draft consent form to be used with prospective participants.

Section 5 Supervising tutor I have discussed the proposed research outlined on this form with the student and I am satisfied that the work will be carried out with due regard to ethical protocol and participants interests.

NAME: Dr Alex Ding

Date: 30/1/2013

Section 6 Course Leader/ second reviewer I have reviewed the proposed research outlined on this form and I am satisfied that the work will be carried out with due regard to ethical protocol and participants interests.

NAME: Jane Evison

Date: 11th February 2013

Note to supervising tutor: Please email the completed form to the course leader who will forward the final version to the appropriate administrative assistant. When the Course Leader is also Supervising Tutor (Section 5) they should get a second member of their course team to check

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and review the form. The administrative assistant will email the student (cc yourself and course leader) with confirmation of ethical approval to begin collecting data and proceed to the next stage of the dissertation.

Updated 10/10/2012

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