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Contents

Preface.......................................................................................7 Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics........................................... 1.1. Problems of stylistic research................................. 1.2. Stylistics of language and speech............................ 9 9 14

1.3. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics 1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines................. 1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring............... 1.6. Stylistic function notion ....................................... Practice Section.............................................................. Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language................... 2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices.................... 2.2. Different classifications of expressive means .... 2.2.1. Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system..............

16 19 20 24 28 33 34 37 39

2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification of expresssive means by G. Leech .............................................................. 45

Contents

Contents

2.2.3. I. R. Galperin's classification of expressive means and stylistic devices..................................... 50 2.2.4. Classification of expressive means and stylistic devices by Y. M. Skrebnev............... Practice Section.............................................................. Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar.................................................. 57 76 87

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles............................. 4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics..............

122 122

4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function in the language ................................................................................ 124 4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational . 4.4. An overview of functional style systems................. 128 133

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles of English...................................................... 145 4.5.1. Literary colloquial style............................... 145 4.5.2. Familiar colloquial style............................... 148 4.5.3. Publicist (media) style.................................. 150 4.5.4. The style of official documents.................... 153 4.5.5. Scientific/academic style.............................. 155 Practice Section.............................................................. 159 Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions . 162

3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semimarked and unmarked structures............................ 87 3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition........................................................... 3.3. Morphological stylistics. Stylistic potential of the parts of speech........................................................ 3.3.1. The noun and its stylistic potential............... 3.3.2. The article and its stylistic potential............. 3.3.3. The stylistic power of the pronoun............... 3.3.4. The adjective and its stylistic functions ... 3.3.5. The verb and its stylistic properties.............. 3.3.6. Affixation and its expressiveness.................. 3.4. Stylistic syntax........................................................ Practice Section.............................................................. 92 92 95 97 101 103 107 110 116 89

5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader. The notions of encoding and decoding........................................... 163 5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis and types of foregrounding..................................... 166 5.2.1. Convergence................................................ 169 5.2.2. Defeated expectancy .................................. 171

Contents

5.2.3. Coupling...................................................... 5.2.4. Semantic field ............................................ 5.2.5. Semi-marked structures ............................ Practice Section.............................................................. Glossary for the Course of Stylistics.......................................... Sources...................................................................................... Dictionaries................................................................................ List of Authors and Publications Quoted ..................................

173 176 179 181 190 202 204 205 The book suggests the fundamentals of stylistic theory that outline such basic areas of research as expressive resources of the language, stylistic differentiation of vocabulary, varieties of the national language and sociolinguistic and pragmatic factors that determine functional styles. The second chapter will take a student of English to the beginnings of stylistics in Greek and Roman schools of rhetoric and show howmuch modern terminology and classifications of expressive means owe to rhetoric. An important part of the book is devoted to the new tendencies and schools of stylistics that assimilated advancements in the linguistic science in such trends of the 20"1 century as functional, decoding and grammatical stylistics. The material on the wealth of expressive means of English will help a student of philology, a would-be teacher and a reader of literature not only to receive orientation in how to fully decode the message of the work of art and therefore enjoy it all the more but also to improve their own style of expression. he chapter on functional styles highlights the importance of time a " place m language usage. It tells how the same language differs len used for different purposes on different occasions in communiation with different people. It explains why we adopt different uses of

Preface

Preface

language as we go through our day. A selection of distinctive features of each functional style will help to identify and use it correctly whether you deal with producing or analysing a text of a certain functional type. Chapters on grammar stylistics and decoding stylistics are intended to introduce the student to the secrets of how a stylistic device works. Modern linguistics may help to identify the nature and algorithm of stylistic effect by showing what kind of semantic change, grammatical transposition or lexical deviation results in various stylistic outcomes. This book combines theoretical study and practice. Each chapter is supplied with a special section that enables the student and the teacher to revise and process the theoretical part by drawing conclusions and parallels, doing comparison and critical analysis. Another type of practice involves creative tasks on stylistic analysis and interpretation, such as identifying devices in literary texts, explaining their function and the principle of performance, decoding the implications they create. The knowledge of the theoretical background of stylistic research and the experience of integrating it into one's analytical reading skills will enhance the competence and proficiency of a future teacher of English. Working with literary texts on this level also helps to develop one's cultural scope and aesthetic taste. It will also enrich the student's linguistic and stylistic thesaurus. The author owes acknowledgements for the kindly assistance in reading and stylistic editing of this work to a colleague from the Shimer College of Chicago, a lecturer in English and American literature S. Sklar.

Chapter 1 The Object of Stylistics


Problems of stylistic research. Stylistics of language and speech. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic coloring. Stylistic function notion.

1.1. Problems of stylistic research


Units of language on different levels are studied by traditional branches of linguistics such as phonetics that deals with speech sounds and intonation; lexicology that treats words, their meaning and vocabulary structure, grammar that analyses forms of words and their function in a sentence which is studied by syntax. These areas of linguistic study are rather clearly defined and ave a long-term tradition of regarding language phenomena from a leve,-oriented point of view. Thus the subject matter and the material under study of these linguistic disciplines are more or less clear-cut.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics It gets more complicated when we talk, about stylistics. Some scholars claim that this is a comparatively new branch of linguistics, which has only a few decades of intense linguistic interest behind it. The term stylistics really came into existence not too long ago. In point of fact the scope of problems and the object of stylistic study go as far back as ancient schools of rhetoric and poetics. The problem that makes the definition of stylistics a curious one deals both with the object and the material of studies. When we speak of the stylistic value of a text we cannot proceed from the level-biased approach that is so logically described through the hierarchical system of sounds, words and clauses. Not only may each of these linguistic units be charged with a certain stylistic meaning but the interaction of these elements, as well as the structure and composition of the whole text are stylistically pertinent. Another problem has to do with a whole set of special linguistic means that create what we call style. Style may be belles-letters or scientific or neutral or low colloquial or archaic or pompous, or a combination of those. Style may also be typical of a certain writerShakespearean style, Dickensian style, etc. There is the style of the j press, the style of official documents, the style of social etiquette and even an individual style of a speaker or writerhis idiolect. Stylistics deals with styles. Different scholars have defined style differently at different times. Out of this variety we shall quote the most representative ones that scan the period from the 50ies to the 90ies of the 20< century. In 1955 the Academician V.V.Vinogradov defined style as socially recognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality of the ways of using, selecting and combining the means of lingual

1.1. Problems of stylistic research

ourse in the sphere of one national language or another... / 73) In 1971 Prof- J- R- Galperin offered his definition of style s a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. (36, p. 18). According to Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev, whose book on stylistics was published in 1994, style is what differentiates a group of homogeneous texts (an individual text) from all other groups (other texts)... Style can be roughly defined as the peculiarity, the set of specific features of a text type or of a specific text. (47, p. 9). All these definitions point out the systematic and functionally determined character of the notion of style. The authors of handbooks on German (E. Riesel, M. P. Bran-des), French (Y. S. Stepanov, R. G. Piotrovsky, K. A. Dolinin), English (I. R. Galperin, I. V. Arnold, Y. M. Skrebnev, V. A. Maltsev, V. A. Kukharenko, A. N. Morokhovsky and others) and Russian (M. N. Kozhina, I. B. Golub) stylistics published in our country over the recent decades propose more or less analogous systems of styles based on a broad subdivision of all styles into two classes: literary and colloquial and their varieties. These generally include from three to five functional styles. Since functional styles will be further specially discussed in a separate chapter at this stage we shall limit ourselves to only three popular viewpoints in English language style classifications.
rof

' LR-Galperin distinguishes 5 groups of functional styles for the written variety of language while Prof. I.V.Amold suggests only two ajor types of styles - colloquial and literary bookish with their division into substyles (see chapter 4.4).

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics____________

1.1. Problems of stylistic research

Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev suggests a most unconventional viewpoint on the number of styles. He maintains that the number of sublanguages and styles is infinite (if we include individual styles, styles mentioned in linguistic literature such as telegraphic, oratorical, reference book, Shakespearean, short story, or the style of literature on electronics, computer language, etc.). Of course the problem of style definition is not the only one stylistic research deals with. Stylistics is that branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, and effect of choice and usage of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. Therefore it is concerned with such issues as 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) the aesthetic function of language; expressive means in language; synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea; emotional colouring in language; a system of special devices called stylistic devices; the splitting of the literary language into separate systems called style; 7) the interrelation between language and thought; 8) the individual manner of an author in making use of the language (47, p. 5). These issues cover the overall scope of stylistic research and can only be representative of stylistics as a discipline of linguistic study taken as a whole. So it should be noted that each of them is concerned with only a limited area of research:
12

The aesthetic function of language is an immanent part of works of artpoetry and imaginative prose but it leaves out works of science, diplomatic or commercial correspondence, technical instructions and many other types of texts. 2 Expressive means of language are mostly employed in types of speech that aim to affect the reader or listener: poetry, fiction, oratory, and informal intercourse but rarely in technical texts or business language. 3. It is due to the possibility of choice, the possibility of using synonymous ways of rendering ideas that styles are formed. With the change of wording a change in meaning (however slight it might be) takes place inevitably. 4. The emotional colouring of words and sentences creates a certain stylistic effect and makes a text either a highly lyrical piece of description or a satirical derision with a different stylistic value. However not all texts eligible for stylistic study are necessarily marked by this quality. 5. No work of art, no text or speech consists of a system of stylistic devices but there's no doubt about the fact that the style of anything is formed by the combination of features peculiar to it, that whatever we say or write, hear or read is not style by itself but has style, it demonstrates stylistic features. Any national language contains a number of*sublanguages or microlanguages or varieties of language with their own specific eatures, their own styles. Besides these functional styles that are oted in the norm of the language there exist the so-called substandard types of speech such as slang, barbarisms, vulgarisms, taboo and so on.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

1.2. Stylistics of language and speech

7. Interrelation between thought and language can be described terms of an inseparable whole so when the form is changed a change in content takes place. The author's intent and the forms he uses to render it as well as the reader's interpretation of it is the subject of a special branch of stylisticsdecoding stylistics. 8. We can hardly object to the proposition that style is also above | other things the individual manner of expression of an author in his use of the language. At the same time the individual manner can only appear out of a number of elements provided by the common background and employed and combined in a specific | manner. Thus speaking of stylistics as a science we have to bear in mind that the object of its research is versatile and multi-dimensional and the study of any of the above-mentioned problems will be a fragmentary description. It's essential that we look at the object of stylistic study in its totality.

language is a mentally organised system of linguistic units. An 0 .. aj speaker never uses it. When we use these units we mix m in acts of speech. As distinct from language speech is not relv mental phenomenon, not a system but a process of combining these linguistic elements into linear linguistic units that are called syntagmatic. The result of this process is the linear or syntagmatic combination of vowels and consonants into words, words into word-combinations and sentences and combination of sentences into texts. The word syntagmatic is a purely linguistic term meaning a coherent sequence of words (written, uttered or just remembered). StyUstics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts, not with the system of signs or process of speech production as such. But within these texts elements stylistically relevant are studied both syntagmatically and paradigmatically (loosely classifying all stylistic means paradigmatically into tropes and syntagmatically into figures of speech). Eventually this brings us to the notions of stylistics of language and stylistics of speech. Their difference lies in the material studied. the stylistics of language analyses permanent or inherent stylistic roperties of language elements while the stylistics of speech studies stylistic properties, which appear in a context, and they are called adherent. 'ike , , or English these ' comprehend, lass are bookish or archaic and of the^ 6 the'r inherent Properties. The unexpected use of any ProperT WrdS '" 3 modem context wil > be an adherent stylistic word''
prevaricate WOrds

1.2. Stylistics of language and speech


One of the fundamental concepts of linguistics is the dichotomy of language and speech (langueparole) introduced by F. de Saussure. According to it language is a system of elementary and complex signsphonemes, morphemes, words, word combinations, utterances and combinations of utterances. Language as such a system exists m human minds only and linguistic forms or units can be systematise" into paradigms.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics

So stylistics of language describes and classifies the inherent styli stic colouring of language units. Stylistics of speech studies the compost, tion of the utterancethe arrangement, selection and distribution of different words, and their adherent qualities.

. Various literary genres. , The writer's outlook.


Comparative stylistics

1.3. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics


Literary and linguistic stylistics

Comparative stylistics is connected with the contrastive study of more than one language. It analyses the stylistic resources not inherent in a separate language but at the crossroads of two languages, or two literatures and is obviously linked to the theory of translation.
Decoding stylistics

According to the type of stylistic research we can distinguish literary stylistics and lingua-stylistics. They have some meeting points or links in that they have common objects of research. Consequently they have certain areas of cross-reference. Both study the common ground of: 1) the literary language from the point of view of its variability; 2) the idiolect (individual speech) of a writer; 3) poetic speech that has its own specific laws. The points of difference proceed from the different points of analysis. While lingua-stylistics studies Functional styles (in their development and current state). The linguistic nature of the expressive means of the language, their systematic character and their functions. Literary stylistics is focused on The composition of a work of art.

A comparatively new branch of stylistics is the decoding stylistics, which can be traced back to the works of L. V. Shcherba, B. A. Larin, M. Riffaterre, R. Jackobson and other scholars of the Prague linguistic circle. A serious contribution into this branch of stylistic study was also made by Prof. I. V. Arnold (3, 4). Each act of speech has the performer, or sender of speech and the recipient. The former does the act of encoding and the latter the act of decoding the information.
J

f we analyse the text from the author's (encoding) point of view we should consider the epoch, the historical situation, the personal Political, social and aesthetic views of the author.
haVS t0 disre ard

' we try to treat the same text from the reader's angle of view max" 8 ^s background knowledge and get the sitio mUm ltlformation from the text itself (its vocabulary, compose ' sen,ence arrangement, etc.). The first approach manifests -valence of the literary analysis. The second is based almost

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics 1.4. Stylis tics and other linguistic disciplines

exclusively on the linguistic analysis. Decoding stylistics is an attempt to harmoniously combine the two methods of stylistic research and enable the scholar to interpret a work of art with a minimum loss of its purport and message.
Functional stylistics

Stylistic grammar

Stylistic Morphology is interested in the stylistic potentials of specific grammatical forms and categories, such as the number of the noun, or the peculiar use of tense forms of the verb, etc. Stylistic Syntax is one of the oldest branches of stylistic studies that grew out of classical rhetoric. The material in question lends itself readily to analysis and description. Stylistic syntax has to do with the expressive order of words, types of syntactic links (asyndeton, polysyndeton), figures of speech (antithesis, chiasmus, etc.). It also deals with bigger units from paragraph onwards.

Special mention should be made of functional stylistics which is a branch of lingua-stylistics that investigates functional styles, that is special sublanguages or varieties of the national language such as scientific, colloquial, business, publicist and so on. However many types of stylistics may exist or spring into existence they will all consider the same source material for stylistic analysissounds, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs and texts. That's why any kind of stylistic research will be based on the level-forming branches that include:
Stylistic lexicology

1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disciplines philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and grammar due to the common study source. Stylistics interacts with such theoretical discipline as semasiology. This is a branch of linguistics whose area of study is a most complicated and enormous spherethat of meaning. The term semantics is also widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal meanings. Semasiology in its turn is often related to the theory of signs in general and deals with visual as well as verbal meanings. Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that matter to one level at all but correlates with all of themmorphemes, words, phrases or texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of

Stylistic Lexicology studies the semantic structure of the word and the interrelation (or interplay) of the connotative and denotative meanings of the word, as well as the interrelation of the stylistic connotations of the word and the context. Stylistic Phonetics (or Phonostylistics) is engaged in the study of styleforming phonetic features of the text. It describes the prosodic features of prose and poetry and variants of pronunciation in different types of speech (colloquial or oratory or recital).

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring

research since practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay between different kinds of meaning on different levels. Suffice it to say that there are numerous types of linguistic meanings attached to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical, logical, denotative, connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic. Onomasiology (or onomatology) is the theory of naming dealing with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or phenomenon. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with a transfer of nominal meaning in a text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, etc.) The theory of functional styles investigates the structure of the national linguistic spacewhat constitutes the literary language, the sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than once already. Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary studies such as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of composition, etc. Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the broad sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends and even information theory.

Most scholars abroad and in this country giving definitions of style come to the conclusion that style may be defined as deviation from the lingual norm. It means that what is stylistically conspicuous, stylistically relevant or stylistically coloured is a departure from the norm of a given national language. (G. Leech, M. Riffaterre, M. Halliday, R.Jacobson and others). There are authors who object to the use of the word norm for various reasons. Thus Y. M. Skrebnev argues that since we acknowledge the existence of a variety of sublanguages within a national language we should also acknowledge that each of them has a norm of its own. So the sentence I haven't ever done anything (or I don't know anything) as juxtaposed to the sentence I ain't never done nothing (I don't know nothing) is not the norm itself but merely conforms to the literary norm. The second sentence (I ain't never done nothing) most certainly deviates from the literary norm (from standard English) but if fully conforms to the requirements of the uncultivated part of the English speaking population who merely have their own conception of the norm. So Skrebnev claims there are as many norms as there are sublanguages. Each language is subject to its own norm. To reject this would mean admitting abnormality of everything that is not neutral. Only ABC-books and texts for foreigners would be considered normal. Everything that has style, everything that demonstrates peculiarities of whatever kind would be considered abnormal, including works by Dickens, Twain, O'Henry, Galsworthy and so on (47, pp. 21-22). For all its challenging and defiant character this argument seems to contain a grain of truth and it does stand to reason that what we

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring


Speaking of the notion of style and stylistic colouring we cannot avoid the problem of the norm and neutrality and stylistic colouring in contrast to it.

______________Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring

often call the norm in terms of stylistics would be more appropriate to call neutrality. Since style is the specificity of a sublanguage it is self-evident that non-specific units of it do not participate in the formation of its style; units belonging to all the sublanguages are stylistically neutral. Thus we observe an opposition of stylistically coloured specific elements to stylistically neutral non-specific elements. The stylistic colouring is nothing but the knowledge where, in what particular type of communication, the unit in question is current. On hearing for instance the above-cited utterance I don't know nothing (I ain't never done nothing) we compare it with what we know about standard and non-standard forms of English and this will permit us to pass judgement on what we have heard or read. Professor Howard M. Mims of Cleveland State University did an accurate study of grammatical deviations found in American English that he terms vernacular (non-standard) variants (44). He made a list of 20 grammatical forms which he calls relatively common and some of them are so frequent in every-day speech that you hardly register them as deviations from the norm, e. g. They ready to go instead of They are ready to go; Joyce has fifty cent in her bank account instead of Joyce has fifty cents in her bank account; My brother, he's a doctor instead of My brother is a doctor, He don't know nothing instead of He doesn't know anything. The majority of the words are neutral. Stylistically coloured wordsbookish, solemn, poetic, official or colloquial, rustic, dialectal, vulgarhave each a kind of label on them showing where the unit was manufactured, where it generally belongs.

Within the stylistically coloured words there is another opposition between formal vocabulary and informal vocabulary. These terms have many synonyms offered by different authors. Roman Jacobson described this opposition as casual and non-casual, other terminologies name them as bookish and colloquial or formal and informal, correct and common. Stylistically coloured words are limited to specific conditions of communication. If you isolate a stylistically coloured word it will still preserve its label or trade-mark and have the flavour of poetic or artistic colouring. You're sure to recognise words like decease, attire, decline (a proposal) as bookish and distinguish die, clothes, refuse as neutral while such units as snuff it, rags (togs), turn down will immediately strike you as colloquial or informal. In surveying the units commonly called neutral can we assert that they only denote without connoting? That is not completely true. If we take stylistically neutral words separately, we may call them neutral without doubt. But occasionally in a certain context, in a specific distribution one of many implicit meanings of a word we normally consider neutral may prevail. Specific distribution may also create unexpected additional colouring of a generally neutral word. Such stylistic connotation is called occasional. Stylistic connotations may be inherent or adherent. Stylistically coloured words possess inherent stylistic connotations. Stylistically neutral words will have only adherent (occasional) stylistic connotations acquired in a certain context.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

1.6. Stylistic function notion

A luxury hotel for dogs is to be opened at Lima, Peru a city of 30.000 dogs. The furry guests will have separate hygienic kennels, top medical care and high standard cuisine, including the best bones. (Mailer) Two examples from this passage demonstrate how both stylistically marked and neutral words may change their colouring due to the context: cuisine -inherently formal (bookish, high-flown); - adherent connotation in the contextlowered/humorous; bones - stylistically neutral; -4 adherent connotation in the contextelevated/humorous.

Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of connotative meanings. In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of a word roughly consists of its grammatical meaning (noun, verb, adjective) and its lexical meaning. Lexical meaning can further on be subdivided into denotative (linked to the logical or nominative meaning) and connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with extra-linguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication and the participants of communication. Connotative meaning consists of four components: 1) emotive; 2) evaluative;

1.6. Stylistic function notion


Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical, grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language. However there is a distinctive difference between stylistics and the other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies their stylistic/unction. Stylistics is interested in the expressive potential of these units and their interaction in a text. Stylistics focuses on the expressive properties of linguistic units, their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in a certain text or communicative context. Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual meaning of a word and its denotative meaning.

3) expressive;
4) stylistic.

A word is always characterised by its denotative meaning but not necessarily by connotation. The four components may be all present at once, or in different combinations or they may not be found in the word at all. 1. Emotive connotations express various feelings or emotions. Emotions differ from feelings. Emotions like ./ay, disappointment, pleasure, anger, worry, surprise are more short-lived. Feelings imply a more stable state, or attitude, such as love, hatred, respect, pride, dignity, etc. The emotive component of meaning may be occasional or usual (i.e. inherent and adherent). It is important to distinguish words with emotive connotations from words, describing or naming emotions and feelings like anger or

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

1.6. Stylistic function notion

fear, because the latter are a special vocabulary subgroup whose denotative meanings are emotions. They do not connote the speaker's state of mind or his emotional attitude to the subject of speech. Thus if a psychiatrist were to say You should be able to control feelings of anger, impatience and disappointment dealing with a child as a piece of advice to young parents the sentence would have no emotive power. It may be considered stylistically neutral. On the other hand an apparently neutral word like big will become charged with emotive connotation in a mother's proud description of her baby: He is a BIG boy already! 2. The evaluative component charges the word with negative, positive, ironic or other types of connotation conveying the speaker's attitude in relation to the object of speech. Very often this component is a part of the denotative meaning, which comes to the fore in a specific context. The verb to sneak means to move silently and secretly, usu. for a bad purpose (8). This dictionary definition makes the evaluative component bad quite explicit. Two derivatives a sneak and sneaky have both preserved a derogatory evaluative connotation. But the negative component disappears though in still another derivative sneakers (shoes with a soft sole). It shows that even words of the same root may either have or lack an evaluative component in their inner form. 3. Expressive connotation either increases or decreases the expres siveness of the message. Many scholars hold that emotive and expressive components cannot be distinguished but Prof. I.A.Arnold

maintains that emotive connotation always entails expressiveness but not vice versa. To prove her point she comments on the example by A. Hornby and R. Fowler with the word thing applied to a girl (4, p. ). When the word is used with an emotive adjective like sweet it becomes emotive itself: She was a sweet little thing. But in other sentences like She was a small thin delicate thing with spectacles, she argues, this is not true and the word thing is definitely expressive but not emotive. Another group of words that help create this expressive effect are the so-called intensifiers, words like absolutely, frightfully, really, quite, etc. 4. Finally there is stylistic connotation. A word possesses stylistic connotation if it belongs to a certain functional style or a specific layer of vocabulary (such as archaisms, barbarisms, slang, jargon, etc). Stylistic connotation is usually immediately recognizable. Yonder, slumber, thence immediately connote poetic or elevated writing. Words like price index or negotiate assets are indicative of business language. This detailed and systematic description of the connotative meaning of a word is suggested by the Leningrad school in the works of Prof. I. V. Arnold, Z. Y. Turayeva, and others. Galperin operates three types of lexical meaning that are stylistically relevantlogical, emotive and nominal. He describes the stylistic

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Practice Section

colouring of words in terms of the interaction of these types of lexical meaning. Skrebnev maintains that connotations only show to what part of the national language a word belongsone of the sublanguages (functional styles) or the neutral bulk. He only speaks about the stylistic component of the connotative meaning.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

currency to talk to chow down to start insane spouse to leave geezer veracious mushy

money to converse to eat to commence nuts hubby

dough to chat to dine to kick off

mentally ill husband to shoot off old man sincere

Practice Section
1. Comment on the notions of style and sublanguages in the national language. 2. What are the interdisciplinary links of stylistics and other linguistic subjects such as phonetics, lexicology, grammar, and semasiology? Provide examples. How does stylistics differ from them in its subject-matter and fields of study? 3. Give an outline of the stylistic differentiation of the national English vocabulary: neutral, literary, colloquial layers of words; areas of their overlapping. Describe literary and common colloquial stratums of vocabulary, their stratification. 4. How does stylistic colouring and stylistic neutrality relate to inherent and adherent stylistic connotation? 5. Can you distinguish neutral, formal and informal among the following groups of words.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to withdraw senior citizen opens emotional

sentimental

6. What kind of adherent stylistic meaning appears in the otherwise neutral word feeling? I've got no feeling paying interest, provided that it's reasonable. (Shute) I've got no feeling against small town life. I rather like it. (Shute) 7. To what stratum of vocabulary do the words in bold type in the following sentences belong stylistically? Provide neutral or colloquial variants for them: / expect you've seen my hand often enough coming out with the grub. (Waugh) She betrayed some embarrassment when she handed Paul the tickets, and a hauteur which subsequently made her feel very foolish. (Cather)

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Practice Section

I must be off to my digs. (Waugh) When the old boy popped off he left Philbrick everything, except a few books to Grade. (Waugh) He looked her over and decided that she was not appropriately dressed and must be a fool to sit downstairs in such togs. (Cather) It was broken at length by the arrival of Flossie, splendidly attired in magenta and green. (Waugh) 8. Consider the following utterances from the point of view of the grammatical norm. What elements can be labelled as deviations from standard English? How do they comply with the norms of colloquial English according to Mims and Skrebnev? Sita decided that she would lay down in the dark even if Mrs. Waldvogel came in and bit her. (Erdrich) Always popular with the boys, he was, even when he was so full he couldn't hardly fight. (Waugh) ...he used to earn five pound a night... (Waugh) / wouldn't sell it not for a hundred quid, I wouldn't. (Waugh) There was a rapping at the bedroom door. I'll learn that Luden Sorrels to tomcat. (Chappel) 9. How does the choice of words in each case contribute to the stylistic character of the following passages? How would you define their functional colouring in terms of technical, poetic, bookish, commercial, dialectal, religious, elevated, colloquial, legal or other style?

Make up lists of words that create this tenor in the texts given below. Whilst humble pilgrims lodged in hospices, a travelling knight would normally stay with a merchant. (Rutherfurd) Fo' what you go by dem, eh? W'y not keep to yo'self? Dey don' want you, dey don' care fo'you. H' ain'you got no sense? (Dunbar-Nelson) They sent me down to the aerodrome next morning in a car. I made a check over the machine, cleaned filters, drained sumps, swept out the cabin, and refuelled. Finally I took off at about ten thirty for the short flight down to Batavia across the Sunda straits, and found the aerodrome and came on to the circuit behind the Constellation of K. L. M. (Shute) We ask Thee, Lord, the old man cried, to look after this childt. Fatherless he is. But what does the earthly father matter before Tliee? The childt is Thine, he is Thy childt, Lord, what father has a man but Thee? (Lawrence) -We are the silver band the Lord bless and keep you, said the stationmaster in one breath, the band that no one could beat whatever but two indeed in the Eisteddfod that for all North Wales was look you. I see, said the Doctor, I see. That's splendid. Well, will you please go into your tent, the little tent over there. To march about you would not like us? Suggested the stationmaster, we have a fine flaglook you that embroidered for us was in silks. (Waugh) The evidence is perfectly clear. The deceased woman was unfaithful to her husband during his absence overseas and gave birth to a child out of wedlock.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Her husband seemed to behave with commendable restraint and wrote nothing to her which would have led her to take her life... The deceased appears to have been the victim of her own conscience and as the time for the return of her husband drew near she became mentally upset. Fi find that the deceased committed suicide while the balance of her mind\ was temporarily deranged. (Shute) / say, I've met an awful good chap called Miles. Regular topper. You\ know, pally. That's what I like about a really decent partyyou meet] such topping fellows. I mean some chaps it takes absolutely years tot know, but a chap like Miles I feel is a pal straight away. (Waugh) She sang first of the birth of love in the hearts of a boy and a girl. And on the topmost spray of the Rose-tree there blossomed a marvellous rose, petal following petal, as song followed song. Pale was it, at first as the mist that hangs over the riverpale as the feet of the morning. (Wilde) ; He went slowly about the corridors, through the writingrooms, smoking- j rooms, reception-rooms, as though he were exploring the chambers of an enchanted palace, built and peopled for him alone. When he reached the dining-room he sat down at a table near a window. \ The flowers, the white linen, the many-coloured wine-glasses, the gay \ toilettes of the women, the low popping of corks, the undulating repetitions i of the Blue Danube from the orchestra, all flooded Paul's dream with bewildering radiance. (Cather)

Chapter 2
Expressive Resources of the Language

Expressive means and stylistic devices. Different classifications of expressive means and stylistic devices from antique to modern times.

In my reading of modern French novels I had acquired the habit of underlining expressions, which struck me as aberrant from general usage, and it often happened that the underlined passages taken together seemed to offer a certain consistency. I wondered if it would be possible to establish a common denominator for all or most of these deviations, could we find a common spiritual etymon or the psychological root of 'several' individual 'traits of style' in a writer. Leo Spitzer. Linguistics and Literary History

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices

2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices


Expressive means

Stylistic devices A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and structural features are blended so that it represents a generalised pattern. Prof. I. R. Galperin calls a stylistic device a generative model when through frequent use a language fact is transformed into a stylistic device. Thus we may say that some expressive means have evolved into stylistic devices which represent a more abstract form or set of forms. A stylistic device combines some general semantic meaning with a certain linguistic form resulting in stylistic effect. It is like an algorithm employed for an expressive purpose. For example, the interplay, interaction, or clash of the dictionary and contextual meanings of words will bring about such stylistic devices as metaphor, metonymy or irony. The nature of the interaction may be affinity (likeness by nature), proximity (nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, relation) or contrast (opposition). Respectively there is metaphor based on the principle of affinity, metonymy based on proximity and irony based on opposition. The evolution of a stylistic device such as metaphor could be seen from four examples that demonstrate this linguistic mechanism (interplay of dictionary and contextual meaning based on the principle of affinity): 1. My new dress is as pink as this flower: comparison (ground for comparisonthe colour of the flower). 2. Her cheeks were as red as a tulip: simile (ground for simile colour/beauty/health/freshness) 3. She is a real flower: metaphor (ground for metaphorfrail/ fragrant/tender/beautifu 1/helpless...).

Expressive means of a language are those linguistic forms and properties that have the potential to make the utterance emphatic or expressive. These can be found on all levelsphonetic, graphical, morphological, lexical or syntactical. Expressive means and stylistic devices have a lot in common but they are not completely synonymous. All stylistic devices belong to expressive means but not all expressive means are stylistic devices. Phonetic phenomena such as vocal pitch, pauses, logical stress, and drawling, or staccato pronunciation are all expressive without being stylistic devices Morphological forms like diminutive suffixes may have an expressive effect: girlie, piggy, doggy, etc. An unexpected use of the author's nonce words like: He glasnosted his love affair with th: movie star (People) is another example of morphological expressive means. Lexical expressive means may be illustrated by a special group intensifiersawfully, terribly, absolutely, etc. or words that retain thei logical meaning while being used emphatically: // was a very sped e vening/event/gift. There are also special grammatical forms and syntactical patterns attributing expressiveness, such as: / do know you! I'm really angry with that dog of ours! That you should deceive me! If only I could help you!

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

My love is a red, red rose: metaphor (ground for metaphor passionate/beautiful/strong...). 4. Ruby lips, hair of gold, snow-white skin: trite metaphors so frequently employed that they hardly have any stylistic power left because metaphor dies of overuse. Such metaphors are aiso called hackneyed or even dead. A famous literary example of an author's defiance against immoderate \ use of trite metaphors is W. Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. The more unexpected, the less predictable is the ground for comparison the more expressive is the metaphor which in this case got a special name of genuine or authentic metaphor. Associations suggested by the genuine metaphor are varied, not limited to any definite number and stimulated by the individual experience or imagination.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means


In spite of the belief that rhetoric is an outmoded discipline it is in rhetoric that we find most of the terms contemporary stylistics generally employs as its metalanguage. Rhetoric is the initial source of information about metaphor, metonymy, epithet, antithesis, chiasmus, anaphora and many more. The classical rhetoric gave us still widely used terms of tropes and figures of speech. That is why before looking into the new stylistic theories and findings it's good to look back and see what's been there for centuries. The problems of language in antique times became a concern of scholars because of the necessity to comment on literature and poetry. This necessity was caused by the fact that mythology and lyrical poetry was the study material on which the youth was brought up, taught to read and write and generally educated. Analysis of literary texts helped to transfer into the sphere of oratorical art the first philosophical notions and concepts. The first linguistic theory called sophistry appeared in the fifth century . Oration played a paramount role in the social and political life

of Greece so the art of rhetoric developed into a school. Antique tradition ascribes some of the fundamental rhetorical notions to the Greek philosopher Gorgius (483-375 . ). Together with another scholar named Trasimachus they created the first school of rhetoric whose principles were later developed by Aristotle (384-322 . .) in his books Rhetoric and Poetics. Aristotle differentiated literary language and colloquial language. This

first theory of style included 3 subdivisions:

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means 2.2.1- Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system Tropes:

the choice of words; word combinations; figures. 1. The choice of words included lexical expressive means such as foreign words, archaisms, neologisms, poetic words, nonce words and metaphor. 2. Word combinations involved 3 things: a) order of words; b) word-combinations; c) rhythm and period (in rhetoric, a complete sentence). 3. Figures of speech. This part included only 3 devices used by the antique authors always in the same order. a) antithesis; b) assonance of colons; c) equality of colons. A colon in rhetoric means one of the sections of a rhythmical period in Greek chorus consisting of a sequence of 2 to 6 feet. Later contributions by other authors were made into the art of speaking and writing so that the most complete and well developed antique system, that came down to us is called the Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system. It divided all expressive means into 3 large groups: Tropes, Rhythm (Figures of Speech) and Types of Speech. A condensed description of this system gives one an idea how much we owe the antique tradition in modern stylistic studies.

1. Metaphorthe application of a word (phrase) to an object (concept) it doesn't literally denote to suggest comparison with another object or concept. E. g. A mighty Fortress is our God. 2. Puzzle (Riddle)a statement that requires thinking over a confusing or difficult problem that needs to be solved. 2. Synecdochethe mention of a part for the whole. E. g. A fleet of 50 sail, (ships) 4. Metonymysubstitution of one word for another on the basis of real connection. E.g. Crown for sovereign; Homer for Homer's poems; wealth for rich people. 5. Catachresismisuse of a word due to the false folk etymology or wrong application of a term in a sense that does not belong to the word. E. g. Alibi for excuse; mental for weak-minded; mutual for common; disinterested for uninterested. A later term for it is malapropism that became current due to Mrs. Malaprop, a character from R. Sheridan's The Rivals (1775). This sort of misuse is mostly based on similarity in sound.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

E. g. That young violinist is certainly a child progeny (instead of prodigy). 6. Epitheta word or phrase used to describe someone or some-1 thing with a purpose to praise or blame. E. g. ft was a lovely, summery evening. 7. Periphrasisputting things in a round about way in order to] bring out some important feature or explain more clearly the idea or situation described. E.g. Igot an Arab boy... and paid him twenty rupees a month, about thirty bob, at which he was highly delighted. (Shute) 8. Hyperboleuse of exaggerated terms for emphasis. E. g. A 1000 apologies; to wait an eternity; he is stronger than a lion. 9. Antonomasiause of a proper name to express a general idea or conversely a common name for a proper one. E. g. The fron Lady; a Solomon; Don Juan.
Figures of Speech that create Rhythm

E. g. Tip-top, helter-skelter, wishy-washy; oh, the dreary, dreary moorland. 2. Epenalepsis (polysyndeton) conjunctions: use of several con junctions. E. g. He thought, and thought, and thought; f hadn't realized until then how small the houses were, how small and mean the shops. (Shute) 3. Anaphora: repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more clauses, sentences or verses. E.g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass, not a bird or beast, not even a fish that was not owned! 4. Enjambment: running on of one thought into the next line, couplet or stanza without breaking the syntactical pattern. E.g. fn Ocean's wide domains Half buried in the sands Lie skeletons in chains With shackled feet and hands. (Longfellow)

These expressive means were divided into 4 large groups: Figures that create rhythm by means of addition 1. Doubling (reduplication, repetition) of words and sounds. 5. Asyndeton: omission of conjunction. E.g. He provided the poor with jobs, with opportunity, with self-respect.

________Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language Figures based on compression

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

1. Zeugma (syllepsis): a figure by which a verb, adjective or other part of speech, relating to one noun is referred to another. E. g. He lost his hat and his temper, with weeping eyes and hearts. 2. Chiasmusa reversal in the order of words in one of two parallel phrases. E. g. He went to the country, to the town went she. 3. Ellipsisomission of words needed to complete the construction or the sense. E.g. Tomorrow at 1.30; The ringleader was hanged and his followers imprisoned.
Figures based on assonance or accord

2. Paradiastolathe lengthening of a syllable regularly short (in Greek poetry). 3. Anastrophea term of rhetoric, meaning, the upsetting for effect of the normal order of words (inversion in contemporary terms). E. g. Me he restored, him he hanged.
Types of speech

1. Equality of colonsused to have a power to segment and arrange. 1. Proportions and harmony of colons.
Figures based on opposition

1. Antithesischoice or arrangement of words that emphasises a contrast. E. g. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, wise men use them; Give me liberty or give me death.

Ancient authors distinguished speech for practical and aesthetic purposes. Rhetoric dealt with the latter which was supposed to answer certain requirements, such as a definite choice of words, their assonance, deviation from ordinary vocabulary and employment of special stratums like poetic diction, neologisms and archaisms, onomatopoeia as well as appellation to tropes. One of the most important devices to create a necessary high-flown or dramatic effect was an elaborate rhythmical arrangement of eloquent speech that involved the obligatory use of the so-called figures or schemes. The quality of rhetoric as an art of speech was measured in terms of skilful combination, convergence, abundance or absence of these devices. Respectively all kinds of speech were labelled and represented in a kind of hierarchy including the following types: elevated: flowery /florid/ exquisite; poetic; normal; dry; scanty; hackneyed; tasteless. Attempts to analyse and determine the style-forming features of prose also began in ancient times. Demetrius of Alexandria who lived in Greece in the 3d century was an Athenian orator, statesman and Philosopher. He used the ideas of such earlier theorists as Aristotle

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

and characterized styles by rhetoric of purpose that required certain grammatical constructions. The Plain Style, he said, is simple, using many active verbs and keeping its subjects (nouns) spare. Its purposes include lucidity, clarity, familiarity, and the necessity to get its work done crisply and well. So this style uses few difficult compounds, coinages or qualifications (such as epithets or modifiers). It avoids harsh sounds, or odd orders. It employs helpful connective terms and clear clauses with firm endings. In every way it tries to be natural, following the order of events themselves with moderation and repetition as in dialogue. The Eloquent Style in contrast changes the natural order of events to effect control over them and give the narration expressive power rather than sequential account. So this style may be called passive in contrast to active. As strong assumptions are made subjects are tremendously amplified without the activity of predication because inherent qualities rather than new relations are stressed. Sentences are lengthy, rounded, well balanced, with a great deal of elaborately connected material. Words can be unusual, coined; meanings can be implied, oblique, and symbolic. Sounds can fill the mouth, perhaps, harshly. Two centuries later a Greek rhetorician and historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus who lived in Rome in the 1*' century characterized one of the Greek orators in such a way: His harmony is natural, stately, spacious, articulated by pauses rather than strongly polished and joined by connectives; naturally off-balance, not rounded and symmetrical. (43, p. 123).

Dionyssius wrote over twenty books, most famous of which are On Imitation, Commentaries on the Ancient Orators and On the Arrangement of Words. The latter is the only surviving ancient study of principles of word order and euphony. For the Romans a recommended proportion for language units in verse was two nouns and two adjectives to one verb, which they called the golden line. Gradually the choices of certain stylistic features in different combinations settled into three typesplain, middle and high. Nowadays there exist dozens of classifications of expressive means of a language and all of them involve to a great measure the same elements. They differ often only in terminology and criteria of classification. Three of the modern classifications of expressive means in the English language that are commonly recognized and used in teaching stylistics today will be discussed further in brief. They have been offered by G. Leech, I. R Galperin and . M. Skrebnev.
2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification of expresssive means by G. Leech

One of the first linguists who tried to modernize traditional rhetoric system was a British scholar G. Leech. In 1967 his contribution into stylistic theory in the book Essays on Style a"d Language was published in London (39). Paying tribute to lhe descriptive linguistics popular at the time he tried to show

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

how linguistic theory could be accommodated to the task ofj describing such rhetorical figures as metaphor, parallelism, allit-l eration, personification and others in the present-day study ofj literature. Proceeding from the popular definition of literature as the creative use of language Leech claims that this can be equated with the use of deviant forms of language. According to his theory the] first principle with which a linguist should approach literature isj the degree of generality of statement about language. There are] two particularly important ways in which the description of language entails generalization. In the first place language operates by what may be called descriptive generalization. For example, a grammarian may! give descriptions of such pronouns as /, they, it, him, etc. as objective personal pronouns with the following categories: first/third person, singular/plural, masculine, non-reflexive, animate/inanimate. Although they require many ways of description they are all pronouns and each of them may be explicitly described in this fashion. The other type of generalization is implicit and would be appropriate in the case of such words as language and dialect. This sort of description would be composed of individual events of speaking, writing, hearing and reading. From these events generalization may cover the linguistic behaviour of whole populations. In this connection Leech maintains 1 the importance of distinguishing two scales in the language. He calls them register scale and dialect scale. Register scale distinguishes spoken language from written language, the language of respect from that of condescension, advertising from science, etc. The term covers linguistic activity within society. Dialect scale differentiates language of people of different age, sex, social strata, geographical area or individual linguistic habits (ideolect).

According to Leech the literary work of a particular author must be studied with reference to bothdialect scale and register scale. The notion of generality essential to Leech's criteria of classifying stylistic devices has to do with linguistic deviation. He points out that it's a commonplace to say that writers and poets use language in an unorthodox way and are allowed a certain degree of poetic licence. Poetic licence relates to the scales of descriptive and institutional delicacy. Words like thou, thee, thine, thy not only involve description by number and person but in social meaning have a strangeness value or connotative value because they are charged with overtones of piety, historical period, poetics, etc. The language of literature is on the whole marked by a number of deviant features. Thus Leech builds his classification on the principle of distinction between the normal and deviant features in the language of literature. Among deviant features he distinguishes paradigmatic and syntagmatic deviations. All figures can be initially divided into syntagmatic or paradigmatic. Linguistic units are connected syntagmatically when they combine sequentially in a linear linguistic form. Paradigmatic items enter into a system of possible selections at one Point of the chain. Syntagmatic items can be viewed horizontally, Paradigmaticvertically. Paradigmatic figures give the writer a choice from equivalent items, which are contrasted to the normal range of choices. For instance, certain nouns can normally be followed by certain adverbs, the choice

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

The deviant use of she in this passage is reinforced by the collocation with better manners, which can only be associated with human beings.

dictated by their normal lexical valency: inches/feet/yard ~r away, e. g. He was standing only a few feet away. However the author's choice of a noun may upset the normal system and create a paradigmatic deviation that we come across in literary and poetic language: farmyards away, a grief ago, all sun long. Schematically this relationship could look like this inches feet yards farmyard inches feet normal away deviant deviant away normal away

yards farmyard away

The contrast between deviation and norm may be accounted for by metaphor which involves semantic transfer of combinatory links. Another example of paradigmatic deviation is personification. In this case we deal with purely grammatical oppositions of personal/ impersonal; animate/inanimate; concrete/abstract. This type of deviation entails the use of an inanimate noun in a context appropriate to a personal noun. As Connie had said, she handled just like any other aeroplane, except that she had better manners than most. (Shute). In this example she stands for the aeroplane and makes it personified on the grammatical level.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Paradigmatic deviations comes down to the redundancy of choice in the first case and a gap in the predicted pattern in the second.

aeroplane train

normal inanimate neuter

it

car
aeroplane aeroplane train normal inanimate neuter it deviant animate female

she

car aeroplane she

deviant animate female

This sort of paradigmatic deviation Leech calls unique deviation because it comes as an unexpected and unpredictable choice that defies the norm. He compares it with what the Prague school of linguistics called foregrounding. Unlike paradigmatic figures based on the effect of gap in the expected choice of a linguistic form syntagmatic deviant features result from the opposite. Instead of missing the predictable choice the author imposes the same kind of choice in the same place. A syntagmatic chain of language units provides a choice of equivalents to be made at different points in this chain, but the writer repeatedly makes the same selection. Leech illustrates this by alliteration in the furrow followed where the choice of alliterated words is not necessary but superimposed for stylistic effect on the ordinary background. This principle visibly stands out in some tongue-twisters due to the deliberate overuse of the same sound in every word of the phrase. So instead of a sentence like "Robert turned over a hoop in a circle" we nave the intentional redundancy of "r" in "Robert Rowley rolled a round roll round". Basically the difference drawn by Leech between syntagmatic and

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

This classification includes other subdivisions and details that cannot all be covered here but may be further studied in Leech's book. This approach was an attempt to treat stylistic devices with reference to linguistic theory that would help to analyse the nature of stylistic function viewed as a result of deviation from the lexical and grammatical norm of the language.
2.2.3. I. R. Galperfn's classification of expressive means and stylistic devices

3) rhyme (full, incomplete, compound or broken, eye rhyme, internal rhyme. Also, stanza rhymes: couplets, triple, cross, framing/ring); 4) rhythm.
2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices

The classification suggested by Prof. Galperin is simply organised and very detailed. His manual Stylistics published in 1971 includes the following subdivision of expressive means and stylistic devices based on the level-oriented approach: 1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices. 2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices. 3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices*. 1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices To this group Galperin refers such means as: 1) onomatopoeia (direct and indirect): ding-dong; silver bells... tinkle, tinkle; 1) alliteration (initial rhyme): to rob Peter to pay Paul;
' To avoid repetition in each classification definitions of all stylistic devices are given in the glossary

There are three big subdivisions in this class of devices and they all deal with the semantic nature of a word or phrase. However the criteria of selection of means for each subdivision are different and manifest different semantic processes. I. In the first subdivision the principle of classification is the interaction of different types of a word's meanings: dictionary, contextual, derivative, nominal, and emotive. The stylistic effect of the lexical means is achieved through the binary opposition of dictionary and contextual or logical and emotive or primary and derivative meanings of a word. A. The first group includes means based on the interplay of dictionary and contextual meanings: metaphor: Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still. (Byron) metonymy: The camp, the pulpit and the law For rich man's sons are free. (Shelly)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

irony: // must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket. B. The second unites means based on the interaction of primary and derivative meanings: polysemy: Massachusetts was hostile to the American flag, and she would not allow it to be hoisted on her State House; zeugma and pun: May's mother always stood on her gentility; and Dot's mother never stood on anything but her active little feet. (Dickens) C. The third group comprises means based on the opposition of logical and emotive meanings: interjections and exclamatory words: All present life is but an interjection An 'Oh' or 'Ah' of joy or misery, Or a 'Ha! ha!' or 'Bah!'-a yawn or 'Pooh!' Of which perhaps the latter is most true. (Byron) epithet: a well-matched, fairly-balanced give-and-take couple. (Dickens) oxymoron: peopled desert, populous solitude, proud humility. (Byron) D. The fourth group is based on the interaction of logical and nominal meanings and includes: antonomasia; Mr. Facing-Both-Ways does not get very far in this world. I (The Times)

II. The principle for distinguishing the second big subdivision according to Galperin is entirely different from the first one and is based on the interaction between two lexical meanings simultaneously materialised in the context. This kind of interaction helps to call special attention to a certain feature of the object described. Here belong: simile: treacherous as a snake, faithful as a dog, slow as a tortoise. periphrasis: a gentleman of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex. (women) euphemism: In private I should call him a liar. In the Press you should use the words: 'Reckless disregard for truth'. (Galsworthy) hyperbole: The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in and the sun and the moon were made to give them light. (Dickens) . The third subdivision comprises stable word combinations in their interaction with the context: cliches: clockwork precision, crushing defeat, the whip and carrot policy. proverbs and sayings: Come! he said, milk's spilt. (Galsworthy) epigrams: A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. (Keats) Quotations: Ecclesiastes said, 'that all is vanity'. (Byron) allusions: Shakespeare talks of the herald Mercury. (Byron) decomposition of set phrases: You know which side the law's buttered. (Galsworthy)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language 3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

chiasmus: In the days of old men made manners Manners now make men. (Byron) repetition: For glances beget ogles, ogles sighs, sighs wishes, wishes words, and words a letter. (Byron) enumeration: The principle production of these towns... appear to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers, and dock-yard men. (Dickens) suspense: Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtleKnow ye the land of the cedar and vine... 'Tis the clime of the East'tis the land of the Sun. (Byron) climax: They looked at hundred of houses, they climbed thousands of stairs, they inspected innumerable kitchens. (Maugham) antithesis: Youth is lovely, age is lonely; Youth is fiery, age is frost. (Longfellow)
Devices based on the type of connection include

Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices are not paradigmatic but syntagmatic or structural means. In defining syntactical devices Galperin proceeds from the following thesis: the structural elements have their own independent meaning and this meaning may affect the lexical meaning. In doing so it may impart a special contextual meaning to some of the lexical units. The principal criteria for classifying syntactical stylistic devices are: ] the juxtaposition of the parts of an utterance; the type of connection of the parts; the peculiar use of colloquial constructions; the transference of structural meaning.

Devices built on the principle of juxtaposition

inversion (several types): A tone of most extravagant comparison Miss Tox said it in. (Dickens) Down dropped the breeze. (Colerigde) detached constructions: She was lovely: all of herdelightful. (Dreiser) parallel constructions: The seeds ye sowanother reaps, The robes ye weaveanother wears The arms ye forgeanother bears. (Shelley)

Asyndeton: Soams turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, ''ke one standing before an open grave... (Galsworthy)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

polysyndeton: The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. (Dickens) gap-sentence link: It was an afternoon to dream. And she took outi Jon's letters. (Galsworthy)
Figures united by the peculiar use of colloquial constructions

Ellipsis: Nothing so difficult as a beginning; how soft the chin which' bears his touch. (Byron) Aposiopesis (break-in-the-narrative): Good intentions but -; You just come home or I'll... Question in the narrative: Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? (Dickens) Represented speech (uttered and unuttered or inner represented speech): Marshal asked the crowd to disperse and urged responsible diggers to prevent any disturbance... (Prichard) Over and over he was asking himself, would she receive him ?
Transferred use of structural meaning involves such figures as

deemed necessary. However other attempts have been made to classify all expressive means and stylistic devices because some principles applied in this system do not look completely consistent and reliable. There are two big subdivisions here that classify all devices into either lexical or syntactical. At the same time there is a kind of mixture of principles since some devices obviously involve both lexical and syntactical features, e. g. antithesis, climax, periphrasis, irony, and others. According to Galperin there are structural and compositional syntactical devices, devices built on transferred structural meaning and the type of syntactical connection and devices that involve a peculiar use of colloquial constructions. Though very detailed this classification provokes some questions concerning the criteria used in placing the group 'peculiar use of colloquial constructions' among the syntactical means and the group called 'peculiar use of set expressions' among the lexical devices. Another criterion used for classifying lexical expressive means namely, 'intensification of a certain feature of a thing or phenomenon' also seems rather dubious. Formulated like this it could be equally applied to quite a number of devices placed by the author in other subdivisions of this classification with a different criteria of identification, such as metaphor, metonymy, epithet, repetition, inversion, suspense, etc. It does not seem quite just to Place all cases of ellipsis, aposiopesis or represented speech among colloquial constructions.
2.2.4. Classification of expressive means and stylistic devices by Y. M.Skrebnev

Rhetorical questions: How long must we suffer? Where is the end? (Norris) Litotes: He was no gentle lamb (London); Mr. Bardell was no deceiver.} (Dickens) Since Stylistics by Galperin is the basic manual recommended for this course at university level no further transposition of its content is

One of the latest classifications of expressive means and stylistic devices is given in the book Fundamentals of English Stylistics Y. . Skrebnev published in 1994 (47). Skrebnev's approach

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language paradigmatic stylistics

demonstrates a combination of principles observed in Leech's system of paradigmatic and syntagmatic subdivision and the level-oriented approach on which Galperin's classification is founded. At the same time it differs from both since Skrebnev managed to avoid mechanical superposition of one system onto another and created a new consistent method of the hierarchical arrangement of this material. Skrebnev starts with a holistic view, constructing a kind of language pyramid. He doesn't pigeonhole expressive means and stylistic devices into appropriate layers of language like Leech and Galperin. Skrebnev first subdivides stylistics into paradigmatic stylistics (or stylistics of units) and syntagmatic stylistics (or stylistics of sequences). Then he explores the levels of the language and regards all stylistically relevant phenomena according to this level principle in both paradigmatic and syntagmatic stylistics. He also uniquely singles out one more level. In addition to phonetics, morphology, lexicology and syntax he adds semasiology (or semantics). According to Skrebnev the relationship between these five levels and two aspects of stylistic analysis is bilateral. The same linguistic material of these levels provides stylistic features studied by paradigmatic and syntagmatic stylistics. The difference lies in its different arrangement. Paradigmatic stylistics (Stylistics of units) - 1. Phonetics - 2. Morphology - 3. Lexicology - 4. Syntax <- 5. Semasiology -> Syntagmatic -> stylistics -> (Stylistics of - sequences) ->

Looking closer into this system we'll be able to distinguish specific units and their stylistic potentials or functions. Thus paradigmatic stylistics (styUstics of units) is subdivided into five branches. paradigmatic phonetics actually describes phonographical stylistic features of a written text. Since we cannot hear written speech but in our mind writers often resort to graphic means to reproduce the phonetic peculiarities of individual speech or dialect. Such intentional non-standard spelling is called graphons (a term borrowed from V.A.Kucharenko). / know these Eye- talians! (Lawrence)in this case the graphon is used to show despise or contempt of the speaker for Italians. In Cockney speech whose phonetic peculiarities are all too well known you'll hear [ai] in place of [ei], [a:] instead of [au], they drop h's and so on. It frequently becomes a means of speech characterisation and often creates a humorous effect. The author illustrates it with a story of a cockney family trying to impress a visitor with their correct English: <'Father, said one of the children at breakfast. I want some more 'am Phase.You mustn't say 'am, my child, the correct form is 'am, retorted his father, passing the plate with sliced ham on it. But I did say 'am, pleaded the boy. No, you didn't: you said 'am instead of 'am. The mother turned to the guest smiling: Oh, don't mind them, s 'r, pray. They are both trying to say 'am and both think it is 'am they Q re saying (47, p. 41).

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Other graphic means to emphasise the unheard phonetic character istics such as the pitch of voice, the stress, and other melodic feature are italics, capitalisation, repetition of letters, onomatopoeia (soun' imitation). E. g. I AM sorry; Appeeee Noooooyeeeeerr (Happy New Year) cocka-doodle-doo. Paradigmatic morphology observes the stylistic potentials of gram: forms, which Leech would describe as deviant. Out of several va rieties of morphological categorial forms the author chooses a less predictable or unpredictable one, which renders this form some stylistic connotation. The peculiar use of a number of grammaiical categories for stylistic purposes may serve as an ample example of this type of expressive means. The use of a present tense of a verb on the background of a past-tense narration got a special name historical present in linguistics. E. g. What else do J remember? Let me see. There comes out of the cloud our house... (Dickens) Another category that helps create stylistic colouring is that of gender. The result of its deviant use is personification and depersonification. As Skrebnev points out although the morphological category of gender is practically non-existent in modern English special rules concern whole classes of nouns that are traditionally associated with feminine or masculine gender. Thus countries are generally classed as feminine (France sent her representative to the conference.) Abstract notions associated with strength and fierceness are personified as masculine while feminine is associated with beauty or gentleness (death, fear, war, angerhe, spring, peace, kindnessshe). Names of vessel

nd other vehicles (ship, boat, carriage, coach, car) are treated as feminine.
a

/Another deviant use of this category according to Skrebnev is the use of animate nouns as inanimate ones that he terms depersonification illustrated by the following passage: Where did you find it? asked Mord Em'ly of Miss Gilliken with a satirical accent. Who are you calling "it"? demanded Mr. Barden aggressively. P'raps you'll kindly call me 'im and not it. (Partridge) Similar cases of deviation on the morphological level are given by the author for the categories of person, number, mood and some others. Paradigmatic lexicology subdivides English vocabulary into stylistic layers. In most works on this problem (cf. books by Galperin, Arnold, Vinogradov) all words of the national language are usually described in terms of neutral, literary and colloquial with further subdivision into poetic, archaic, foreign, jargonisms, slang, etc. Skrebnev uses different terms for practically the same purposes. His terminology includes correspondingly neutral, positive (elevated) and negative (degraded) layers. Subdivision inside these categories is much the same with the exclusion of such groups as bookish and archaic words and special terms that Galperin, for example, includes into the special literary vocabulary (described as positive in Skrebnev's system) while Skrebnev claims that they may have both a positive and negative stylistic function depending on the purpose of the utterance and the context. The same consideration concerns the so-called barbarisms or foreign

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

words whose stylistic value (elevated or degraded) depends on the kind of text in which they are used. To illustrate his point Skrebnee gives two examples of barbarisms used by people of different sociajB class and age. Used by an upper-class character from John Galsworl thy the word chic has a tinge of elegance showing the character** knowledge of French. He maintains that Italian words ciao and bambina current among Russian youngsters at one time were alsol considered stylistically 'higher' than their Russian equivalents. At the same time it's hard to say whether they should all be classified asl positive just because they are of foreign origin. Each instance of usee should be considered individually. Stylistic differentiation suggested by Skrebnev includes the following stratification Positive/elevated poetic; official; professional. Bookish and archaic words occupy a peculiar place among the other 1 positive words due to the fact that they can be found in any other group (poetic, official or professional). Neutral Negative/degraded colloquial; neologisms;

jargon; slang; nonce-words; vulgar words. Special mention is made of terms. The author maintains that the stylistic function of terms varies in different types of speech. In nonprofessional spheres, such as literary prose, newspaper texts, everyday speech special terms are associated with socially prestigious occupations and therefore are marked as elevated. On the other hand the use of non-popular terms, unknown to the average speaker, shows a pretentious manner of speech, lack of taste or tact. Paradigmatic syntax has to do with the sentence paradigm: completeness of sentence structure, communicative types of sentences, word order, and type of syntactical connection. Paradigmatic syntactical means of expression arranged according to these four types include Completeness of sentence structure ellipsis; aposiopesis; one-member nominative sentences. Redundancy: repetition of sentence parts, syntactic tautology (prolepsis), Polysyndeton.

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Word order Inversion of sentence members. Communicative types of sentences Quasi-affirmative sentences: Isn't that too bad? = That is too bad. Quasi-interrogative sentences: Here you are to write down your age and birthplace = How old are you? Where were you born? Quasi-negative sentences: Did I say a word about the money (Shaw) = / did not say... Quasi-imperative sentences: Here! Quick! Come here! Be quick! In these types of sentences the syntactical formal meaning of the structure contradicts the actual meaning implied so that negative sentences read affirmative, questions do not require answers but are in fact declarative sentences (rhetorical questions), etc. One communicative meaning appears in disguise of another. Skrebnev holds that the task of stylistic analysis is to find out to what type of speech (and its sublanguage) the given construction belongs. (47, p. 100). Type of syntactic connection detachment; parenthetic elements; asyndetic subordination and coordination. Paradigmatic semasiology deals with transfer of names or what are traditionally known as tropes. In Skrebnev's classification these

expressive means received the term based on their ability to rename: figures of replacement. All figures of replacement are subdivided into 2 groups: figures of quantity and figures of quality. Figures of quantity. In figures of quantity renaming is based on inexactitude of measurements, in other words it's either saying too much (overestimating, intensifying the properties) or too little (underestimating the size, value, importance, etc.) about the object or phenomenon. Accordingly there are two figures of this type. Hyperbole E.g. You couldn't hear yourself think for the noise. Meosis (understatement, litotes). E. g. It's not unusual for him to come home at this hour. According to Skrebnev this is the most primitive type of renaming. Figures of quality comprise 3 types of renaming: transfer based on a real connection between the object of nomination and the object whose name it's given. This is called metonymy in its two forms: synecdoche and periphrasis. E- g. I'm all ears; Hands wanted. Periphrasis and its varieties euphemism and anti-euphemism.

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

E. g. Ladies and the worser halves; I never call a spade a spade, I ca it a bloody shovel. transfer based on affinity (similarity, not real connection metaphor. Skrebnev describes metaphor as an expressive renaming on the basis of similarity of two objects. The speaker searches for associations in] his mind's eye, the ground for comparison is not so open to view as with metonymy. It's more complicated in nature. Metaphor has no formal limitations Skrebnev maintains, and that is why this not a purely lexical stylistic device as many authors describe it (s Galperin's classification). This is a device that can involve a word, a part of a sentence a whole sentence. We may add that whole works of art can be viewe as metaphoric and an example of it is the novel by John Updike Th Centaur. As for the varieties there are not just simple metaphors like She i a flower, but sustained metaphors, also called extended, when one metaphorical statement creating an image is followed by another linked to the previous one: This is a day of your golden opportunity, Sarge. Don't let it turn to brass. (Pendelton) Often a sustained metaphor gives rise to a device called catachresis (or mixed metaphor)which consists in the incongruity of the parts of a sustained metaphor. This happens when objects of the two or more parts of a sustained metaphor belong to different semantic spheres and the logical chain seems disconnected. The effect is' usually comical.

. g. For somewhere, said Poirot to himself indulging an absolute riot 0f mixed metaphors there is in the hay a needle, and among the sleeping dogs there is one on whom I shall put my foot, and by shooting the arrow into the air, one will come down and hit a glass-house! (Christie) A Belgian speaking English confused a number of popular proverbs and quotations that in reality look like the following: to look for a needle in a haystack; to let sleeping dogs lie; to put one's foot down; I shot an arrow into the air (Longfellow); people who live in glass houses should not throw stones. Other varieties of metaphor according to Skrebnev also include Allusion defined as reference to a famous historical, literary, mythological or biblical character or event, commonly known. E.g. It's his Achilles heel (myth of vulnerability). Personificationattributing human properties to lifeless objects. E.g. How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth, Stol'n on his wing my three and twentieth year! (Milton) Antonomasia defined as a variety of allusion, because in Skrebnev's view it's the use of the name of a historical, literary, mythological or biblical personage applied to a person described. Some of the most famous ones are Brutus (traitor), Don Juan (lady's man). It should be noted that this definition is only limited to the allusive nature of this device. There is another approach (cf. Galperin and others) in which antonomasia also covers instances of transference of common nouns in place of proper names, such as Mr. Noble Knight, Duke the Iron Heart.

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Allegory expresses abstract ideas through concrete pictures. E. g. The scales of justice; It's time to beat your swords into ploughshar It should be noted that allegory is not just a stylistic term, but als a term of art in general and can be found in other artistic forms: painting, sculpture, dance, and architecture. transfer by contrast when the two objects are opposed implies irony. Irony (meaning concealed mockery, in Greek eironeia) is a device based on the opposition of meaning to the sense (dictionary and contextual). Here we observe the greatest semantic shift between the notion named and the notion meant. Skrebnev distinguishes 2 kinds of ironic utterances: obviously explicit ironical, which no one would take at their fac value due to the situation, tune and structure. E. g. A fine friend you are! That's a pretty kettle offish! and implicit, when the ironical message is communicated agaii a wider context like in Oscar Wilde's tale The Devoted Friend I where the real meaning of the title only becomes obvious after you read the story. On the whole irony is used with the aim of critical evaluation and the general scheme is praise stands for j blame and extremely rarely in the reverse order. However when | it does happen the term in the latter case is astheism. E. g. Clever bastard! Lucky devil!

One of the powerful techniques of achieving ironic effect is the mixture of registers of speech (social styles appropriate for the occasion): high-flown style on socially low topics or vice versa.
Syntagmatic stylistics

Syntagmatic stylistics (stylistics of sequences) deals with the stylistic functions of linguistic units used in syntagmatic chains, in linear combinations, not separately but in connection with other units. Syntagmatic stylistics falls into the same level determined branches. Syntagmatic phonetics deals with the interaction of speech sounds and intonation, sentence stress, tempo. All these features that characterise suprasegmental speech phonetically are sometimes also called prosodic. So stylistic phonetics studies such stylistic devices and expressive means as alliteration (recurrence of the initial consonant in two or more words in close succession). It's a typically English feature because ancient English poetry was based more on alliteration than on rhyme. We find a vestige of this once all-embracing literary device in proverbs and sayings that came down to us. E. g. Now or never; Last but not least; As good as gold. With time its function broadened into prose and other types of texts. It became very popular in titles, headlines and slogans. . g. Pride and Prejudice. (Austin)
p

osthumous papers of the Pickwick Club. (Dickens)

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Work or wages/; Workers of the world, unite! Speaking of the change of this device's role chronologically we should make special note of its prominence in certain professional areas of modern English that has not been mentioned by Skrebnev. Today alliteration is one of the favourite devices of commercials and advertising language. E. g. New whipped cream: No mixing or measuring. No beating or bothering. Colgate toothpaste: The Flavor's Fresher than everIt's New. Improved. Fortified. Assonance (the recurrence of stressed vowels). E. g. ... Tell this soul with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden; /| shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore. () Paronomasia (using words similar in sound but different in meaning with euphonic effect). The popular example to illustrate this device is drawn from E. A. Poe's Raven. E.g. And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting Rhythm and meter. The pattern of interchange of strong and weak segments is called rhythm. It's a regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables that make a poetic text. Various combinations of stressed and unstressed syllables determine the metre (iambus, dactyl, trochee, etc.).

Rhyme is another feature that distinguishes verse from prose and consists in the acoustic coincidence of stressed syllables at the end of verse lines. Here's an example to illustrate dactylic meter and rhyme given in Skrebnev's book Take her up tenderly, Lift her with care, Fashion'd so slenderly Young and so fair. (Hood) Syntagmatic morphology deals with the importance of grammar forms used in a paragraph or text that help in creating a certain stylistic effect. We find much in common between Skrebnev's description of this area and Leech's definition of syntagmatic deviant figures. Skrebnev writes: Varying the morphological means of expressing grammatical notions is based... upon the general rule: monotonous repetition of morphemes or frequent recurrence of morphological meanings expressed differently... (47, p. 146). He also indicates that while it is normally considered a stylistic fault it acquires special meaning when used on purpose. He describes the effect achieved by the use of morphological synonyms of the genetive with Shakespearethe possessive case (Shakespeare's plays), prepositional o/-phrase (the plays of Shakespeare) and an attributive noun (Shakespeare plays) as elegant variation of style.

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Syntagmatic lexicology studies the word-and-context juxtaposition that presents a number of stylistic problemsespecially those connected with co-occurrence of words of various stylistic colourings. Each of these cases must be considered individually because each literary text is unique in its choice and combination of words. Such phenomena as various instances of intentional and unintentional lexical mixtures as well as varieties of lexical recurrence fall in wifl this approach. Some new more modern stylistic terms appear in this connectionstylistic irradiation, heterostylistic texts, etc. We can observe this sor of stylistic mixture in a passage from O'Henry provided by Skrebnev: Jeff, says Andy after a long time, quite unseldom I have seen fit to impugn your molars when you have been chewing the rag with me about your conscientious way of doing business... (47, p. 149). Syntagmatic syntax deals with more familiar phenomena since it has to do with the use of sentences in a text. Skrebnev distinguishes purely syntactical repetition to which he refers parallelism as structural repetition of sentences though often accompanied by the lexical repetition E. g. The cock is crowing, The stream is flowing... (Wordsworth) and lexico-syntactical devices such as anaphora (identity of beginnings, initial elements).

E. g. If only little Edward were twenty, old enough to marry well and fend for himself, instead often. If only it were not necessary to provide a dowaryforhis daughter. If only his own debts were less. (Rutherfurd) Epiphora (opposite of the anaphora, identical elements at the end of sentences, paragraphs, chapters, stanzas). E. g. For all averred, I had killed the bird. That made the breeze to blow. Ah wretch! Said they, the bird to slay, That made the breeze to blow! (Coleridge) Framing (repetition of some element at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, paragraph or stanza). E. g. Never wonder. By means of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, settle everything somehow, and never wonder. (Dickens) Anadiplosis (the final element of one sentence, paragraph, stanza is repeated in the initial part of the next sentence, paragraph, stanza. E.g. Three fishers went sailing out into the West. Out into the West, as the sun went down. (Kingsley) Chiasmus (parallelism reversed, two parallel syntactical constructions contain a reversed order of their members). E. g. That he sings and he sings, and for ever sings he I love my Love and my Love loves me! (Coleridge)

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2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Syntagmatic semasiology or semasiology of sequences deals with semantic relationships expressed at the lengh of a whole text. As distinct from paradigmatic semasiology which studies the stylistic effect of renaming syntagmatic semasiology studies types of names used for linear arrangement of meanings. Skrebnev calls these repetitions of meanings represented by sense units in a text figures of co-occurrence. The most general types of] semantic relationships can be described as identical, different orl opposite. Accordingly he singles out figures of identity, figures of\ inequality and figures of contrast.
Figures of identity

E.g. You undercut, sinful, insidious hog. (O'Henry) Climax (gradation of emphatic elements growing in strength). E. g. What difference if it rained, hailed, blew, snowed, cycloned? (O'Henry). Anti-climax (back gradationinstead of a few elements growing in intensity without relief there unexpectedly appears a weak or contrastive element that makes the statement humorous or ridiculous). E. g. The woman who could face the very devil himself or a mousegoes all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning. (Twain) Zeugma (combination of unequal, or incompatible words based on the economy of syntactical units). E. g. She dropped a tear and her pocket handkerchief. (Dickens) Pun (play upon words based on polysemy or homonymy). E. g. What steps would you take if an empty tank were coming toward you?Long ones. Disguised tautology (semantic difference in formally coincidental parts of a sentence, repetition here does not emphasise the idea but carries a different information in each of the two parts). E. g. For East is East, and West is West... (Kipling)

Simile (an explicit statement of partial identity: affinity, likeness, similarity of 2 objects). E. g. My heart is like a singing bird. (Rosetti) Synonymous replacement (use of synonyms or synonymous phrases to avoid monotony or as situational substitutes). E. g. He brought home numberless prizes. He told his mother counties stories. (Thackeray) E.g. I was trembly and shaky from head to foot.
Figures of inequality

Figures of contrast

Clarifying (specifying) synonyms (synonymous repetition used to characterise different aspects of the same referent).

Oxymoron (a logical collision of seemingly incompatible words).

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Practice Section

E. g. His honour rooted in dishonour stood, And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true. (Tennyson) Antithesis (anti-statement, active confrontation of notions used tol show the contradictory nature of the subject described). E. g. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the era of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of Darkness... Hope... Despair. (Dickens) His fees were high, his lessons were light. (O'Henry) An overview of the classifications presented here shows rather varie approaches to practically the same material. And even though thej contain inconsistencies and certain contradictions they reflect tluj scholars' attempts to overcome an inventorial description of devices, They obviously bring stylistic study of expressive means to an advanced level, sustained by the linguistic research of the 20' century that allows to explore and explain the linguistic nature of the stylistic function. This contribution into stylistic theory made by modem' linguistics is not contained to classifying studies only. It has inspired exploration of other areas of research such as decoding stylistics or stylistic grammar that will be discussed in further chapters.

Can a word connote without denoting and vice versa? What are the four components of the connotative meaning and how are they represented in a word if at all? 2. Expound on the expressive and emotive power of the noun thing in the following examples: Jennie wanted to sleep with methe sly thing/ But I told her I should undoubtedly rest better for a night alone. (Gilman) -/ believe, one day, I shall fall awfully in love. -Probably you never will, said Lucille brutally. That's what most old maids are thinking all the time. Yvette looked at her sister from pensive but apparently insouciant eyes. Is it? she said. Do you really think so, Lucille? How perfectly awful for them, poor things! (Lawrence) She was an honest little thing, but perhaps her honesty was too rational. (Lawrence) So they were, this queer couple, the tiny, finely formed little Jewess with her big, resentful, reproachful eyes, and her mop of carefully-barbed black, curly hair, an elegant little thing in her way; and the big, pale-eyed young man, powerful and wintry, the remnant, surely of some old uncanny Danish stock... (Lawrence) 3. How do the notions of expressive means and stylistic devices correlate? Provide examples to illustrate your point. 4. Compare the principles of classifications given in chapter 2. Which of them seem most logical to you? Sustain your view.

Practice Section
1. What is the relationship between the denotative and connotative meanings of a word?

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Practice Section

Draw parallels between Leech's paradigmatic and syntagmatic deviations and Skrebnev's classification. Apply these criteria to the analysis of the use of brethren and married in the following examples. Consider the grammatical category of number in A and the nature of semantic transfer in B. Supply the kind of tables suggested by Leech to describe the normal and deviant features of similar character. Comment on the kind of deviation in the nonce-word sistern in A and the effect it produces. A. Praise God and not the Devil, shouted one of the Maker's male shills from the other side of the room. The criminal lowered his eyes and muttered at his shoes: Ah cut anybody who bruise me with Latin, goddammit. Listen to him take the Mighty name in vain, brethren and sistern/ said Reinhart. (Berger) B. My father was still feisty in 1940he was thirty years old and restless, maybe a little wild beneath the yoke of my mother's family. He truly had married not only my mother but my grandmother as well, and also the mule and the two elderly horses and the cows and chickens and the two perilous-looking barns and the whole rocky hundred acres of Carolina mountain farm. (Chappel) 5. What kind of syntagmatic deviation (according to Leech) is observed in the following instance? What is the term for this device in rhetoric and other stylistic classifications? Where does it belong according to Galperin and Skrebnev? And in the manner of the Anglo-Saxon poetry that was its inspiration, he ended his sermon resoundingly:

High on the hill in sight of heaven, Our Lord was led and lifted up. That willing warrior came while the world wept, And a terrible shadow shaded the sun For us He was broken and gave His blood King of all creation Christ on the Rood. (Rutherfurd) 6. What types of phonographic expressive means are used in the sentences given below? How do different classifications name and place them? , now. I'm not bringing this up with the idea of throwing anything back in your teethmy God. (Salinger) Little Dicky strains and yaps back from the safety of Mary's arms. (Erdrich) Why shouldn't we all go over to the Metropole at Cwmpryddygfor dinner one night?" (Waugh) I hear Lionel's supposeta be runnin away. (Salinger) Who's that dear, dim, drunk little man? (Waugh) No chitchat please. (O'Hara) / prayed for the city to be cleared of people, for the gift of being alonea-l-o-n-e: which is the one New York prayer... (Salinger)
* Here Cwmpryddyg is an invented Welsh town, an allusion to the difficult Welsh language.

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Practice Section

Sense of sin is sense of waste. (Waugh) Colonel Logan is in the army, and presumably the Major was a soldier at the time Dennis was born. (Follett) 7. Comment on the types of transfer used in such tropes as metaphor, metonymy, allegory, simile, allusion, personification, antonomasia. Compare their place in Galperin's and Skrebnev's systems. Read up on the nature of transfer in a poetic image in terms of tenor, vehicle and ground: . . . ., 1990. . 74-82. Name and explain the kind of semantic transfer observed in the following passages. The first time my father met Johnson Gibbs they fought like tomcats. (Chappel) / love plants. I don't like cut flowers. Only the ones that grow in the ground. And these water lilies... Each white petal is a great tear of milk. Each slender stalk is a green life rope. (Erdrich) / think we should drink a toast to Fortune, a much-maligned lady. (Waugh) ...the first sigh of the instruments seemed to free some hilarious and potent spirit within him; something that struggled there like the Genius in the bottle found by the Arab fisherman. (Cather) But he, too, knew the necessity of keeping as clear as possible from that poisonous many-headed serpent, the tongue of the people. (Lawrence)

lily had started to ask me about Eunice. Really, Gentle Heart, she said, what in the world did you do to my poor little sister to make her skulk away like a thief in the night? (Shaw) The green tumour of hate burst inside her. (Lawrence) She adjusted herself however quite rapidly to her new conception of people. She had to live. It is useless to quarrel with your bread and butter. (Lawrence) ...then the Tudors and the dissolution of the Church, then Lloyd George, the temperance movement, Non-conformity and lust stalking hand in hand through the country, wasting and ravaging. (Waugh) When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? (Blake) As distinct from the above devices based on some sort of affinity, real or imaginary, there are a number of expressive means based on contrast or incompatibility (oxymoron, antithesis, zeugma, pun, malapropism, mixture of words from different stylistic strata of vocabulary), Their stylistic effect depends on the message and intent of the author and varies in emphasis and colouring. It maybe dramatic, pathetic, elevated, etc. Sometimes the ultimate stylistic effect is irony. Ironic, humorous or satiric effect is always built on contrast although devices that help to achieve it may not necessarily be based on contrast (e. g. they may be hyperbole, litotes, allusion, periphrasis, metaphor, etc.)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Practice Section

Some of the basic techniques to achieve verbal irony are: praise by blame (or sham praise) which means implying the opposite of what is said; minimizing the good qualities and magnifying the bad ones; contrast between manner and matter, i. e. inserting irrelev; matter in presumably serious statements; interpolating comic interludes in tragic narration; mixing formal language and slang; making isolated instances seem typical; quoting authorities to fit immediate purpose; allusive irony: specific allusions to people, ideas, situations, etc. that clash discordantly with the object of irony; connotative ambivalence: the simultaneous presence of incompatible but relevant connotations. Bearing this in mind comment on the humorous or ironic impact of the following examples. Explain where possible what stylistic devices effect the techniques of verbal irony. Have you at any time been detained in a mental home or similar institution? If so, give particulars. I was at Scone College, Oxford, for two years, said Paul. The doctor looked up for the first time.Don't you dare to make jokes here, my man, he said, or I'll have you in the strait-jacket in less than no time. (Waugh) I like that. Me trying to be funny. (Waugh)

I drew a dozen or more samples of what I thought were typical examples of American commercial art. ...I drew people in evening clothes stepping out of limousines on opening nightslean, erect, super-chic couples who had obviously never in their lives inflicted suffering as a result of underarm carelessnesscouples, in fact, who perhaps didn't have any underarms. ...I drew laughing, high-breasted girls aquaplaning without a care in the world, as a result of being amply protected against such national evils as bleeding gums, facial blemishes, unsightly hairs, and faulty or inadequate life insurance. I drew housewives who, until they reached for the right soap flakes, laid themselves wide open to straggly hair, poor posture, unruly children, disaffected husbands, rough (but slender) hands, untidy (but enormous) kitchens. (Salinger) I made a Jell-0 salad.Oh, she says, what kind? The kind full of nuts and bolts, I say, plus washers of all types. I raided Russel's toolbox for the special ingredients. (Erdrich) Was that the woman like Napoleon the Great? (Waugh) They always say that she poisoned her husband... there was a great deal of talk about it at the time. Perhaps you remember the case?No, said PaulPowdered glass, said Flossie shrilly,in his coffee.Turkish coffee, said Dingy. (Waugh) You folks all think the coloured man hasn't got a soul. Anythin's good enough for the poor coloured man. Beat him, put him in chains; load him with burdens... Here Paul observed a responsive glitter in Lady Circumference's eye. (Waugh) In the south they also drink a good deal of tequila, which is a spirit "lade from the juice of the cactus. It has to be taken with a pinch of salt. (Atkinson)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Practice Section

They could have killed you too, he said, his teeth chattering. If you had arrived two minutes earlier. Forgive me. Forgive all of us. Dolce Italia. Paradise for tourists. He laughed eerily. (Shaw) He was talking very excitedly to me, said the Vicar... He seems deeply interested in Church matters. Are you quite sure he is right in the head? I have noticed again and again since I have been in the Church that lay interest in ecclesiastical matters is often a prelude to insanity. (Waugh) So you're the Doctor's hired assassin, eh? Well, I hope you keep a firm hand on my toad of a son. (Waugh) 9. Explain why the following sentences fall into the category of quasi-questions, quasi-statements or quasi-negatives in Skrebnev's classification. What's their actual meaning? / wish I could go back to school all over again.Don't we all, he said. (Shaw) Are all women different? Oh, are they! (O'Hara) / don't think no worse of you for it, no, darned if I do. (Lawrence) If it isn't diamonds all over his fingers! (Caldwell) Devil if I know what to make of these people down here. (Christie) Contact my father again and I'll strangle you. (Donleavy) Don't you ever talk to Rose? Rose? Not about Mildred. Rose misses Mildred as much as I do. We don't even want to see each other. (O'Hara)

10. Why are instances of repetition in the sentences given below called disguised tautology? How does it differ from regular tautology? What does this sort of repetition imply? Life is life. There are doctors and doctors. A small town's a small town, wherever it is, I said. (Shute) I got nothing against Joe Chapin, but he's not me. I'm me, and another man is still another man. (O'Hara) Well, if it can't be helped, it can't be helped, I said manfully. (Shaw) Milan is a city, which cannot be summed up in a few words. For Dalian speakers, the old Milanese dialect expression Milan I'e Milam- (Milan is just Milan) is probably the best description one can give. iPeroni) Beer was beer, too, in those daysnot the gassy staff in bottles. (Dickens) 11. Does the term anti-climax (back-gradation) imply the opposite of climax (gradation)? What effect does each of these devices provide? How is it achieved in the following cases: Philbrick, there must be champagne-cup, and will you help the men putting up the marquee? And Flags, Diana!... No expense should be spared... And there must be flowers, Diana, banks officers, said the Doctor with an expensive gesture. The prizes shall stand among the banks of flowers-Flowers, youth, wisdom, the glitter of jewels, music, said ihe Doctor. I here must be a band.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

I never heard of such a thing, said Dingy. A band indeed/ You'll be having fireworks next. Andfireworks, said the Doctor, and do you think it would be a good thing to buy Mr. Prendergast a new tie? (Waugh) We needed a kind rain, a blessing rain, that lasted a week. We needed wafer. (Erdrich) At first there were going to be forty guests but the invitation list grew larger and the party plans more elaborate, until Arthur said that with so many people they ought to hire an orchestra, and with an orchestra there would be dancing, and with dancing there ought to be a good sized orchestra. The original small dinner became a dinner dance at the Lantenengo Country Club. Invitations were sent to more than three hundred persons... (O'Hara) Even the most hardened criminal therehe was serving his third sentence for blackmailremarked how the whole carriage seemed to be flooded with the detectable savour of Champs-Elysee in early June. (Waugh) Hullo, Prendy, old wine-skin! How are things with you? Admirable, said Mr. Prendergast. I never have known them better. I have just caned twenty-three boys. (Waugh)

Chapter 3
Stylistic Grammar

The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures. Grammatical metaphor. Types of grammatical transposition. Morphological stylistlcs. Stylistic potential of the parts of speech. Stylistic syntax.

3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures
One of the least investigated areas of stylistic research is the stylistic potential of the morphology of the English language. There is quite a lot of research in the field of syntagmatic stylistics connected with syntactical structures but very little has been written about the stylistic Properties of the parts of speech and such grammatical categories as gender, number or person. So it seems logical to throw some light on these problems. An essentially different approach of modern scholars to stylistic research is explained by a different concept that lies at the root of this approach. If ancient rhetoric mostly dealt in registering, classifying

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition

and describing stylistic expressive means, modern stylistics proceeds from the nature of the stylistic effect and studies the mechanism 0f the stylistic function. The major principle of the stylistic effect is the opposition between the norm and deviation from the norm on whatever level of the language. Roman Jacobson gave it the most generalized definition of defeated expectancy; he claimed that it is 1 the secret of any stylistic effect because the recipient is ready and willing for anything but what he actually sees. Skrebnev describes it as the opposition between the traditional meaning and situational meaning, Arnold maintains that the very essence of poetic language is the violation of the norm. These deviations may occur on any level of the languagephonetic, graphical, morphological, lexical or syntactical. It should be noted though that not every deviation from the norm results in expressiveness. There are deviations that will only create absurdity or linguistic nonsense. For example, you can't normally use the article with an adverb or adjective. Noam Chomsky, an American scholar and founder of the generative linguistic school, formulated this rule in grammar that he called grammatical gradation (27). He constructed a scale with two polesj grammatically correct structures at one extreme point of this scale and grammatically incorrect structures at the other. The first he called grammatically marked structures, the secondunmarked structures. The latter ones cannot be generated by the linguistic laws of the given language, therefore they cannot exist in it. If we take the Russian sentence that completely agrees with the grammatical laws of this language and make a word for word translation into English we'll get a grammatically incorrect structure 'Decided
* In Chomsky's theory grammatically incorrect (unmarked) structures are labeled with an asterisk.

ne me to deceive. A native speaker cannot produce such a sentence because it disagrees with the basic rule of word order arrangement in English. It will have to be placed at the extreme point of the pole that opposes correct or marked structures. This sentence belongs to what Chomsky calls unmarked structures. Between these two poles there is space for the so-called semi-marked structures. These are structures marked by the deviation from lexical or grammatical valency. This means that words and grammar forms carry an unusual grammatical or referential meaning. In other terms this is called transposition, a phenomenon that destroys customary (normal, regular, standard) valences and thus creates expressiveness of the utterance.

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition


Some scholars (e. g. Prof. E. I. Shendels) use the term grammatical metaphor for this kind of phenomena (30, 31). We know that lexical metaphor is based on the transfer of the name of one object on to another due to some common ground. The same mechanism works in the formation of a grammatical metaphor. Linguistic units, such as words, possess not only lexical meanings but also grammatical ones that are correlated with extra-linguistic reality. Such grammatical categories as plurality and singularity reflect the distinction between a multitude and oneness in the real world. Such classifying grammatical meanings as the noun, the verb or the adjective represent objects, actions and qualities that exist in this world. However this extra-linguistic reality may be represented in different languages

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition

in a different way. The notion of definiteness or indefiniteness is grammatically expressed in English by a special class of wordsthe article. In Russian it's expressed differently. Gender exists as a grammatical category of the noun in Russian but not in English and so on. A grammatical form, as well as a lexical unit possesses a denotative and a connotative meaning. There are at least three types of denotative grammatical meanings. Two of these have some kind of reference with the extra-linguistic reality and one has zero denotation, i. e. there is no reference between the grammatical meaning and outside world. 1. The first type of grammatical denotation reflects relations o| objects in outside reality such as singularity and plurality. 2. The second type denotes the relation of the speaker to the first type of denotation. It shows how objective relations are perceived by reactions to the outside world. This type of denotative meaning is expressed by such categories as modality, voice, definiteness and indefiniteness. 3. The third type of denotative meaning has no reference to the extra-linguistic reality. This is an intralinguistc denotation, conveying relations among linguistic units proper, e. g. the formation of past tense forms of regular and irregular verbs. Denotative meanings show what this or that grammatical form designates but they do not show how they express the same relation. However a grammatical form may carry additional expressive information, it can evoke associations, emotions and impressions. It may connote as well as denote. Connotations aroused by a grammatical form are adherent subjective components, such as expressive or intensified meaning, emotive or evaluative colouring. The new connotative meaning of grammatical forms appears when we observe a certain clash between

form and meaning or deviation in the norm of use of some forms. The stylistic effect produced is often called grammatical metaphor. According to Shendels we may speak of grammatical metaphor when there is a transposition (transfer) of a grammatical form from one type of grammatical relation to another. In such cases we deal with a redistribution of grammatical and lexical meanings that create new connotations.
Types of grammatical transposition

Generally speaking we may distinguish 3 types of grammatical transposition. 1. The first deals with the transposition of a certain grammar form into a new syntactical distribution with the resulting effect of contrast. The so-called 'historical present' is a good illustration of this type: a verb in the Present Indefinite form is used against the background of the Past Indefinite narration. The effect of vividness, an illusion of presence, a lapse in time into the reality of the reader is achieved. Everything went as easy as drinking, Jimmy said. There was a garage just round the corner behind Belgrave Square where he used to go every morning to watch them messing about with the cars. Crazy about cars the kid was. Jimmy comes in one day with his motorbike and side-car and asks for some petrol. He comes up and looks at it in the way he had. (Waugh) 2. The second type of transposition involves boththe lexical and grammatical meanings. The use of the plural form with a noun whose lexical denotative meaning is incompatible with plurality (abstract nouns, proper names) may serve as an apt example.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

The look on her face... was full of secret resentments, and longings, and fears. (Mitchell) 3. Transposition of classifying grammatical meanings, that brings together situationally incompatible formsfor instance, the use of a common noun as a proper one. The effect is personification of inanimate objects or antonomasia (a person becomes a symbol of a quality or trait/V/r. Know-Ail, Mr. Truth, speaking names). Lord and Lady Circumference, Mr. Parakeet, Prof. Silenus, Colonel MacAdder. (Waugh)

The contrary devicethe use of plural instead of singularas a rule ,nakes the description more powerful and large-scale. The clamour of waters, snows, winds, rains... (Hemingway) The lone and level sands stretch far away. (Shelly) The plural form of an abstract noun, whose lexical meaning is alien to the notion of number makes it not only more expressive, but brings about what Vinogradov called aesthetic semantic growth. Heaven remained rigidly in its proper place on the other side of death, and on this side flourished the injustices, the cruelties, the meannesses, that elsewhere people so cleverly hushed up. (Green) Thus one feeling is represented as a number of emotional states, each with a certain connotation of a new meaning. Emotions may signify concrete events, happenings, doings. Proper names employed as plural lend the narration a unique generalizing effect: If you forget to invite somebody's Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I had nothing to do with it. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of, and in spite of Arthur's and Edith's triple checking of the list. (O'Hara) These examples represent the second type of grammatical metaphor formed by the transposition of the lexical and grammatical meanings. The third type of transposition can be seen on the example of Personification. This is a device in which grammatical metaphor a Ppears due to the classifying transposition of a noun, because nouns

3.3. Morphological stylistics. Stylistic potential of the parts of speech


3.3.1. The noun and its stylistic potential

The stylistic power of a noun is closely linked to the grammatical categories this part of speech possesses. First of all these are the categories of number, person and case. The use of a singular noun instead of an appropriate plural form creates a generalized, elevated effect often bordering on symbolization. The faint fresh flame of the young year flushes From leaf to flower and from flower to fruit And fruit and leaf are as gold and fire. (Swinbum)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

are divided into animate and inanimate and only animate nouns have he category of person. Personification transposes a common noun into the class of proper names by attributing to it thoughts or qualities of a human being. As a result the syntactical, morphological and lexical valency of this noun changes: England's mastery of the seas, too, was growing even greater. Last year her trading rivals the Dutch had pushed out of several colonies... (Rutherford) The category of case (possessive case) which is typical of the proper nouns, since it denotes possession becomes a mark of personification in cases like the following one: Love's first snowdrop Virgin kiss! (Burns) Abstract nouns transposed into the class of personal nouns are charged with various emotional connotations, as in the following examples where personification appears due to the unexpected lexicogrammatical valency: The woebegone fragment of womanhood in the corner looked a little less terrified when she saw the wine. (Waugh) The chubby little eccentricity, (a child) The old oddity (an odd old person). (Arnold)

The emotive connotations in such cases may range from affection to irony or distaste. go, although the English noun has fewer grammatical categories than the Russian one, its stylistic potential in producing grammatical metaphor is high enough.
3.3.2. The article and its stylistic potential

The article may be a very expressive element of narration especially when used with proper names. For example, the indefinite article may convey evaluative connotations when used with a proper name: I'm a Marlow by birth, and we are a hot-blooded family. (Follett) It may be charged with a negative evaluative connotation and diminish the importance of someone's personality, make it sound insignificant. Besides Rain, Nan and Mrs. Prewett, there was a Mrs. Kingsley, the wife of one of the Governors. (Dolgopolova) Forsyte is not an uncommon animal. (Galsworthy) The definite article used with a proper name may become a powerful expressive means to emphasize the person's good or bad qualities. Well, she was married to him. And what was more she loved him. Not 'be Stanley whom everyone saw, not the everyday one; but a timid, sensitive, innocent Stanley who knelt down every night to say his Prayers... (Dolgopolova)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

You are not the Andrew Manson I married. (Cronin) In the first case the use of two different articles in relation to one person throws into relief the contradictory features of his character. | The second example implies that this article embodies all the good qualities that Andrew Manson used to have and lost in the eyes of his wife. The definite article in the following example serves as an intensifier of the epithet used in the character's description: My good fellow, I said suavely, what brings me here is this: I want to see the evening sun go down over the snow-tipped Sierra Nevada. Within the hour he had spread this all over the town and I was pointed out for the rest of my visit as the mad Englishman. (Atkinson) The definite article may contribute to the devices of gradation or help create the rhythm of the narration as in the following examples: But then he would lose Sondra, his connections here, and his unclethis world! The loss! The loss! The loss! (Dreiser) No article, or the omission of article before a common noun conveys a maximum level of abstraction, generalization. Tlie postmaster and postmistress, husband and wife, ...looked carefully at every piece of mail... (Erdrich) How infuriating it was! Land which looked like baked sand became the Garden of Eden if only you could get water. You could draw a line with a pencil: on one side, a waterless barren; on the other, an irrigated luxuriance. (Michener)

tfot sound, not quiver as if horse and man had turned to metal. (Dolgopolova) They went as though car and driver were one indivisible whole. (Dolgopolova)
3.3.3. The stylistic power of the pronoun

The stylistic functions of the pronoun also depend on the disparity between the traditional and contextual (situational) meanings. This is the grammatical metaphor of the first type based on the transposition of the form, when one pronoun is transposed into the action sphere of another pronoun. So personal pronouns We, You, They and others can be employed in the meaning different from their dictionary meaning. The pronoun We that means speaking together or on behalf of other people can be used with reference to a single person, the speaker, and is called the plural of majesty (Pluralis Majestatis). It is used in Royal speech, decrees of King, etc. And for that offence immediately do we exile him hence. (Shakespeare) The plural of modesty or the author's we is used with the purpose to identify oneself with the audience or society at large. Employing the plural of modesty the author involves the reader into the action making him a participant of the events and imparting the emotions Prevailing in the narration to the reader. My poor dear child, cried Miss Crawly, ...is our passion unrequited then?

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

Are we pining in secret? Tell me all, and let me console you. (Thackeray) The pronoun you is often used as an intensifier in an expressive address or imperative: Just you go in and win. (Waugh) Get out of my house, you fool, you idiot, you stupid old Briggs. (Thackeray) In the following sentence the personal pronoun they has a purely expressive function because it does not substitute any real characters but has a generalising meaning and indicates some abstract entity. The implication is meant to oppose the speaker and his interlocutor to this indefinite collective group of people. All the people like us are we, and everyone else is they. (Kipling) Such pronouns as One, You, We have two major connotations: that of 'identification' of the speaker and the audience and 'generalization' (contrary to the individual meaning). Note should be made of the fact that such pronouns as We, One, You that are often used in a generalized meaning of 'a human being' may have a different stylistic value for different authors. Speaking of such English writers as Aldus Huxley, Bertrand Russel and D. H. Lawrence, J. Miles writes in her book Style and Proportion: The power of Huxley's general ONE is closer to Russel's WE than to Lawrence's YOU though all are talking about human nature. She points out that scientists like Charles Darwin, Adam Smith and many others write using ONE much in the same way as Huxley does.

She maintains that it is not merely the subject of writing but the attitude, purpose and sense of verbal tradition that establish these distinctions in expression (41). Employed by the author as a means of speech characterisation the overuse of the / pronoun testifies to the speaker's complacency and egomania while you or one used in reference to oneself characterise the speaker as a reserved, self-controlled person. At the same time the speaker creates a closer rapport with his interlocutor and achieves empathy. You can always build another image for yourself to fall in love with. No, you can't. That's the trouble, you lose the capacity for building. You run short of the stuff that creates beautiful illusions. (Priestly) When the speaker uses the third person pronoun instead of / or we he or she sort of looks at oneself from a distance, which produces the effect of estrangement and generalization. Here is an example from {Catherine Mansfield's diary provided in Arnold's book (4, . 187). / do not want to write; I want to live. What does she mean by that? It's hard to say. Possessive pronouns may be loaded with evaluative connotations and devoid of any grammatical meaning of possession. Watch what you're about, my man! (Cronin) Your precious Charles or Frank or your stupid Ashley/ (Mitchell) The same function is fulfilled by the absolute possessive form in structures like Well, you tell that Herman of yours to mind his own business. (London)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

The range of feelings they express may include irony, sarcasm, anger contempt, resentment, irritation, etc. Demonstrative pronouns may greatly enhance the expressive colouring of the utterance. That wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social position she lived in! (London) These lawyers! Don't you know they don't eat often? (Dreiser) In these examples the demonstrative pronouns do not point at anything but the excitement of the speaker. Pronouns are a powerful means to convey the atmosphere of informal or familiar communication or an attempt to achieve it. // was Robert Ackly, this guy, that roomed right next to me. (Salinger) Claws in, you cat. (Shaw) Through the figurative use of the personal pronouns the author may achieve metaphorical images and even create sustained compositional metaphors. Thus using the personal pronoun she instead of the word sea in one of his best works The Old Man and the Sea Ernest Hemingway imparts to this word the category of feminine gender that enables him to bring the feeling of the old man to the sea to a different, more dramatic and more human level. He always thought of the sea as 'la mar' which is what people call her in Spanish when they love her. Sometimes those who love her say beta

hings about her but they are always said as though she were a woman. (Hemingway)
(

In the same book he calls a huge and strong fish a he: He is a great fish and I must convince him, he thought. I must never let flint learn his strength. (Hemingway) Such recurrent use of these pronouns throughout the novel is charged with the message of the old man's animating the elemental forces of the sea and its inhabitants and the vision of himself as a part of nature. In this case the use of the pronouns becomes a compositional device. All in all we can see that pronouns possess a strong stylistic potential that is realized due to the violation of the normal links with their object of reference.
3.3.4. The adjective and its stylistic functions

The only grammatical category of the English adjective today is that of comparison. Comparison is only the property of qualitative and Quantitative adjectives, but not of the relative ones. When adjectives that are not normally used in a comparative degree are used with this category they are charged with a strong expressive power. Mrs. Thompson, Old Man Fellow's housekeeper had found him deader than a doornail... (Mangum) This is a vivid example of a grammatical transposition of the second 1 built on the incongruity of the lexical and grammatical meanings.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

In the following example the unexpected superlative adjective degree forms lend the sentence a certain rhythm and make it even more expressive: ...fifteen millions of workers, understood to be the strangest, the cunningest, the willingest our Earth ever had. (Skrebnev) The commercial functional style makes a wide use of the violation of grammatical norms to captivate the reader's attention: The orangemostest drink in the world. The transposition of other parts of speech into the adjective creates stylistically marked pieces of description as in the following sentence: A camouflage of general suffuse and dirty-jeaned drabness covers everybody and we merge into the background. (Marshall) The use of comparative or superlative forms with other parts of speech may also convey a humorous colouring: He was the most married man I've ever met. (Arnold) Another stylistic aspect of the adjective comes to the fore when an adjective gets substantivized and acquires the qualities of a noun such as solid, firm, tangible, hard, etc. All Europe was in arms, and England would join. The impossible had happened. (Aldington) The stylistic function of the adjective is achieved through the deviant use of the degrees of comparison that results mostly in grammatical metaphors of the second type (lexical and grammatical incongruity).

j-]ie same effect is also caused by the substantivized use of the a(ijectives.
3.3.5. The verb and its stylistic properties

The verb is one of the oldest parts of speech and has a very developed grammatical paradigm. It possesses more grammatical categories that any other part of speech. All deviant usages of its tense, voice and aspect forms have strong stylistic connotations and play an important role in creating a metaphorical meaning. A vivid example of the grammatical metaphor of the first type (form transposition) is the use of 'historical present' that makes the description very pictorial, almost visible. The letter was received by a person of the royal family. While reading it she was interrupted, had no time to hide it and was obliged to put it open on the table. At this enters the Minister D... He sees the letter and guesses her secret. He first talks to her on business, then takes out a letter from his pocket, reads it, puts it down on the table near the other letter, talks for some more minutes, then, when taking leave, takes the royal lady's letter from the table instead of his own. The owner of the letter saw it, was afraid to say anything for there were other people in the room. () The use of 'historical present' pursues the aim of joining different time systemsthat of the characters, of the author and of the reader all of whom may belong to different epochs. This can be done by m aking a reader into an on-looker or a witness whose timeframe is synchronous with the narration. The outcome is an effect of empathy ensured by the correlation of different time and tense systems.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

The combination and unification of different time layers may also be achieved due to the universal character of the phenomenon described a phenomenon that is typical of any society at any time and thus make the reader a part of the events described. Various shades of modality impart stylistically coloured expressiveness to the utterance. The Imperative form and the Present Indefinite referred to the future render determination, as in the following example: Edward, let there be an end of this. I go home. (Dickens) The use of shall with the second or third person will denote the speaker's emotions, intention or determination: If there's a disputed decision, he said genially, they shall race again. (Waugh) Tlie prizes shall stand among the bank of flowers. (Waugh) Similar connotations are evoked by the emphatic use of will with the first person pronoun: Adam. Are you tight again ? Look out of the window and see if you can see a Daimler waiting. Adam, what have you been doing? I will be told. (Waugh) Likewise continuous forms do not always express continuity of the action and are frequently used to convey the emotional state of the speaker. Actually all 'exceptions to the rule' are not really exceptions. They should be considered as the forms in the domain of stylistic studies because they are used to proclaim the speaker's state of mind, his mood, his intentions or feelings.

go continuous forms may express: conviction, determination, persistence: Well, she's never coming here again, I tell you that straight; (Maugham) impatience, irritation: / didn't mean to hurt you. -You did. You're doing nothing else; (Shaw) surprise, indignation, disapproval: Women kill me. They are always leaving their goddam bags out in the middle of the aisle. (Salinger) Present Continuous may be used instead of the Present Indefinite form to characterize the current emotional state or behaviour: -How is Carol? Blooming, Charley said. She is being so brave. (Shaw) You are being very absurd, Laura, he said coldly. (Mansfield) Verbs of physical and mental perception do not regularly have continuous forms. When they do, however, we observe a semimarked structure that is highly emphatic due to the incompatible combination of lexical meaning and grammatical form. Why, you must be the famous Captain Butler we have been hearing so m uch aboutthe blockade runner. (Mitchell)
r

must say you're disappointing me, my dear fellow. (Berger)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

The use of non-finite forms of the verb such as the infinitive and participle I in place of the personal forms communicates certain stylistic connotations to the utterance. Consider the following examples containing non-finite verb forms: Expect Leo to propose to her! (Lawrence) The real meaning of the sentence is It's hard to believe that Leo would propose to her! Death! To decide about death! (Galsworthy) The implication of this sentence reads Be couldn't decide about death! To take steps! How? Winifred's affair was bad enough! To have a double dose of publicity in the family! (Galsworthy) The meaning of this sentence could be rendered as He must take some steps to avoid a double dose of publicity in the family! Far be it from him to ask after Reinhart's unprecedented geiup and environs. (Berger) Such use of the verb be is a means of character sketching: He was not the kind of person to ask such questions. Since the sentences containing the infinitive have no explicit doer of the action these sentences acquire a generalized universal character. The world of the personage and the reader blend into one whole as if the question is asked of the reader (what to do, how to act). This creates empathy. The same happens when participle I is used impersonally:

jhe whole thing is preposterouspreposterous! Slinging accusations like this! (Christie) But I tell you there must be some mistake. Splendor taking dope! It's ridiculous. He is a nonchemical physician, among other things. (Berger) The passive voice of the verb when viewed from a stylistic angle may demonstrate such functions as extreme generalisation and depersonalisation because an utterance is devoid of the doer of an action and the action itself loses direction. ...he is a long-time citizen and to be trusted... (Michener) Little Mexico, the area was called contemptuously, as sad and filthy a collection of dwellings as had ever been allowed to exist in the west. (Michener) The use of the auxiliary do in affirmative sentences is a notable emphatic device: / don't want to look at Sit a. I sip my coffee as long as possible. Then I do look at her and see that all the colour has left her face, she is fearfully pale. (Erdrich) So the stylistic potential of the verb is high enough. The major mechanism of creating additional connotations is the transposition of verb forms that brings about the appearance of metaphors of the first and second types.
^3.6. Affixation and its expressiveness

Unlike Russian the English language does not possess a great, variety of word-forming resources.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.3. Morphological stylistics

In Russian we have a very developed system of affixes, with evaluative and expressive meanings: diminutive, derogatory, endearing, exaggerating, etc. Consider such a variety of adjectives -- ; , ; . There are no morphological equivalents for these in English. We can find some evaluative affixes as a remnant of the former morphological system or as a result of borrowing from other languages, such as: weakling, piglet, rivulet, girlie, lambkin, kitchenette. Diminutive suffixes make up words denoting small dimensions, but also giving them a caressing, jocular or pejorative ring. These suffixes enable the speaker to communicate his positive or negative evaluation of a person or thing. The suffix -ian/-ean means 'like someone or something, especially connected with a particular thing, place or person', e. g. the preTolstoyan novel. It also denotes someone skilled in or studying a particular subject: a historian. The connotations this suffix may convey are positive and it is frequently used with proper names, especially famous in art, literature, music, etc. Such adjectives as Mozartean, Skakespearean, Wagnerian mean like Mozart, Shakespeare, Wagner or in that style. However some of these adjectives may possess connotations connected with common associations with the work and life of famous people that may have either positive or negative colouring. For instance The Longman Dictionary of the English Language and Culture gives such

definitions of the adjective Dickensian: suggesting Charles Dickens or kis writing, e. g. a the old-fashioned, unpleasant dirtiness of Victorian England: Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian grinmess. b the cheerfulness of Victorian amusements and customs: a real Dickensian Christmas. The suffix -ish is not merely a neutral morpheme meaning a small degree of quality like bluebluish, but it serves to create 'delicate or tactful' occasional evaluative adjectivesbaldish, dullish, biggish. Another meaning is 'belonging or having characteristics of somebody or something'. Most dictionaries also point out that -ish may show disapproval {selfish, snobbish, raffish) and often has a derogatory meaning indicating the bad qualities of something or qualities which are not suitable to what it describes (e.g. mannish in relation to a woman). Another suffix used similarly isesque, indicating style, manner, or distinctive character: arabesque, Romanesque. When used with the names of famous people it means 'in the manner or style of this particular person'. Due to its French origin it is considered bookish and associated with exquisite elevated style. Such connotations are implied in adjectives like Dantesque, Turneresque, Kafkaesque. Most frequently used suffixes of the negative evaluation are: -ard, -ster, -aster, -eer or half-affix -monger: drunkard, scandal-monger, black-marketeer, mobster. Considering the problem of expressive affixes differentiation should be made between negative affixes such as in-, un~, ir-, -, etc. {unbending, irregular, non-profit) and evaluative derogatory affixes. Evaluative affixes with derogatory connotations demonstrate the

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.4. Stylistic syntax

speaker's attitude to the phenomenon while negative affixes normally represent objects and phenomena that are either devoid of some quality or do not exist at all (e. g. a non-profit organization has mostly positive connotations). All these examples show that stylistic potentials of grammatical forms are great enough. Stylistic analysis of a work of art among other things should include the analysis of the grammatical level that enables a student to capture the subtle shades of mood or rhythmical arrangement or the dynamics of the composition.

j# The omission of the obligatory parts of a sentence results in ellipsis of various types. An elliptical sentence is a sentence with one or more of the parts left out. As a rule the omitted part can be reconstructed from the context. In this case ellipsis brings into relief typical features of colloquial English casual talk. The laconic compressed character of elliptical sentences lends a flavour of liveliness to colloquial English. In fiction elliptical sentences have a manifold stylistic function. First of all they help create a sense of immediacy and local colour. Besides they may add to the character's make up, they lead to a better understanding of a mood of a personage. Wish I was young enough to wear that kind of thing. Older I get the more I like colour. We're both pretty long in the tooth, eh? (Waugh) Often elliptical sentences are used in represented speech because syntactically it resembles direct speech. The use of elliptical sentences in fiction is not limited to conversation. They are sometimes used in the author's narration and in the exposition (description which opens a chapter or a book). / remember now, that Sita's braid did not hurt. It was only soft and heavy, smelling of Castile soap, but still I yelled as though something terrible was happening. Stop! Get off! Let go! Because I couldn't stand how strong she was. (Erdrich) A variety of ellipsis in English are one-member nominal sentences. They have no separate subject and predicate but one main part instead. One-member sentences call attention to the subject named, to its existence and even more to its interrelations with other objects. Nominal sentences are often used in descriptive narration and in

3.4. Stylistic syntax


Syntactical categories have long been the object of stylistic research. There are different syntactical means and different classifications. The classifications discussed earlier in this book demonstrate different categorization of expressive means connected with syntax. However there axe a few general principles on which most of the syntactical expressive means are built. The purpose of this paragraph is to consider the basic techniques that create stylistic function on the syntactical level common for most stylistic figures of this type and illustrate them with separate devices. The major principles at work on the sentence level are I. The omission or absence of one or more parts of the sentence. II. Reiteration (repetition) of some parts. III. The inverted word order. IV. The interaction of adjacent sentences.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

3.4. Stylistic syntax

exposition. The economy of the construction gives a dynamic rhyth^ to the passage. One-member sentences are also common in stage remarks and represented speech. Matchbooks. Coaster trays. Hotel towels and washcloths. He was sending her the samples of whatever he was selling at the time. Fuller brushes. Radio antennas. Cans of hair spray or special wonder-working floor cleaners. (Erdrich) Break-in-the narrative is a device that consists in the emotional halt in the middle or towards the end of an utterance. Arnold distinguishes two kinds: suppression and aposiopesis. Suppression leaves the sentence unfinished as a result of the speaker's deliberation to do so. The use of suppression can be accounted for by a desire not to mention something that could be reconstructed from the context or the situation. It is just the part that is not mentioned that attracts the reader's attention. It's a peculiar use of emphasis that lends the narration a certain psychological tension. If everyone at twenty realized that half his life was to be lived after forty... (Waugh) Aposiopesis means an involuntary halt in speech because the speaker is too excited or overwhelmed to continue. But Mr. Meredith, Esther Silversleeves said at last, these people are heathens! Esther was the most religious of the family.Surly you cannot wish... her voice trailed off. (Rutherfurd) Decomposition is also built on omission, splitting the sentences into separate snatches. They are the result of detachment of parts of sentences. This device helps to throw in the effect of relief or express

a highly dynamic pace of narration. Decomposition maybe combined with ellipsis. Him, of all things! Him! Never! (Lawrence) II. Reiteration is never a mechanical repetition of a word or structure. It is always accompanied by new connotations. The repetition stresses not the denotative but the connotative meaning. The usage area of reiteration is casual and non-casual speech, prose and poetry. Different types of reiteration may be classified on the compositional principle: Anaphora is the repetition of the same element at the beginning of two or more successive clauses, sentences or verses. They were poor in space, poor in light, poor in quiet, poor in repose, and poor in the atmosphere of privacypoor in everything that makes a man's home his castle. (Cheever) Framing is an arrangement of repeated elements at the beginning and at the end of one or more sentences that creates a kind of structural encasement. He had been good for me when I was a callow and an ignorant youth; he was good for me now. (Shute) Anadiplosis is such a figure in which a word or group of words completing a sentence is repeated at the beginning of a succeeding sentence. It often shows the interaction of different parts of a Paragraph or text.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar My wife has brown hair, dark eyes, and a gentle disposition. Because of her gentle disposition, I sometimes think that she spoils the children, (Cheever) Epiphora consists in the repetition of certain elements at the end of two or more successive clauses, sentences or paragraphs. Trouble is, I don't know if I want a business or not. Or even if I can pay for it, if I did want it. (Shute) III. Inversion is upsetting of the normal order of words, which is an important feature of English. By changing the logical order this device helps to convey new shades of meaning. The denotative meaning is the same but the emotive colouring is different. Galperin describes five types of inversion that are connected with the fixed syntactical position of the sentence members. Each type of inversion produces a specific stylistic effect: it may render an elevated tone to the narration: Ofbeechen green, and shadows numberless, Singest of summer in full-throated ease. (Keats) / will make my kitchen, and you will keep your room, Where white flows the river and bright blows the broom. (Stevenson) or make it quick-paced and dynamic: In he got and away they went. (Waugh)

3.4. Stylistic syntax

Bang went Phi/brick's revolver. Off trotted the boys on another race. (Waugh) Sometimes inversion may contribute to the humorous effect of the description or speech characterisation: To march about you would not like us? suggested the station master. (Waugh) IV. Interaction of adjacent sentences is a compositional syntactical technique. One of the major emphatic means is the use of parallel constructions. They are similarly built and used in close succession. It is a variety of repetition on the level of a syntactical model. Parallel constructions more than anything else create a certain rhythmical arrangement of speech. The sameness of the structure stresses the difference or the similarity of the meaning. Sometimes parallel constructions assume a peculiar form and the word order of the first phrase is inverted in the second. The resulting device is called chiasmus. It is often accompanied by a lexical repetition: They had loved her, and she had loved them. (Caldwell) Work workwork! From weary chime to chime/ Work workwork As prisoners work for crime! Band, and gusset, and seam Seam, and gusset, and band... (Hood)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

Practice Section

The climax is such an arrangement of a series of clauses or phrases that form an ascending scale, in which each of the sen-1 tences is stronger in intensity of expression than the previous one. We're nice people and there isn't going to be room for nice people any \ more. It's ended, it's all over, it's dead. (Cheever) Another device is the anticlimax, also called back gradation, which is a figure of speech that consists in an abrupt and often ludicrous descent, which contrasts with the previous rise. The descent is often | achieved by the addition of a detail that ruins the elevated tenor of J the previous narration. Its main stylistic function is to give the thought an unexpected j humorous or ironic twist. / hate and detest every bit of it, said Professor Silenus gravely. Nothing I have ever done has caused me so much disgust. With a deep sigh he rose from the table and walked from the room, the fork with which he had been eating still held in his hand. (Waugh)

3. Consider the following sentences and comment on the function of morphological grammatical categories and parts of speech that create stylistic function: One night I am standing in front of Mindy's restaurant on Broadway, thinking of practically nothing whatever, when all of a sudden I feel a very terrible pain in my left foot. (Runyon) It's good, that, to see you again, Mr. Philip, said Jim. (Caldwell) Earth colours are his theme. When he shows up at the door, we see that he's even dressing in them. His pants are grey. His shin is the same colour as his skin. Flesh colour. (Erdrich) Now, the Andorrans were a brave, warlike people centuries ago, as everybody was at one time or anotherfor example, take your Assyrians, who are now extinct; or your Swedes, who fought in the Thirty Years' War but haven't done much since except lie in the sun and turn brown... (Berger) A gaunt and Halloweenish grin was plastered to her face. (Erdrich)

Practice Section
1. What are the basic principles of stylistic grammar? How does ; grammatical metaphor correlate with lexical metaphor? 2. What is the essence of the grammatical gradation theory? Describe the types of grammatical transposition and provide your own examples to illustrate each type.

/ walked past Mrs. Shumway, who jerked her head around in a startled woodpeckerish way... (Erdrich) She's the Honourable Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde, you knowsister-in-law of Lord Pastmastera very wealthy woman, South American. (Waugh) there are two kinds of people, which we may call the hurtersand the hurtees. The first get their satisfaction by working their will on somebody e he. The second like to be imposed upon. (Burger) To hear her was to be beginning to despair. (Jarrell)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

Practice Section

But they domanage the building? Mrs. Doubleday said to him. (Cheever) A band indeed! You' 11 be having fireworks next. (Waugh) I stare down at the bright orange capsules... I have to listen... so we look at each other, up and down, and up and down... Without us, they say, without Loise, it's the state hospital. (Erdrich) Ah! That must be Aunt Augusta. Only relatives, or creditors, ever ring in that Wagnerian manner. (Wilde) I got nothing against Joe Chapin, but he's not me. I'm me, and another man is still another man. (O'Hara) That's not the Mr. Littlejohn I used to know. (Waugh) / pronounce that the sentence on the defendants, Noelle Page and Lawrence Douglas, shall be execution by a firing squad. (Sheldon) They are all being so formal. Let's play a game to break the ice. (Bell) / wondered how the Moroccan boy... could stand meekly aside and watch her go off with another man. Actors, I thought. They must divide themselves into compartments. (Shaw) Oh, J guess I love you, I do love the children, but I love myself, I love my life, it has some value and some promise for me... (Cheever) Let him say his piece, the darling. Isn't he divine? (Waugh) Ft never was the individual sounds of a language, but the melodies behind them, that Dr. Rosenbaum imitated. For these his ear was Mozartian. (Jarrell)

They are allowed to have the train stoppedat every cross-roads... (Atkinson) That's thefoolest thing I ever heard. (Berger) 4. Arrange syntactical expressive means described in Galperin's classification into four groups according to the major principles of stylistic syntax in addition to the illustrations given in the chapter above. 5. Identify syntactical stylistic devices used in the examples below and comment on their meaning in the context: / should have brought down a more attractive dress. This one, with its white petals gone dull in the shower steam, with its belt of lavender and prickling lace at each pulse point, I don't like. (Erdrich) / begin my windshield-wiper wave, as instructed by our gym teacher, who has been a contestant for Miss North Dakota. Back and forth very slowly. Smile, smile, smile. (Erdrich) Except for the work in the quarries, life at Egdon was almost the same as at Blackstone. 'Slops outside,' chapel, privacy. (Waugh) It was for this reason the rector had so abjectly curled up, still so abjectly curled up before She-who-was Cynthia: because of his slave's fear of her contempt, the contempt of a born-free nature for a base-born nature. (Lawrence) The warder rang the bellInside, you two! he shouted. (Waugh) Old man, Miles said amiably, if I may say so, I think you're missing f he point.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

Practice Section

Iff may say so, sir, Philippe said, I think I am missing nothing. What is the point? (Shaw) You asked me what I had going this time. What I have going is wine. ', With the way the world's drinking these days, being in wine is like having a license to steal. (Shaw) How kind of you, Alfred! She has asked about you, and expressed her intentionher intention, if you please.'to know you. (Caldwell) When one is in town one amuses oneself. When one is in the country one amuses other people. (Wilde) There are lots of things I wanted to doI wanted to climb the Matterhom but I wouldn't blame the fact that I haven't on anyone else. You. Clime the Matterhom. Ha. You couldn't even climb the Washington Monument. (Cheever) There was no Olga. I had no consolation. Then I felt desperate, desolate, crushed. (Cheever) You get cold, riding a bicycle? he asked. My hands! she said clasping them nervously. (Lawrence) If the man had been frightening before, he was now a perfect horror. (Berger) My dear fellow, the way you flirt with Gwendolen is perfectly disgraceful. It is almost as bad as the way Gwendolen flirts with you. (Wilde) Trouble is, I don't know if I want a business or not. Or even if I can pay for it, if I did want it. (Shute)

A man has a right to get married and have children, and I'd earned the right to have a wife, both in work and money. A man's got a right to live in his own place. A man has a right to make his life where he can look after his Dad and Mum a bit when they get old. (Shute) ...already we were operating Jive aircraft of four different types, and if we got a Tramp we should have six aircraft of five types... A Tramp it would have to be, and I told them of my money difficulty. (Shute) Damrey Phong, though healthy, is a humid place. (Shute) He's made his declaration. He loves me. He can't live without me. He'd walk through fire to hear the notes of my voice. (Cheever)

4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics

Linguistic literature gives various definitions of the notion 'style' that generally boil down to the following three meanings of this term:

Chapter 4
The Theory of Functional Styles
The notion of style in functional stylistics. Correlation of style norm and function in the language. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational. An overview of functional style systems. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles of English

A variety of the national language traditionally used in one of the socially identifiable spheres of life that is characterised by a particular set of linguistic features, including vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. These are chiefly associated with the social and regional varieties, such as educated, colloquial, low colloquial, dialectal, uneducated, etc. From this point of view the most broad and well known subdivision in many national languages today usually describes these varieties as neutral, literary (high) and colloquial (low): e. g. Cockney, upper-class, educated English. Generally accepted linguistic identity of oral and written units of discourse, such as public speech, a lecture, a friendly letter, a newspaper article, etc. Such units demonstrate style not only in a special choice of linguistic means but in their very arrangement, i. e. composition of a speech act, that creates a category of text marked by oratory, scientific, familiar or publicist style. Individual manner of expression determined by personal factors, such as educational background, professional experience, sense of humour, etc.: e.g. personal style of communication, the style of Pushkin's early poetry. Style is our knowledge how language is used to create and interpret texts and conversational interactions. It involves being aware of the range of situations in which a language can be used in a distinctive

4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics


The notion of style has to do with how we use the language under specific circumstances for a specific purpose. The notion of using English, for instance, involves much more than using our knowledge of its linguistic structure. It also involves awareness of the numerous situations in which English can be used as a special medium of com- j munication with its own set of distinctive and recognizable features. The various branches of linguistics that investigate the topic, such as sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, textlinguistics, and stylistics present a remarkable range of methodologies and emphases. We'll be interested in how stylistic research treats of the subject.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles

4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function in the language

and predictable way and of the possibilities available us when we want to produce or respond to creative uses of the language. Stylistic features relate to constraints on language use that may be only temporary features of our spoken or written language. We often adopt different group uses of language as we go through our day; we may use a different style speaking with our children in the family, reporting to our boss at work or practicing sports. We change our speaking or writing style to make a particular effect: imitating somebody's accent when telling a story, giving a humorous account of events in an informal letter and so on. Style is first and foremost the result of our choice of content of our message and the appropriate range of language means to deliver the message effectively. Uses of English in numerous situations that require definite stylistic features are studied by the theory of functional styles. This theory involves consideration of such notions as norm and function in their relation to style.

are said to be using language 'correctly', those who do not are said to be using it 'incorrectly'. Correct usage is associated with the notion of the linguistic norm. The norm is closely related to the system of the language as an abstract ideal system. The system provides and determines the general rules of usage of its elements, the norm is the actual use of these provisions by individual speakers under specific conditions of communication. Individual use of the language implies a personal selection of linguistic means on all levels. When this use conforms to the general laws of the language this use will coincide with what is called the literary norm of the national language. However the literary norm is not a homogeneous and calcified entity. It varies due to a number of factors, such as regional, social, situational, personal, etc. The norm will be dictated by the social roles of the participants of communication, their age and family or other relations. An important role in the selection of this or that variety of the norm belongs to the purpose of the utterance, or its function. Informal language on a formal occasion is as inappropriate as formal language on an informal occasion. To say that a usage is appropriate is only to say that it is performing its function satisfactorily. We shall use different 'norms' speaking with elderly people and our peers, teachers and students, giving an interview or testimony in court. This brings us to the notion of the norm variation. The prevailing public attitude is that certain forms of usage are "correct" and others "incorrect". Teachers of English are supposed to know the difference between "right" and "wrong" in language. The real fact about usage in natural languages is that it is diverse

4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function in the language


Any national language uses the notion of 'correct language' which involves conformity to the grammatical, lexical and phonetic standards accepted as normative in this society. The favoured variety is usually a version of the standard written language, especially as encountered in literature or in the formal spoken language that most closely reflects literary style. It is presented in dictionaries, grammars and other official manuals. Those who speak and write in this way

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles

4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function in the language

and subject to change. Some scholars (R.I.McDavid) hold that " the usage of native speakers whatever is is right; but some usages are more appropriate than others, at least socially". What determines the appropriateness is the speakers' age, education, sophistication, social position (44, p. 20). Others (J. Algeo) describe Standard English as current (neither oldfashioned nor faddishly new), widespread (not limited to a particular locale or group) and generally accepted (suggested instead of correct) (32, p. 23-24). The norm of the language implies various realisations of the language structure that are sometimes called its subsystems, registers or J varieties. I.V.Arnold presents these relations as a system of oppositions: Structure : : norm : : individual use National norm : : dialect Neutral style : : colloquial style : : bookish style Literary correct speech : : common colloquial Functional styles are subsystems of the language and represent varieties of the norm of the national language. Their evolution and development has been determined by the specific factors of communication in various spheres of human activity. Each of them is characterised by its own parameters in vocabulary usage, syntactical expression, phraseology, etc. The term 'functional style' reflects peculiar functions of the language in this or that type of communicative interaction. Proceeding from the generally acknowledged language functions Prof. I. V. Arnold

'Function/ Style oratorical colloquial poetic publicist and newspaper official scientific

intellectual pragmatic emotive phatic communicative

aesthetic

+ + +

+ +

+
+

+ + +

+ +

+ +

suggested a description ot tunctionai styles oasea on tne comoinauon of the linguistic functions they fulfil. The table presents functional styles as a kind of hierarchy according to the number of functions fulfilled by each style, oratorical and scientific being almost complete opposites. However not all texts have boundaries that are easy to identify in the use of distinctive language. For example, the oratorical style has a lot of common features with the publicist one, which in its turn is often comparable with the style of humanities, such as political science, history or philosophy. The point of departure for discerning functional styles is the so-called neutral style that is stylistically non-marked and reflects the norms of the language. It serves as a kind of universal background for the expression of stylistically marked elements in texts of any functional type. It can be rarely observed in the individual use of the language and as Skrebnev remarked, perhaps, only handbooks for foreigners and primers could be qualified as stylistically neutral (47, p. 22).

___________Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles

4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational

4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational


The particular set of features, which identifies a language variety, does not represent the features of the language as a whole. Variety features depend on the presence of certain factors in a social situation. Classifications of these factors vary, but we may group them into two types according to most general dimensions: sociolinguistic and stylistic factors. Sociolinguistic factors are connected with very broad situational constraints on language use. They chiefly identify the regional and social varieties of the language. They are relatively permanent features of the spoken and written language, over which we have comparatively little conscious control. We tend not to change our regional or social group way of speaking in every-day communication and usually we are not aware of using it. Stylistic factors relate to restrictions on language use that are much more narrowly constrained, and identify individual preferences in usage (phraseology, special vocabulary, language of literature) or the varieties that are associated with occupational groups (lawyers, journalists, scholars). These are features, over which we are able to exercise some degree of conscious control. As David Crystal, a famous British linguist puts it, regional language variation of English provides a geographical answer to the question 'Where are you from, in the English-speaking world?' English is considered mother tongue in the UK, US, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, Caribbean nations. In Canada and South Africa

English is one of the two native languages. Speakers of these countries use different kinds of English in different areas within these countries. These are regional varieties of English that are sometimes called regional dialects. We can see some differences in the use of English on the example of regional varieties of American English. In the speech of educated southerners one can hear such forms as seed, seen instead of saw or clam, dim, dome, doom, dum instead of the standard climbed. Bostonians use cleanser instead of dry cleaner's (compare examples from Russian used in St.-Petersburg for or used in the rural Urals and Siberia for ). Social language variation provides an answer to a somewhat different question 'Who are you?' or 'What are you in the eyes of the Englishspeaking society to which you belong?' (33, p. 393). Actually social variation provides several possible answers, because people may acquire several identities as they participate in the social structure. One and the same person may belong to different social groups and perform different social roles. A person may at the same time be described as 'a parent', 'a wife', 'an architect', 'a feminist', 'a senior citizen', 'a member of Parliament', 'an amateur sculptor', 'a theatregoer'; the possibilities may be endless. Any of these identities can have consequences for the kind of language we use. Language more than anything else will testify to our permanent and temporary roles in social life. Some features of social variation lead to particular linguistic consequences. In many ways our pronunciation, choice of words and constructions, general strategy of communication are defined by the age, sex and socio-economic aspects. Choice of occupation has a less predictable influence, though in some contexts, e. g. medicine or law it can be highly distinctive.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles___________


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4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational

Adopting a specific social role, such as making a congratulatory speech or conducting a panel talk, invariably entails a choice of appropriate linguistic forms. Differences in language choices that correlate with the subject of discussion, the audience, the genre, the occasion and the purpose or the medium of communication are called registers. In other words, we identify the uses to which language is put: the subject it treats, the circumstances in which it is used, the social relationships among its users and the purposes of its use. We adapt what we want to say or write to the circumstances in which we are communicating. We use different words in discussing politics, sports, theology or computer technologies. We arrange our sentences differently in talking to babies, bosses, close friends or making announcements, etc. Sentence structure differs between recipes, telegrams, stock-market reports and thank-you notes. English is pronounced differently from a pulpit or over the counter of a fast-order restaurant. The medium of communication is also relevant: when listening on the phone we have to make frequent responses: I see, oh, yes, well to let the person know we are still there and paying attention. They tell little about us as persons but a good deal about how we respond to the circumstances of communication. Regional and social variations depend on who we are, register depends on who we are communicating with, where, how, and about what. Registers are functional options available to us in social and personal communication. We adapt our language to the occasion for which we use it. An important dimension of variation in English is the degree of formality of a language event stretching from the coronation of a British sovereign to a relaxed get-together of alumni. The continuum of formality may be arbitrarily divided into any number of subsegments

for purposes of discussion. For example, a presidential inauguration address may be labeled as ritual, a request to city officials for action as formal, a discussion among members of a civic club as collegial, a conversation between good friends as familiar, comments of husband and wife watching TV as intimate. Hardly any aspect of language -phonetic, lexical or grammatical - is the same in the five situations. Each of these situations calls for its own kind of language. The variety used in the intimate kind of talk would be ridiculous or even grotesque in a ritual speech and vice versa. Across the world attitudes to social variation differ a lot. All countries display social stratification, though some have more clearly defined boundaries than others and therefore more distinct features of class dialect. Britain is usually said to be linguistically more class-conscious than other English-speaking countries. In Great Britain the grammar and pronunciation used by educated people from the south of England, called Received Standard, have informally achieved highest status. Fostered by the public schools Winchester, Eton and the like as well as the two great universities, Oxford and Cambridge, Received Standard became the accepted national standard. Used normally by upper-class families RS as taught in the public schools to children of the newly rich has been one of the ways for the established order to accommodate the new wealth. RS was adopted as the usual model for teaching English to native speakers of other languages. The educational systems of the Commonwealth in Asia and Africa have been modeled on British practice and in Europe there still is a notion that RS is "better" or 'more elegant" than American English. For example, in England one accent has traditionally dominated over all others and the notion of respectable social standing is usually

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associated with Received Pronunciation (RP), considered to be the 'prestige accent'. However today with the breakdown of rigid divisions between social classes and the development of mass media RP is no longer the j prerogative of social elite. Today it is best described as an 'educated' accent which actually has several varieties. Most educated people have developed an accent, which is a mixture of RP and various regional features that sometimes is called 'modified RP'. This is one example that shows a general trend in modern Englishregionally modified speech is no longer stigmatised as 'low', it can even be an advantage, expressing such social values as solidarity and democracy. A pure RP accent, by contrast can even evoke hostility, especially in those parts of Britain that have their own regional norms, e. g. Scotland and Wales. Occupational varieties of the national language are normally associated with a particular way of earning a living. They belong to the group of stylistically determined varieties and differ from both regional and social sublanguages. Features of language that identify people's geographical or social origins, once established can hardly change over a short period of time. It would be very difficult to change your accent if you move from one part of the country to another with a different regional norm; it is equally difficult to transform the linguistic indicators of our social background (vocabulary and structural expression). Occupational varieties are not like that. Their linguistic features may be just as distinctive as regional or social features, but they are only in temporary use. They 'go with the territory'adopted as we begin

work and given up as we finish it. People who cannot stop 'talking shop' even when they are not at work are rather an exception to the rule. Any professional field could serve as an illustration of occupational linguistic identity. There are no class distinctions here. Factory workers have to master a special glossary of technical terms and administrative vocabulary (seniority labels, term of service, severance pay, fringe benefits, safety regulation) in order to carry out professional communication. To fulfil their tasks they develop jargon and professional slang, which set them apart from outsiders. The more specialised the occupation and the more senior or professional the position the more technical the language. Also, if an occupation has a long-lasting and firmly established tradition it is likely to have its own linguistic rituals which its members accept as a criterion of proficiency. The highly distinctive languages of law, government and religion provide the clearest cases, with their unique grammar, vocabulary, and patterns of discourse. Of course, all occupations are linguistically distinctive to a certain degree. In some cases it involves only special terms; in others it may be a combination of linguistic features on different levels as will be shown in the last section of this chapter.

4.4. overview of functional style systems


As has been mentioned before there are a great many classifications of language varieties that are called sublanguages, substyles, registers and functional styles that use various criteria for their definition and categorisation. The term generally accepted by most Russian scholars

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4.4. An overview of functional style systems

is functional styles. It is also used in this course. A few classifications of the functional styles in modern English will be considered in thi chapter. Books by I. R. Galperin on English Stylistics (1958, 1971, 1977) are among most acknowledged sources of stylistic research in this country. Galperin distinguishes 5 functional styles and suggests their subdivision into substyles in modern English according to the following scheme: 1. The Belles-Lettres Style: a) poetry; b) emotive prose; c) the language of the drama. 2. Publicist Style: a) oratory and speeches; b) the essay; c) articles. 3. Newspaper Style: a) brief news items; b) headlines; c) advertisements and announcements; d) the editorial. 4. Scientific Prose Style. 5. The Style of Official documents: a) business documents; b) legal documents;

c) the language of diplomacy; d) military documents. Prof. Galperin differs from many other scholars in his views on functional styles because he includes in his classification only the written variety of the language. In his opinion style is the result of creative activity of the writer who consciously and deliberately selects language means that create style. Colloquial speech, according to him, by its very nature will not lend itself to careful selection of linguistic features and there is no stylistic intention expressed on the part of the speaker. At the same time his classification contains such varieties of publicist style as oratory and speeches. What he actually means is probably not so much the spoken variety of the language but spontaneous colloquial speech, a viewpoint which nevertheless seems to give ground for debate. As we pointed out in sections two and three of this chapter individual speech, oral variety included, is always marked by stylistic features that show the speaker's educational, social and professional background. Moreover we always assume some socially determined role and consciously choose appropriate language means to perform it and achieve the aim of communication. Scholars' views vary on some other items of this classification. There is no unanimity about the belles-lettres style. In fact Galperin's position is not shared by the majority. This notion comes under criticism because it seems rather artificial especially in reference to modern prose. It is certainly true that many works of fiction may contain emotionally coloured passages of emotive writing that are marked by special image-creating devices, such as tropes and figures of speech. These are typically found in the author's narrative, lyrical digressions, expositions, descriptions of nature or reflections on the characters' emotional or mental state.

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At the same time many writers give an account of external events, social life and reproduce their characters' direct speech. Sometimes they quote extracts from legal documents, newspapers items, advertisements, slogans, headlines, e. g. K. Vonnegut, J. Dos Passos, etc. which do not belong to belles-lettres style in its traditional meaning. As a matter of fact, in modern works of fiction we may encounter practically any functional speech type imaginable. So most other classifications do not distinguish the language of fiction as a separate style. In 1960 the book Stylistics of the English Language by M. D. Kuznetz and Y. M. Skrebnev appeared. The book was a kind of brief outline of stylistic problems. The styles and their varieties distinguished by these authors included: 1. Literary or Bookish Style: a) publicist style; b) scientific (technological) style; c) official documents. 2. PVee (Colloquial) Style: a) literary colloquial style; b) familiar colloquial style. As can be seen from this classification, both poetry and imaginative prose have not been included (as non-homogeneous objects) although the book is supplied with a chapter on versification. Next comes the well-known work by I. V. Arnold Stylistics of Modern English (decoding stylistics) published in 1973 and revised in 1981. Some theses of this author have already been presented in this

chapter (i. e. those that concern the notions of norm, neutrality and function in their stylistic aspect). Speaking of functional styles, Arnold starts with the a kind of abstract notion termed 'neutral style'. It has no distinctive features and its function is to provide a standard background for the other styles. The other 'real' styles can be broadly divided into two groups according to the scholar's approach: different varieties of colloquial styles and several types of literary bookish styles. 1. Colloquial Styles: a) literary colloquial; b) familiar colloquial; c) common colloquial. 2. Literary Bookish Styles: a) scientific; b) official documents; c) publicist (newspaper); d) oratorical; e) poetic. This system presents an accurate description of the many social and extralinguistic factors that influence the choice of specific language for a definite communicative purpose. At the same time the inclusion of neutral style in this classification seems rather odd since unlike the others it's non-existent in individual use and should probably be associated only with the structure of the language. One type of sublanguages suggested by Arnold in her classification publicist or newspaperfell under the criticism of Skrebnev who argues that the diversity of genres in newspapers is evident to any layman: along with the leader (or editorial) the newspaper page gives

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a column to political observers, some space is taken by sensational reports; newspapers are often full of lengthy essays on economics, law, morals, art, etc. Much space is also given to miscellaneous news items, local events; some papers publish sequences of stories or novels; and most papers sell their pages to advertising firms. This enumeration of newspaper genres could go on and on. Therefore, Skrebnev maintains, we can hardly speak of such functional style at all. Of course Arnold is quite aware of the diversity of newspaper writings. However what she really means is the newspaper material specific of the newspaper only: political news, police reports, press reviews, editorials. In a word, newspaper style should be spoken of only when the materials that serve to inform the reader are meant. Then we can speak of distinctive style forming features including a special choice of words, abundance of international words, newspaper cliches and nonce words, etc. It should be noted however that many scholars consider the language of the press as a separate style and some researchers even single out newspaper headlines as a functional style. One of the relatively recent books on stylistics is the handbook by A. N. Morokhovsky and his co-authors O. P. Vorobyova, N. I. Liknosherst and Z. V. Timoshenko Stylistics of the English language published in Kiev in 1984. In the final chapter of the book Stylistic Differentiation of Modern English a concise but exhaustive review of factors that should be taken into account in treating the problem of functional styles is presented. The book suggests the following style classes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Official business style. Scientific-professional style. Publicist style. Literary colloquial style. Familiar colloquial style.

Each style, according to Morokhovsky has a combination of distinctive features. Among them we find oppositions like 'artistic non-artistic', 'presence of personalityabsence of it', 'formal informal situation', 'equal unequal social status' (of the participants of communication), 'written or oral form'. Morokhovsky emphasizes that these five classes of what he calls speech activity are abstractions rather than realities, they can seldom be observed in their pure forms: mixing styles is the common practice. On the whole Morokhovsky's concept is one of the few that attempt to differentiate and arrange the taxonomy of cardinal linguistic notions. According to Morokhovsky's approach language as a system includes types of thinking differentiating poetic and straightforward language, oral and written speech, and ultimately, bookish and colloquial functional types of language. The next problem is stylistics of 'speech activity' connected with social stereotypes of speech behaviour. Morokhovsky defines this in the following way: Stereotypes of speech behaviour or functional styles of speech activity are norms for wide classes of texts or utterances, in which general social roles are embodiedpoet, journalist, manager, politician, scholar, teacher, father, mother, etc. (15, p. 234). The number of stereotypes (functional styles) is not unlimited but great enough. For example, texts in official business style may be

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administrative, juridical, military, commercial, diplomatic, etc. Stjn further differentiation deals with a division of texts into genres. Thus military texts (official style) comprise 'commands, reports, regulations, manuals, instructions'; diplomatic documents include 'notes, declarations, agreements, treaties', etc. In addition to all this we may speak of 'the individual style' with regard to any kind of text. In the same year (1984) V. A. Maltzev published a smaller book on stylistics entitled Essays on English Stylistics in Minsk. His theory is based on the broad division of lingual material into informal and formal varieties and adherence to Skrebnev's system of functional styles. Prof. Skrebnev uses the term sublanguages in the meaning that is usually attributed to functional styles. The major difference in his use of this term is that he considers innumerable situational communicative products as sublanguages, including each speaker's idiolect. Each act of speech is a sublanguage. This makes the notion of functional style somewhat vague and difficult to define. At the same time Skrebnev recognizes the major opposition of 'formal' and 'informal' sphere of language use and suggests a very rough and approximate gradation of subspheres and their respective sublanguages (47, p. 200). The formal sublanguages in Skrebnev's opinion belong exclusively to the written variety of lingual intercourse. He avoids the claim of inconsistency for including certain types of speeches into this sphere by arguing that texts of some of the types can be read aloud in public His rough subdivision of formal styles includes:

a) private correspondence with a stranger; a) business correspondence between representatives of commercial or other establishments; b) diplomatic correspondence, international treaties; b) legal documents (civil lawtestaments, settlements; criminal lawverdicts, sentences); c) personal documents (certificates, diplomas, etc.). The informal colloquial sphere includes all types of colloquial languageliterary, non-literary, vulgar, ungrammatical, social dialects, the vernacular of the underworld, etc. This cannot be inventoried because of its unlimited varieties. Of course formal and informal spheres do not exist in severely separated worlds. The user of the first speech type is fully aware of his social responsibility. He knows the requirements he has to meet and the conventions he must observe. But the same person may change his lingual behaviour with the change of the environment or situation. Sometimes he is forced to abide by laws that are very different from those he regularly uses: speaking with children, making a speech before parliament or during an electoral campaign. The first type of speech'formal'comprises the varieties that are used in spheres of official communication, science, technology, poetry and fiction, newspaper texts, oratory, etc. It's obvious that many of these varieties can be further subdivided into smaller classes or sublanguages. For example, in the sphere f science and technology almost each science has a metalan-

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guage of its own. The language of computer technology, e.g., i% not so limited to the technological sphere as at the time of its beginnings 'to be computer-friendly' has given rise to many other coinages like 'media-friendly', 'market-friendly', 'environmentally friendly', etc. In the informal type of speech we shan't find so many varieties as in the formal one, but it is used by a much greater number of people. The first and most important informal variety is colloquial style. This is the language used by educated people in informal situations. These people may resort to jargon or slang or even vulgar language to express their negative attitude to somebody or something. Uneducated people speak popular or ungrammatical language, be it English or Russian. There is also a problem of dialects that would require special consideration that cannot be done within this course. Dialects are not really ungrammatical types of a national language, some scholars hold, but a different language with its own laws. However it may have been true in the last century but not now. And what Skrebnev writes on this problem seems to be argumentative enough. Dialects are current in the countryside; cities are nearly untouched by them. In the 19th century England some of the aristocracy were not ashamed of using their local dialects. Nowadays owing to the sound media (radio, cinema and TV) non-standard English in Britain is nearly, as in this country, a sure sign of cultural inferiority, e.g. the status of Cockney. (47, p. 198).

In his classification of functional styles of modern English that he calls language varieties the famous British linguist D. Crystal suggests the following subdivision of these styles: regional, social, occupational, restricted and individual. (33, 34) Regional varieties of English reflect the geographical origin of the language used by the speaker. Lancashire variety, Canadian English, Cockney, etc. Social variations testify to the speaker's family, education, social status background: upper class and non-upper class, a political activist, a member of the proletariat, a Times reader, etc. Occupational styles present quite a big group that includes the following types: a) religious English; b) scientific English; c) legal English; d) plain (official) English; e) political English; f) news media English further subdivided into: newsreporting; journalistics; broadcasting; sportscommentary; advertising. Restricted English includes very tightly constrained uses of language when little or no linguistic variation is permitted. In these cases

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special rules are created by man to be consciously learned and used. These rules control everything that can be said. According to Crystal restricted varieties appear both in domestic and occupational spheres and include the following types: a) knitwrite in books on knitting; b) cookwrite in recipe books; c) congratulatory messages; d) newspaper announcements; e) newspaper headlines; f) sportscasting scores; g) airspeak, the language of air traffic control; h) emergencyspeak, the language for the emergency services; i) e-mail variety, etc. Individual variation involves types of speech that arise from the speaker's personal differences meaning such features as physique, interests, personality, experience and so on. Each individual has a different idiolect, a variety of the language that is as personally distinctive as a fingerprint. A particular blend of social and geographical backgrounds may produce a distinctive accent or dialect. Educational history, oc- I cupational experience, personal skills and tastes, hobbies or literary preferences will foster the use of habitual words and turns of phrase, or certain kinds of grammatical construction. Also noticeable will be favourite discourse practicesa tendency to develop points in an argument in a certain way, or an inclination for certain kinds of metaphor. Some people are 'good conversational-

ists', 'good story-tellers', 'good letter-writers', 'good speech-makers'. What actually makes them so is the subject of stylistic research. There are also a number of cases where individuality in the use of Englisha personal styleis considered to be a matter of particular importance and worthy of study in its own right. Such is the study of the individual style of a writer or poet: Shakespeare's style, Faulkner's style, and the like.

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles of English


A description of five major functional styles given in this section is based on their most distinctive features on each level of the language structure: pnonetical (where possible), morphological, syntactical, lexical and compositional. A peculiar combination of these features and special emphasis on some of them creates the paradigm of what is called a scientific or publicist text, a legal or other official document, colloquial or formal speech.
4.5.1. Literary colloquial style Phonetic features

Standard pronunciation in compliance with the national norm, enunciation. Phonetic compression of frequently used forms, e.g. it's, don't, I've.

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4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles

Omission of unaccented elements due to the quick tempo, e. g. you know him ?
Morphological features

Basic stock of communicative vocabularystylistically neutral. Use of socially accepted contracted forms and abbreviations, e. g. fridge for refrigerator, ice for ice-cream, TV for television, CD for compact disk, etc. Use of etiquette language and conversational formulas, such as nice to see you, my pleasure, on behalf of, etc. Extensive use of intensifiers and gap-fillers, e. g. absolutely, definitely, awfully, kind of, so to speak, I mean, if I may say so. Use of interjections and exclamations, e. g. Dear me, My God, Goodness, well, why, now, oh. Extensive use of phrasal verbs let sb down, put up with, stand sb up. Use of words of indefinite meaning like thing, stuff. Avoidance of slang, vulgarisms, dialect words, jargon. Use of phraseological expressions, idioms and figures of speech.
Compositional features

Use of regular morphological features, with interception of evaluative suffixes e. g. deary, doggie, duckie. Prevalence of active and finite verb forms.
Syntactical features

Use of simple sentences with a number of participial and infinitive constructions and numerous parentheses. Syntactically correct utterances compliant with the literary norm. Use of various types of syntactical compression, simplicity of syntactical connection. Use of grammar forms for emphatic purposes, e. g. progressive verb forms to express emotions of irritation, anger etc. Decomposition and ellipsis of sentences in a dialogue (easily reconstructed from the context). Use of special colloquial phrases, e.g. that friend of yours. Lexical features Wide range of vocabulary strata in accordance with the register of communication and participants' roles: formal and informal, neutral and bookish, terms and foreign words.

Can be used in written and spoken varieties: dialogue, monologue, personal letters, diaries, essays, articles, etc. Prepared types of texts may have thought out and logical composition, to a certain extent determined by conventional forms (letters, Presentations, articles, interviews). Spontaneous types have a loose structure, relative coherence and u niformity of form and content.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles 4.5.2. Familiar colloquial style

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles

Represented in spoken variety.


Phonetic features

Use of echo questions, parallel structures, repetitions of various kinds. In complex sentences asyndetic coordination is the norm. Coordination is used more often than subordination, repeated use of conjunction and is a sign of spontaneity rather than an expressive device. Extensive use of ellipsis, including the subject of the sentence e. g. Can't say anything. Extensive use of syntactic tautology, e. g. 77/ girl, she was something else! Abundance of gap-fillers and parenthetical elements, such as sure, indeed, to be more exact, okay, well.
Lexical features

Casual and often careless pronunciation, use of deviant forms, e. g, gonna instead of going to, whatcha instead of what do you, dunno instead of don't know. Use of reduced and contracted forms, e.g. you're, they've, Pd. Omission of unaccented elements due to quick tempo, e.g. you hear me? Emphasis on intonation as a powerful semantic and stylistic instrument capable to render subtle nuances of thought and feeling. Use of onomatopoeic words, e.g. whoosh, hush, stop yodelling, yum, yak.
Morphological features

Combination of neutral, familiar and low colloquial vocabulary, including slang, vulgar and taboo words. Extensive use of words of general meaning, specified in meaning by the situation guy, job, get, do, fix, affair. Limited vocabulary resources, use of the same word in different meanings it may not possess, e. g. 'some' meaning good: some guy! some game! 'nice' meaning impressive, fascinating, high quality: nice music. Abundance of specific colloquial interjections: boy, wow, hey, there, ahoy.

Use of evaluative suffixes, nonce words formed on morphological and phonetic analogy with other nominal words: e.g. baldish, mawkish, moody, hanky-panky, helter-skelter, plates of meet (feet), okeydoke.
Syntactical features

Use of simple short sentences. Dialogues are usually of the question-answer type.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles Morphological features

Use of hyperbole, epithets, evaluative vocabulary, trite metaphors and simile, e.g. if you say it once more I'll kill you, as old as the hills horrid, awesome, etc. Tautological substitution of personal pronouns and names by other nouns, e. g. you-baby, Johnny-boy. Mixture of curse words and euphemisms, e. g. damn, dash, darned, shoot. Extensive use of collocations and phrasal verbs instead of neutral and literary equivalents: e. g. to turn in instead of to go to bed.
Compositional features

Frequent use of non-finite verb forms, such as gerund, participle, infinitive. Use of non-perfect verb forms. Omission of articles, link verbs, auxiliaries, pronouns, especially in headlines and news items.
Syntactical features

Use of deviant language on all levels. Strong emotional colouring. Loose syntactical organisation of an utterance. Frequently little coherence or adherence to the topic. No special compositional patterns.
4.5.3. Publicist (media) style Phonetic features (in oratory)

Frequent use of rhetorical questions and interrogatives in oratory speech. In headlines: use of impersonal sentences, elliptical constructions, interrogative sentences, infinitive complexes and attributive groups. In news items and articles: news items comprise one or two, rarely three, sentences. Absence of complex coordination with chain of subordinate clauses and a number of conjunctions. Prepositional phrases are used much more than synonymous gerundial phrases. Absence of exclamatory sentences, break-in-the narrative, other expressively charged constructions. Articles demonstrate more syntactical organisation and logical arrangement of sentences.

Standard pronunciation, wide use of prosody as a means of conveying the sut ; shades of meaning, overtones and emotions. Phonetic compression.

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4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles

Newspaper cliches and set phrases. Terminological variety: scientific, sports, poUtical, technical, etc. Abbreviations and acronyms. Numerous proper names, toponyms, anthroponyms, names of enterprises, institutions, international words, dates and figures. Abstract notion words, elevated and bookish words. In headlines: frequent use of pun, violated phraseology, vivid stylistic devices. In oratory speech: words of elevated and bookish character, colloquial words and phrases, frequent use of such stylistic devices as metaphor, alliteration, allusion, irony, etc. Use of conventional forms of address and trite phases.
Compositional features

In oratory: simplicity of structural expression, clarity of message, argumentative power. In headlines: use of devices to arrest attention: rhyme, pun, puzzle, high degree of compression, graphical means. In news items and articles: strict arrangement of titles and subtitles, emphasis on the headline. Careful subdivision into paragraphs, clearly defined position of the sections of an article: the most important information is carried in the opening paragraph; often in the first sentence.
4.5.4. The style of official documents Morphological features

Adherence to the norm, sometimes outdated or even archaic, e. g. in legal documents.


Syntactical features

Text arrangement is marked by precision, logic and expressive power. Carefully selected vocabulary. Variety of topics. Wide use of quotations, direct speech and represented speech. Use of parallel constructions throughout the text.

Use of long complex sentences with several types of coordination and subordination (up to 70% of the text). Use of passive and participial constructions, numerous connectives. Use of objects, attributes and all sorts of modifiers in the identifying and explanatory function. Extensive use of detached constructions and parenthesis.

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Use of participle I and participle II as openers in the initial expository statement. A general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence. Information texts are based on standard normative syntax reasonably simplified.
Lexical features

Absence of tropes, no evaluative and emotive colouring of vocabulary. Seldom use of substitute words: it, one, that.
Compositional features

Special compositional design: coded graphical layout, clear-cut subdivision of texts into units of information; logical arrangement of these units, order-of-priority organisation of content and information. Conventional composition of treaties, agreements, protocols, etc.: division into two parts, a preamble and a main part. Use of stereotyped, official phraseology. Accurate use of punctuation. Generally objective, concrete, unemotional and impersonal style of narration.
4.5.5. Scientific/academic style Morphological features

Prevalence of stylistically neutral and bookish vocabulary. Use of terminology, e.g. legal: acquittal, testimony, aggravated iarceny; commercial: advance payment, insurance, wholesale, etc. Use of proper names (names of enterprises, companies, etc.) and titles. Abstraction of persons, e.g. use of party instead of the name. Officialese vocabulary: cliches, opening and conclusive phrases. Conventional and archaic forms and words: kinsman, hereof, thereto, thereby, ilk. Foreign words, especially Latin and French: status quo, force majeure, persona grata. Abbreviations, contractions, conventional symbols: M. P. (member of Parliament), Ltd {limited), $, etc. Use of words in their primary denotative meaning.

Terminological word building and word-derivation: neologism formation by affixation and conversion. Restricted use of finite verb forms. Use of 'the author's we' instead of I. Frequent use of impersonal constructions.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles Syntactical features

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles Lexical features

Complete and standard syntactical mode of expression. Syntactical precision to ensure the logical sequence of thought and argumentation. Direct word order. Use of lengthy sentences with subordinate clauses. Extensive use of participial, gerundial and infinitive complexes. Extensive use of adverbial and prepositional phrases. Frequent use of parenthesis introduced by a dash. Abundance of attributive groups with a descriptive function. Preferential use of prepositional attributive groups instead of the descriptive of phrase. Avoidance of ellipsis, even usually omitted conjunctions like 'that' and 'which'. Prevalence of nominal constructions over the verbal ones to avoid time reference for the sake of generalisation. Frequent use of passive and non-finite verb forms to achieve objectivity and impersonality. Use of impersonal forms and sentences such as mention should be made, it can be inferred, assuming that, etc.

Extensive use of bookish words e. g. presume, infer, preconception, cognitive. Abundance of scientific terminology and phraseology. Use of words in their primary dictionary meaning, restricted use of connotative contextual meanings. Use of numerous neologisms. Abundance of proper names. Restricted use of emotive colouring, interjections, expressive phraseology, phrasal verbs, colloquial vocabulary. Seldom use of tropes, such as metaphor, hyperbole, simile, etc.
Compositional features

Types of texts compositionally depend on the scientific genre: monograph, article, presentation, thesis, dissertation, etc. In scientific proper and technical texts e.g. mathematics: highly formalized text with the prevalence of formulae, tables, diagrams supplied with concise commentary phrases. In humanitarian texts (history, philosophy): descriptive narration, supplied with argumentation and interpretation. Logical and consistent narration, sequential presentation of material and facts.

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Practice Section

Extensive use of citation, references and foot-notes. Restricted use of expressive means and stylistic devices. Extensive use of conventional set phrases at certain points to emphasise the logical character of the narration, e. g. as we have seen, in conclusion, finally, as mentioned above. Use of digressions to debate or support a certain point. Definite structural arrangement in a hierarchical order: introduction, chapters, paragraphs, conclusion. Special set of connective phrases and words to sustain coherence and logic, such as consequently, on the contrary, likewise. Extensive use of double conjunctions like as... as, either... or, both... and, etc. Compositionally arranged sentence patterns: postulatory (at the beginning), argumentative (in the central part), formulative (in the conclusion). Distinctive features described above by no means present an exhaustive nomenclature for each type. A careful study of each functional style requires investigation of the numerous types of texts of various genres that represent each style. That obviously cannot be done in the framework of this course. It is also one of the reasons why the style of literature has not been included in this description. It is hardly worthwhile trying to make any generalizations about the sphere of belles-lettres style, which includes such an array of genres whether in prose, or poetry, or drama, let alone the peculiar styles of separate authors.

practice Section
1. What extralinguistic factors are involved in the notion of style? How do style and personal factors correlate? What styles exist in any national language? 2. What is the literary norm of a language? What does the term 'a norm variation' imply? How is each style characterised by the function it fulfils? 3. Comment on the sociolinguistic and stylistic factors that account for the use of regional, social, and occupational varieties of the language. 4. Compare the classifications of functional styles in English described in this chapter. 5. Identify the functional style in each of the texts given below and point out the distinctive features that testify to its specific character. It has long been known that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These exchanges are the opposite of those, which occur in respiration. The process is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant cells in the presence of light. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For each molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released. A summary chemical equation for photosynthesis is: 6C02 = 6H20 -------------> 612 + 602.

Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles

Practice Section

_^_^_________

You was sharp, wasn't you, to catch me like that, eh? By Ga-ard you had me fixed proper, proper you had. Darn me, you fixed me up proper proper, you did. I don't think no worse of you for it, no, darned if I do. Fine pluck in a woman's what I admire. That I do indeed. Wefetfrom the start, we did. And, my word, you begin again quick the minute you see me, you did. Darn me, you was too sharp for me. A darn fine woman, puts up a darn good fight. Darn me if I could find a woman in all the darn States as could get me down like that. Wonderful fine woman you be, truth to say, at this minute. (Lawrence) Wal-Mart told to raise German prices Wal-Mart's European expansion plans suffered their second blow in a week as the German competition authority ordered the retailer to raise key prices in its German hypermarkets. Prince to buy Kirch pay-TV stake Prince Al-Valeed of Saudi Arabia plans to buy a 3.2 per cent stake in \ the pay television operation of German Leo Kirch. Japanese debt downgraded second time The Japanese government was struck a humiliating blow when Moody's, the US credit rating agency, downgraded Japan's domestic currency debt for the second time in two years. SAP prices consultancy at top of range SAP, Europe's largest software group, is likely to price shares in SAP SI, its consultancy, at the top of its book-building range. Enel subsidiary mulls Infostrada buy Enel, Italy's main electricity utility, expressed strong interest in its telecommunications subsidiary, Wind, buying its Italian fixed-line rival, Infostrada.

In your letter of 15th ultimo you advise us of the problem of finding skilled personnel. In this connection we wish to state that only about 12 per cent of skilled workforce is engaged in minor industrial activity associated with servicing the city's growth. We enclose herewith a schedule of the work and the work progress report thereon and we wish to state that among considerations influencing the selection of sites is the desire to maintain residential amenity. We wish to state that several specialized industries have been established in terms of article 3 of the said contract. ft certainly is great Bourbon! said Bartlett, smacking his lips and putting his glass back on the tray. You bet it is! Greg agreed. I mean you can't buy that kind of stuff anymore. I mean it's real stuff. You help yourself when you want another. Mr. Bartlett is going to stay all night, sweetheart. I told him he could get a whole lot more of a line on us that way than just interviewing me in the office. I mean I'm tongue-tied when it comes to talking about my work and my success. I mean it's better to see me out here as I am, in my home, with my family. But, sweetheart, said his wife, what about Mr. Latham? Gosh! I forgot all about him! I must phone and see if I can call it off. That's terrible! (Lardner) 6. Find texts demonstrative of each functional type and analyse their distinctive features on all levels as described in chapter 4.

5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader

5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader. The notions of encoding and decoding

Chapter 5
Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

Decoding stylistics is the most recent trend in stylistic research that employs theoretical findings in such areas of science as information theory, psychology, statistical studies in combination with linguistics, literary theory, history of art, literary criticism, etc. Decoding goes beyond the traditional analysis of a work of fiction which usually gives either an evaluative explanatory commentary on the historical, cultural, biographical or geographical background of the work and its author or suggests a kind of stylistic analysis that comprises an inventory of stylistic devices and expressive means found in the text. Neither of these approaches seems quite satisfactory. The first kind of analysis is typically done by a literary critic and may tend to become an arbitrary or judgmental reflection of his personal esthetic or other preferences and tastes. Such critiques may be detached from the text and based on the critic's inferences of what he conjectures as the author's intention. Many authors resent critical analysis of this sort as an attitude but not real evaluation. The other approach tends to pursue another extreme: a formal registration of the data of the text. It divests a work of art of its magic and poetry by a pragmatic and statistical treatment that dissects the text and explains but little. Decoding stylistics makes an attempt to regard the esthetic value of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements, stylistic devices and compositional structure in delivering the author's

Stylistics of the author and of the reader. The notions of encoding and decoding. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis and types of foregrounding.

How often with all the theoretical experience of method accumulated in me over the years have I stared blankly quite similar to one of my beginning students at a page that would not yield its magic. Leo Spitzer. Linguistic and Literary History , , , . . :

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader

message. This method does not consider the stylistic function of any stylistically important feature separately but only as a part of the whole text. So expressive means and stylistic devices are treated in their interaction and distribution within the text as carriers of the author's purport and creative idiom. By this the stylistic study of a literary work acquires a new, semasiological dimension in which the stylistic elements become signs of the author's vision of the world. Decoding stylistics helps the reader in his or her understanding of a literary work by explaining or decoding the information that may be hidden from immediate view in specific allusions, cultural or political parallels, peculiar use of irony or euphemy, etc. The term 'decoding stylistics' came from the application of the theory of information to linguistics by such authors as M. Riffatrre, R. Jacobson, RGuiraud, F.Danes, Y. Lotman, I.V.Arnold and others. In a rather simplified version this theory presents a creative process in the following mode. The writer receives diverse information from the outside world. Some of it becomes a source for his creative work. He processes this information and recreates it in his own esthetic images that become a vehicle to pass his vision to the addressee, his readers. The process of internalizing of the outside information and translating it into his imagery is called 'encoding'. To encode certain information an author resorts to certain means meaningful units that are organized according to certain rules. The salient feature of this information encoded by the author is called the message. The process of encoding will only make any sense if besides the encoder who sends the information it includes the recipient or the

addressee who in this case is the reader. The reader is supposed to decode the information contained in the text of a literary work. However to encode the information does not mean to have it delivered or passed intact to the recipient. There are more obstacles here than meet the eye. In contrast to the writer who is always concrete the reader who is addressed is in fact an abstract notion, he is any of the thousands of people who may read this book. This abstract reader may not be prepared or willing to decode the message or even take it. The reasons are numerous and various. A literary work on its way to the reader encounters quite a number of hindrances of all sortssocial, historical, temporal, cultural and so on. Many of these differences between the author and his reader are inevitable. Readers and authors may be separated by historical epochs, social conventions, religious and political views, cultural and national traditions. Moreover, even if the author and the reader belong to the same society no reader can completely identify himself with the author either emotionally, intellectually or esthetically. Apart from these objective and personal factors we cannot disregard the complexity of certain works of art. Many of them are quite sophisticated in form and content. Some are full of implications that create more than one semantic plane and may contain understatements, semantic accretion, or open-ended composition that makes the reader waver about the outcome. Others require of the reader a wide educational thesaurus and knowledge of history, philosophy, mythology or religion. The readers will differ not only from the author but also from each other. They have a different life experience, educational background, cultural level and tastes.

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

All these factors often preclude easy decoding and show how difficult it is for the message to reach the reader and be appropriately construed by him. The message encoded and sent may differ from the message received after decoding. So the result may be a failure on either side. The reader may complain that he couldn't understand what the author wanted to say, while the author may resent being misinterpreted. A good illustration of the problem of mutual understanding is provided in M. Tsvetaeva's essay Poets on Critics in which she maintains that reading is co-creative work on the part of the reader if he wants to understand and enjoy a work of art. Reading is not so much a hobby done at leisure as solving a kind of puzzle. What is reading but divining, interpreting, unraveling the mystery, wrapped in between the lines, beyond the words, she writes. So if the reader has no imagination no book stands a chance (29, p. 274-296). From the reader's point of view the important tiling is not what the author wanted to say but what he managed to convey in the text of his work. That's why decoding stylistics deals with the notions of stylistics of the author and stylistics of the reader. 5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis and types of foregrounding Decoding stylistics investigates the same levels as Iinguastylistics phonetic, graphical, lexical, and grammatical. The basic difference is that it studies expressive means provided by each level not as isolated

devices that demonstrate some stylistic function but as a part of the general pattern discernible on the background of relatively lengthy segments of the text, from a paragraph to the level of the whole work. The underlying idea implies that stylistic analysis can only be valid when it takes into account the overall concept and aesthetic system of the author reflected in his writing. Ideas, events, characters, emotions and an author's attitudes are all encoded in the text through language. The reader is expected to perceive and decipher these things by reading and interpreting the text. Decoding stylistics is actually the reader's stylistics that is engaged in recreating the author's vision of the world with the help of concrete text elements and their interaction throughout the text. A systematic and elaborate presentation of decoding stylistics as a branch of general stylistics can be found in the book of Prof. Arnold . ( ) so here we shall limit ourselves to the description of its most general principles and concepts. One of the fundamental concepts of decoding stylistics is foregrounding. The notion itself was suggested by the scholars of the Prague linguistic circle that was founded in 1926 and existed until early 50s. Among its members were some of the most outstanding linguists of the 20< century, such as N. S. Trubetskoy, S. O. Kart-sevsky, R. Jacobson, V. Matezius, B. Tmka, J. Vachek, V. Skalichka and others (20). The Prague circle represented a trend of structural linguistics and developed a number of ideas and notions that made a valuable contribution into modern linguistic theory, for example, phonology and the theory of oppositions, the theory of functional sentence perspective, the notions of norm and codification, functional styles and dialectology, etc.

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

The Prague school introduced into linguistics a functional approach to language. Their central thesis postulated that language is not a rigorous petrified structure but a dynamic functional system. In other words language is a system of means of expression that serve a definite purpose in communication. Their views exerted profound influence on stylistic research in areas of functional styles study, the norm and its variations in the national language, as well as the study of poetic language, i. e. the language of literature. It was for this latter sphere that the notion of foregrounding was formulated. Prof. Arnold has highlighted various treatments of the term by different authors in her book on decoding stylistics but the essence of the concept consists in the following. Foregrounding means a specific role that some language items play in a certain context when the reader's attention cannot but be drawn to them. In a literary text such items become stylistically marked features that build up its stylistic function. Descriptive, statistical, distributional and other kinds of linguistic analysis show that there are certain modes of language use and arrangement to achieve the effect of foregrounding. It may be j based on various types of deviation or redundancy or unexpected combination of language units, etc. Arnold points out that sometimes the effect of foregrounding can be achieved in a peculiar way by the very absence of any expressive or distinctive features precisely because they are expected in certain types of texts, e. g. the absence of rhythmical arrangement in verse. However decoding stylistics laid down a few principal methods that ensure the effect of foregrounding in a literary text. Among them we can name convergence of expressive means, irradiation, defeated expectancy, coupling, semantic fields, semi-marked structures.

5.2.1. Convergence Convergence as the term implies denotes a combination or accumulation of stylistic devices promoting the same idea, emotion or motive. Stylistic function is not the property and purpose of expressive means of the language as such. Any type of expressive means will make sense stylistically when treated as a part of a bigger unit, the context, or the whole text. It means that there is no immediate dependence between a certain stylistic device and a definite stylistic function. A stylistic device is not attached to this or that stylistic effect. Therefore a hyperbole, for instance, may provide any number of effects: tragic, comical, pathetic or grotesque. Inversion may give the narration a highly elevated tone or an ironic ring of parody. This chameleon quality of a stylistic device enables the author to apply different devices for the same purpose. The use of more than one type of expressive means in close succession is a powerful technique to support the idea that carries paramount importance in the author's view. Such redundancy ensures the delivery of the message to the reader. An extract from E. Waugh's novel Decline and Fall demonstrates convergence of expressive means used to create an effect of the glamorous appearance of a very colorful lady character who symbolizes the high style of living, beauty and grandeur. The door opened and from the cushions within emerged a tall young man in a clinging dove-gray coat. After him, like the first breath of spring in 'he Champs-Elysee came Mrs. Beste-Chetwyndetwo lizard-skin feet, silk legs, chinchilla body, a tight little black hat, pinned with platinum

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

and diamonds, and the high invariable voice that may be heard in any Ritz Hotel from New York to Budapest. Inversion used in both sentences (...from the cushion within emerged a tall man; ...like the first breath of spring came Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde) at once sets an elevated tone of the passage. The simile that brings about a sensory image of awakening nature together with the allusion to Paristhe symbol of the world's capital of pleasuressustains this impression: like the first breath of spring in the Champs-Ely see. A few other allusions to the world capitals and their best hotelsNew York, Budapest, any Ritz Hotel all symbolize the wealthy way of life of the lady who belongs to the international jet-set distinguished from the rest of the world by her money, beauty and aristocratic descent. The use of metonymy creates the cinematographic effect of shots and fragments of the picture as perceived by the gazing crowd and suggests the details usually blown up in fashionable newspaper columns on high society life: two lizard-skin feet, silk legs, chichilla body, a tight little black hat... the invariable voice. The choice of words associated with high-quality life style: exotic materials, expensive clothes and jewelry creates a semantic field that enhances the impression still further (lizard, silk, chinchilla, platinum and diamonds). A special contribution to the high-flown style of description is made by the careful choice of words that belong to the literary bookish stratum: emerge, cushions, dove, invariable. Even the name of the characterMrs. Beste-Chetwyndeis a device in itself, it's the so-called speaking name, a variety of antonomasiaNot only its implication (best) but also the structure symbolizes the

lady's high social standing because hyphenated names in Britain testify to the noble ancestry. So the total effect of extravagance and glamour is achieved by the concentrated use of at least eight types of expressive means within one paragraph.
5.2.2. Defeated expectancy

Defeated expectancy is a principle considered by some linguists (Jacobson, Riffaterre) as the basic principle of a stylistic function. Its use is not limited to some definite level or type of devices. The essence of the notion is connected with the process of decoding by the reader of the literary text. The linear organization of the text mentally prepares the reader for the consequential and logical development of ideas and unfolding of the events. The normal arrangement of the text both in form and content is based on its predictability which means that the appearance of any element in the text is prepared by the preceding arrangement and choice of elements, e. g. the subject of the sentence will normally be followed by the predicate, you can supply parts of certain set phrases or collocation after you see the first element, etc. An example from Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest perfectly illustrates how predictability of the structure plays a joke on the speaker who cannot extricate himself from the grip of the syntactical composition: Miss Fairfax, ever since I met you I have admired you more than any girl... I have met... since I met you. (Wilde) The speaker is compelled to unravel the structure almost against his will, and the pauses show he is caught in the trap of the structure unable either to stop or say anything new. The clash between the

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

perfectly rounded phrase and empty content creates a humorous effect and shows at the same time how powerful are the inherent laws of syntagmatic arrangement. Without predictability there would be no coherence and no decoding. At the same time stylistically distinctive features are often based on the deviation from the norm and predictability. An appearance of an unpredictable element may upset the process of decoding. Even though not completely unpredictable a stylistic device is still a low expectancy element and it is sure to catch the reader's eye. The decoding process meets an obstacle, which is given the full force of the reader's attention. Such concentration on this specific feature enables the author to effect his purpose. Defeated expectancy may come up on any level of the language. It may be an unusual word against the background of otherwise lexically homogeneous text. It may be an author's coinage with an unusual suffix; it may be a case of semantic incongruity or grammatical transposition. Among devices that are based on this principle we can name pun, zeugma, paradox, oxymoron, irony, anti-climax, etc. Defeated expectancy is particularly effective when the preceding narration has a high degree of orderly organized elements that create a maximum degree of predictability and logical arrangement of the contextual linguistic material. Paradox is a fine example of defeated expectancy. The following example demonstrates how paradox works in such highly predictable cases as proverbs and phraseology. Everybody knows the proverb Marriages are made in Heaven.

Oscar Wilde, a renowned master of paradox, introduces an unexpected element and the phrase acquires an inverted implication Divorces are made in Heaven. The unexpected ironic connotation is enhanced by the fact that the substitute is actually the antonym of the original element. The reader is forced to make an effort at interpreting the new maxim so that it would make sense.
5.2.3. Coupling

Coupling is another technique that helps in decoding the message implied in a literary work. While convergence and defeated expectancy both focus the reader's attention on the particularly significant parts of the text coupling deals with the arrangement of textual elements (hat provide trie unity and cohesion of the whole structure. The notion of coupling was introduced by S. Levin in his work Linguistic Structures in Poetry in 1962 (40). Coupling is more than many other devices connected with the level of the text. This method of text analysis helps us to decode ideas, their interaction, inner semantic and structural links and ensures compositional integrity. Coupling is based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar positions throughout the text. Coupling provides cohesion, consistency and unity of the text form and content. Like defeated expectancy it can be found on any level of the ianguage, so the affinity may be different in nature; it may be phonetic, structural or semantic. Particularly prominent types of affinity are provided by the phonetic expressive means. They are

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

obviously cases of alliteration, assonance, paranomasia, as well as such prosodic features as rhyme, rhythm and meter. Syntactical affinity is achieved by all kinds of parallelism and syntactical repetitionanadiplosis, anaphora, framing, chiasmus, epiphora to name but a few. Semantic coupling is demonstrated by the use of synonyms and antonyms, both direct and contextual, root repetition, paraphrase, sustained metaphor, semantic fields, recurrence of images, connotations or symbols. The latter can be easily detected in the works of some poets who create their own system of recurrent esthetic symbols for certain ideas, notions and beliefs. Some of the well-known symbols are seasons (cf. the symbolic meaning of winter in Robert Frost's poetry), trees (the symbolic meaning of a birch tree, a maple in Sergei Yesenin's poetic work, the meaning of a moutain-ash tree for Marina Tsvetaeva), animals (the leopard, hyena, bulls, fish in Ernest Hemingway's works) and so on. These symbols do not only recur in a separate work by these authors but also generally represent the typical imagery of the author's poetic vision. An illustration of the coupling technique is given below in the passage from John O'Hara's novel Ten North Frederick. The main organizing principle here is contrast. Lloyd Williams lived in Collieryville, a mining town three or four miles from 10 North Frederick, but separated from the Chapins' home and their life by the accepted differences of money and prestige; the miners' poolroom, and the Gibbsville Club; sickening poverty, and four live-in

servants for a family of four; The Second Thursdays, and the chickenand-waffle suppers of the English Lutheran Church. Joe Chapin and Lloyd Williams were courthouse-corridor friends and fellow Republicans, but Joe was a Company man and Lloyd Williams was a Union man who was a Republican because to be anything else in Lantenengo County was futile and foolish. (O'Hara) The central idea of the passage is to underline the difference between two men who actually represent the class differences between the rich upper class and the lower working class. So the social contrast shown through the details of personal life of the two characters is the message with a generalizing power. This passage shows how coupling can be an effective tool to decode this message. There is a pronounced affinity of the syntactical structure in both sentences. The first contains a chain of parallel detached clauses connected by and (which is an adversative conjunction here). They contain a number of antitheses. The contrast is enhanced by the use of contextual antonyms that occupy identical positions in the clauses: the miners' poolroom and the Gibbseville Club; sickening poverty and four servants for a family of four. The Second Thursdays and the Church suppers. The same device is used in the second sentence: Joe was a Company man and Lloyd Williams was a Union man. There are a few instances of phonetic affinity, alliteration: four servants for a family of four, courthouse-corridor, friends and fellow Republicans; futile and foolish. The passage presents an interesting case of semantic coupling through symbols. The details of personal and class difference chosen by the author are all charged with symbolic value. There is a definite connection between them all however diverse they may appear at first sight. They are all grouped so that they symbolize either money and prestige or poverty and social deprivation.

Chapter 5. Decoding Styllstics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis

The first group creates the semantic field of wealth and power: money, social prestige, the Gibbsville Club (symbol of wealth, high social standing, belonging to the select society), four live-in servants for a family of four (that only rich people can afford), The Second Thursdays (traditional reception days for people of a certain circle, formal dinner parties for people of high standing), a Company man (a member of a financially and socially influential group, political elite). The second semantic field comprises words denoting and symbolizing poverty and social inferiority: miners' poolroom (a working class kind of leisure), sickening poverty, chicken -and-waffle suppers of, the English Lutheran Church (implying informal gatherings where people cook together and share food), a Union man (a representative of the working class). The similarity of these elements' positions in this text makes the contrast all the more striking. A minor case of coupling in the passage above is the use of zeugma in the first sentence when the word separated is simultaneously linked to two different objects home and life in two different meaningsdirect and figurative.
5.2.4. Semantic field

This type of analysis shows how cohesion is achieved on a less explicit level sometimes called the vertical context. Lexical elements of this sort are charged with implications and adherent meanings that establish invisible links throughout the text and create a kind of semantic background so that the work is laced with certain kind of imagery. Lexical ties relevant to this kind of analysis will include synonymous and antonymous relations, morphological derivation, relations of inclusion (various types of hyponymy and entailment), common semes in the denotative or connotative meanings of different words. If a word manifests semantic links with one or more other words in the text it shows thematic relevance and several links of this sort may be considered a semantic field, an illustration of which was offered in the previous example on coupling. Semantic ties in that example (mostly impUcit) are based on the adherent and symbolic connotations (Church meals, Club member, live-in servants, Union man, etc) and create a semantic field specific to the theme and message of this work: the contrast between wealth and poverty, upper class and working class. In the next example we obseive the semantic field of a less complicated nature created by more explicit means. Joe kept saying he did not want a fortieth birthday party. He said he did not like partiesa palpable untruthand particularly and especially a large party in honor of his reaching forty... At first there were going to be forty guests but the invitation list grew larger and the party plans more elaborate, until Arthur said that with so many people they ought to hire an orchestra, and with an orchestra

Semantic field is a method of decoding stylistics closely connected with coupling. It identifies lexical elements in text segments and the whole work that provide its thematic and compositional cohesion. To reveal this sort of cohesion decoding must carefully observe not only lexical and synonymous repetition but semantic affinity which finds expression in cases of lexico-semantic variants, connotations and associations aroused by a specific use or distribution of lexical units, thematic pertinence of seemingly unrelated words.

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis 5.2.5. Semi-marked structures

there would be dancing, and with dancing there ought to be a good-size orchestra. The original small dinner became a dinner dance at the Lantenengo Country Club. Invitations were sent to more than three hundred persons... (O'Hara) The thematic word of the passage is party. It recurs four times in these four sentences. It is obviously related to such words used as its substitutes as dinner and dinner dance which become contextual synonyms within the frame of the central stylistic device of this piecethe climax. Semantic relations of inclusion by entailment and hyponymy are represented by such words as birthday (party), (party) in honor, (party) plans, invitation (list), guests, people, persons, orchestra, dancing. The subtheme of the major theme is the scale of the celebration connected with the importance of the datethe main character reached the age of forty considered an important milestone in a man's life and career. So there is a semantic field around the figure fortyits lexical repetition and morphological derivation (forty fortyfortieth) and the word large amplified throughout by contextual synonyms, morphological derivatives and relations of entailment (largelargermoremanygood-sizemore-three hundred). Another type of semantic relationship that contributes to the semantic field analysis is the use of antonyms and contrastive elements associated with the themes in question: largesmall, fortythree hundred, small dinnerdinner dance, orchestragood-sized orchestra, did not likeuntruth. The magnitude and importance of the event are further enhanced by the use of synonymous intensifiers particularly and especially.

Semi-marked structures are a variety of defeated expectancy associated with the deviation from the grammatical and lexical norm. It's an extreme case of defeated expectancy much stronger than low expectancy encountered in a paradox or anti-climax, the unpredictable element is used contrary to the norm so it produces a very strong emphatic impact. In the following lines by G. Baker we observe a semi-marked structure on a grammatical basis: The stupid heart that will not learn The everywhere of grief The word everywhere is not a noun, but an adverb and cannot be used with an article and a preposition, besides grief is an abstract noun that cannot be used as an object with a noun denoting location. However the lines make sense for the poet and the readers who interpret them as the poetic equivalent of the author's overwhelming feeling of sadness and dejection. Lexical deviation from the norm usually means breaking the laws of semantic compatibility and lexical valency. Arnold considers semimarked structures as a part of tropes based on the unexpected or unpredictable relations established between objects and phenomena by the author. If you had to predict what elements would combine well with such words and expressions as to try one's best to..., to like ... or what epithets, you would choose for words like father or movement you would hardly come up with such incompatible combinations that we observe in the following sentences:

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

Practice Section

She ... tried her best to spoil the party. (Erdrich) Montezuma and Archuleta had recently started a mock-seriousseparatisi movement, seeking to join New Mexico. (Michener) Would you believe it, that unnatural father wouldn't stump up. (Waugh | He liked the ugly little college... (Waugh) Such combination of lexical units in our normal everyday speech is rare. However in spite of their apparent incongruity semi-marked structures of both types are widely used in literary texts that are fuh of sophisticated correlations which help to read sense into most unpredictable combinations of lexical units. This chapter contains but a brief outline of decoding stylistics and its basic principles and notions. As has been mentioned above more detailed and extensive description of decoding analysis and its correlation with the traditional stylistic methods and notions can be found in the works of such Russian and foreign authors as M. Riffaterre, G. Leech, S. Levin, P. Guiraud, L. Dolezel, I. V. Arnold, Yu. M. Lotman, Yu. S. Stepanov and others. The role and purpose of this trend in stylistics was appropriately summed up by I. V. Arnold in her book on decoding stylistics: Modern stylistics in not so much interested in the identification of separate devices as in discovering the common mechanism of tropes and their effect. (4, p. 155). Now, using the achievements of the 20* century linguistics, scholars try to answer the question how stylistic function works rather than what effect it produces.

Practice Section
1. What is implied in the separation of the author's stylistics from the reader's? How do the processes of encoding and decoding differ? 2. Comment on the factors that may prevent the reader from adequately decoding the author's imagery and message? 3. Speak on the origin and importance of the notion foregrounding for stylistic analysis. 4. There is a convergence of expressive means in the passage below. Try to identify separate devices that contribute to the poetic description of a beautiful young girl: types of repetition, metaphor, sustained metaphor, catachresis, alliteration, inversion, coupling, semantic field: On her face was that tender look of sleep, which a nodding flower has when it is full out. Like a mysterious early /lower, she was full out, like a snowdrop which spreads its three white wings in a flight into the waking sleep of its brief blossoming. The waking sleep of her full-opened virginity, entranced like a snowdrop in the sunshine, was upon her. (Lawrence) The basic principle in the next passage (that describes how only one of the two relatives became the sole heir to the old man's money) is that of contrast and the method of convergence ensures the ample interpretation of the author's intention. Explain the intention and find the devices that deliver it. From the start Philbrick was the apple of the old chap's eye, while he couldn't stick Miss Grade at any price.

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

Practice Section

Philbrick could spout Shakespeare and Hamlet and things by the yard before Grade could read The cat sat on the mat. When he was eight he had a sonnet printed in the local paper. After that Grade wasn't in it anywhere. She lived with the servants like Cinderella. (Waugh) 5. How is the effect of defeated expectancy achieved in the examples below? What are the specific devices employed in each case? Celestine finally turned on the bench and put her hand over Dot's. Honey, she said, would it kill you to say 'yes'? Yes, said Dot. (Erdrich) St. Valentine's Day, I remembered, anniversary for lovers and massacre. (Shaw) It's little stinkers like you, he said, who turn decent masters savage. Do you think that's so very complimentary? I think it's one of the most complimentary things I ever heard said about a master, said Beste-Chetwynde. (Waugh) / think that, if anything, sports are rather worse than concerts, said Mr. Prendergast. They at least happen indoors. (Waugh) ...the Indian burial mound this town is named for contain the things that each Indian used in their lives. People have found stone grinders, hunting arrows and jewelry of colored bones. So I think it's no use. Even buried, our things survive. (Erdrich) Would this be of any use? Asked Philbrick, producing an enormous service revolver. Only take care, it's loaded.

The very thing, said the Doctor. Only fire into the ground, mind. We must do everything we can to avoid an accident. Do you always carry that about with you ? Only when I'm wearing my diamonds, said Philbrick. (Waugh) When we visited Athens, we saw the Apocalypse. (Maleska) Texans, quite apart from being tall and lean, turned out to be short and stout, hospitable, stingy to a degree, generous to a fault, even-tempered, cantankerous, doleful, and happy as the day is long. (Atkinson) 6. Explain how the principle of coupling can be used in analyzing the following passages. What types of coupling can you identify here? Feeding animals while men and women starve, he said bitterly. It was a topic; a topic dry, scentless and colourless as a pressed flower, a topic on which in the school debating society one had despaired of finding anything new to say. (Waugh) You asked me what I had going this time. What I have going is wine. With the way the world's drinking these days, being in wine is like having a license to steal. (Shaw) 7. In many cases coupling relies a lot on semantic fields analysis. Show how these principles interact in the following passage. The truth is that motor-cars offer a very happy illustration of the metaphysical distinction between 'being' and 'becoming'. Some cars, mere vehicles, with no purpose above bare locomotion, mechanical drudges... have definite 'being' just as much as their occupants. They are bought all screwed up and numbered and painted,

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistlcs and Its Fundamental Notions

Practice Section

and there they stay through various declensions of ownership, brightened now and then with a lick of paint... but still maintaining their essential identity to the scrap heap. Not so the real cars, that become masters of men; those vital creations of metal who exist solely for their own propulsion through space, for whom their drivers are as important as the stenographer to a stockbroker. These are in perpetual flux; a vortex of combining and disintegrating units, like the confluence of traffic where many roads meet. (Waugh) 8. Workings in groups of two or three try to define the themes of the following text with a description of a thunderstorm. Let each group arrange the vocabulary of the passage into semantically related fields, for example: storm sounds, shapes, colors, supernatural forces, etc. We... looked out the mucking hole to where a tower of lightning stood. It was a broad round shaft like a great radiant auger, boring into cloud and mud at once. Burning. Transparent. And inside this cylinder of white-purple light swam shoals of creatures we could never have imagined. Shapes filmy and iridescent and veined like dragonfly wings erranded between the earth and heavens. They were moving to a music we couldn't hear, the thunder blotting it out for us. Or maybe the cannonade of thunder was music for them, but measure that we couldn't understand. We didn't know what they were. They were storm angels. Or maybe they were natural creatures whose natural element was storm, as the sea is natural to the squid and shark. We couldn't make out their whole shapes. Were they mermaids or tigers? Were they clothed in shining linen or in flashing armor? We saw what we thought we saw, whatever they were, whatever they were in process of becoming.

This tower of energies went away then, and there was another thrust of lightning just outside the wall. It was a less impressive display, just an ordinary lightning stroke, but it lifted the three of us thrashing in midair for a long moment, then dropped us breathless and sightless on the damp ground. (Chappell) 9. Comment on the type of deviation in the following semi-marked structures. Did you ever see a dream walking? (Cheever) Man in the day or wind at night Laid the crops low, broke the grape's joy. (Thomas) / think cards are divine, particularly the kings. Such naughty old faces! (Waugh) The Maker's white coat and black visage had disappeared from the street doorway. Reinhart got a premonition of doom when he saw the color combination with which they had been replaced: policeman's midnight blue and Slavic-red face, but the pace helped keep his upper lip stiff. (Berger) Ask Pamela; she's so brave and manly. (Waugh) // was Granny whom she came to detest with all her soul... her Yvette really hated, with that pure, sheer hatred which is almost a joy. (Lawrence) ...everyone who spoke, it seemed, was but biding his time to shout the old village street refrain which had haunted him all his life, Nigger! Nigger!White Nigger! (Dunbar-Nelson)

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions

Practice Section

To hear him speak French, if you didn't try to understand what he was saying, was as good as attending Phedre: he seemed a cloud that had divorced a textbook of geometry to marry Guillaume Apollinaire... (Jarrell) 10. Read the story by Paul Jennings and try to apply some of the principles of decoding to find out the real meaning and the implications of what the author encoded. Comment on the author's use of such devices as sustained metaphor, allegory, allusions, irony and phonographical means. Can you find instances of semi-marked structures, defeated expectancy, convergence and other means of foregrounding. Speak about the theme and the message of this story. Red-blooded 3 rose There was once an article in the Observer by Dr Bronowski in which he said that mathematics ought to be taught as a language. At the time I had fantasies of passages like this:

But of course that wasn't the idea at all. Years ago I got off the mathematics train at Quadratic Equationsa neat, airy little station with trellis, ivy, roses, a sunlit platform. There was just a hint of weirdness now and thenstationmaster made clicking noises in his throat, there was an occasional far-off harmonious humming in the sky, strange bells rang; one knew the frontier was not far away, Where the line crosses into the vast country of Incomprehensibility, the jagged peaks of the Calculus Mountains standing up, a day's journey over its illimitable plains. The train thundered off into those no doubt exhilarating spaces, but without me. 1 sniffed the mountainy air a little, then I crossed the line by the footbridge and went back in a fusty suburban train to my home town. Contemptible Ignorance. This train had no engine; it was simply a train of carriages rolling gently down through the warm orchards of Amnesia Hill. The only language we speak in that town is, well, language (we're not mad about it like those people at Oxford; we know the world is infinite and real, language is about it, it isn't it). But we have got typewriters, and they introduce mathematics into language in their own way. Even without those figures on the top row, 1 to 9 (all you need) there is something statistical about the typewriter as it sits there. It contains instantaneously the entire alphabet, the awful pregnant potentiality of everything. I am certain most readers of this article will have read somewhere or other a reference to the odds against a monkey's sitting at a typewriter and writing Hamlet. For some reason philosophical writers about chance, design and purpose are led irresistibly to this analogy. Nobody ever suggests the monkey's

* Crib for art students, beatnita, peasants: (The Government)2: the government squared. > 1: more than one. =: equals. Vour troubles: the root of our troubles. . 2: point to recurring.

Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistlcs and Its Fundamental Notions

Practice Section

writing Hamlet with a pen, as Shakespeare did. With a pen a monkey would get distracted, draw funny faces, found a school of poetry of its own. There's something about having the whole alphabet in front of it, on a machine, that goads the monkey to go on, for millions of years (but surely the evolution would be quicker?), persevering after heartbreaking setbacks; think of getting the whole of King Lear right until it came to the lines over the dead body of Cornelia, which would come out: Thou 'It come no more Never, never, never, never, ever or, on my typewriter Necer, neved, lever, nexelm vrevney. The typewriter knows very well how to mix language and mathematics, the resources between A and Zand 1 and 9, in its own sly way. Mine likes to put 3/4 instead of the letter p. How brilliantly this introduces a nuance, a frisson of chance and doubt into many words that begin so well with this confident, explosive consonant! How often is one disappointed by a watery 3/4 ale ale! How often does some much-publicized meeting of statesmen result in the signing of something that the typists of both sides know is just 3/4 act! How many 3/4 apists one knows! How many people praised for their courage are not so much plucky as just 3/4 lucky. Most of all, is not the most common form of social occasion to-day the cocktail 3 arty? One always goes expecting a real party, but nine times out of ten turns out to be a 3/4 arty; all the people there have some sort of connection with the '3/4' arts such as advertising, films, news 3/4 apersalthough there is often a real 3/4 ainter or two. After a few 3/4 ink gins one of the 3/4 ainters makes a 3/4 ass at one of those strange silent girls, with long hair and sullen 3/4 outing lips, that one always sees at 3/4 arties (doubtless he thinks she will be 3/4 liable). There may be

some V. I., y4 (on my typewriter the capital 3/4 is a '/4) * as the chief guestan M. J/4, or a fashionable 3/4 reacher (nothing so grand as the '/4 rime Minister, of course. Guests like that are only at real parties, given by Top y4 eople); but at a 3/4 arty it is always difficult to get the interesting guest to himself, to 3/4 in him down in an argument, because of the 3/4 rattle going on all round. Of course this isn't mathematical language in Dr Bronowski's sense. But you've got to admit it's figurative.

' That's mathematics for you. I have an obscure feeling it should be either 9/i6 or
l'/2-

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

anticlimax n. a sudden drop from the dignified or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or trivial, sometimes for humorous effect

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics Aj


acoustic adherent adj. concerned with sound adj. added shades of meaning

antique

adj. the ancient style, esp. Greek or Roman; classical

antithesis n. opposition or contrast of ideas, notions, qualities in the parts of one sentenceor in different sentences antonomasia n. the use of a proper name in place of a common one or vice versa to emphasise some feature or quality apokoinu n. a construction in which the subject of one sentence is at the same time the subject of the second, a kind of ellipsis aposiopesis n. a sudden breaking off in the midst of a sentence as if from inability or unwillingness to proceed argot n. the vocabulary peculiar to a particular class of people, esp. that of an underworld group devised for private communication Aristotlen. Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato (384-382 ) assonance astheism asyndeton n. 1. resemblance of sounds 2. partial rhyme n. deprecation meant as approval n. the omission of conjunctions

affinity n. similarity, inherent likeness allegory n. a story, poem, painting, etc. in which the characters and actions represent general truths, good and bad qualities, etc. alliteration n. repetition of the same consonant or sound group at the beginning of two or more words that are close to each other allusion n. reference to some literary, historical, mythological, biblical, etc. character or event commonly known anadiplosis n. repetition of the last word or phrase in one clause or poetic line at the beginning of the next anaphora n. repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or lines of verse anastrophe n. a term of rhetoric, which means upsetting for effect of the normal order of a preposition before a noun or of an object after a verb, cf. inversion

created by the stressed vowel sounds

belles lettres n. literature or writing about literary subjects

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

catachresisn. incorrect use of a word, as by misapplication 01 terminology or by strained or mixed metaphor chiasmus n. inversion of the second of two parallel

D
dactyl n. a metrical foot that consists of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented ones Demetrius of Alexandria and philosopher (b. 350 ) n. Greek orator

phrases or clauses cliche n. an expression or idea that has become trite

denotative adj. indicative of the direct explicit meaning or reference of a word or term detachment n. a seemingly independent part of a sentence that carries some additional information device n. a literary model intended to produce a particular effect in a work of literature Dionyslus of Halicarnassus rhetorician, critic and historian (1st cent. ) n. Greek

climax n. a rhetorical series of ideas, images, etc. arranged progressively so that the most forceful is last colon n. in Greek prosody a section of a prosodic period, consisting of a group from two to six feet forming a rhythmic unit with a principal accent connotation n. idea or notion suggested by or associated with a word, phrase, etc. in addition to its denotation connotative adj. having connotations

E
ellipsis emotive emotion empathy or feelings n. all sorts of omission in a sentence adj. characterised by, expressing or producing n. ability to share in another's emotions, thoughts

convergence n. concentration of various devices and expressive means in one place to support an important idea and ensure the delivery of the message couplet n. two successive lines of poetry, esp. of the same length that rhyme coupling n. the affinity of elements that occupy a similar position and contribute to the cohesion of the text

enjambment n. in prosody: the running on of a sentence from one line to the next without a syntactical break

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

enumeration n. a device by means of which homogeneous parts of a sentence are made semantically heterogeneous epenalepsis n. a term of rhetoric meaning repetitive use of conjunctions in close succession, (cf. polysyndeton) epigram n. 1. a short poem with a witty or satirical point 2. any terse, witty, pointed statement, often with a clever twist in thought. epiphora n. repetition of words or phrases at the end of consecutive clauses or sentences epithet n. an adjective or descriptive phrase used to characterise a person or object with the aim to give them subjective evaluation euphonic adj. characterised by euphony

figures of contrast*: those based on opposition (incompatibility) of co-occurring notions figures of co-occurrence*: devices based on interrelations of two or more units of meaning actually following one another figures of identity*: co-occurrence of synonymous or similar notions figures of inequality*: those based on differentiation of co-occurring notions figures of quality*: renaming based on radical qualitative difference between notion named and notion meant figures of quantity*: renaming based on only qualitative difference between traditional names and those actually used figures of replacement*: tropes, 'renamings', replacing traditional names by situational ones

euphony n. a harmonious combination of sounds that create a pleasing effect to the ear evaluative something explicit adj. giving judgement about the value of adj. clearly stated and leaving nothing implied

G
gap-sentence link seemingly incoherent connection of two sentences based on an unexpected semantic leap; the reader is supposed to grasp the implied motivation for such connection Gorgias n. Greek philosopher (483-375 B.C.), founded one of the first rhetoric schools graphonn. intentional misspelling to show deviations from received pronunciation: individual manner, mispronunciation, dialectal features, etc.
* These terms and their definitions belong to Prof. Skrebnev.

F
figure of speech n. a stylistic device of whatever kind, including tropes and syntactical expressive means

Glossary for the Course of Stylistlcs

Glossary for the Course of Styiistics

Hellenistic adj. of Greek history, language and culture after tne death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) hierarchicaladj. arranged in order of rank, grade, class, etc. hyperbole taken literally n. exaggeration for effect not meant to be

irradiation n. the influence of a specifically coloured word against the stylistically different tenor of the narration

J
jargon n. the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession or group juridical adj. related to the law

L
litotes n. understatement for effect, esp. that in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary

I
iambus n. a metrical foot, consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented idiolect n. a particular person's use of language, individual style of expression imagery n. ideas presented in a poetical form; figurative descriptions and figures of speech collectively implicit adj. implied: suggested or to be understood though not plainly expressed inherent adj. existing in something or someone as a permanent and inseparable element, quality or attribute inversion n. a reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence irony n. a stylistic device in which the words express a meaning that is often the direct opposite of the intended meaning

M
malapropism meiosis n. ludicrous misuse of words, esp. n. expressive understatement, litotes through confusion caused by resemblance in sound metaphor n. the application of a word or phrase to an object or concept it does not literally denote, in order to suggest comparison with another object or concept metaphor sustained/extended a chain of metaphors containing the central image and some contributory images meter n. rhythm in verse; measured patterned arrangement of syllables according to stress or length metonymy n. transfer of name of one object onto another to which it is related or of which it is a part

Glossary for the Course of Stylistlcs

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

mythology contain

n. myths collectively and the beliefs that they

periphrasis n. renaming of an object by a phrase that emphasises some particular feature of the object personage n. a character in a play or book, or in history

N
normative adj. having to do with usage norms

personification n. the attribution of personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions polysyndeton in close succession n. the use of a number of conjunctions

onomatopoeia n. the formation of a word by imitating the natural sound; the use of words whose sounds reinforce their meaning or tone, esp. in poetry oratorical n. characteristic of or given to oratory

prosody n. 1. the science or art of versification, including the study of metrical structure, stanza form, etc. 2. the stress patterns of an utterance proximity [pro'ksimiti] n. nearness in place, time, order, occurrence or relation publicist ['pAbhsist] n. referring to writing and speaking on current public or political affairs

oratory n. the art of an orator; skill or eloquence in public speaking oxymoron n. a figure of speech in which opposite or contradictory ideas are combined

R
recur v. to happen or occur again, appear at intervals recurrence n. the instance of recurring, return, repetition rhetoric n. 1. the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech 2. the art of using language effectively in speaking or writing 3. artificial eloquence rhetorical | adj. using or characterised by rhetoric rhyme n. a regular recurrence of corresponding sounds at the ends of lines in verse

P
paradiastola n. in Greek poetic texts: the lengthening of a syllable regularly short parallelism n. the use of identical or similar parallel syntactical structure in two or more sentences or their parts paranomasia n. using words similar in sound but different in meaning for euphonic effect parlance n. a style or manner of speaking or writing

Glossary for the Course of Stylistlcs

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

rhythm n. 1. a regular recurrence of elements in a system of motion: the rhythm of speech, dancing music, etc. 2. an effect of ordered movement in a work of art, literature, drama, etc. attained through patterns in the timing, spacing, repetition, accenting, etc. of the elements 3. in prosody: a metrical (feet) or rhythmical (iambus, trochee, etc.) form

T
tautology n. needless repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase or sentence; redundancy; pleonasm terminology n. the system of terms used in a specific science, art or specialised subject trochee . n. in prosody: a foot of two syllables, a stressed followed by an unstressed one transfer transfer transference v. to convey, carry, remove or send from one a. the act of transferring n. the act or process of transferring position, place or person to another

s
simile n. a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared by the use of like, as, resemble, etc. solemn adj. arousing feelings of awe, very impressive sophistry n. in ancient Greece: the methods or practices of the sophists, any group of teachers of rhetoric, politics, philosophy, some of whom were notorious for their clever specious arguments. 2. misleading but clever, plausible and subtle reasoning stanza n. a group of lines in a repeating pattern forming a division of a poem suspense n. a compositional device that consists in withholding the most important information or idea till the end of the sentence, passage or text syllepsis n. a term of rhetoric: the use of a word or expression to perform two syntactic functions, cf. zeugma synecdoche n. a figure of speech based on transfer by contiguity in which a part is used for a whole, an individual for a class, a material for a thing or the reverse of any of these; a variety of metonymy

Trasimachus n. Greek philosopher, together with Gorgius created one of the first schools of rhetoric in ancient Greece (c. 4 ) trope n. a figure of speech based on some kind of transfer of denomination

V
versification n. 1. the art, practice or theory of poetic composition 2. the form or style of a poem; metrical structure

z
zeugma n. a figure of speech in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, is syntactically related to two or more words, though having a different sense in relation to each

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List of Authors and Publications Quoted


An Anthology of English and American Verse. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972. Aldington R. Death of a Hero. M., 1958. Belli., GowerR. Matters. Upper Intermediate. Longman, 1996. Blake W. Songs of Experience. N.Y: Dover Publications, 1984. Caldwell T. This side of Innocence. N.Y: Popular Library, 1977. ChappelF. I Am One of You Forever. Louisiana State University Press, 1985. Cheeverl. Selected Prose. M.: , 2000. Christie A. Hercule Poirot's Christmas. N. Y: Pocket Books, 1969. Christie A. Dumb Witness. London: Pan Books, 1979. Cronin A. The Citadel. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1963.

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Dictionaries Dolgopolova Z. K., Blokh M. Y, Denisova V. S., Lebedeva A. Y. Exercises in English Articles. Moscow: International Relations Publishing House, 1969. Donleavy J.P. The Plays. London: Penguin Books, 1972. Dreiser Th. The American Tragedy. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1964. Erdrich L. The Beet Queen. Bantam Books, 1987. Financial Times. September 9-10, 2000. London: The Financial Times Limited, 2000. FollettK. The Third Twin. N. Y.: Fawcett Crest, 1996. Hemingway E. The Old Man and the Sea. Kiev, 1973. Great Short Stories By American Women / Ed. By Candance Ward. Toronto: Dover Publications, 1996. Green G. The Quiet American. London: Penguin Books, 1975. Lawrence D. H. Selected Prose. M.: , 2000. Mailer N. An American Dream. London: Panther, Granada Publishing, 1979. Maleska E. T. A Pleasure in Words. N. Y.: A Fireside Book, 1981. Maugham W. S. Rain and Other Short Stories. M., 1977. Mangum R. L. The Perfect Murder // . ., 3. ., . ., . . , , . .: , 1971. MichenerJ.A. Centennial. N. Y: Fawcett Crest, 1978. Milan is Milano / Ed. by S. Peroni. Milan, 1994. Mitchell M. Gone with the Wind. London: Pan Books, Macmillan, 1979. O'Hara J. Ten North Frederick. N. Y: Bantam Books, 1967. People. N.Y, November, 1990. Vol.34, No. 23. .. Prose and Poetry. Moscow: Raduga Publishers, 1983. RutherfordE. London. N.Y: Fawcett Crest, 1997. Salinger J. D. Nine Stories. Franny and Zooey. Raise High the Roof Beam. Carpenters. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982.

Dictionaries Shakespeare W. King Lear. N.Y: A Signet Classic. New American Library, 1963. Shakespeare W. Sonnets. London, 1967. Sharp P. J. How to Prepare for the TOEFL. N. Y: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1986. Shaw I. Nightwork. London and Sydney: Pan Books, 1976. Sheldon S. Memories of Midnight. London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994. The Norton Anthology of Poetry / 4th edition. N.Y: Norton and Company Inc., 1970. The Penguin Book of Modern Humour / Selected by Alan Coren. London: Penguin Books, 1983. Waugh E. Prose. Memoirs. Essays. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1980. Waugh E. Vile Bodies. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1970. Wilde O. The Importance of Being Earnest. M.: , 1947. Wilde . Fairy Tales. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1979. . . : , 1993.